Skip to main content

About this book

Founded in 1971, the Academy of Marketing Science is an international organization dedicated to promoting timely explorations of phenomena related to the science of marketing in theory, research, and practice. Among its services to members and the community at large, the Academy offers conferences, congresses and symposia that attract delegates from around the world. Presentations from these events are published in this Proceedings series, which offers a comprehensive archive of volumes reflecting the evolution of the field. Volumes deliver cutting-edge research and insights, complimenting the Academy’s flagship journals, the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) and AMS Review. Volumes are edited by leading scholars and practitioners across a wide range of subject areas in marketing science.

This volume includes the full proceedings from the 2010 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference held in Portland, Oregon.

Table of Contents


Key Influencers: Locating, Measuring, and Creating Programs to Influence Social Media Influencers

Pew Research estimates that 84% of U.S. Internet users, or some 100 million people, are members of virtual groups with nearly half actively creating media content on Twitter, Facebook, Blogs, User Forums, and in virtual communities. A significant portion of this social media content (SMC) relates specifically to commercial products and services. Moreover, this uncompensated, voluntarily generated, and socially embedded ‘media’ is fast becoming one of the most influential sources of information in the marketplace.

Amber Lindsay, Jascha Kaykas-Wolff, Charla Mathwick

Evaluating Credence Service Quality: The Effects of Experience Service Failure and Trust

To examine the relationship between customers’ service quality evaluations within two different type of service, a conceptual model is proposed and argues that an experience service failure should have a powerful negative impact on service evaluation and trust, then influences credence service evaluation. On the impact of service failure, service guarantee and true relationship with customers should act as “buffering effect” to insulate the customer-employee relationship from the negative consequences of service failure. In the model, trust serves as the mediator between experience service evaluation and credence service evaluation.

Kungpo Tao

Perceived Control in Pricing and Service Strategies

In 1916, Clarence Saunders initiated a retail strategy that would drastically transform the method of service delivery. By viewing consumers as unexploited resources, he envisioned that consumers could serve themselves. For that reason, he established the world’s first self-service grocery store, named Piggly Wiggly (Salomann, Kolbe, and Brenner 2006). The selfservice concept is straightforward. Simply, consumers conduct tasks that were previously performed by others. Since Saunders’ creation, the self-service format has significantly developed, along with the degree of automation and technology integrated into consumer relationships. It has been said that the blending of self-service and technology is “to transform the service economy in much of the same way that mass production transformed manufacturing” (Economist 2004, p. 62; Salomann et al. 2006).

Dora Schmit

Implications of Remote Service Delivery on Customer Relationship Management: A Qualitative Study in a B2B-Setting

Recent advances of information technologies alter not only the nature of services and their delivery process but also the interaction at the interface between service provider and customer. Increasingly more companies offer remote services in B2B-settings, which imply a reduced personal contact between provider and customer. The transformation from close personal contact to technology-mediated interaction is challenging both the service provider and the customer. Against this background, this research focuses on the exploration of a new type of technology mediated services so-called remote service in an international B2B-context. My dissertation intends to contribute to literature by (1) exploring how customers perceive and evaluate remote services; (2) identifying their expectations; (3) revealing how the transformation from close personal contact to technology- mediated interaction affects the relationship between service provider and customer (4) comparing the results from USA, Germany and Sweden. Results of this research generate valuable managerial implications for remote service providers that help to enhance the service perception, the usage behavior and the strengthening of customer relations.

Stefanie Paluch

Gift Card Meanings

In this multi-method study, we use theories of social interactionism and metaperception to evaluate consumers’ ambivalence towards their own and others’ gift card use, especially related to other gift mediums (e.g., actual gifts, cash).

Caroline Graham Austin, Lei Huang, Daniel L. Huffman

The 80/20 Rule of Customer Loyalty: Examining the Role of Share of Wallet (SOW) as a Moderator of Affect- and Trust-Mediated Effects

This study presents a model in which store affect and store trust mediate the effects of store characteristics on store outcomes. It is proposed that the impacts of store atmosphere and merchandise value on two types of loyalty intentions are mediated by store affect and store trust simultaneously in a dual process model. Customer share of wallet is hypothesized to moderate the effects of these relationships such that affect will be the key intervening variable for low share customers while trust will be the key intervening variable for high share customers. Using multi-group structural equation modeling, the authors examine moderating effects of share of wallet on affect-mediated and trust-mediated buyer-seller relationships. The results largely favor a multicomponent dual-mediated model with affect having a greater impact on commitment for low share customers and trust having a stronger impact on repatronage intentions for high share customers.

Ipshita Ray, Morris B. Holbrook

Strategy Factors Associated with the Export Performance of Manufacturing Firms

This study investigates whether the strategies of high performing exporter firms differ from those pursued by low performing firms. Data were obtained from personal survey of managers of 60 firms in Tanzania, an underdeveloped country. The study makes several contributions to our understanding of export causal relationships.

Edward E. Marandu

The Influencing Factors of China’S Textiles and Apparel Exporting Prices: an Empirical Analysis Based on Panel Data

Using monthly data of price about textiles and apparel exporting from China to U.S., during the period of January 2003 to June 2009, this paper constructs panel data models to analyze how macroeconomic and policies affect the exporting price. Through the results drawn from the models, this paper identifies the exchange rate pass-through to exporting prices and analyzes specific inter-relationships between exporting prices and the macro-factors. Then this paper proposes some suggestions according to those results.

Jun-yi Zou, Xing Zhou

Reconceptualizing Consumer Perception of Relationship Quality: an Empirical Test of the Construct and its Nomological Validity

Despite conceptual agreement that relationship quality is a higher-order construct, there still remains a gap between such conceptualization and its corresponding operationalization. In this article, we provide conceptual, methodological, and empirical support for modeling relationship quality as a second-order reflective construct consisting of first-order dimensions of trust, commitment, and satisfaction. The second-order reflective model is tested within a hierarchy of models for factor structure comparison and its nomological validity compared with alternative conceptualizations of relationship quality. Based on justice theories, we explain the origins of the second-order construct and provide the methodological rationale for the efficacy of a reflective model. We situate the second-order RQ model in a nomological net in which we model its direct effects and indirect effects, via consumer-company identification, on future patronage and positive WOM promotion. Using surveys in two samples, airline and retail, this study provides sufficient evidence on the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the second-order factor structure of relationship quality. These findings are discussed along with implications and directions for future research.

James Agarwal

An Alternative Scale of Emotional Attachment

Emotional attachment (EA) is defined as the emotional bond connecting an individual with a specific target (Thomson, MacInnis, and Park 2005). Recent research has stressed the importance of EA in the marketing domain (e.g. Park, and MacInnis 2006; Ariely, Huber, and Wertenbroch 2005). Marketing scholars acknowledge the importance of the study of attachment because of its relation to desirable marketing consequences. It has been shown that attachment is related to trust, commitment, and satisfaction (Rempel, Ross, and Holmes 2001; Spake, Beatty, Brockman, and Neal 2003; Thomson 2006; Thomson, MacInnis, and Park 2005), consumer defections (Liljander and Strandvik 1995), consumer’s forgiveness (Ahluwalia, Unnava, and Burnkrant 2001), disposal choice (Walker 2006), brand loyalty and willingness to pay (Thomson, McInnis, and Park 2005). Also, attachment has been proposed as a mediator (e.g., Novemsky and Kahneman 2005) of the effects of intentions on loss aversion, or a moderator for loss aversion (e.g., Ariely, Huber, and Wertenbroch 2005).

Fernando R. Jiménez, Kevin E. Voss

Examining the Construct Validity of the Lockwood Goal Orientation Scale

This research examines the psychometric properties of Lockwood, Jordan, and Kunda (2002) 18-item scale goal orientation using a survey design. Although Lockwood et al. (2002) goal orientation scale has been used previously in the marketing literature (Zhao and Pechmann 2007), the psychometric properties of this scale have not been tested before. Furthermore, given the wording of some of the items in this scale (e.g., my major goal in school right now is to achieve my academic ambition), suggest that the scale generalizability is limited as it can only be used in a context relating to initial and continuing education.

Amjad Abu ELSamen, John Mowen, Xiang Fang

On the Consequences of Market Orientation

The authors apply logical atomism to examine market orientation and its consequences through decomposition, and illustrate how this type of inquiry can enhance our understanding. To that end, they develop models for two consciousness levels and derive twenty-nine propositions to demonstrate the diverse effects of market orientation on financial performance.

Can Uslay, Jagdish N. Sheth

Dynamism Inside the MO Box: the Credibility of Market Information as A Key Factor in Market Orientation

The objectives of this research are twofold. First, we intend to clarify how market orientation is affected by the credibility of marketing information. Second, we wish to reach a deeper understanding of the interplay between a marketing unit’s influence, credibility, and market orientation. We also examine the effects of those factors on firm performance. Toward these objectives, we engaged in empirical research on large-scale Japanese firms in various industries. Before conducting a questionnaire survey, we held in-depth interviews with top management, marketing managers, and marketing professionals to identify factors which hinder market orientation in the Japanese business environment. An extensive questionnaire survey of Japanese firms was then conducted, in which we collected data on market orientation, the credibility of marketing information, the influence of marketing units within a firm, and the firm’s performance.

Yuko Yamashita, Wataru Uehara, Masato Sasaki, Gen Fukutomi, Hiroyuki Fukuchi, Tsuyoshi Numagami, Toshihiko Kato, Masaru Karube

Managing Marketing Employees for Superior Business Performance Through High-Involvement HRM Practices: Does Marketing Department Structure Matter?

This study examines how high-involvement HRM practices affect marketing department performance and the moderating role of marketing department structure. Using multiple key informants, high-involvement HRM practices led to higher marketing department performance and this positive relationship was (a) stronger in a moderately formalized and task interdependent marketing department while (b) weaker in a centralized marketing department. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Bulent Menguc, Seigyoung Auh

Social Capital as A Micro-Level Origin of Organizational Capabilities

Organizational capabilities are socially complex practices that determine a firm’s effectiveness in transforming inputs into outputs (Collis 1994). The resource-based view (RBV) thus theorizes that firms with capabilities that are valuable, rare, inimitable, and nonsubstitutable can achieve a sustainable competitive advantage by better leveraging their resources (Barney 1991; Wernerfelt 1984). A vast amount of literature has emerged in which organizational capabilities are central to explaining differences in performance outcomes (e.g. Slater, Olson and Hult 2006). However, as Zollo and Winter (1999) note, the RBV still lacks a solid account of how organizational capabilities come into existence. Despite their importance for firm prosperity and the increasing scholarly attention devoted to them, organizational capabilities remain underspecified (Kraatz and Zajac 2001) and empirical work on antecedents to capabilities is very rare (Danneels 2008; Newbert 2007). In particular, individual-level processes may play an important role in the origins of organizational capabilities (Felin and Foss 2005). We thus agree with Gavetti (2005: 599) who states that “research on capabilities needs microfoundations.”

Jan Kemper, Malte Brettel

Engaging with the Enemy: Understanding Adversarial Stakeholder Processes and Outcomes

Obesity, because it is linked to chronic diseases like diabetes and heart disease, is a growing health issue in North America and around the world. In 2009,

Business Week

reported that obesity rates are increasing among both adults and children, that two-thirds of U.S. adults are now considered overweight or obese, and that 30% of children in 30 states are overweight or obese (Arnst 2009). Similarly, Statistics Canada reports that 23.1% of Canadians aged 18 or older are obese, and that another 36.1% are overweight (Tjepkema 2005). As witnessed by movies such as

Super Size Me

, marketers are often seen as part of the obesity problem, but are rarely approached as part of the solution. Given the importance of the issue, it is not surprising that a vast network of stakeholders have focused on the topic. Much of the interaction and engagement among stakeholders who are concerned about obesity is adversarial, which afforded us the opportunity to examine stakeholder engagement under difficult conditions. While there is a growing body of research focusing on positive stakeholder encounters, less attention has been paid to the dark side of stakeholder engagement. The purpose of our paper is to examine this knowledge gap. To examine these processes, we draw on literature and theory from relationship marketing, network theory, stakeholder theory, corporate social responsibility, ethics, management and organizational behavior.

Maureen A. Bourassa, Peggy H. Cunningham

Deconstructing Research on Information Technology (IT) Capabilities: Implications for Marketing Strategy

In the marketing strategy literature, researchers have long since recognized the role of information/knowledge as a potential source of competitive advantage (e.g., Glazer 1991; Li and Calantone, 1998; Li and Cavusgil 2000; Madhavan and Grover 1998). For example, for Glazer (1991), the economy will continue to be information intensive based on the inherently non-scarce and seemingly unlimited, renewable, and regenerative aspects of information/knowledge. In addition, researchers from disciplines such as economics (e.g., Cohendet 2001; Fransman 1994) and corporate Strategy (e.g., Baden-Fueller and Pitt 1996; Grant 1996; Nelson and Winter 1982) have started paying greater attention to the firm as a knowledge processor, and as a body of knowledge respectively. According to these perspectives, the firm is (1) essentially a locus of setting up construction, selection, usage, and development of knowledge and (2) sensitive to sharing and distribution of knowledge/information. Accordingly, we contend that


that facilitates the efficient and effective construction, selection, usage, and development of knowledge and sharing of information/knowledge can also provide firms with competitive advantages.

Sreedhar Madhavaram, Radha Appan

Does CSR Influence the Taste of Chocolate?

Previous corporate social responsibility (CSR) research has generally ignored the influence of CSR information when consumers consume products. The purpose of this paper is to test whether CSR information can influence the taste of chocolate. More specifically, this paper also examines the stability of this influence.

Jingzhi Shang

Do Consumers Value Corporate Social Responsibility in an Economic Downturn?

Research examining consumer support for corporate social responsibility (CSR) has grown significantly over the past decade, demonstrating a generally positive level of support. However, our understanding of how consumers value CSR is limited by the context of relatively stable economic growth over the past decade. During times of economic uncertainty, when consumers retrench in their decision-making to attributes such as price and quality, this level of support for CSR is questionable. In the heart of the recession, we interview consumers and find that they do indeed find some CSR expendable. However, we find consumer support for other forms of CSR – those that add functional value to products – grow even more valuable during times of recession. The context of the recession extends not only previous research showing largely consistent support for CSR, but also provides a more nuanced examination of how consumers receive value from CSR.

Todd Green, John Peloza

Intention Attributions as a Mediator Between Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives and Stakeholder Perception

There is a natural incongruence between a company’s traditional profit maximizing objectives and the social and environmental goals of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. When companies engage in CSR, they create an expectancy violation and stakeholders are driven to react to this by considering and evaluating the company’s intentions behind their CSR initiatives. Attribution theory predicts that people are driven to make judgments and respond to an action based on its underlying intentions. Attribution theory is highly relevant to stakeholder perceptions and this paper develops a model with intention attributions as a mediating variable between CSR initiatives and stakeholder perceptions.

Jacqueline Go, John Peloza

Relational Trust and Firm Performance

Marketing executives, especially in the services industry, invest effort and money in building trust by being customer oriented, ensuring managerial continuity, and rewarding long standing customers. Documenting the positive effect of marketing efforts aimed at building customer trust in terms of firm performance helps marketing executives gain a better understanding and control of their firm’s value creation role. In this study, we establish that relational trust is a key intervening construct that explains the impact of customer orientation and managerial continuity on a firm’s return on assets (ROA) and customer switching behavior.

Girish Ramani, Patrick A. Saparito, Srinivasan Swaminathan

Market Segmentation and Performance: A Critical Review of the Literature and a Reconceptualization as a Dynamic Capability

Market segmentation has been at the cornerstone of strategic marketing for the last fifty years, aiming to adjust product and marketing offer to consumer requirements in order to gain “depth of market position in the segments that are effectively defined and penetrated” (Smith, 1956, p. 64). More recently, market segmentation is required to handle a very heterogeneous market and is plagued by implementation problems (Dibb 2001). Therefore an important question remains as to the role of market segmentation in the success of current marketing practices. Consequently, the objectives of this paper are to review the conceptual and empirical evidence on the link between market segmentation and business performance and suggest a new way of conceptualizing market segmentation – as a dynamic capability.

Adina Poenaru

An Empirical Test of an Integrative Model of Consumer Trust in an E-Retailer

This study developed an integrative model of consumer trust in an e-retailer that identifies the key components (i.e., website design, fulfillment/reliability, security/privacy, and customer service) of a consumer’s direct transactional experience with the e-retailer as antecedents, future intentions and loyalty as outcomes, and consumer transaction costs as the mediator between trust and its outcomes. The model was empirically tested it using a large-scale sample randomly selected from national online consumers. Although the empirical test supported most of the research hypotheses underlying the proposed relationships in the model, some surprising findings were demonstrated by the empirical results. First, although trust was still central in online transactions, the degree of its centrality was challenged by the empirical results that trust played a partially mediating role between its antecedents and outcomes instead of the fully mediating role predicted by the researcher. Second, when testing the model in the multi-channel online store context, five out of the nine hypotheses were rejected. The results demonstrated that trust mechanisms underlying the consumer-multi-channel e-retailer relationship were different (to some degree) from what was predicted by the researcher.

Cuiping Chen, Matthew O’Brien, Lin Guo

An Exploratory Investigation of Two Types of Browsers

This research extends knowledge of browsers by segmenting browsers into two groups: browsers who make a purchase and browsers who do not make a purchase. Differences were investigated between both groups of browsers and shoppers who intended to make a purchase and did. Several of the results supported the hypotheses.

Carolyn Sara (Casey) Findley, Stephanie T. Gillison, Kristy E. Reynolds, Michael A. Jones

Loyalty Programs Building Customer-Retailer Relationships: Role of Identity Salience

Customer loyalty programs are prevalently used by retailers as a means of attracting consumers for repeated patronage. The initial goal of loyalty programs is to “establish a higher level of customer retention in profitable segments by providing increased satisfaction and value to certain customers” (Bolton, Kannan, and Bramlett 2000, page 95). In doing so, it is suggested that when a consumer feels connected with a loyalty program, he/she will feel benefits of the loyalty program more, and engage in more participation in the program. However, empirical research on loyalty programs from a consumer’s membership identity perspective is lacking. Therefore, a few questions arise: Does a retailer’s loyalty program elicit a consumer-retailer relationship? And, what factors of a loyalty program can make a consumer feel connected with the retailer? To answer these questions, this study focuses on the role of salience of the identity (the activation of an identity as a patronage shopper of the store) as a member of the loyalty program in consumer-retailer relationship formation. More specifically, this study examines (1) the effects of two identity-inducing factors of a loyalty program (self-expression and distinctiveness) on the salience of identity as a member of a certain loyalty program and (2) the effects of identity salience on satisfaction, trust, and loyalty intention toward the retailer offering the loyalty program.

Te-Lin Chung, Sejin Ha

Self-Gifting: What Could This Mean For Me?

Giving a gift to oneself, known as self-gifting, is considered to be a relatively new domain in consumer research. As a part of gift-giving literature, self-gifting has recently received more attention from consumer researchers due to the fact that it constitutes an important element in self-directed consumer behavior. The phenomenon of self-gifting has been perceived to be widely occurring in American society (Mick and DeMoss 1990a, 1990b) and to be fairly common and important, particularly in western consumer behavior (e.g. Mick and DeMoss 1990a, 1990b; Mick, DeMoss and Faber 1992). Not surprisingly, the subject has been largely ignored for non-American consumers. Sherry and his colleagues (1995) stated that there is a need to understand the self-gift behaviors of various types of consumers who are located and thoroughly embedded in their native cultures. Four papers included in the session present findings on the subject involving non-American consumers, and also provide valuable new insights regarding how self-gifting relates to individual emotions and self-concepts. In addition, the researchers from the USA, UK, Turkey, Thailand, and Japan address how self-gifting may be used as a way of balancing one’s emotional wellbeing in different cultures.

Jikyeong Kang, M. Teresa Heath, Caroline Tynan, Christine T. Ennew, Suri Weisfeld-Spolter, Maneesh Thakkar, Theeranuch Pusaksrikit, Junko Kimura, Yoko Fukui

Uncertain Travel Environments And Risk Attitudes Scales

Risk attitudes play a key role in travel choices under uncertainty. Current practice of a-priori segmenting travelers into risk takers, risk avoiders and a risk-neutral category or of identifying latent classes based on actual travel decisions is limited in that it does not cover the full spectrum of risk attitudes on a continuous scale. Based on the conjecture that decision-making under uncertainty is domain-specific, the goal of this study is to develop a scale for measuring risk attitudes in uncertain travel environments. This project was funded by NWO-Connect in the context of the PITA program.

Zhongwei Sun, Theo Arentze, Harry Timmermans

Do Investors Reward Car Manufacturers: Driving Customer Satisfaction?

Marketing profession is under considerable strain to provide empirical evidence of its contribution to shareholder value creation (e.g., Hanssens et al. 2009; Srinivasan and Hanssens 2009). In this context, customer satisfaction in particular has received significant attention. Especially, an intense debate has emerged from the fact that several studies have reported conflicting results about the financial market mispricing effect associated with this market-based asset (e.g., Jacobson and Mizik 2009a, 2009b; Fornell et al. 2009; Ittner et al. 2009). The underlying mispricing hypothesis assumes that current information about this metric can predict future abnormal stock returns. However, the (non)-existence of such a mispricing effect says nothing about the value relevance of this asset—i.e., whether changes in customer satisfaction provide incremental information in explaining contemporaneous changes in stock prices (Jacobson and Mizik 2009c).

Sascha Raithel, Sebastian Scharf, Manfred Schwaiger

Does Marketing Performance Drive Financial Performance?

Critics of marketing commonly allude to problems with its accountability and credibility. In order to address these issues, marketing professionals have been called on to demonstrate the contribution of marketing to firm performance. A better understanding of current research in marketing performance can better enable marketing managers to justify its expense. In addition, very limited studies in this area have been conduced in transition economies. Thus, the objective of this research is to examine how marketing drives firms’ financial performance in the context of China, the largest emerging economy in the world.

Yuhui Gao

Standing Out From The Crowd - Determinants Of Consumers’ Niche Orientation

As the demand for more individualized products increases, market niches — i.e. specific submarkets of products tailored to the needs of very specific target groups rather than to the mass market — are increasingly regarded as an option to be successful despite fierce competition on saturated mass markets. Recently, the internet has especially facilitated this development by enabling companies to offer a wider range of more individualized products, and by making it easier for consumers to find niche products.

Tobias Schaefers

Consumers’ Need for Uniqueness in the Workplace

The individual’s pursuit of dissimilarity through consumption has fascinated scholars across disciplines and was recently been encapsulated by the concept of consumers’ need for uniqueness (CNFU, Tian et al. 2001). Despite the importance of CNFU in multiple domains, much of its literature has focused on the attainment of unique identity in private domains (e.g., at home: Ruvio 2008), and its possible implications were examined primarily with regard to consumption behaviors. In contrast, this study aims to present a broader perspective of the implications of CNFU in domains other than the individuals’ homes by investigating its role in one of the most significant spheres in many individuals’ lives: the workplace. The literature suggests that nearly 90% of workers personalize their workplace (Wells et al. 2007). This behavior can be regarded as expressions of CNFU, although this concept has never been explored in the workplace context.

Ayalla Ruvio

Product Information Presented as Ratios and Consumer Processing Modes: can Analytical Processing Lead to More Biased Judgments for Certain Ratio Formats?

The results of three experiments show that while computing averages of data in ratio formats, such as detergent usage information in “loads per container” or exercise routine information in “calories burned per minute,” consumers tend to make inaccurate judgments. Paradoxically, more thorough processing further accentuates the inaccuracy.

Dipayan Biswas, Patricia A. Norberg, Donald R. Lehmann

The Revelation of Wal-Mart’s Failure in China

Wal-Mart--the world’s largest retail corporation-- had ambitious hopes to create 100 billion U.S. dollars sales miracle in China. However, since Wal-Mart entered China in 1996, after a decade of development, its operating conditions are unsatisfactory. This retail giant is still suffering losses in the Chinese market. As compared to its growth in the United States, what awkward situations has Wal-Mart’s low-cost path encountered in China these years?

Li Li

The Endorsement Effect of Country Leaders on the Country Brand Equity

Countries around the world are increasingly involved in developing country brands, and therefore, are striving to have strong country brand equity. Previous research suggests that countries with significant brand equities are able to attract foreign direct investment, talented people, increase their exports and have important revenue due to tourism effects. This paper discusses the effect of country leaders on the country’s brand equity. It suggests that country leaders can be considered as celebrities and as such have similar effects on their country as celebrity endorsers have on the products they endorse. If the country leader is perceived to be credible, an expert and the right match-up with the country, he or she is perceived as an effective endorser of the country, and thus positively affects the country brand equity.

Arne Baruca

Do Price Comparison Website Practices Involve Ethical Problems? A Preliminary Assessment of the Practices of Price Comparison Websites and Their Operator(S)

Price comparison websites (PCWs) have become established fixtures on the Web but standards and regulations have proven difficult to apply to e-commerce on the World Wide Web. The practices that drive PCWs can be difficult to evaluate and the potential ramifications of these practices combine to potentially raise ethical issues.

Jason Flores

Factors Inhibiting the Standardization of Global Channel Strategy

The standardization vs. adaptation debate in the marketing literature has inspired a substantial research stream over the past four decades. What is more, the focus on globalization and the difficulties that many multinational companies have faced while implementing a global marketing strategy have reignited this debate in recent years. Basically, the standardization vs. adaptation debate centers on whether firms operating at an international or global level should standardize their marketing strategies and programs to offer an essentially uniform marketing mix in all of the markets within which they operate around the world (Levitt 1983, Ohmae 1989, Yip 1996, Backhaus and van Doorn 2007). Or, whether the marketing mix should be adapted to reflect differences in macro-environmental factors among various countries (Britt 1974, Buzzell 1968, Douglas and Wind 1987, Katsikeas et al. 2006, DeMooij 2000). Both sides of the debate have been addressed in the marketing literature over the years with arguments offered as to why an emphasis on standardization rather than adaptation should be pursued and vice versa (Douglas and Craig 1986,Theodosou and Leonidou 2003, Vrontis et al. 2009). A definitive outcome to this debate has still not emerged. For the most part, however, the standardization vs. adaptation debate has been conducted at a comprehensive level of marketing strategy. That is, the arguments have generally been presented as if they apply equally to all four strategic components of the marketing mix: product, price, promotion, and place (channels of distribution). Therefore, if a case can be made for standardizing product strategy, the same reasoning would apply to pricing, promotion, and place strategies. This would result in virtually the same product being sold, using the same promotional message, at the same price, and through the same channels of distribution in all different countries being targeted.

Boryana Dimitrova, Bert Rosenbloom

The Tension Between Business and Romance: A Qualitative Study in the Global Wine Industry

The global wine industry is increasingly competitive and challenging. One of the strategic challenges involves dealing with an ongoing tension within and between individuals, organizations and culturally different regions regarding the antagonism between the romance of wine and the business of wine. In this paper we provide insights to this tug of war through a grounded theory study conducted in New World wine regions in 2009. The insights are expected to inform theory and practice in international marketing strategy.

Susan L. Golicic, Daniel J. Flint

Parallel Imports Debate and Resource-Advantage Theory

The debate over permitting parallel imports in the global economy has been grounded by principles derived from neoclassical competition. However, some of the principles of this line of economic thought have misled the debate in market-based economies. Based on the R-A theory, authors argue that parallel imports should be prevented.

Pelin Bicen, Dale F. Duhan, Naveen Gudigantala

Performance Impact of Integrated Downstream Supply Chain Partnerships: Mediating Role of Process Improvements

The relentless pursuit of sources of competitive advantage has led current research to focus on strategic interfirm partnerships to deliver superior performance gains (e.g., Dyer and Hatch 2006). Supply Chain Management (SCM), which fundamentally involves functional and process integration across partners in the supply chain, thus has gained prominence as a strategy for maximizing customer value and generating enhanced performance. However, literature lacks adequate explanation on the superior rent-generating capabilities in supply chain partnerships. Borrowing from the relational view (Dyer and Singh 1998), this research advances the notion that close supply chain partnerships leverage certain capabilities to derive performance benefits.

Karthik N. S. Iyer, Zhaxi Dangzhou

Convergence and Divergence in Meanings Among Actors in the Value Chain for Potatoes

This paper studies how different actors in the Danish potato sector collaborate to develop, produce and market high-quality fresh potatoes to consumers. Specifically, the paper explores meaning and meaning construction. Although meanings are quite convergent, actors have difficulties in finding common ground and therefore relationships between actors are strained.

Lars Esbjerg

Examining Project Management Through a Marketing Lens: a Literature Review and Research Agenda

This paper briefly reviews the relevant project management and marketing literature and proposes a research agenda that argues that project management is a service that requires the development of inter-firm relationships and can be executed more efficiently if a clear understanding of customer requirements exists.

Daniel Prior

Branded Spaces: Understanding the Connection between Architecture/Design and Services Marketing

The study aims to mediate between the two disciplines involved in creating the servicescape, design/architecture and services marketing. It examines the process of how a firm’s service brand identity is best transformed into its tangible built environment. The research suggests a hypothesis that addresses this transformation process.

Samina Gheorghe, Silvia Hodges

How to Attract Prospective Students? on the Influence of Study Course Image on Behavioral Intentions

As West and colleagues (2001) note, in the higher education market not only institutions, such as universities or business schools, but also academic fields of study and the corresponding study courses, such as engineering, marketing, or psychology, compete for prospective students. Sufficient recruitment rates are not only vital for the social and economic well-being of societies (e.g., Dainty and Edwards 2003; de Grip and Willems 2003; Redford 2005). It is also from utmost importance for universities, schools and their faculties. As a result, the question arises how universities can stimulate and motivate students to start a study in a specific course. More specifically, there is need for identifying relevant determinants that affect students’ intention to start a study course.

Tom Schoepe, Anja Geigenmueller, Margit Enke

Are Business Students Learning What Businesses Need?

This paper examines whether business schools are teaching students the concepts and skills that businesses need. The authors analyze 200 corporate job descriptions collected in Fall 2009 and reveal 140 specific skills and certifications commonly cited as required for candidates applying for jobs in business. By matching these corporate skill sets with specific business major tracks, the authors provide guidance and assistance for business schools that desire to better align curricula with job requirements. A close alignment of curriculum with business needs should help students achieve better job placements and ultimately better assist the firms that hire them. Additionally, the authors examine the resumes of 200 business students nearing graduation and reveal that many students have low to no proficiency on the skills mentioned in job descriptions. This finding suggests that disparity between school of business focus and practitioner needs is ongoing and potentially problematic, at least at the institutions sampled. A content analysis of 100 school of business course syllabi and 20 textbooks supported this conclusion. The authors match corporate skills sets with academic tracks within business majors and provide specific suggestions for closing the gap between business school curricula and corporate needs. A closer alignment of business school coursework and curricula with post-graduation job requirements could benefit many if not most colleges and universities.

Meredith E. David, Fred R. David

Service Learning Through NPOS: The New Service-Dominant Logic in Education?

Who is the true arbiter of value in the educational setting? How can students connect course learning to community needs? These are some of the questions this paper raises in its application of service-dominant logic to the service learning pedagogy via the discussion of specific class-based projects. The framework proposed offers a tool for professors and nonprofit organizations to assess the value stakeholders receive from partnering in a service learning experience. The tool also allows an assessment of active learning effectiveness using nonprofit organization compared to for-profit organization. Propositions are offered to challenge the positions suggested by the framework (i.e., partnering with nonprofits is an effective catalyst for heightening learning while also increasing awareness of societal needs and obligations).

Mary Conway Dato-on, Jule Gassenheimer

Implementing an Older Innovation: Board Game Simulation in a Retail and Marketing Channels Course

Experiential learning has been shown to be an important and effective pedagogy in marketing courses. Simulations are commonly used by faculty to incorporate experiential aspects into their classrooms. The present study makes the case for and examines the implementation of an older innovation as a marketing simulation, a board game. The game’s efficacy is examined not only as a pedagogical tool but also, and more importantly, measured using more traditional industry-based metrics for gauging interorganizational collaboration. The results suggest two things. First, based on self-efficacy scales, students indicate that using a board game can be an effective pedagogy and through experiential learning. Second, the results suggest that the board game can enhance students’


learning. For example, students who mastered forecasting and strategic planning performed better in the game (earned more money) than those students who did not master these concepts. pedagogical suggestions and future directions are discussed.

Howard Forman

Ethical and Environmental Product Sourcing: Additional Dimensions in Measuring Country-of-Origin Images

Consumers are becoming increasingly aware and concerned about ethical and environmental issues when selecting products and vendors. Companies too are giving increased attention to CSR and their “green” images, but are also sourcing more of their products and services from distant, often developing countries. With the global shift in manufacturing and the international out-sourcing of many services, retailers and manufacturers are entrusting an increasing proportion of their brand equity to developing countries. It is therefore surprising that ethical and environmental dimensions are generally absent from scales evaluating country-of-origin (CoO) images.

Peter J McGoldrick, Terry Newholm

Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Governance

Not only does corporate social responsibility (CSR) benefit the company’s relationship with its employees and consumers but it is also an important element in corporate strategy (Porter and Kramer 2002). However, CSR theory has ignored the implications of differences in government. Most studies on CSR have been conducted in the United States (US), a society that is typically characterized as being individualistic. The governing philosophy promotes individual freedom and choices; therefore, the government’s involvement in social issues, community and corporate behavior is minimal. This view contrasts with many other types of government philosophies particularly those that take more of a totalitarian viewpoint. Totalitarianism often has very negative connotations, however, its formal definition describes it as single-party regime which centralizes its power and exerts control over its citizenry in order to promote a particular ideology (Brzezinski 1956). The more control a government exerts the more likely that CSR behaviors become compulsory by corporations, so that the opportunity to gain competitive advantage is minimized. Issues of community governance may addresses inconsistencies seen in previous CSR cross culture research. This study examines how perceptions of CSR are affected when government mandates responsible behavior by corporations.

Lenita Davis, Sarah Al-Houti, Vincent Myles Landers

Consumer Misbehavior: The Dark Side of Brand Loyalty

This study intended to explore potential negative behaviors of highly identified sport consumers as well as to identify the causal mechanism or mediator by which high identification/loyalty may result in such negative responses from consumers. A scale development process was used to develop a new mediating construct for the fan identification literature, the Importance of Winning Index (or IWIN). Structural equations modeling was used to analyze the surveys. The IWIN construct represents a new and distinct construct from fan identification. Additionally, IWIN mediates the relationship between fan identification and negative outcome behaviors, thus serving as an explanatory mechanism of when fan identification can produce negative behaviors (in this study schadenfreude, or wishing ill/harm on rivals). The study raises important ethical and social responsibility issues with broader implications suggesting that sports organizations need to promote strong identification among their fans in a responsible manner.

Vassilis Dalakas, Joanna Phillips Melancon

Innovation and Commoditization: Asian Cross-Border Sourcing Practices

What constitutes better sourcing performance? What sales strategies leverage sourcing performance concerns for superior targeting? The paper addresses these questions by investigating several sourcing practices. Two main constructs that underlie these practices are supply innovation and supply commoditization, and we develop several hypotheses involving these constructs. The paper reports on our survey research with Asian purchasing managers; scale development for supply innovation and commoditization; and estimation of a path analytic model to test our hypotheses and provide relative effect sizes.

Sudhi Seshadri

Corporate Hospitality: Benefits, Challenges & Approach in Financial Services

This paper examines the role of corporate hospitality in financial services from the perspective of relationship management executives in corporate banks. Personal interviews and a survey were conducted among marketing and event specialists to identify the goals, benefits, challenges and key issues related to corporate hospitality. The primary benefits were found to be: relationship building, increased sales, networking and reputation building for the hosting company. The challenges included budget constraints, high costs, rise in competition, the need to create unique experiences and ethical concerns.

Mohit Saluja, Li-Wei Mai

Having a Great Vacation and Blaming the Wines: an Attribution Theory Perspective on Consumer Attachments to Regional Brands

Tourists’ affective experiences are important in a variety of contexts as their influence goes beyond immediate, short-term outcomes, such as satisfaction and spending. These experiences impact the relationship between the consumer and objects associated with the experience including brands. Yet, research on the influence of consumer affective experiences on emotional attachments to brands in general, and the process by which affect influences attachments in particular, has been limited. This study uses attribution theory to explain consumer attachments to regional brands in a tourism and wine context. Survey results covering twelve touristic wine regions on three continents (


=2,445) suggest that (a) causal attributions mediate the affective experience – brand attachment relationship, (b) consumers’ attributions depend on brand name strength, and (c) place attachment and spatial distance affect brand attributions. Results also suggest that when consumers attribute the pleasantness and satisfaction of the tourism experience to the brand, attachment increases; however, if consumers attribute the experience to the region, attachments decrease. Implications relate to destination marketing and brand management.

Ulrich R. Orth, Albert Stöckl, Joëlle Brouard, Alessio Cavicchi, Monica Faraoni, Mikel Larreina, Benoît Lecat, Janeen Olson, Carmen Rodriguez-Santos, Cristina Santini, Roberta Veale, Damien Wilson

Personal Opinions and Beliefs as Determinants of Collegiate Football Consumption for Revered and Hated Teams

Although personal opinions and beliefs are robust influencers of consumer behavior, research linking such factors to sport consumption is deficient. Hence, two studies are developed. Study 1 explores beliefs (i.e., internal locus of control for game outcomes) and opinions (i.e., personal expertise about a team, attitude toward the head coach) as determinants of fans’ willingness to attend games and purchase apparel of their


college football team. Study 2 examines these same determinants of fans’ willingness to attend games involving their

least favorite

college football team. There is partial support for the posited relationships in both studies.

Jeremy J. Sierra, Harry A. Taute, Robert S. Heiser

Creating Value through Prosumption: an Empirical Analysis of Diy Practice

Philip Kotler (1986a) theorized in the Futurist that a new type of consumer, the prosumer, would emerge out of the sociocultural environment of modern society. Counter to the notion of consumers as the end users of goods produced in separate markets, Kotler’s (1986a, b) notion of prosumers recognized that people could choose to produce some of the goods and services they consume. The popularity of DIY practice has caused the home hardware and home improvement industry to grow steadily, with U.S.-based sales of $22.5 billion in 1978 (Hornik and Feldman, 1982) and $38.6 billion in 1987 (Bush et al., 1987). In 1996, DIY industry sales were $135 billion and increased to $300 billion in 2006 (Tratensek and Jensen, 2006). Despite a downward correction to $272 in 2009, these figures indicate a seemingly unstoppable trend. The phenomenal growth of the retail sector that caters to the DIY market has prompted a few academic studies across various disciplines. These studies tend to be descriptive and demographically profile the DIY segment relative to a non-DIY segment (Bush et al. 1987; Hornik and Feldman 1982). An emerging stream of literature has begun to explore Kotler’s view of the prosumer including literature on the co-production of goods and services (Vargo and Lusch 2004). Yet, most contributions regarding the co-production of values are of a conceptual nature, and empirical support for these insights into prosumption is needed (Arnould 2008; Xie et al. 2008). We address this weakness by calling attention to DIY practices and illuminating a neglected consumer behavior phenomenon whereby individuals’ prosumption activities find motivation under certain marketplace conditions and result in the co-production of values.

Marco Wolf, Shaun McQuitty

Testing the Premise that Marketing Attitudes and Brand Orientation Correlate with Nonprofit Performance: Connecting Research and Practice

The importance and implementation of marketing strategies and brand orientation in the management of nonprofit organizations (NPOs) is still being debated. Through the use of three psychometrically robust scales, this study aims to bring the intangible value of the NPO brand and marketing attitudes into a more concrete perspective.

Eileen Weisenbach Keller, Mary Conway Dato-on

Mental Budgeting and Charitable Giving: Matching Motives with Budgets to Maximize Giving

For the second straight year, American corporations, foundations and individuals donated over $300 million in charitable gifts (Wasley 2009). In Canada, fundraising continues to reach record levels. According to the 2007 Canadian Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (CSGVP), Canadians donated $10 billion, a 12% increase in donations over the previous survey conducted in 2004 (Hall et al. 2009), while 84% of adult Canadians reported making a financial, charitable contribution during the year. Other data is not as positive. The average number of gifts Canadian donors made in 2007 fell to 3.8 annually from 4.3 gifts in 2004. Additionally only 25% of Canadians donated more than $364 a year to charitable organizations. The remaining 75% donate, on average, less than one half of one percent of their income to charity. In the U.S., the number of new donors has fallen by 13.8% (Hall 2009). Thus, while fundraising continues to grow in both participation and donation magnitude, there appears to be a significant amount of unrealized potential for nonprofit organizations to increase fundraising.

Jeffrey L. Stinson, Monica LaBarge

Life is Good: An Exloration of Compassionate Marketing

Consumers spend more on socially responsible products and services than ever before (Laroche, Bergeron, and Barbaro-Forleo 2001). The recent boom in such products and services is fueled by a reciprocal relationship between consumers and corporations: consumers expect, and reward, a greater degree of ethics and socially responsible (CSR) from corporations thus reinforcing firms’ commitment to engaging in these practices (Harrison 2003). Such practices, embodying “corporate compassion,” may serve as strategies designed to garner consumers’ commitment to certain brands of products, and consumers with a high degree of belief in the corporation’s products/ service and compassion-related goals may serve as the corporation’s informal ‘marketers.’

B. Yasanthi Perera, Pia A. Albinsson

Optimal Pricing in Tiered Markets

One explanation for the phenomenon of asymmetric inter-tier competition is based on the notion of price–quality trade-offs. In this article, we extend the framework to derive new results for differential pricing strategies for brands in different tiers and demonstrate these results for different market configurations. The article makes two unique and important contributions. First, the article derives and demonstrates several pricing strategy implications that are useful for academic researchers and marketing managers. Second, this research extends the theoretical explanation to realistic market configurations consisting of more than two brands.

K. Sivakumar

Method Variation in Calculating Perceived Change

Prompted by literature findings suggesting that error attributed to measures used in generating retrospective change reports are excessive, this paper explores error caused by methods that individuals use for calculating change retrospectively. According to Dowling (2001) simple, common-sense ideas of how to measure change in marketing settings can often result in ambiguous and possibly incorrect conclusions being drawn. Assessing change via longitudinal studies appears to allow a straightforward comparison to take place. However, it is difficult to establish whether the observed change is

alpha, beta



type change (Golembiewski

et al

., 1976). That is change in scores may be due to change in attribute level (


), recalibration of the measurement (


) and/or change in construct meaning (


). Cross-sectionally, one type of retrospective design uses ‘

retrospective pretests

’ administered at the end of the intervention (treatment); at the same time and often on the same form as posttest ratings (Hill and Betz, 2005). Another design asks respondents to report ‘

perceived change

’ retrospectively, which may (or may not) be the result of an intervention (Lam and Bengo, 2003).

Antonis C. Simintiras, Nina L. Reynolds

The Impact of Strategic Characteristics, and Market Popential on Born Global Firms’ Choice of Entry Mode

Entry modes are regarded as central aspect of international business. They represent one aspect of the firms' international strategy, and at times can have a substantial impact on different aspects of the strategy. They are even more crucial to young and inexperienced firms entering the international arena, such as Born Global (BG) firms.

Kalanit Efrat, Aviv Shoham

The Persistence of Brand Value at Country, Industry and Firm Levels

Since the 1980s an emerging trend of growing foreign markets has pushed multinational corporations (MNCs) to introduce branded products on a global basis. Brand management has been considered as a necessity of benefiting from scale and scope economies across borders because of increasing global competition. What drives international marketing strategy in MNCs? What determines the success and failure of brands around the world? These are some of the most fundamental questions confronting the international business and international marketing fields. Thus, identifying the sources of a brand’s added value to improve the efficiency of marketing activities has long been of central interest to international marketing and consumer behavior researchers since the 1990s. Although the current study conceptualizes the drivers of long-term brand value in the context of Interbrand’s brand valuation formula, a study dedicated to persistent analysis on the determinants of long-term brand value has not yet been proffered.

Yi-Min Chen

The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in Overcoming Known and Unknown Barriers to Entry in Foreign Markets

It is often recommended for multinational corporations (MNCs) to adopt an Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) as this can be valuable for effective foreign entries. In this research, however, we assert that the role of EO in the success of foreign entries is contingent on the entry situation, especially the type of entry barrier the MNC is facing. In this study we look at two types of entry barriers, those that are


prior to entry and those that are


. Prior research has typically focused on known barriers, those that are expected prior to entry, such as cultural distance, economic distance or competition in the foreign market. The topic of unknown, unexpected barriers has been understudied. Our key contribution therefore is the study of both known vs. unknown barriers of entry as moderators to the EO-foreign entry success relationship.

William E. Baker, Amir Grinstein, Nukhet Harmancioglu

Mental Account Matters in Planning C2C On-Line Resale: the Influnece of Endowment Effect

This paper highlights a change in consumers’ role from buyer to reseller in a growing trend of consumer-to-consumer online resale and discusses the economic psychology under different types of mental accounts when consumers make a resale-aimed purchase. Study 1 investigates how mental accounts will influence consumers’ value assessment and expected resale profit before the purchase for online resale and discovers that topical account yields the highest perceived online resale value but comprehensive account calls for the highest desired resale profit. Study 2 examines how endowment effect may moderate mental account effect on consumer resellers’ desired profit and the result indicates that consumers’ desired profit displays the greatest difference across the conditions of high and low endowment effect when a topical account is applied. The implications of the findings are further discussed.

Tzu Ying Lee, Shuling Liao

The Impact of Consumer Nostalgias and Self Concept on Brand Evaluations

Even though the uses of nostalgic appeals in marketing are seen on the rise, research on nostalgia marketing remains scarce and researchers and practitioners generally disagree on the best approaches to take with nostalgia marketing (Bussy 2008). Many marketers use nostalgic appeals in marketing as a fresh approach to grab consumer attention and emotionally connect advertised brands with consumers (Naughton and Vlasic 1998). The typical approach of nostalgia marketing has been simply juxtaposing nostalgic symbols (e.g., words, images, and music) with promoted products and counting on the positive nostalgic feelings aroused to benefit the advertised products. Indeed, research found that nostalgic cues in ads could trigger positive thoughts and result in positive attitude toward both the ads and the advertised brands (Muehling and Sprott 2004; Pascal, Sprott, and Muehling 2002).

Guangzhi Zhao, Weiwei Li, Taihong Lu, Lefa Teng

Confidence in Ordinal Judgments: Role of Consumer Metacognition and Implications for Bayesian Updating

Consumers often make ordinal judgments regarding product performances based on product ranking information. Using a consumer metacognition theoretical framework, we examine how such product ranking information in different formats might influence consumer confidence in their ordinal judgments, and the extent to which they are consistent with the normative Bayesian model.

Dipayan Biswas, Guangzhi Zhao, Donald R. Lehmann

Assessing return on Marketing Contacts in B2B Market

For two reasons, Business-to-Business (B2B) marketers face greater challenges in measuring return on marketing investment than Business-to-Consumer (B2C) marketers. First, business buyers have an irregular purchase pattern. Second, marketing efforts take a longer time to build a business relationship. The purpose of this research is to capture the effect of marketing contacts such as direct mailings and telephone calls on buyer-seller relationships with heterogeneous buyer responses. Previous literature captured the effect of marketing contacts on buying behavior through a Hidden Markov model (Netzer, Lattin, and Srinivasan 2008). However, existing models are not able to capture heterogeneous marketing response parameters. This research developed from the above literature but has distinguishing features. First, marketing response parameters are heterogeneous across buyers. Allenby and Rossi (1999) suggest that uncertainty in individual level estimates should be incorporated, so that the marketers can make decisions based on customer differences. Second, this paper gives an in-depth examination of buyer-seller relationships in a business context. Third, this research provides detailed justification as to the reasons a Bayesian Hidden Markov model should be used and introduces the preferred approach of forward-backward method in Bayesian Hidden Markov model literature. Fourth, the hidden states are recovered through a forward-backward algorithm (Chib, 1996).

Anita Man Luo, V. Kumar

Consideration-Set Restriction: How Limited Availability Affects Choice, Atisfaction, And Future Intentions

This dissertation examines how limitations on the availability of one or more of the alternatives in a consumer’s consideration set affect the consumer decision-making process. For an alternative to be considered a member of the consumer’s consideration set, the consumer must believe the alternative either is, will be, or was at one time available for choice. Consideration-set restrictions (CSRs) refer not to restrictions on consideration set membership or formation, but rather to limitations on availability once membership is attained. This dissertation will contain four essays which investigate how CSRs affect the last three of these stages of the consumer decision-making process. The research also investigates both the effects of true CSRs, which can be further divided into demand- or supply-based CSRs, and phantom CSRs.

Jeffrey R. Parker

Acceptance of Remote Services: Long-Term Adoption of Interactive Services Among Business Customers

Good-manufacturers are trying to differentiate themselves by adding services to their portfolio of tangible goods to become “solution providers” (Tuli et al. 2007). But it is not enough for manufacturers to wrap these services around their products as this may lead only to a temporary advantage. They will have to provide smarter services using the full potential of intelligent technology components inside the products (Allmendiger and Lombreglia 2005). The sophisticated technology employed enables services with a high degree of interactivity (Bolton and Saxena-Iyer 2009) that is about to revolutionize traditional remote repair, diagnostics and maintenance services (Biehl et al. 2004). Although manufacturers aim at selling these high-tech services to customers, the introduction to the market faces acceptance barriers (Biehl et al. 2004). Even if customers make a decision to adopt, this often does not lead to the customers implementing business processes of repeated practice. This step is especially crucial for market success, as increases in customer retention result in increased profitability (Reichheld and Sasser 1990) and manufacturers should aim at signing and renewing service contracts (Bolton et al. 2006).

Nancy V. Wünderlich

Marketing Education For Sustainability

Marketers are increasingly adopting sustainable business practices as the evidence mounts linking sustainability with market share, brand equity and long run profitability. While business coursework is following practice in some disciplines (e.g., environmental accounting/economics), attention to sustainability issues in marketing curricula is limited, for the most part, to discussions of “green” customers, environmental considerations in product development and packaging, and social/ethical issues in non-profit marketing (Beyond Grey Pinstripes 2009). Marketing courses wholly devoted to sustainable business strategy are rare, particularly at the undergraduate level. Thus, there appears to be an increasing discrepancy between the importance placed on a triple bottom line approach to setting marketing objectives by practitioners and its importance to marketing educators. Status quo marketing curricula fail to give students the knowledge and skills they need to be sustainability advocates and experts in their places of employment. This places them at a competitive disadvantage as they seek fulfilling careers in the field.

Wendy Wilhelm, Edwin Love, Craig Dunn, Sandra Mottner, Erica Okada, Eric Mais, Jill Mosteller

A Comprehensive Approach To Brand Equity: Integrating Product And Corporate Brand Equity into Total Brand Equity Measurement

Previous studies on brand equity measurement can be classified into the following main streams: (1) Customer-based Brand Equity, where the value of the brand is determined by customers’ associations with a product brand and (2) Corporate Brand Equity, where the value of the brand is determined by stakeholders’ associations toward a corporate brand. This paper proposes a holistic approach to Total Brand Equity valuation which integrates Customer-based Brand Equity and Corporate Brand Equity into Total Brand Equity valuation. This approach offers a more comprehensive perspective for brand equity valuation which addresses a company’s relationships with its customers and stakeholders at large. Further, this paper offers a series of propositions that address the relationship between total brand equity and corporate performance.

Hamed M. Shamma, Salah S. Hassan

Employee Openness And Organizational Responsiveness: Examining Environmental Influences on Positive Employee Brand Behaviour

This paper considers the influence of environmental factors on internal organizational exchanges for the benefit of developing employees that champion the values of the organization’s brand. In particular, the study examines the relationship of an organization’s perceived benevolent approach to its employees (i.e.

organizational responsiveness

) as well as the employee’s own interest in the organization beyond their immediate job task (i.e.

employee openness

) towards brand supportive behaviours namely,

brand citizenship behavior, positive word of mouth and intention to stay

. From the results of this study it appears that environmental factors, such as

organizational responsiveness


employee openness

, do play a significant role in influencing employee behaviour. In particular, individual employee factors are extremely important in understanding how employees behave in relation to their employer’s brand. The results have implications for internal brand management literature where such environmental factors have received limited attention with respect to encouraging ‘pro brand behaviour’.

Ceridwyn King, Daniel C. Funk

Critical Review as a Method of Inquiry: Issues and Implications

Starting in the 1970s, several articles appeared in the marketing and management literatures that claim to be critical reviews of concepts, theories, and methods. However, there does not seem to be any agreement among researchers as to what a

critical review

is. In fact, to the authors’ knowledge, none of the articles provide a definition of “critical review.” In order to understand what researchers mean by critical reviews, we delved deeper into different kinds of reviews that researchers use.

Sreedhar Madhavaram, Vishag Badrinarayanan, Pelin Bicen

Researching The Structures and Processes of Collaborative Academic Networks

This paper considers collaborative structures in academic networks. Network analysis reveals surprising connections not reflected in institutions’ formal structures. Semantic analysis of stories of collaboration shows collaboration as critical to research and production of cutting-edge knowledge. Discussion of the value of multiple methods in researching collaboration concludes the paper.

Louise Young, Sara Denize, Simeon Simoff, Ekta Nankani, Ian Wilkinson

Antecedents To Pricing Strategy: Factors Driving The Selection Of Pricing Strategy For New Products or Services Of Technology-Based New Ventures

Based on a survey within technology-intensive industries in Germany, this study empirically investigates how 220 technology-based new ventures select their pricing strategies. The impact of 9 different antecedents to the selection of pricing strategy is disclosed and discussed. For practitioners, this insight reveals a direct opportunity to increase business performance.

Jonas Kaiser, Malte Brettel

An Examination Of Price Evolution of Products During Market Diffusion Stages: a Case With Fine Arts

In this paper, we investigate how product prices evolve as the market diffuses from the time of its inception through its growth, maturity phase and decline phases. Using data collected for fifteen years from 46 traditional, live (Christies and Sotheby’s) and online art auctions, we investigate the dynamics of prices and its determinants at different market evolution stages. The focus is on Modern Indian Art which came into being in the auction market only since 1995. Since then, the market grew from selling $2 million of art items annually to over $140 million in 2006. During this period over 14,000 art items were auctioned for a total value of $442.4 million, with over 3000 bidders participating in the online auctions. In this research, we investigate how the effect of some of the price determinants on product prices change over the market cycle, such as product characteristics, artist (producer) characteristics, and auction (marketplace) characteristics. We also investigate the pattern of evolution of price for individual artists. Finally, we discuss the managerial implications of our findings and provide guidance for how buyers, sellers, and auction houses can participate more efficiently over market life-cycles.

Mayukh Dass

Addressing Social Problems Through Social Enterprise: The Role of Marketing

The paper shows that in pursuing the double bottom line of social transformation and financial self sufficiency, social enterprises represent interesting organizations that are neither exclusively ‘non profit’ nor ‘for profit’. The paper develops research propositions focusing on how social and commercial marketing practices and approaches are viewed and utilized in social enterprises.

Judith Madill

Towards an Integrated Strategic Sustainability Theoretical Model.

This paper introduces the ecocentric ‘integrated strategic sustainability model’ as a practical strategic tool providing an ecocentric theoretical platform on which to implement an alternative strategic marketing approach in research and business school teaching. The research distinguishes between anthropocentric and ecocentric epistemology in examining corporate ecological sustainability, and, in so doing, identifies transformational business and marketing strategies.

Helen Borland

Dynamic Capabilities for Environmental Sustainability (DCES): Antecedents and Characteristics

The development and marketing of green products represent a way for firms to both contribute to the achievement of environmental sustainability and be successful. However, developing green products while being successful require development of unique dynamic capabilities that enable the integration of sustainability issues into product development. Dynamic capabilities for environmental sustainability are defined here as the firm’s ability to integrate, build, and reconfigure internal and external resources to address environmental sustainability challenges for developing green products. This study proposes a dynamic capabilities perspective of green product development, identifying dynamic capabilities for environmental sustainability and suggesting that both firm’s internal motivation and external forces drive the deployment of these dynamic capabilities. Based on literature and interviews with several companies, we identify three types of dynamic capabilities for environmental sustainability, develop multi-item scales and empirically test our research hypotheses. We completed a survey of Italian manufacturing firms and used Structural Equation Models for hypotheses testing. Our results from a sample of 189 firms support the dynamic capabilities theory providing empirical evidences that dynamic capabilities are driven by both firm’s internal motivation (specifically, environmental orientation plays a more relevant role than top management commitment, as the latter leads only to the integration of external environmental resources) and external forces (turbulence in green markets leads to the building and reconfiguring of environmental resources). The present study provides several theoretical and managerial implications. This research contributes in providing empirical evidence to the dynamic capabilities theory by studying the antecedents of dynamic capabilities, and by developing and validating measures for dynamic capabilities for environmental sustainability. This study also provides directions to managers on how to integrate environmental sustainability into product development.

Rosa Maria Dangelico, Vito Albino, Devashish Pujari

The Relevance of Specific Corporate Associations Against Overall Corporate Image for Consumer Behavior

Corporate branding strategies are gaining more and more importance. Recently, a growing number of firms in the fast moving consumer goods sector, which is historically dominated by product brands, communicate their corporate brand actively towards stakeholders (Laforet and Saunders 2005). Therewith, they aim to gain a higher level of awareness in the public domain and to influence consumer behavior directly, not only indirectly by enhancing product image. Former research helps to identify what is associated with a firm (Fombrun et al. 2000; Walsh and Beatty 2007) and how single associations impact consumer behavior, e.g. the impact of social responsibility. However, companies lack knowledge on how to evaluate cross-nationally if their corporate branding strategy works. For them it is necessary to know if corporate branding adds value to a company’s products and if so, how the corporate brand adds value.

Bernhard Swoboda, Markus Meierer, Margot Loewenberg

Developing, Harnessing and Managing “Creative” Marketing Organizations: The Role of Creative People, Creative Communities and Macro-Environmental Characteristics

This paper examines the role of creativity in providing organizations competitive advantage through marketing. Strategic advantage from this source promises to be stronger than gains extracted from economic means. Success from creative activity does not occur by happenstance or through trivial pursuits. The process must be planned for, invested in and managed. A first step is to build or find communities where people prone to creative activity can be attracted. Creative people have been shown to prefer geographic locations that provide an environment rich in culture, where artistic interests can be pursued. Companies seeking strategic advantage through creativity profit by discovering areas where the creative class comes together. A complicating factor is that the marketing value chain is often produced across multiple markets, at different points of time. Multiple advantageous locations must be pursued, and diverse people at these locations must work together. More than just finding the right locations, organization’s seeking creative advantage have to set up a structure where creative individuals can comfortably integrate, develop a culture where creativity is valued, and provide intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to maintain the happiness of a frequently misunderstood class of employee. A market orientation and pursuit of growth objectives through new product development are important components of the needed management style. A team structure that fosters collaborative activities is essential. Harnessing and managing the people who can produce strategic advantage through creative endeavors is not simple. Attention to marketing concepts provides useful guidance and a step in the right direction.

Van R. Wood, Frank J. Franzak, Dennis A. Pitta, Tom Gillpatrick

An Assessment of Consumers’ Willingness to Patronize Foreign-Based Business Format Franchises: An Investigation in the Fast-Food Sector

This study expands Mehrabian-Russell Theory of Environmental Psychology by incorporating the moderating affect of Psychological Essentialism for studying consumer emotions and subsequent retail patronage behaviors in the context of foreign-based franchise stores. As a result of analysis, we were able to frame curiosity as an aroused emotional state and found support for the relationship between consumer epistemic curiosity and retail patronage. We also found support for the linkage between consumer affect and retail patronage. However, we were unable to tie the cultural elements in retail atmospherics to consumer emotions.

Selcuk Ertekin, Lou E. Pelton

The Affective and Cognitive Dimensions of Country Image: Perceptions of U.S. Products in Kuwait

Previous research suggests that country image plays a significant role in forming consumers’ perceptions of and preference for foreign products. In their review of the literature on country image, Roth and Diamantopolous (2009) found a lack of consistency in defining and operationalizing the different facets of country image. Their study further revealed that few studies have simultaneously examined the cognitive and affective dimensions of a country’s image. This study attempts to address this shortcoming by utilizing the stereotype content model (SCM) and bias map found within the social psychology literature (Cuddy, Fiske and Glick 2007). The SCM distinguishes among the cognitions, emotions and action tendencies directed toward different groups. Furthermore, it explains the relationship among these three components. Thus, this study has two objectives: 1) to differentiate between the affective and cognitive aspects of a country’s image and 2) to examine how the affective and cognitive aspects of a country’s image influence a consumer’s evaluations of and preferences for products from that country. In more specific terms, this research examines the affective and cognitive attitudes of Kuwaiti consumers toward the United States and how such attitudes impact Kuwaiti consumers.

Amro Maher

Consumer Skepticism and Blogs: Implications for Marketing Communicators

Blogs have become a pervasive and powerful forms of communication in the milieu enabled by Web 2.0, and are assuming important roles in the arsenals of marketing communicators. Yet little evidence currently exists of the extent to which consumers believe the content of blogs or not. This paper presents the results of a study that examines the extent of skepticism toward blogs within a reasonably large sample. Using a scale adapted from the advertising literature to measure skepticism, the research compared levels of skepticism among consumers by age, level of education and gender, as well as the frequency with which consumers accessed blogs, and the number of blogs they accessed. Some preliminary observations on psychometric properties of the adapted scale are also made. The paper concludes by acknowledging the limitations of the research, identifying the implications for management, and noting avenues for future research.

Leyland Pitt, Peter Steyn, Gene van Heerden, Esmail Salehi-Sangari, Nic Terblanche

Does Your Online Advertising Work for Every Consumer? Measuring Age-Related Advertising Effectiveness in an Internet Company

With the emergence of the internet and its growing importance as an advertising medium, online advertising effectiveness became a topic in academic research (Ha 2008, Jianan et al. 2005). A June 2008 worldwide McKinsey digital-advertising survey shows that 91 percent out of 340 companies are advertising online. Yet 80 percent of the companies allocate media budgets by simply making subjective judgments and have none or only inappropriate methods in place to track advertising effectiveness (Bughin et al. 2009). Accordingly, the need for accountability in praxis increased significantly. The current method of tracking online advertising effects in the marketplace is by using direct tracking techniques via cookies (Lavin 2006). However via direct tracking it is not possible to measure all advertising effects because 30 percent of internet users reject or delete cookies needed for tracking (Lipsman 2007).

Johannes Grassmann, Malte Brettel

Political AD Portraits: A Visual Analysis of Constituents’ Reaction to Political Spoof ADS

The democratization of the Internet and, subsequently, the growing popularity of amateur video production, have given rise to historic levels of voter empowerment. More specifically, the populace has turned to YouTube and other, similar websites to voice their opinions in a public manner through the posting of, and response to, amateur political videos. These portals contain a plethora of data regarding popular opinion and voter sentiment. This data is a pure, unbiased picture of actual voter sentiment. If politicians can find a way to scientifically acquire and interpret these voter sentiments, it would be an invaluable tool. Using the visualization software, Leximancer, we show how conversations around political ads can be mapped and interpreted. We discuss the implications of our findings, outline the technique’s limitations and trace avenues to extend the research.

Colin L. Campbell, Anjali S. Bal, Leyland F. Pitt, Michael Parent

Response-Based Segmentation in PLS Path Modeling: Application Of Fimix-Pls to American Customer Satisfaction Index Data

The role of customer satisfaction indices is important in understanding business success and is evidenced through established effects on customer retention and profitability. Today, Fornell et al.’s (1996) American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) ranks among the most salient models in marketing. Several studies have provided strong evidence for the measure’s reliability and validity and provide a basis for comparing the effects of antecedent constructs on overall satisfaction and loyalty. However, by using aggregated data for their validation analyses, these studies assume that the data stem from a single homogenous population—a single model represents all observations. This assumption of homogeneity is unrealistic as customers are likely to differ in their perceptions and evaluations of firms’ characteristics, as well as in their familiarity with a given firm’s offerings (Rigdon et al. 2010). Moreover, observable characteristics are often inadequate in capturing the apparent heterogeneity in the data (Sarstedt and Ringle 2010). Even though prior research has found substantial unobserved customer heterogeneity within a given product or service class (Wu and DeSarbo 2005), it usually remains unaddressed which leads to biased parameter estimates and, consequently, flawed conclusions.

Edward E. Rigdon, Siegfried P. Gudergan, Christian M. Ringle, Marko Sarstedt

Market Segmentation: Validating a Qualitative Algorithm to Examine Stages of Consumer Involvement in Sport

The purpose of this research is to empirically validate a staging mechanism to segment consumers of hedonic service experiences; sport participants and sport spectators. Theoretically, the stages concept suggests consumers can be assigned according to certain characteristics to a distinct stage from a specific number of stages. Consumers within a given stage are similar in attitudinal and behavioral characteristics while consumers across stages significantly differ in terms of these same characteristics. The multi-dimensional nature of involvement is used to operationalize the stage-based theoretical framework provided by the Psychological Continuum Model (Funk & James, 2001; 2006) which classifies consumers into four hierarchical stages: Awareness, Attraction, Attachment and Allegiance. These four stages reflect the progressive development of a psychological connection to a hedonic consumption activity. Three studies were conducted to provide empirical evidence to validate a three step staging procedure developed for the framework (Beaton, Funk, & Alexandris, 2009). Study 1: 1,224 recreational golfers in Queensland Australia. Study 2: 2,843 marathon and half-marathon event participants in Philadelphia United States. Study 3: 421 sport fans from New South Wales and Victoria in Australia. The staging mechanism proceeds as follows. First, mean scores are calculated for three involvement facets of centrality, sign and pleasure. Second, involvement mean scores are used to create unique consumer profiles based on low, moderate and high categories on each facet (3


= potentially 27 unique profiles). In the final step, consumers are segmented into a specific stage using a qualitative algorithm (i.e., decision tree) specifically developed for the PCM framework. Once stage-placed, the discrete nature of stages was tested using MANOVA through examination of the attitudinal characteristic resistance to change (i.e., commitment) and the behavioral characteristic frequency of self-reported behavior. Across the three samples, results revealed that mean scores for commitment and behavior significantly differed among each of the four stages (p < .01). In addition, commitment and behavior levels incrementally increased from Awareness to Attraction to Attachment to Allegiance. The application and analysis of the staging mechanism revealed that as the level of psychological connection with the hedonic consumption activity progressively increased; so to did the level of attitudinal and behavioral engagement. Implications of this research suggest that different stages give rise to the notion that equally different consumer processes maybe be at work between the stages. SPSS syntax is provided to allow for application of the three step stage-based segmentation procedure for large data samples.

Daniel Funk, Ceridwyn King, Mark Pritchard

A Scobit-Based Travel Mode Choice Model

As an additional consumer choice model, this paper suggests using the Scobit model, which includes a skewness parameter, to accommodate a more general structure of marginal effects in the context of binary choice behavior. It is empirically confirmed that the Scobit model outperforms the widely used binary logit model.

Junyi Zhang, Harry Timmermans

An Examination of Value Equity in Event Service: The Moderating Role of Event Experience

The objective of this article is to explore how value equity and its drivers of service quality, price, and convenience influence customer satisfaction in the context of event services. Based on responses from attendees of business and leisure events, the results show the service quality driver can be conceptualized into four dimensions: intangible quality, ambient condition, space and layout, and sign and symbol. The findings also show that the three value equity drivers are positively related to customer satisfaction. However, marked differences were observed between business and leisure event experiences. In particular, service quality was perceived more important among business event patrons while price was perceived more critical among leisure event attendees. Discussion of research implications is provided.

IpKin Anthony Wong, Mark S. Rosenbaum, Matthew Tingchi Liu

Customer Co-Production and Service Innovation Characteristics: A Conceptual Argument

Innovations often modify the nature and/or extent of customer co-production (Eiglier et al. 1977). Such modifications affect customer evaluation of innovation characteristics (Lovelock and Young 1979). In fact, Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2003) view co-creation as the “next practice and the future of innovation” programs. By exploring the associations between co-production and innovation characteristics, this research links two previously unrelated streams of research: service characteristics and diffusion of innovations.

Mohammad Ali Zolfagharian, Audhesh Paswan

Trustworthiness of Service Providers: A Comparison of Alternative Models

The recent global economic slowdown and its severe effect on the performance of financial sector have decline customers’ confidence in their banks. In such a scenario, maintaining customers’ trust has become a strategic priority for the current players in the highly competitive Indian banking industry. This is because it acts as a key differentiating factor that leads to customer loyalty and increase in profitability. Existing literature suggests that trustworthiness is a multi-dimensional construct which plays a significant role in both developing and maintaining customers’ overall trust. Hence, it is of paramount importance for Indian banks to gain a thorough understanding about the dimensions of trustworthiness in order to project a trustworthy image in the minds of consumers. Given the critical nature of company’s trustworthiness, a rich body of literature has studied it from various perspectives like customer loyalty, firm performance etc. However, there is still a need to conduct an in-depth investigation in order to develop a better understanding about the dimensions of trustworthiness. Therefore, this study proposes to explore the higher models of trustworthiness to fulfill the above research gap.

Sanjit Kumar Roy, Vaibhav Shekhar

These Times are Changing: My Teaching Philosophy and Passion Driven Approach

I have been at two academic institutions since receiving my Ph.D. in 1988: The University of Kentucky, where I taught undergraduate, MBA and Ph.D. students, and Rollins College, where I teach only MBA students. These experiences provided a foundation for my core beliefs.

Jule B. Gassenheimer

Effective Teaching: Perspectives and Insights

My primary objectives in teaching are three-fold: to expose my students to underlying theories; to develop their critical thinking abilities; and to enhance their decision making capabilities so that they will have a solid foundation to be able to apply their knowledge in practical settings. In order to accomplish these objectives, I utilize an active-learning approach to teaching in which I require one or more of the following in all of my courses: projects, cases, computer simulation games, in-class exercises, and/or presentations. Some of these teaching tools provide great hands-on and decision making experience for the students. Others help the students to learn the key concepts and theory, and in turn develop critical thinking.

Aysen Bakir

Subsistence Consumer Markets: A Third Revolution for Marketing Pedagogy

Marketing pedagogy is highly responsive to technological breakthroughs such as radio, television, cell phones, the Internet, and Web 2.0 social networking, and it has had to reinvent itself twice on account of population shifts that radically altered the needs of markets and students. The first such episode took place in the 1920s and 1930s in response to one of the largest rural-to-urban migrations in recent history; a migration that revolutionized physical distribution and retailing, mass advertising, and the importance of branding, and led to marketing-focused textbooks and courses being added to university curricula. In the span of two decades, millions of consumers traded family farms for urban and suburban lifestyles, and empowered by automobile ownership and improved roadways, encouraged the creation of supermarkets, mass merchandisers, discounters, and strip malls — all with plenty of parking. Evolving transportation modes and shopping strategies, along with new consumer and merchant priorities, led to changes in packaging, retailing, labeling, advertising, and how marketing was taught in universities. Marketing education became a staple in business schools as a result.

José Antonio Rosa

Traumatized Economies – and Marketing Paths to Recovery

Over the course of the past three decades we have witnessed a number of shocks that have profoundly traumatized a large number of economies and the consumers who often continue to struggle in them. Several trauma-producing events immediately come to mind: the demise of communism and ensuing “shock therapy”, war and genocide, tsunamis, earthquakes, global financial collapse, food shortage, festering religious and ethnic tensions, and the growing conflict between local traditions and burgeoning forces of globalization. One or more of these events has/have devastated many nations, traumatized economies, globally, regionally, nationally and locally, and have distressed


of consumers.

Clifford J. Shultz, Frédéric Jallat, Don R. Rahtz, Tomaž Kolar, Vesna Zabkar, David Reid

Consumers’ Participation in the Online Communities: a Malaysian Context

The emergence of virtual communities has provided platforms for online consumers to share and exchange information regarding products, services and ideas creating immense opportunities for online retailers since online interactions could lead to actual purchase. Although online social networking is a fast growing area, the possible influence of users’ interaction has not yet received much attention from marketing researchers. This paper proposes a conceptual framework to facilitate the understanding role of consumers’ participation in online communities and its effects on their purchase-related behaviours.

Hazliza Haron, Mohammed Abdur Razzaque

Interactivity Quality and Consumer-Brand Relationship in Vitural Brand Communities

As social networking media continue to grow in popularity, the firm-centric CRM is confronting with new challenges created by the pervasive consumer networking on social media. In essence, the performance of CRM is contingent on whether consumers are willing to engage in a relationship with the firm. In order to meet the development of consumer-based social networking, firms pervasively create brand communities to build and manage the relationship with consumers. Consumers may interact with companies and other consumers in company sponsored brand community. Interactivity occurs at the Business to Customer (B2C) and Customer to Customer (C2C) levels. Interactivity is also established with a focal brand and partner brands in virtual brand communities. Interactivity quality involves the perception of interaction at the B2C and C2C levels in brand communities. The paper proposes that interactivity quality has a positive effect on relationship quality for a focal brand and partner brands. In addition, it proposes that relationship quality has a positive effect on relationship strength.

Xia Zhou, Hyokjin Kwak

How Companies Implement Kam: a Four-Stage Model

In this paper we present a stage model, developed through syndications with a panel of industry exemplars and through a survey, which shows how organizations currently transition to KAM. The model demonstrates that there are four stages to implementation: Introductory; Embedding; Optimizing; and Continuous Improvement. For each stage, we present a case study that illustrates their KAM practices in that stage.

Iain A. Davies, Lynette Ryals

Understanding Differences in Customer Willingness to Pay (WTP): Context Effects, Attribute Framing, and Perceptions of Fairness

Researchers in marketing have studied customer willingness to pay (WTP) for a variety of goods and services extensively. However, to date there has been limited empirical investigation of environmental factors such as

need urgency

(demanddriven or circumstantial scarcity of a desired good or service) and


(whether the purchaser is spending her own money to make the purchase, or money provided by someone else, such as an employer). In addition, factors such as the way price information is framed may have an effect on customer WTP, as might the presentation of incidental price information. In addition, the perceived fairness of a price, or of a change (particularly an increase) in price, may have an effect on customer WTP under some circumstances. Understanding the effect of need urgency, agency, framing, reference pricing, and perceived fairness on customer WTP could help managers optimize pricing and (in the case of fairness) firm reputation.

Ashutosh Dixit, Kenneth D. Hall, Thomas W. Whipple, Nicholas R. Bertram

Price Drops, and Price Unfairness Perceptions

Price unfairness literature has established that price increases or promotions can affect price unfairness perceptions; however, the effect of permanent price drops on price unfairness perceptions has not received adequate attention. We examine the effect of post purchase permanent price drops on price unfairness perceptions and propose that reputation of company, and recency of purchase moderate the relationship between the depth of a price drop and price unfairness perception. We find that deeper price drops cause higher price unfairness perceptions. We also find that the positive relationship between price drops, and price unfairness perceptions is stronger for existing customers, who perceive high company reputation than those who perceive low company reputation. We conclude that the positive relationship between price drops, and price unfairness perceptions is stronger for customers, whose purchases are recent than those whose purchases are distant.

Umit Koc, Rajneesh Suri

Determining Fairness: a Cognitive Process of Price Fairness Situations

Over the last three decades, pricing scholars have devoted a substantial amount of research to understanding what creates the perception of an unfair price. While it is important to understand what leads to an unfair price, it is equally important to understand what makes a price appear fair. Past research has noted that it is possible that fairness and unfairness are conceptually different constructs (Xia et al. 2004, Finkel 2001) and that consumers go through a series of cognitive steps to determine perceptions of fairness (Campbell 1999). It is believed that perceptions of (un)fairness are context-dependent (Hertel et al. 2002), which is why empirical study respondents have a difficult time articulating what constitutes a fair price and report such responses as “

I know it when I see it

” (Xia et al. 2004). According to Bolton et. al. (2003) fairness is defined as “a judgment of whether an outcome and/or the process to reach an outcome are reasonable, acceptable, or just.” However, understanding the process that consumers go through when determining what makes a price appear fair is important for pricing managers to understand because minimizing the perceptions of unfairness, which has been empirically tested with significant results, leads to stronger levels of satisfaction and customer loyalty (Oliver 1997, Oliver and Swan 1989, Herrmann et al. 2007).

Brooke Reavey, Rajneesh Suri

Consumer’s Inferences of Manipulative Intent in the Store Environment: the Effects of Atmospherics and Perceived Appropriateness

This study proposes that two factors, (1) the number of atmospherics used by the retailer and (2) the appropriateness of the store environment, affect whether consumers make inferences that the retailer has manipulative intent (IMI). It also suggests that IMI influence attitudes toward the atmosphere and the retailer, and corporate attributions. Results from an experiment support these predictions.

Renaud Lunardo, Camille Saintives

Conceptualizing Independent and Interdependent Effects on Luxury Consumption

This paper develops a model that explains how an individual’s self-concept and a number of mediating individual traits impact luxury consumption behavior. This model can assist managers of luxuries in better segmenting their markets and in predicting consumer reactions to changes in their marketing strategy.

Minas N. Kastanakis, George Balabanis

Is All that Glitters Gold, Actually? Exploring Advertising Impact of Refined Premium Print

In times of global competition and recession refined premium printed advertising formats can help to differentiate brand communication. Marketers are facing erosion of customer attention using the leveraging advertising effect of refined premium print. We show that refined premium printed advertisements leverage both, affective and conative behavior.

Stefan Hampel, Daniel Heinrich, Hans H. Bauer

The Brand Scoring Project; an Academic and Practitioner Collaboration

This work represents the collaborative effort between a marketing firm president and marketing professor to develop a brand scoring model. The mutual acknowledgment of a shift in power from companies to consumers in terms of what determines a brand’s representation in the marketplace prompted this collaborative endeavor. Despite the many ways to market a brand (Wyner 2004), as exemplified by Starbucks, Amazon, Apple, Microsoft, Zappos, they all share one common issue; their branding efforts may be energized or undermined by the opinions of consumers due to social media.

Jill Mosteller, Jerry Ketel

Service Failure: Causal Attribution, Emotional Responses and Behavioral Outcomes

When a service failure occurs, customers experience any of a variety of negative emotions. The particular emotional reaction depends on the customer’s perception of why the service failure occurred in the first place. Behavioral outcomes associated with service recovery therefore depend directly on the negative emotion and indirectly on the customer’s perception of the cause. To the extent that marketing managers can frame the cause of the service failure in their post-failure communications, recovery satisfaction may be increased leading, in turn, to more positive customer response outcomes. Managerial implications are identified.

L. Jean Harrison-Walker

A Multilevel-Investigation of the Moderating Role of Personality Traits to Perform Service Recovery in Cambodia, Taiwan, and Sigapore

The service interaction between service providers and receivers has long debate in service marketing literature. By performing and recovering service strategies to retain customer satisfaction and loyalty, service employees play key important role in implementing better service to meet customer need. Service recovery is putting a smile on a customer’s face after you have made a mistake. By linking research gap between marketing and organizational behavior aspects, this study attempts to provide core concepts to understand the customer’s perception and service employee’s performance in cross-sectional service industries. The key objective of this paper is to examine the moderating role of personality traits of individual service employees to enhance service performance in cross-service unit studies in Cambodia, Taiwan, and Singapore.

Wann Yih Wu, Sou Veasna, Huang Chu-Hsin

Creativity and Visual Complexity

In theory, a good ad gets noticed. However, the sheer volume of advertisements creates challenges for advertisers who want to want to create ads that break through the clutter to get a consumer’s attention. Advertisers may increase the visual complexity of advertisements to break through the clutter. Visual complexity can draw the viewer into the ad, increasing their involvement in message processing. On the other hand, visual complexity may confuse the ad’s receiver, distracting him/her from the advertisement’s message, or reducing the perceived relevance of the ad’s message. Therefore, it is important to understand more about how complexity affects perceptions of the ad’s creativity and the ad’s effectiveness.

Christy Ashley, Daniel A. Sheinin, Sajeev Varki

The Moderating Effect of Creativity Through Interference on Recall and Global Judgments

The existence of forgetting has never been proved: we only know that some things do not come to our minds when we want them to — Friedrich Nietzsche

Kyle Coble, Mark Arnold, Kevin Lehnert

Developing an Advertising Personal Nostalgia Intensity Scale

Personal nostalgia is a longing for a past that has been personally experienced (Baker and Kennedy 1994) along with the things, memories and people associated with that past (Goulding 2001). Personal nostalgia has been found to influence preferences for certain products and services (Braun-LaTour, LaTour and Zinkhan 2007), which has resulted in an increasing use of personal nostalgia in advertising for consumer goods and services like colas, cereals, beer, insurance and banking (Sullivan 2009). To date, however, the scales that have been developed have measured the propensity to get nostalgic, but they do not measure the actual dimensions of the nostalgic experience as evoked by marketing communications. This research employed two separate studies in establishing a scale to measure the intensity of the experiencing of personal nostalgia. The qualitative work utilizing focus groups along with the literature suggested a starting pool of 107 items, which was reduced through several steps to a final set of 34 items loading into four separate factors: cognitive, physiological, positive emotions and negative emotions. Suggestions for future research and potential managerial implications are provided.

Altaf Merchant, John B. Ford, Kathryn LaTour, Michael S. LaTour

Under what Conditions does Trust Make a Consumer Re-Patronice or Even Stay Loyal to an E-Retailer?

Trust is regarded as salient in the consumer and e-retailer exchange relationships because there are high risks involved in transactions with an e-retailer and online consumer and e-retailer depend on each other to realize their respective interests (Chen and O’Brien 2005). Literature review of current online B2C trust studies indicates that they still reflect the early mentality of doing business online which, in essence, is driven by discrete transactions (Urban, Amyx, and Lorenzon 2009). Guided by the old mentality, online retailers were fighting for hits, click-throughs, eyeballs, number of visitors, number of shoppers, and pure purchase volume (Bain & Company/Mainspring 2000; Reichheld, Markey, and Hopton 2000). With marketing strategies for e-retailers switching to retaining customers, studies are needed to investigate how trust in an e-retailer impacts the consumer’s decision to remain with or be loyal to the e-retailer (constructs closely related to customer retention). In addition, in trust literature, few studies have examined the factors that moderate the effect of trust on its outcome variables. To the researcher’s knowledge, no study has yet empirically tested the moderators of the effect of trust.

Cuiping Chen, Matthew O’Brien, Lin Guo

A Study of Customer E-Loyalty: The Role of Mediators

This study aims to examine the relation between customer satisfaction and loyalty and introduce the roles of commitment, trust, involvement, and perceived value as the mediators in the formation of e-loyalty. A web based consumer survey was used for data collection. Findings of the study suggest that perceived value proved to be a complete mediator between satisfaction and loyalty, while commitment, trust, and involvement each proved to be partial mediators between satisfaction and loyalty. The results have implications for the retention of satisfied customers and encourage businesses to do their best to retain loyal customers in an e-commence context.

Shu-Ching Chen

What’s in Your Cart? Infleunce of Individual Differences on Product Class Specific Shopping

In this paper we propose a model of differences in individual characteristics that influence the online purchase pattern for different product classes. We suggest that individual differences determine the kind of products purchased online and the three product classes that we use to test our model are: search, experience and credence products. Specifically, we examine the differences in leadership orientation, innovativeness, brand loyalty and price consciousness as drivers of product class purchase. We also suggest that transactional risk perception will influence the purchase of each product class differently. Income, age and gender are also included in the model as control variables. We use secondary data source to test the proposed model. Each product class is represented by three products each. Structural equation modeling technique is used for model analysis. Since our outcome variable is categorical robust ML estimation method in EQS software is used to deal with the problem of non- normality. Further, we divide the data into two parts by random selection process. The first part is used for prediction and the second is used for validation of our findings. Results suggest that leadership oriented consumers are likely to buy search products online. Experience and search product buyers are likely to be more brand conscious than credence product buyers. And lastly, credence product buyers are more price conscious buyers than experience or search product buyers in online purchases. We conclude by suggesting marketing implications of our findings and acknowledging the limitations of this paper.

Chitra Srivastava, K. N. Kwon

Religious Commitment and Muslim Consumers: A Model to Study the Consumer Decision Making Process

This research reports how religious commitment influences involvement levels, information search, the size of the consideration set and purchase decisions using a group of Muslim and a second group of non-Muslim consumers, it also reports differences between the religious commitments of these two groups and its impact on purchase decisions.

Sadia Chaudhry, Mohammed Abdur Razzaque

Influence of Modes of Acculturation on the Consumer Behavior of West African Immigrants in Canada

Most previous studies of the consumption behavior of immigrants have examined their perceptions and behavior only in the context of the host country, while overlooking their perceptions and behavior in their home countries. The present study has addressed this gap in the literature by investigating the perceptions and behavior of West African immigrants to Canada in both contexts. The objectives of this study are: (i) to gain a better understanding of the modes of acculturation of West African immigrants in Canada; (ii) to relate these modes of acculturation to consumers’ perceived likelihood of successful complaint and complaining behavior; and (iii) to compare consumers’ complaint attitudes and behavior in their home countries (i.e., original countries) and the host country (Canada). An empirical study is conducted among a sample of 218 immigrants living in Canada and originating from several West African countries. The results show that the vast majority of respondents fall into one of two acculturation groups: (i) an ‘integrated’ group; and (ii) a ‘separated’ group. The findings also show that, irrespective of whether they were ‘integrated’ or ‘separated’, West African immigrants perceived that a complaint was more likely to be successful in Canada than in their home countries. Moreover, irrespective of whether they were ‘integrated’ or ‘separated’, West African immigrants to Canada tended to complain more (to a third party or via ‘voicing’) in Canada than in their home countries. Given that the host country presents a more favorable environment for complaint behavior (in terms of consumer protection, after-sales service, return policies, and so on) than their home countries, it would seem that West African immigrants were inclined to change their behavior if they believe that their complaints will be taken seriously. In contrast to these findings regarding ‘third party’ or ‘voicing’ complaints, no significant differences were found between behavior in the host country and behavior in the home countries with respect to ‘negative word of mouth’ and ‘exit’. The likely explanation for this is that these are the easiest and least costly ways of expressing dissatisfaction (whether people are in their home countries or in the host country).

Nizar Souiden, Riadh Ladhari

Consumer Loyalty among Immigrants: The Relationship among Ethnic Identity, Change-Seeking Tendency and Consumer Loyalty and the Mediating Role of Acculturation

Consumer loyalty has long been at the focal point of researchers who explored the factors related to or affected loyalty (Chaudhuri and Holbrook 2001; Corstjens and Lal 2000; Miininen, Szivas and Riley 2004; Suh and Yi 2007). Nevertheless, consumer loyalty of immigrant groups remains a relatively under-researched area. When looking at immigrants, acculturation often becomes an important determinant of their consumption behavior and consumption-related attitudes. By examining the largest ethnic group in the U.S., Hispanics, we propose that the extent of individuals’ acculturation directly affect their loyalty to brands and stores, which are further categorized into ethic vs. general brands and stores.

Sigal Segev, Ayalla A. Ruvio, Aviv Shoham

Incorporating Social Marketing into an Introductory Marketing Course Curriculum: An Interdisciplinary Case Study

Today there is general agreement that social marketing aims to benefit society by changing the behavior of individuals through the application of traditional marketing principles (Kotler & Lee, 2008; Andreasen, 2002). Social marketing attempts to improve society by focusing on behaviors that protect i) the health and safety of individuals (e.g., smoking cessation), ii) the environment (e.g., water conservation), or iii) community well-being (e.g., literacy). Social marketing encompasses all of the activities central to commercial marketing, for example, market segmentation, consideration of environmental forces, and strategies centered on the 4Ps (Andreasen, 2002). It differs from commercial marketing, however, by focusing on social rather than financial gain, and on behavior change rather than goods and services. In social marketing, competition arises from competing behaviors rather than from providers of similar goods and services. Social marketing also requires different skill sets. Because social marketing often attempts to promote behavior that individuals do not want to perform (e.g., reducing water use), long-term effort and special levels of commitment are required to achieve social marketing goals. These important differences suggest that marketing students need to understand social marketing to appreciate the full scope of marketing. Incorporating social marketing into core marketing curricula provides students with a more complete understanding of the breadth of marketing. It also affords students a unique opportunity to wed interests in business with concerns for society.

Jane McKay-Nesbitt, Carol DeMoranville

Promoting Student Learning with Online Videos: A Research Agenda

Gen Y students are digital natives (Prensky 2001) who learn in complex and diverse ways, with a variety of learning styles apparent in any given course. This paper proposes a web 2.0 conceptual learning solution—online student videos—to respond to different learning styles that exist in the classroom. This research is supported by a QUT Faculty of Business Teaching and Learning Grant.

Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn, Rebekah Russell-Bennett, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele

Second Best in Second Life: Teaching Marketing Cases in a Virtual World Environment

Institutions have begun to integrate pedagogical multimedia platforms such as distance learning and videos into courses. In this exploratory study, one such platform, Second Life, was used as a medium for interaction and a tool for the rebirth of case teaching. Experiences of instructors and students are included in the exploration.

Anjali Bal, Victoria Crittenden, Wade Halvorson, Leyland Pitt, Michael Parent

Applying Principles of Instructional Design to an Electronic Reverse Auction Negotiation Exercise

Electronic reverse auctions are increasingly being used by firms as they seek to improve firm financial and operational performance. The course project described in this paper serves as a model for introducing electronic reverse auctions as a central element in a comprehensive negotiations exercise.

Jacqueline Williams, Kathryn Dobie, Curtis Wynn

Influence of Ethical Climate on Commitment and Ethical Behavior: A Study among French Salespeople

This research aims to study the ethical climate, a multidimensional concept, and to analyze its influence on several variables such as salespeople’s ethical behavior and their commitment. Semi-directive interviews, followed by a quantitative study among French salespeople, enabled us to build a measurement scale consisting of four dimensions and fourteen items.

Laure Lavorata

Scales in JPSSM from 1980 to 2009: A Social Network Analysis

Previous studies have not discussed the structure of scale usage and the network of scales. Therefore, researchers do not have a clearly quantitative and qualitative pattern to understand the scales used in personal selling and sales management. This study solved the gap with the scales used in

The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management



). The objectives of the study are: first to provide a frequency ranking of scales, identifying the most used scales in order to understand the changes of scale usages over the decades; second, to develop the scale networks by social network analysis in order to explore the relations between scales; third, to point out the gaps and opportunities in research.

Chien-Chung Chen

The Global Marketing and Consumption of Sport

Sport is a ubiquitous artifact of human culture. Most if not all cultures have various forms of play and games, which can range from informal activities engaged by a few individuals to organized sports and events that capture the time, resources and imaginations of consumers and companies around the globe. Such organized sports can be transcendent, lucrative, costly, divisive and unifying – locally and globally. Much of organized sport is big business, affecting billions of lives. This business cannot succeed without the complex interplay of cultures, markets, marketing and consumer behavior, finance, and politics.

Clifford J. Shultz, T. Bettina Cornwell, Paul Jaspers, Keith W. Lambrecht, Jason C. Healy, Henry Rabello

An Empirical Study of Relationship Benefit-Based Drivers of Customer Assets in the Context of China: The Mediating Role of Relationship Quality

This paper aims to extend previous research by investigating the effects of relationship benefits on customer assets and the mechanism through which such effects take place. Empirical data from a large-scale consumer survey indicated that relationship benefits are important divers of customer assets. Confidence benefits were found to be the strongest influence; they affected customer assets both directly indirectly. Customer satisfaction, trust and commitment, three key components of relationship quality, were found mediating the impact of relationship benefits on customer assets. The findings showed that relationship benefits had differential effects on sources of customer assets. Relationship quality fully mediated the effects of social benefit and special treatment benefits on customer assets. However, the relationship between confidence benefits and customer assets was only partially mediated.

Yonggui Wang, Fuan Li, Shenghui An

The Effect of Customer’s Greenness and Perceived Value on Loyalty in Industrial Relationships. The Role of Communication and Relationship Length

This study explains the formation of loyalty based on green values, perceived value and marketing communication. A conceptual framework is developed and tested with a global sample (n=121) of industrial customers. The results indicate that a) green values have a positive relationship with perceived value, b) perceived value has a positive effect on communication quality and loyalty whereas its effect on channel effectiveness is insignificant, c) channel effectiveness has a direct positive relationship with loyalty whereas the effect of communication quality on loyalty is insignificant, and d) relationship length has a moderating effect on perceived value-loyalty, channel effectiveness-loyalty and communication quality-loyalty links. The moderating effect is positive for the communication quality-loyalty links whereas, surprisingly, the effect is negative for channel effectiveness-loyalty and perceived value-loyalty links. The study provides both theoretical and managerial contributions.

Nora Mustonen, Heikki Karjaluoto, Chanaka Jayawardhena

The Impact of Environmental Factors on Website Localization Decisions

Website localization is a key concern in Internet-based cross-border commercial activity. This paper examines the role played by environmental factors on two website localization decisions – whether to launch local sites and to what extent such sites should be localized. Such effort is based on a suggested operationalization of Javalgi & Ramsey’s (2001) framework of four infrastructures that are expected to influence e-commerce growth in foreign markets, including: technological, commercial, socio-cultural and governmental-legal infrastructures. In addition, the role of online market potential estimations is also assessed.

Rotem Shneor

Source Effects in Online Sales Situations: The Role of Avatar-Buyer (DIS)Similarity

This exploratory study investigates the role of a virtual salesperson’s (dis)similarity to an online buyer in enhancing web site sales outcomes. Our findings show that under low involvement purchase conditions, avatar’s dissimilarity to the buyer positively affects buying intentions, possibly through positive emotions due to the opposite gender attractiveness. Under high involvement conditions, avatar’s dissimilarity increases buyer cognitive effort, so that stronger sales arguments lead to higher purchase intentions, while weaker arguments lead to lower purchase intentions.

Iryna Pentina, David Taylor, Ainsworth Bailey, Lilly Ye

Utilizing Web Sites to Provide Information and Build Relationships with Consumers

This paper reports on research designed to assess how small and medium size enterprises operating in the wine sector in four countries worldwide utilize their web sites for providing information to consumers as well as developing and maintaining relationships with them. Implications for theory and practice are drawn.

Judith Madill, Leighann C. Neilson

Distal Salesperson-Supervisor Relationships: A Conceptual Integration of Self-Determination, Leadership, and Communication Theories

In the sales literature, several researchers have identified that supervisory roles and behaviors play a vital role in fostering salesperson-supervisor relationships and, ultimately, salesperson performance. However, this body of research has extensively focused on such relationships in face-to-face or collocated contexts. But, in recent times, selling organizations are rapidly adapting to newer market structures, work practices, and technological advances by utilizing distal salespersons. Distal salespersons (a) are physically, socially, and psychologically separated from their workplace, (b) rely extensively on electronic media for communication with co-workers and supervisors, (c) have less access to peer support, (d) have fewer informal interactions with co-workers and supervisors, and (e) generally, receive scripted, rather than face-to-face, feedback from supervisors (Mulki et al. 2008).

Vishag Badrinarayanan, Ravi Jillapalli, Enrique Becerra

The Indirect Effect of Advertising Perceptions on Salesperson Effort and Performance

Considerable research explores advertising’s role in influencing buyer perceptions and behavior. However, advertising’s impact on another key audience - the firm’s sales force - has been largely overlooked. Drawing from social identity and expectancy theories, and using survey and objective performance data from a sample of 200 field salespeople, we demonstrate that a salesperson’s perception of brand advertising has a significant effect on the effort placed in support of that brand, and resulting salesperson performance, by positively influencing the extent to which the salesperson identifies with the brand and his or her expectancy that such effort will generate results. More specifically, a salesperson’s perception of advertising


positively affects results expectancy, while attitudes towards the advertising message positively affect salesperson — brand identification. Brand identification influences salesperson performance not only through increased in-role effort, but also through the salesperson’s increased propensity to engage in brand-supportive extra role behaviors. Therefore, in addition to its well documented value in creating “pull,” advertising may also function as a “push” device, by facilitating salespeople’s identification with a brand and by engendering among salespeople stronger expectations that effort placed on a brand will result in improved sales performance. These results suggest that managers should not only pay attention to how brand advertising is being perceived by sales employees, but they should proactively work to influence salesperson perceptions via thoughtful and sufficient internal communications.

Douglas E. Hughes

The Relationship Between Job Liking, Selling Skills, and Empowerment of Retail Salespeople and their Affective Organizational Commitment

Committed retail salespeople are a key success factor in retail businesses, since commitment urges them to engage in discretionary efforts leading to customer satisfaction and retention (Zeithaml et al., 1990). Research findings indicate that there are many important predictors of organizational commitment of salespeople: these include, amongst others, role ambiguity (Agarwal & Ramaswami, 1993), task characteristics (Hunt et al., 1985), supervisory behaviors (Johnston et al., 1990), organizational structure (Michaels et al., 1988), and job satisfaction (Babakus et al., 1999). However, affective organizational commitment of retail salespeople in the context of their empowerment along with their job liking and perceived selling skills has not yet been examined. This study addresses this research gap using a multilevel modeling approach.

Konstantinos Georgakas, Alan Watkins, Antonis Simintiras

Does Satisfaction Lead to Loyalty? An Attributional Theory Approach

Research shows that increased customer satisfaction with the service experience leads to increased customer loyalty, however, up to sixty five percent of satisfied customers defect. In an effort to further understand these defections, the authors use attributional theory to develop a conceptual framework to examine the relationship between customer satisfaction with the experience and customer loyalty in increasing co-production and relational experiences. This paper presents propositions which suggest that customer attributions of credit act as the causal mechanism for these defections, such that internal attributions of credit by the customer in co-production experiences leads to decreased customer loyalty and that relational experiences can help to mitigate the effect of internal attributions on customer loyalty. As a result, this paper shows that present managerial strategies for managing customer defections concerned solely with customer satisfaction are insufficient in their present form.

Ryan C. White, Clay M. Voorhees

Soft and Hard Benefits of Loyalty Programs and Loyalty Outcomes

The task of differentiating services becomes increasingly difficult when those services begin to be perceived as easily imitable and fairly standard. The perspective offered by service dominant logic (SDL) suggests that when marketers face such a prospect, they should proceed by moving from tangible to intangible service attributes and to co-create value with their customers, making the process of imitation much more difficult. In the credit card industry, the creation and execution of effective rewards programs has been the primary way credit cards differentiate their offerings. This paper examines how hard and soft benefits of credit card loyalty programs are perceived, and how they influence attitudinal and behavioral loyalty. In line with the SDL perspective, the importance of soft benefits is emphasized. The results show that attitudinal loyalty is a key mediator of the relationships between both hard and soft benefits of loyalty programs and behavioral loyalty. The results and implications for future research are discussed.

Timothy D. Butler, Giles D’Souza

Solution Orientation: Theoretical Frameworks, Practical Applications and Challenges

The importance of providing tailored solutions to customers, i.e. being solution oriented, is now recognized across organizational settings such as business-to-business, business-to-consumer, private and public sector contexts.

Michael Marck, Jay Mulki, Patrick Lipovski, Matthew Alexander, John Yellowlees, Barbara Caemmerer, Heiner Evanschitzky, Alan Wilson

Choice Between Pleasure and Function: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

This article investigates whether culture influences consumer choice between fun and function. We argue that individualistic consumers prefer the hedonic vice option over the utilitarian virtuous option, whereas the converse is true for collectivist consumers. We propose methods to investigate the hypotheses and discuss the significance of the proposed research.

Wei Shao

Regulatory Fit with the Benefit Level of a Goal-Vehicle and Fit with the Goal: Their Combined Influence on Purchase Behavior

One’s regulatory fit with a goal may help explain the zeal or energy with which one will gravitate towards a means or goal-vehicle that may used to achieve that goal (Higgins, 2000). However, the literature pertaining to regulatory fit theory is relatively silent on the distinction between regulatory fit with a level of benefit that will be provided by an attribute of an object that facilitates goal achievement, relative to a base or reference level of benefit, and the regulatory fit that one may have with the goal that the object helps to meet. In other words, even though an individual may have a regulatory fit with a goal that a desired object may help to achieve as well as with the means or goal-vehicle by which the goal will be achieved, it is plausible that if the level of benefit or utility that will be provided by the goal-vehicle is not sufficiently high enough relative to a base reference level, the individual may not select the goal-vehicle even though there may be a strong sense of regulatory fit with the vehicle or means of goal achievement.

Vincent Brown, Sameer Hosany, Isabella Chaney

Marketing Profits as a New Profitability Metric Based on Lead Products: Comparison with Accounting Profits and Implications for Retailers

Conventional profits are viewed from an accounting perspective that focuses on individual products, understandably without considering marketing aspects of business. To find out a product’s contribution to the overall store profits, retail managers calculate profits of the product by subtracting its cost from its revenue, which is referred to as “accounting profits” of the product. Even though accounting profits have been widely adopted and used, it is questionable to what extent they can help retail managers make better “marketing” decisions. Accounting profits do not provide an accurate picture of which products draw consumers to stores and thus more important to retail managers. Consumers make a physical or mental shopping list before a shopping trip, and the shopping list usually contains multiple products. With the shopping list, they buy the listed products at a store. Among the listed products, some are more influential in consumers’ store choice decisions than others. In this paper, those influential products are referred to as “lead products,” which are defined as products on a shopping list that are the most influential items for the shopping trip that are associated with particular stores. In many cases, consumers choose a store on the basis of lead products, and thus lead products play a crucial role in consumers’ store choice decisions and determine at which store the entire listed products in the shopping list will be purchased. In this sense, lead products make significant contributions to the total profits for the store by drawing sales of the less influential products on the shopping list to the store while those less influential products make no contribution to the store profits. A profitability measure for individual products based on this logic would be quite different from measures based on accounting principles.

Pilsik Choi

Interconnected Operant Resources and Market Performance: The Retailers’ Perspective

Service Dominant Logic (SDL) has changed the face of marketing research over the past five years. SDL emphasizes not only service in the experience building process, but also the importance of operant resources in achieving sustainable competitive advantages. Following this focus on operant resources, this article examines service related operant resources in the retailing context and their impact on retailers’ market performance. This research not only explores operant resources that are internal to the organization (customer orientation and service culture), but also studies operant resources that involve external relationships (collaborative communication and relationship quality) and their impact on value creation. A survey is conducted with 300 key retailing informants. The results indicate that service related operant resources perform more efficiently when reinforced by other operant resources like relationship quality and top management support.

Lauren R. Skinner, R. Glenn Richey, Mert Tokman, Colin Gabler

Retail Free-Riding: The Case of the Wallpaper Industry

It is often claimed that discounters are able to succeed by “free-riding” on the pre-sale consumer services, depth of assortment, convenient location, and the brand/product image created supplied by full-service retailers. Although free-riding has been argued to affect the competition of brands within an industry, it is rarely identified as potential determinant of industry viability. Using the wallpaper industry as a case study, we analyze the marketing history of this industry over a 30-year period to illustrate how retail free-riding has potentially contributed to the radical decline in size and profitability of an entire market. Possible implications for distribution channel policy and pricing practices are also discussed.

Paul W. Farris, S. Umit Kucuk, Robert Maddux

Consumer Understanding and Use of Numeric Information in Product Claims

This paper visits the marketers’ assumption and investigates to what extent consumers understand and use numeric information presented in marketing communications. Study 1 demonstrated that less numerate individuals, compared to those higher in numeracy, were less sensitive to numeric information in their affective evaluations of products. Study 2 demonstrated that the majority of participants, especially less numerate individuals, were susceptible to the Illusion-of-Numeric-Truth effect. Study 3 demonstrated that less numerate participants were capable of being more sensitive to numeric information in product claims when they were encouraged to process numeric information more systematically through fluency manipulations.

Namika Sagara, Ellen Peters

Warranty and Price as Quality Signals: The Effect of Signal Consistency/Inconsistency and Signal Unexpectedness on Product Perception

This dissertation aims at examining the effect of signal inconsistency and signal unexpectedness on a consumer’s evaluation of a product. Study one examines the effect of signal consistency/inconsistency on product quality, where consistent signals are those of the same valance. For example, high price is consistent with a good country of origin. However, a long warranty is inconsistent with a brand name that has a low quality reputation. We argue that when signals are inconsistent, consumers will engage in an attribution process to explain inconsistency. If consumers attribute inconsistency to persuasive motive, then perception of quality will decrease. If no persuasive motive is perceived, then consumers will tend to discount inconsistent signals and perceived product quality will not be affected by those signals.

Sultan Alaswad Alenazi

Closer than you Think: Outshopping Intentions and the Perceptions of Distance

One of the tenets of marketing is that producers and consumers are separated, and the purposeful study of the marketing process is predicated on the removal of the causes of separation, whether spatial, temporal, informational or financial (Bartels 1968). Spatial theory was one of the earliest areas of study in marketing. Based upon population and distance, Reilly’s law of retail gravitation (1929) calculated a “break-even” point between two shopping areas, where consumers on either side of the calculated line would determine where to shop.

G. David Shows, Yasmin Ocal Atinc, Kevin James

Dimensions Of Commitment in the Relationship Development Process: An Exploratory Study

Commitment is an important characteristic and outcome of long-term buyer-seller relationships. Prior research has identified several dimensions of commitment in relationships. A conceptual framework is proposed that suggests that the type of commitment that is dominant in the relationship varies according to stage of the relationship development process.

Deborah Goldring

The Impact of Servitization on Selling

The trend towards servitization and service-dominant logic, in which suppliers differentiate through product-service packages rather than through the underlying product, has profound but largely unrecognized consequences for selling. In this paper we examine the operationalization of service-dominant logic in the sales context and consider the implications for the sales process.

Lynette Ryals, Neil Rackham

Knowledge Transfer from Experts to Novices: A Causal Attribution Approach

This paper explores how novices’ (e.g., sales representative’s) attributions about causes of experts’ (e.g., sales manager’s) success, influence emotions and formation of behavioral intentions. This research draws on Wiener’s Attribution Theory (WAT) (Weiner, 1986), Role Congruity Theory (RCT) (Eagly & Karau, 2002), and the sales management and knowledge transfer literatures to explore processes underlying novices’ willingness to form behavioral intentions. It shows that novice attributions about causes of expert success, and by extension sales person’s attributions about causes of sales manager success, have the potential to impede or enhance training efforts of experts (e.g., sales managers).

Jane McKay-Nesbitt, Malcolm C. Smith

Impact of CRM on sales Performance for virtual sales professionals

In the last decade firms have implemented technology initiatives for sales professionals that provide access to customer data and enable them to increase workplace efficiency by communicating electronically with their clients and colleagues. Many salespersons work virtually outside the traditional office and technology, in the form of CRM, allows sales professionals to devote more flexible time to better serve their customers. By utilizing CRM technology, today’s sales professionals can communicate and collaborate with clients and internal managers anytime, anywhere. This study’s findings support the hypotheses that CRM utilization has positive impacts on sales performance, namely sales process effectiveness, performance with customers, and administrative efficiency. Among the three performance measures, CRM usage has the greatest impact on sales process effectiveness.

Michael Rodriguez, Frederick Yim

Why do they Use Social Networking Site: Social Capital and Transaction Cost Perspectives

Our research tends to investigate what factors affecting consumers’ acceptance of social networking site and the impact of the bonding social capital and switching cost on their attitude toward using the weblog service, which may be accumulated by community interaction and during the ex-post transaction process. Our research model integrates constructs from three literature foundations; first is a set of constructs percevied social influence and perceived usefulness from theory of reasoned action and technology acceptance model. Second is two types of social network ties from social psychology. Last one is the switching cost from transaction cost theory. Results showed that social network ties and switching cost play a mediating role in the relationship between perceived self-disclosure and attitude toward using social networking site, which in turn to affect intention to continually use social networking site. Perceived social influence is an antecedent of perceived usefulness which is successful in determining the attitude of using social networking site. Finally, the article concludes with implications for web-based service providers, and additional extended research suggestions relevant to the online social capital and consumer loyalty are also provided.

Chung-Chi Shen

Social Networking as a Marketing Tool

This study was conducted to understand factors that would affect amount of social networking and marketing activities performed. Data were collected from current Facebook users via electronic questionnaire. The results revealed that the main factor influencing networking and marketing activity on the Facebook was trust.

Yeşim Ulusu, Beril Durmuş, E. Serra Yurtkoru

Consumer E-Commerce Dissonance: Innovating without Alienating Before Information Overload

After over a decade since widespread adoption of ecommerce, privacy concerns continue to increase among people going online, while at the same time Internet usage is at an all time high and companies are forced to keep up with innovative new technologies. The Internet and its’ innovative technological advances, while providing opportunities for easier and more fluent commerce, has opened new threats for user privacy and potential for information overload and consumer dissonance. With information being collected on sites visited as well as personal identifying information, the subsequent sharing of personal information, and the evolving perceived technical threats, many consumers feel they have lost control. Government regulators, consumer advocacy groups, and e-businesses need to understand how Internet innovation affects the consumer. The central premise being that these groups are modeling consumer trends and making decisions on false or fabricated information, even suggesting this could lead to inhibiting overall Internet innovation, especially e-commerce. A 2008 survey found that due to new concerns about being confronted by technologies they don’t understand on the web, a majority of consumers have stopped giving out personal information on the internet, 28% say they have reduced their overall use of the Internet, and 30% say they stopped buying things online (Princeton Survey Research 2008).

Cory Taylor Cromer

Intrinsic, Prime, and Individual Influences on Contextual Design Fluency

In three studies we show that a design’s typicality, clarity, and simplicity differentially contribute to a target’s perceived fluency, with individual design acumen moderating effects of simplicity and clarity but not typicality. When targets (products) are primed by disfluent designs (packages) target contextual fluency traces back entirely to its intrinsic design factors. Increasing the fluency of a prime, however, results in assimilation effects as consumers progressively transfer the fluency of the prime to the target. Downstream effects of contextual fluency on purchase intentions and willingness-to-pay are mediated by attractiveness. Individual need-for-cognition and cognitive load both have detrimental effects on contextual fluency. Implications focus on the advancement of research on fluency and implications for managing design.

Jan R. Landwehr, Ulrich R. Orth

A Systematic Review of NPD Alliances: Themes, Central Issues, Theoretical Foundations, and Research Agenda

We conduct a systematic review of more than 500 NPD articles in the business/engineering literatures. Our systematic review reveals eight distinct themes. Based on themes, we discuss central issues and theoretical foundations. Finally, we identify research gaps in each theme and present a research agenda for NPD alliances.

Pelin Bicen, Sreedhar Madhavaram

Skin Tone in Advertising: an Exploratory Study of the Factors Influencing Advertising Effectiveness

Authors examined whether the skin tone of a model in advertising influences evaluation of the advertisement as well as evaluation and purchase intent of the brand. Instead of taking a dichotomous view of skin tone authors manipulated the skin tone of African-American models into three shades — light, medium, and dark. The experimental design called for advertisements that were created utilizing stock photography and digital manipulation. Models’ skin tones were lightened and darkened based upon three Pantone color shades as recommended by Bond and Cash (1992). The ads were pretested in order to verify differences in skin tone and identification of manipulation. In order to address the nature of product usage (public vs. private), two fictional brands (Vaza clothing and Degrau food) were utilized. Data was collected in the university setting and undergraduate students served as subjects. Subjects were randomly exposed to one of the experimental ad and involvement scenarios. They were instructed to read the scenario, view the advertisement, and answer questions regarding their opinion of the ad and their viewing experience. A total of 589 subjects participated in the study (61 % female and 39 % male with a mean age of 22).

Srdan Zdravkovic, Kevin Lehnert, Rick T. Wilson

Influencing Consumer Perceptions of a Social Issue: an Experiment on the Effects of Message Sidedness and Inward/Outward Focus on Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

Several consumer studies have confirmed negative views towards GM products, even though from a scientific point of view, negative aspects related to their consumption appear minimal if they exist at all. A key research question then is how can communication campaigns be developed to influence public opinion about GMF? This study uses Wansink and Kim’s (2001) framework to examine how two message cues likely to influence cognitive elaboration, (i) message sidedness and (ii) inward vs. outward focus, affect perceptions of risks and benefits associated with GMFs and attitude towards the ad (Aad). Previous literature suggests that for recipients who are likely to be higher-level processors of a message, a two-sided refutational message will lead to higher supportive cognitive elaborations, and therefore enhance persuasion effects (Pechmann, 1992; Crowley and Hoyer, 1994). The message focus literature proposes that when an inward (depicting an individual) or outward (depicting a group or community) focused message matches a recipient’s internal self or other orientation, both cognitive elaboration and persuasion effects will be impacted on positively (Cross and Madson, 1997, Markus and Kitiyama, 1997).

Michelle Renton, David Fortin, Kevin Voges

The Impact of Unique Attribute Information on the Evaluation of Branded Products

Consumers are exposed to a permanently increasing stream of product information. An important issue is, how missing attributes influence product perception. This research question has never been explored in combination with brand evaluation. The aim of our study was to explore how missing attribute information impacts the evaluation of branded products.

Rainer Elste, Franz-Rudolf Esch, Alexander Kulikov

Measuring Collective Cognition in Online Conversations

By starting conversations in online communities companies can harness the intellect of consumers in collective cognition: group problem solving and ideation. This study proposes a metric for measuring collective cognition through the collaborative value created. The metric is demonstrated by identifying conversational events associated with significant increases in value.

Paul Dwyer

The Moderating Roles of Perceived Risks and Social Influences with Regard to the Effects of Consumers’ Perceived Value and Online Purchasing

This study confirms that consumers’ beliefs and perceived value influence significant on their attitudes and behaviors toward online shopping. While perceived risk serves as a negative moderator that can inhibit the influences of consumers’ perceived value on their attitude and approach behavior, social influence is regarded as a positive moderator.

Wann-Yih Wu, Shu-Hui Chen, Hsiao-Yun Lu

An Investigation into those who Pass Along Viral Marketing Messages

Viral marketing is a hot topic in the business world. Having a message transmitted from person to person similar to how a virus is transmitted from host to host at no additional cost to the originator is a very attractive idea to marketers. The coming of age of Internet technologies and social networking sites has created ideal conditions for the uptake of this phenomenon. It has been suggested that viral marketing is merely an Internet-age buzzword, an electronic version of word of mouth advertising. While word of mouth communication is well researched, research on viral marketing specifically is limited. Thus, this study addresses a literature gap by conducting an examination of viral marketing users and providing a profile of these individuals.

Sam Grimwood, Lucie Ozanne

Rewards, Can They be Used to Help the Coordination of Sales and Makreting Activities?

This paper considers the role that rewards play in improving sales and marketing coordination. The findings highlighted that organizations may use an aligned rewards to encourage greater collaboration between sales and marketing personnel, but that this needs receive support from senior managers through goal and activity alignment to be effective.

Kenneth Le Meunier-FitzHugh, Leslie Le Meunier-FitzHugh

Designing Sales Contests in Call Centers: Understand Telemarketers’ Preferences and Recommendations for Compensation

Sales contests are widely used by firms to motivate employees, reduce absenteeism and limit staff turnover. The objective here is to determine the reward preferences of call center employees in terms both of the type of sales contests and of rewards. We conduct an experiment and use the conjoint analysis method to measure employee preferences.

Sandrine Hollet-Haudebert, Christophe Fournier, Juliet Poujol

Perceptions of Sales Pressure: A Qualitative Study

Analysis of open-ended consumer narratives reveals common themes related to the characteristics of the agent, target and situation that impact the persuasion episode. This effort will serve to increase our understanding of consumers’ perceptions of sales pressure, and provide input for subsequent scale development and quantitative research.

James J. Zboja, Ronald A. Clark

Examining the Relationship Between Branding a Place and Sustainable Development

There has been a steady increase in competition between places in terms of attracting tourists, businesses and investments, over the past few years (Kotler,

. 1993). This has made the marketing of places a key driver of the economic activities and a leading initiator of local development and regeneration. As a result, ‘

Place Marketing

’ has become a regular and more intense practice over the last few decades as a result of the rapid increase in competition among places, cities, regions and nations around the world (Baker and Cameron, 2008). Moreover, place marketing is not only limited to increasing the tourist trade but also plays an important role in regional and urban development, place and/or country positioning in international relations and maintaining continued infrastructural and economic growth.

Vishwas Maheshwari, Ian Vandewalle, David Bamber

How do Limited Editions Work in FMCG Context

Limited Editions are a widely used type of line extensions. An exceptional, limited available variant is added to the permanent product line offers. Whereas Limited Editions look back on a long tradition in high involvement categories, recently, they have been increasingly used in Fast-Moving-Consumer-Goods (FMCG) categories. For example, in the U.S. food and beverage sector the number of yearly Limited Edition launches increased from 2001 to 2004 by 87% (Banasiak 2005). In spite of their high practical relevance, no scientific discussion about the effects of Limited Editions on the consumers exists. Some authors have proposed possible effects, like positive feedback effect on parent brands, but their theoretical foundation and empirical discussion is lacking. The objective of this study was to theoretically explain and empirically test the essential variables and their interrelations characterizing the consumers’ evaluation of Limited Editions.

Franz-Rudolf Esch, Kai Winter

How Consumer Relevance Creates Brand Value

Brand value has recently been shown to be a specific instance of value co-creation in which consumers contribute to the brand through their consumption experience and social interactions. We offer a model of brand value co-creation based on an epidemiological theory of cultural transmission that explains how consumers contribute to brand value. We identify two important drivers of brand value, relevance and the causality of cognitive and social processes. The model enables us to propose specific managerial implications and opens up opportunities for future work on brand value and value co-creation.

Marie Taillard

Internet-Based Surveys: Methodological Issues

Web-based, or internet, surveys are widely used in marketing research, and their use continues to grow. The reasons for this are partly because they provide a number of technological features that are designed to reduce common sources of respondent error that can impact data quality, and partly because compared to traditional self-administered methods they offer advantages in speed, cost, and efficiency of data collection. This session deals with selected methodological issues concerning Web surveys.

Gerald Albaum, Patrick Brockett, Linda Golden, Scott M. Smith, James Wiley, Vallen Han, Catherine Roster

Balanced Innovations in New Product Development: Sunny Faces, Sunny Technology

This session deals with innovative strategies in new product development. The first paper presents a program of research on strategies for utilizing anthropomorphization in creating acceptance of uncertain products, such as innovative high-technology products. The results show increased acceptance of anthropomorphized products, such as ones with sunny faces, that are high in uncertainty. The second paper examines product innovation in the solar energy industry and similar high-technology industries. Effectuation theory is developed as a viable contributor to improved product innovation. New products are often developed and introduced into the market in the absence of predetermined ends through a combination of means that firms happen to have on hand, but a more effective strategy could be achieved by selecting amongst alternative end states and allowing firms to become active participants in shaping the structure of the solar energy industry and in determining the value of the resources they command. The third paper presents research on integrating three contributors to new-product innovation in high technology industries such as residential solar panels: stage-gate appropriateness, visualization (a cousin of anthropomorphization), and self determination. When combined effectively, these three strategies can enhance new product development.

Lan Jiang, JoAndrea Hoegg, Darren W. Dahl, Jesse King, Matthew Metzger, Scott Owen, Lynn R. Kahle

The Impact of Halal Endorsements on Purchase Intent of Non-Muslim Consumers

In multi-cultural environments, product endorsements addressing minority groups may not be appreciated by the majority of consumers. This renders such endorsements potentially controversial. We analyze a specific religious endorsement, namely the Muslim Halal endorsement, and use an experimental setting to gauge the reaction of Christian consumers to such an endorsement. The paper is theoretically anchored in the social psychology literature on in-groups and out-groups and provides empirical evidence on the affect of Halal endorsements on the purchase intent of Christian consumers. Our findings show that, with some products, Halal endorsements may lead to a decrease in purchase intent among non-Muslims. A brief discussion of the practical and theoretical implications and suggestions for future research avenues are provided.

Bodo B. Schlegelmilch, Mubbsher Khan

Cross-Border Shopping: Mexican Shoppers in the US and American Shoppers in Mexico

In modern society markets play an important, if not the most important, role. Markets became criteria for economic success, and consumption became a way of demonstrating status; that is, the level of consumption achieved became the measure of the quality of life (Slater and Tonkiss 2001). Firat and Dholakia (1998) observed what they termed “consumption ethic” to denote how consumers judge “their own and other’s degree of success on the basis of their ability to consume” (p. 46). Markets became inescapable, and today we can hardly imagine life without markets and consumption. Market ideology and consumer culture have diffused throughout and dominate the world thanks to (capitalist) globalization (Sklair, 2005).

Arne Baruca, Mohammad Ali Zolfagharian

Exploring the Quality of Life and Luxury Goods Consumption From A Middle Eastern Perspective

This study investigates the influence of demographic characteristics on the life domain (being, belonging, and becoming) of Qatari consumers, which in turn influence their quantity and quality of life, and eventually on their interest in purchasing designer and luxury products and services. Results of a questionnaire survey involving 176 respondents have found that: (1) the indicator variables contributing to the overall measurement of the manifest or composite variables are valid measures of the underlying constructs of being, belonging and becoming, quantity of life, quality of life an interest (2) there were strong support for the positive main effects of the demographic variables on being, belonging, becoming, happiness, spiritual, shopping, quantity of life and quality of life, (3) physical being, psychological being and shopping had significant positive impact on materialism, while growth becoming had a significant negative impact on materialism indicating that the respondents were more concerned about improving their physical health rather than material things in their lives, and (4) that there were significant positive impacts of materialism and wishing on interest while the former has a stronger effect on interest than wishing indicating that Qatari nationals were more attracted by prestigious and well-known brands. A number of implications of the findings to practice are also given.

Norizan Mohd Kassim, Noor Fauziah Sulaiman

The Academic Career Stages in 2010: Insights and Observations

This session proposes a discussion of the career stages for marketing educators, focusing on how recent changes in the environment may impact issues and challenges in each phase. A faculty panel will provide insights based on their experiences, observations, and predictions for the future.

Beth Davis-Sramek, Theresa Flaherty, Karen Hood, Lisa Toms, Jane Wayland

Making the Transition From Student to Salesperson: A Role Identity Approach

By proposing a role identity approach to studying student-to-salesperson transition (STST), we suggest that an individual’s work role identity plays two roles in understanding the outcomes of STSTs: as a direct predictor of STST success and as a mediator of distal factors on STST success in influencing STST success.

Thomas W. H. Ng, Frederick H. K. Yim

Characteristics That Enhance Training Effectiveness in Implementing Technological Change in Sales Strategy

Organizations are increasingly emphasizing online sales channels (i.e., Internet sales) over traditional offline sales channels (i.e., salespeople). This research examines how training influences a salesperson’s ability to manage (and hence implement) such a technological change in the firm’s sales strategy. Drawing upon 37 field interviews, three dimensions of training relevant to change implementation are identified: timeliness, formality, and voluntariness. Data from a survey of 828 salespeople suggests that timeliness and formality of training have a positive effect on the perceived effectiveness of training in a change implementation context. Voluntariness was not found to be significantly related to perceived effectiveness of training. Training effectiveness in turn has a positive influence on the salesperson’s perceived ability to manage the change. Furthermore, perceived effectiveness mediates the effects of training timeliness and formality on the salesperson’s perceived ability to manage the change. Implications for the design of sales force automation and change implementation training programs are discussed.

Shikhar Sarin, Trina A. Sego, Ajay K. Kohli, Goutam Challagalla

Impact of Goal Orientation on Salespeople’s Adaptive Selling: the Mediating Effect of Perceived Sales Force Obsolescence

Adaptive selling is widely deemed as an essential factor for successful sales. In the literature, adaptive selling is defined as salespeople’ effort of “altering of sales behaviors during a customer interaction or across customer interactions based on perceived information about the nature of the selling situation” (Weitz, Sujan, and Sujan, 1986). Initial work on adaptive selling focused on developing and refining valid psychometric instruments of salespeople propensity to practice adaptive selling (e.g., Spiro and Weitz, 1990; Robinson et al., 2002). Much recent work has largely devoted to study the antecedents of adaptive selling, i.e., factors that are inductive, facilitate, and lead to more adaptive selling behavior (e.g., Boorom, Goolsby and Ramsey, 1998; Jaramillo et al., 2007; Levy and Arun, 1994; Park and Deitz, 2006; Park and Holloway, 2003; Porter, Wiener and Frankwick, 2003).

Junwu Chai, Guangzhi Zhao

When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Dynamic: How Key Account Managers Use Adaptive Behavior in the Management of Conflicts

Key account managers have to manage a range of interpersonal relationships inside their organization, sometimes leading to conflict. This research investigates the complex behavioural sequences they adopt. We find that conflict incidents do not occur in isolation and that a combination of behaviours is used to manage them.

Ian Speakman, Lynette Ryals

Service Quality on Internet Banking

This study was conducted to understand factors that would increase Internet banking usage. It was proposed that service quality, and convenience would increase satisfaction, which would then increases usage from organizational level. However from individual level, Internet self-efficacy and usage motives are the main factors necessary to increase usage.

E. Serra Yurtkoru, Beril Durmuş, Yeşim Ulusu

Consumer Boycotts Through the Internet

This study uses the market model to examine the use of the Internet as a vehicle for organizing consumer boycotts. It concludes on the basis of the results that unlike the print medium, the Internet is not an effective means for organizing consumer boycotts.

Paul Sergius Koku

Remote Service Delivery and Relationship Management: Results of A Qualitative Study in A B2B-Setting

During the last decade, services industries were subject to considerable changes with regard to the way that services are provided and delivered (Meuter et al. 2000; Meuter et al. 2005; Zeithaml and Bitner 2003; Dabholkar 1994). Modern information technologies alter not only the nature of services and their delivery process (Bitner, Brown and Meuter 2000) but also the interaction at the interface between service provider and customer (Colby and Parasuraman 2003; Bhappu and Schultze 2006). (Self-) service technologies in B2C-settings have received considerable research interest over the last years (e.g. Dabholkar 1996; Dabholkar and Bagozzi 2002; Baholkar et al. 2003; Weijters et al. 2007; Shamdasani et al. 2008). By contrast, little empirical research has been done to examine more complex and technology demanding remote services that are used and delivered in B2B-settings (Wünderlich and von Wangenheim 2007). Motivated by this existing gap our research focuses on the exploration of remote service adoption in B2B-settings.

Stefanie Paluch, Hartmut Holzmueller, Markus Blut

Neglected Success Factors Of Tv-Sponsorship

As in the last decade TV commercials have become less effective and viewers more and more eager to avoid them, below-the-line communication is becoming increasingly important within the communications mix of many companies. Techniques like sponsorship attract the attention of marketing practice more than ever. TV-Sponsorship is a special promotional tactic that shows the advertising message not within a cut-in commercial break, but at the beginning or the end of a movie or television broadcast. As it guarantees a visible flash of the sponsor’s brand at the outset of the current program, the focus lies predominantly on the communicative effect of placing the sponsor’s brand in connection with a certain content (Harvey 2001). The spreading of TV-Sponsorship in entertainment programs has raised the interest of advertisers to verify the effectiveness of this instrument. A comprehensive research of antecedents and consequences has not taken place so far; present studies merely focus on sport or cultural event sponsorship. In order to fill this research gap, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of specific execution antecedents of TV-Sponsorship in terms of resulting sponsor’s brand attitude and purchase intentions.

Hans H. Bauer, Melchior D. Bryant, Daniel Heinrich

The Celebrity ‘Spokesorganization’

This research examines the use of endorsement in B2B advertising. Endorsement involves the

backing, support



from a third party, a spokesperson. In consumer markets that spokesperson is typically a celebrity and is used because the very nature of his/her public recognition can make a message more convincing, attract attention and achieve high recall rates. Endorsement is used in B2B advertisements but rather than using a well known film or sports star, the B2B marketer might feature an organization. After all, if an individual can enjoy high public recognition, why not organizations? The term offered here to encapsulate the concept is the ‘spokesorganization’ and defined as: “an organization used to endorse the products, services or activities of another organization (the host) to the mutual benefit of both organizations.”

Douglas West, Louise Canning

Global Vs. Local Brand Positioning Strategies: the Moderating Effect Of Belief in Global Citizenship

To assist brand managers seeking to strengthen their brand’s equity in a competitive global marketplace, Alden, Steenkamp, and Batra (1999) conceptualized and tested a brand positioning strategy which they labeled “global consumer culture positioning” (GCCP) as contrasted with local consumer culture positioning strategy (LCCP). A GCCP strategy is defined as “one that identifies the brand as a symbol of a given global culture” and represented by “advertising featuring the idea that consumers all over the world consume a particular brand” (Alden et al., p. 77). On the other hand, a LCCP strategy is defined as “a strategy that associates the brand with local cultural meanings, reflects the local culture’s norms and identities, is portrayed as consumed by local people in the national culture, and/or is depicted as locally produced for local people” (Alden et al., p. 77). The authors suggested that these positioning strategies are intended to influence brand value in an increasingly globalized market.

Bashar S. Gammoh, Anthony C. Koh, Sam C. Okoroafo

A Portfolio Approach to Sponsorship Alliances: Challenging Unilateral Brand Spillover Effects

Despite the global economic slowdown and an increased scrutiny of marketing expenditures, corporate spending on commercial sponsorship in North America increased by 11.4 percent in 2008 to US$16.6 billion (IEG 2009). The sponsorship relationship has traditionally been defined as “the provision of assistance either financial or in-kind to an activity by a commercial organization for the purpose of achieving commercial objectives” (Meenaghan 1983:9); accordingly, the majority of studies examining such arrangements have come from the perspective of the sponsoring firm. Typically, research has attempted to identify the impact this relationship has on the sponsor’ brand image (e.g. Cornwell and Maignan 1998; Gwinner and Eaton 1999) and little research effort has been committed to examining the influence a sponsorship alliance has on the sponsored enterprise (Ruth and Simonin 2003). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects sponsoring corporate brands have on the sponsored enterprise. Based on associative network theory it was hypothesized that consumer perceptions of a sponsored enterprise’ brand-quality would be positively associated with the brand-quality perceptions of the firms that sponsor the enterprise. Further, based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) it was hypothesized that a consumer’ involvement in the sponsored enterprise’ domain would positively moderate this relationship.

Mark D. Groza, Joe Cobbs

Celebrity Branded Products: an Exploratory Investigation Into Consumer Purchase Motivation and General Attitudes Toward the Brand

This paper investigates why individuals purchase celebrity branded products (CBPs). Qualitative depth interviews reveal that CBPs may aid individuals in developing their self-identities and may provide a way for the celebrity’ human brand to extend from the celebrity into tangible products which can be consumed by the celebrity’ fans.

Stephanie T. Gillison, Kristy E. Reynolds

Conversation Beyond the Classroom: Social Media and Marketing Education

Social media seems to be affecting every component of day-to-day life. Many of us spend time connecting with friends and family members using social networks, sharing photos, videos, and stories via content networks, playing online games and inhabiting virtual worlds. Organizations are incorporating social media elements into their campaigns and designing products geared toward enhancing our social media experiences. Whether it is our churches, gyms, or dinner clubs, we can “follow” or “friend” virtually every aspect of our lives. Given the ubiquity of social media and the high rate of social media utilization among college students, it’s not surprising then that educators are turning to social media as a platform and tool for meeting educational objectives.

Tracy Tuten, Lyle Wetsch, Caroline Munoz

Consumers’ Knowledge Of Alcohol Consumption and its Implications on Public Policy

A gap exists between government guidelines and consumers’ knowledge relating to alcohol. This study investigated whether an online survey providing correct answers could increase knowledge and thus assist consumers to make informed decisions. Results suggest an online alcohol knowledge test can improve alcohol knowledge. Implications for public policy are outlined.

Sharyn Rundle-Thiele, Sameer Deshpande

Teleology From Complexity Sciences in Business Ethics: Formative, Rationalist or Transformative?

Organizations have to take account of their responsibilities to society and the society has to accept its responsibilities for setting the standards against which the behaviours of organizations and the practices of business ethics are made through their directions outlined, decisions taken and guidelines provided to managers and employees.

Göran Svensson, Greg Wood

Cpsc, Product-Harm Crisis, and Product Recalls: an Exploratory Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze product-harm crisis and product recalls in the US toy industry. Toys are one of the most widely available and oldest consumer products in the world. The global toy industry is a $50 billion market and has transformed itself from a small-scale industry into a well established network of technologically efficient supply chains. Product-harm crisis and product recalls are common occurrences in marketing as well as public policy and corporate social responsibility (CSR) areas. By using longitudinal data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), the work applies content analysis to compare and contrast toy recalls, hazards, and country of origin issues in various categories of the industry. The agency monitors over 15,000 types of consumer products sold in the US market. The toy industry is no exception and the CPSC has recalled millions of toys in various sub-categories. The study investigates 721 toy recalls in the US market between 1974 and 2008 that constitute over 270 million recalled toys. Major findings of this work reveal that most of the recalled toys were manufactured in China although a wide variety of toy brands were designed in the US. Five major hazards of toy recalls include choking, lead poisoning, aspiration, fire/burn and other injuries. The paper also provides meaningful implications and future research directions of this debate that at present is in dire need of additional research and investigations. The topic is equally important in the areas of public policy and marketing ethics. The findings of this study validate that manufacturers as well as companies designing toys are responsible for defective products. Toy manufacturers, suppliers, and retailers need to pay attention to the toy industry that at present is complex because of large-scale outsourcing, questionable quality standards, and diverse supply chains.

Syed Tariq Anwar

The Effects of Extrinsic Cues and Product Involvement Toward Willingness to Buy Non-Deceptive Counterfeit Branded Products: the Case Study Of Indonesian Consumers

The current study investigates Indonesian consumers’ willingness to buy counterfeit products. Two predictors have been utilised in this regard are product involvement and extrinsic cues (brand, store, and price). The sample of the study is postgraduate students in the field of business and management. The research found that hypothesis 1 has been clarified as being different by product, depending upon whether the category is categorised HPI (High Product Involvement) or LPI (Low Product Involvement). Other findings, the study confirmed that single direct effects of brand and retailers’ reputation significantly influenced consumers’ responses about willingness to buy a counterfeit product, no matter the product category. However, the discounted price did not significantly influence the willingness to buy a counterfeit branded product no matter their product category. Thus, consumers’ responses to hypothesis 2 and hypothesis 3 were fully supported, but not fully supported for hypothesis 4.

Anas Hidayat, Katherine Mizerski

Investigation of Antecedents of Purchase Intention Toward Counterfeits – Implications From Culturally Diverse Countries

The sale of counterfeit products made up to seven percent of the world trade volume that amounts to an increase of 10,000 percent in the last two decades (IACC 2009). Since firms manage their brands across many markets, marketers should understand which are the relevant antecedents that impact illicit consumer behavior and how these antecedents vary across countries. Even counterfeiting is a cross-national phenomenon, its antecedents have rarely been investigated cross-nationally. Brand manufactures of illegally copied brands sustain damage: the brand’s equity is jeopardized and the consumer’s demand is diverted into gray markets (Green and Smith 2002). Nevertheless, Nia and Zaichkowski (2000) note that consumers’ majority “did not believe that counterfeits decrease the demand for original luxury brand name products” (Nia and Zaichowski 2000, 494). Commuri (2009) states that the impact of counterfeiting on consumers of genius goods (originals) is little-noticed. Thus, a further investigation of counterfeits’ impact on originals is needed. In their literature review Eisend and Schuchert-Güler (2006) note person-related antecedents such as demographics, product-related antecedents such as price, social as well as cultural context, and purchase situation that drive the purchase of counterfeits. They emphasize a more solid theoretical grounding for further studies and call for cross-cultural investigations to illuminate potential differences among the antecedents (Eisend and Schuchert-Güler 2006). The purpose of the following study is to examine antecedents of purchase intention toward counterfeits (PItC) and its influence on consumers’ willingness to pay for the original (WtPO).

Bernhard Swoboda, Karin Pennemann, Markus Taube

What Factors Influence Consumers to buy or Rent Dvds? the Role of Consumer Perceptions and Implications to Movie Studios

In recent years, an increasing number of studies have investigated problems and issues surrounding the motion pictures and movie theaters. However, research on DVDs has been limited when DVD sales and rentals are more important for the movie studios than the box-office ticket sales for the revenue potential. The objective of the study is to identify the factors that are associated with the consumer decisions of purchasing and renting DVDs and to examine the relationship between the two decisions. A survey is administered to the college students about the behavior and perceptions about movies, DVD purchase, and DVD rental and the hypotheses that address the influencing factors are tested.

Eddie Rhee

Crazy Little Thing Called Love: a Consumer-Retailer Relationship

Consumers frequently use the word love to describe their feelings about objects, possessions, brands, and activities. Academic literature has explored various consumer relationships with brands and objects; however, enduring emotions towards a specific retailer have not been explored. This study extends previous findings to qualitatively examine consumer-retailer love and its relationship with a consumer’s self-concept and identity development. Nostalgia and comfort with the retailer are two of the main factors that lead to retailer love. Informants find congruity between their own self-concept and the loved-retailer’s personality. Consumers believe that the retailer they love can help them achieve their aspirations. This consumer-retailer love should lead to profitability for the retailer and improved self-concept for the consumer.

Mandy H. Ortiz, Mary P. Harrison

Conceptualising Customer-Perceived Value in the Online Context

This study explores and tests a holistic model of customer-perceived value in a B2C e-commerce setting. The developed model extends the value literature by integrating a range of key variables into a single theoretical framework. The findings suggest that Taiwanese consumers place greater importance on the sacrifice associated with purchasing tourism products than they do on the price, quality and satisfaction elements.

Connie Chang, Sally Dibb

Perceived Credibility of Online Consumer Reviews: an Investigation Across Three Service Categories

Online consumer reviews, a popular form of eWOM, have attracted increasing amounts of interest from both academics and practitioners (Ba and Pavlou 2002; Dholakia et al. 2004; Dellaracos 2003; Chevalier and Mayzlin 2006; Pavlou and Dimoka 2006). However, extant literature has overlooked two important aspects: 1) Much of the existing research focuses on transmission and impact of online reviews but sheds less light on the underlying processes that drive consumers’ reception of online reviews (to understand the basic qualities of reviews themselves, and how these qualities induce consumers’ trust.) As online reviews becomes more acceptable and widespread, it is more important to focus on the quality rather than the quantity of the reviews being presented to the consumer (Mudambi and Schuff 2010), and 2) Few studies have explored the recipients’ perspective in the context of services (Bansal and Voyer 2000). It is common knowledge that services do not have the ‘try before you buy’ or ‘return in case quality is below expectations’ features. Therefore more and more consumers are relying heavily on online reviews to assess services prior to purchase (Senecal and Nantel 2004). It is possible that the factors on the basis of which consumers evaluate online reviews will vary across service categories.

Pradeep Racherla, Wes Friske

Brands as Hyper-Organic Beings — Introducing a Sociological Gestalt To Brand Metaphor Discourse

The absence of a widely accepted definition of the term “brand” is seriously hindering the future development of research in this area (e.g. Balmer 2001; Barnett et al. 2006; Brown et al. 2006; Dobni and Zinkhan 1990; Giesler and Venkatesh 2005; Jevons and Gabbott 2008). It is also impeding the future development of marketing and brand management practice (e.g. Abratt 1989; Ambler 2000; Burmann and Riley 2008; de Chernatony and Dall’Olmo Riley 1998a, 1998b). Metaphors are helpful for expressing ideas about brands and therefore advancing our understanding of them.(de Chernatony and Dall’Olmo Riley 1997, 1998b).Yet, research on brand metaphors (Davies and Chun 2003; Fournier 1998; Hanby 1999; Stern 2006) is still very limited.

Bjoern Asmussen, Jillian Farquhar, Sally Harridge-March

Brand Orientation: Antecedents and Consequences

In our increasingly complex world, marketers are struggling to find new conceptual bases on which to design and deliver their marketing programs. According to Kotler, there are two answers to the marketing challenge facing today’s companies. One is to know your customers better and to get closer to them. The other is to differentiate your offering through your branding work so that the offering stands out as relevant and superior in value to a clear target market.

Lamprini P. Piha, George J. Avlonitis

In-Forming the Iphone: Sequence and Frequency of Technological Transmutations as Reflected in the Collective Media

In the marketing and IT literature technology is studied in terms of how they change consumers: making their lives easier, more productive, more enjoyable – or otherwise. Rarely do these studies look at the other side of the human-technology interaction: how users change technologies. Moreover if consumers changed technologies in the past it was in the privacy of their own homes – now thanks to the internet this can be very public, and have major implications for other consumers and the producing company. In this paper we look at how consumers changed the iPhone – both in terms of its application and function. We apply Berthon et al.’s (2007) conceptual framework to trace the public transmutations of the iPhone – before and after its introduction to the market. Our source of data is YouTube, and specifically consumer generated videos. This paper is set out as follows. First we review the literatures on human-technology interaction and the rise of public usergenerated content. Second we outline our methodology to trace the sequence and frequency of consumer transmutations of the iPhone. Third we present our findings which suggest that the frequency of different types of transformation differ significantly before and after the product’s introduction. Finally we outline limitations and ideas for future research. Overall the paper contributes to both marketing and IS literatures by providing a case study on how users change technology in the public sphere.

Ekin Pehlivan, Pierre Berthon

Success in Multichannel Retailing Using the Internet: an Exploratory Analysis

More retailers are now incorporating the Internet as a channel to their existing operations and becoming multichannel retailers. However, not all multichannel retailers are successful in their attempts and even some otherwise successful traditional retailers have failed to capitalize on the Internet as a retail channel.

Lifan Yang

The Role of B2B Virtual Trade Shows and Their Effect on Show Performance

Many businesses are employing online technologies to search for, communicate, and exchange with trading partners. Virtual trade shows are an example of an emerging online technology that may affect the current B2B trade show process, yet there has not been any work on this phenomenon. This research draws on the virtual reality and trade show literature for developing a conceptual model and propositions for examining the role of virtual trade shows and their impact on trade show performance. Traditional trade shows are a key component of the B2B marketing mix and are second only to personal selling for business expenditures. With mounting pressure on marketing managers to provide accountability and demonstrate return on investment, a virtual trade show is very appealing due to its convenience, low cost, flexibility, personalization, data tracking capabilities, and archived exhibits. Some exhibitors are using virtual trade shows as a promotional tool for upcoming physical trade shows by creating interest in the company and its products. Other companies are using virtual shows to complement their traditional trade show efforts. It is not clear what role virtual trade shows will play in the trade show process, what their impact will be on physical trade shows, or their effect on post-show selling efficiency.

Jason Gabisch

Chinese-Americans’ Acculturation and Unhealthy Fast-Food Preferences

Researchers are increasingly exploring “eating” as a manifestation of consumers’ identities. Consumers’ dietary choices are derivatives of culture. When people arrive in a new country, the changes in their food preferences result from an acculturation process. Immigrants from other countries are faced with a myriad of dietary choices, and their acculturation may be impacted by the diversity of choices in the marketplace. Immigrants may adapt to America’s long-standing tradition of fast-food business format franchises that may impact their consumption preferences. As a result, there has been an increasing concern about the health problems associated with eating fast-food across all age levels and ethnicities. The purposes of the study are: 1. To identify the impact of acculturation on Chinese-Americans’ unhealthy fast-food purchase intention; 2. To develop a framework explaining and predicting Chinese-Americans’ unhealthy fast-food purchase intention from acculturation, subjective norms, perceived convenience and health consciousness. A survey study is designed to test the hypotheses that are derived from the proposed framework. This research has rich implications to public health promotion, cross-cultural marketing research and food marketing.

Mariel Ma

The Effect of Improvisation on Market Orientation: Case Studies of Small-Medium Sized Firms

In a digital age where customers, competitors and environments can change almost instantaneously, how can marketing managers deal with the speed at which strategic decisions need to be made? One aspect of new research in organizational strategy has begun to examine more flexible and innovative approaches, such as improvisation.

Peter Johnson

Market Performance Influenced by Miles & Snow’s Typologies, with Narver & Slater’s Market Orientation and Hrebiniak & Joyce’s Organizational Adaptation as Moderators

Whether a firm is market oriented or whether it is customer oriented (Slater and Narver 1994), or whether a firm is a prospector, defender, analyzer, or reactor (Miles and Snow 1978), or whether it has strategic choice or environmental determinism (Hrebiniak and Joyce 1985) may all be related. The commonalities of these different orientation typologies, and pursuit of organizational adaptation will be analyzed and examined to put forth several hypotheses which can be tested. The pros and cons of each descriptive category will be discussed. A three-dimensional model will be proffered.

George L. De Feis

Investigating the Customers’ Loyalty to Technology-Based Self-Service Coupons

This paper investigates how various demographic, socioeconomic, psychological characteristics of consumers and situational factors relate to coupon-redemption behavior can predict customers’ coupon’s loyalty when coupon redemption is through a technology-based self-service. The analyses showed that females who are full-time employed, and people who annually earn less than population median income indicate more loyalty to TBSS coupons. Also, the level of coupon’s enjoyment, perceived economic benefit of TBSS coupons, computer self-efficacy skills, and frequency of the redemption of TBSS coupons significantly influence the amount of the coupon loyalty.

Ali Besharat
Additional information