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2023 | Book

Proceedings of the 4th Global Summit of Research Institutes for Disaster Risk Reduction

Increasing the Effectiveness and Relevance of Our Institutes

Editors: Hirokazu Tatano, Andrew Collins

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Disaster and Risk Research: GADRI Book Series

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About this book

This book presents selected papers by the keynote speakers and other presenters from various disciplines and includes their opinions and evaluations. The Fourth Global Summit of Research Institutes for Disaster Risk Reduction (4th GSRIDRR, 2019): Increasing the Effectiveness and Relevance of our Institutes, sponsored by the Global Alliance of Disaster Research Institutes (GADRI) and Kyoto University, was hosted by and held at the Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI), Kyoto University, Uji Campus, Kyoto, Japan, 13–15 March 2019..
The Global Summit series provided a platform for researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and other stakeholders in both government and non-governmental institutes involved in disaster risk reduction and resilience to come together to discuss, share, and exchange ideas. It focuses specifically on contributing input to the contextualization and revision of the goals of the 2016 Science and Technology Roadmap to implementation of the Priority Areas of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction Agenda 2015–2030, with input for GADRI to move forward in its contributions to the worldwide science community.
The conference comprised an impressive array of global stakeholders whose expertise and experience encompassed the management of knowledge and its application for governments and industries, with shared outcomes to bridge science and decision making. It enhanced a process to confront new scientific challenges in disaster risk reduction and disaster risk management.
The conference accomplished the following major goals, among others: (1) engagement in dialogue on issues related to disaster prevention and contributions to the Science and Technology Roadmap adopted to support the implementation of the Sendai Framework Agenda 2015–2030; (2) evaluation of current efforts on global and national involvement in the field of disaster prevention research in relation to the implementation of the Priority Areas of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030; (3) assessment of the status of current research knowledge and efforts, and research results at the institutional level in each country.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Report of Activity of the 4th Global Summit of GADRI

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Report on the 4th Global Summit of Research Institutes for Disaster Risk Reduction (4thGSRIDRR2019)
Increasing the Effectiveness and Relevance of our Institutes, Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI), Kyoto University, Uji Campus Kyoto, Japan from 13 to 15 March 2019
Abstract
The 4th Global Summit of Research Institutes for Disaster Risk Reduction (4thGSRIDRR2019) under the theme of Increasing the Effectiveness and Relevance of our Institutes was organized by the Global Alliance of Disaster Research Institutes (GADRI) and sponsored by the Kyoto University and the Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI), Kyoto University. The summit was held at the DPRI, Uji Campus, Kyoto, Japan, from 13 to 15th of March 2019.
Hirokazu Tatano, Andrew Collins, Wilma James

Plenary Sessions

Frontmatter
Chapter 2. Enhancing Disaster Preparedness and Building Resilience: UNESCO's Multi-hazard, Multi-disciplinary, and Multi-stakeholder Approach on Disaster Risk Reduction
Abstract
Climate-related hazards such as floods and hurricanes and geo-hazards, such as earthquakes and volcanoes, are triggering catastrophes, disturbing, and altering the livelihoods of populations worldwide (UNESCO and UNICEF 2012). From 2000 to 2019, natural hazards caused US$1.23 trillion in damages, claimed 1.23 million lives, and affected over 4 billion people (UNDRR 2020).
Soichiro Yasukawa, Lesly M. Barriga Delgado
Chapter 3. Presentation on “THE Sendai Framework and Science Advice to Governments to Support Implementation—Suggestion on What Works” by Prof. Virginia Murray, Head of Global Disaster Risk Reduction, Public Health England, UK
Abstract
This presentation seeks to identify the calls for action identified by the UN member states in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction for science advice to inform governments to support implementation; provide examples of tools currently being used to deliver science to help to inform policy and practice; and to provide an example of how the work has been taken forward in partnership to understand more of the all hazard paradigm as a policy and practice process.
Virginia Murray
Chapter 4. Presenting the “Global Risk Assessment Framework (GRAF), UNISDR—Emphasising the Relevance of Disaster Research Institutes” by Prof. Andrew Collins, Disaster and Development Network (DDN), Northumbria University, UK; Chair of the GADRI Board of Directors; Associate Member of the Global Risk Assessment Framework (GRAF), UNDRR
Abstract
Prof. Collins shared information on the work done by the expert group of GRAF which is a framework for assessing risks. He presented this also as a significant manifestation of the principles often presented in earlier forums, that understanding risk better amplifies the risk assessment and management cycle. This is a risk governance concern dependent on the application of good data and in-depth analysis of processes of change in reducing major threats, resilience building and moving towards a more well-being orientated emphasis for the future of people and planet. A key point is that there is a common vision of enabling sustainable societies and systems for improved planetary well-being; this requires global risk assessment to help increase resilience in the light of more comprehensively understood risk. The GRAF vision, objectives, principles and processes are based around an appropriately comprehensive theory of change.
Andrew Collins
Chapter 5. Disaster Risk Management Knowledge Centre: A Collaborative Approach to Foster Resilience
Abstract
The risk landscape is changing in the European Union (EU) but also globally. The emergence of new and the intensification of existing risks requires a joint effort to enhance society’s resilience to these risks. In support of this goal, the European Commission, in close collaboration with Member States and the disaster risk management community, has launched the Disaster Risk Management Knowledge Centre (DRMKC). The DRMKC is an instrument which provides a networked approach to the science–policy interface in disaster risk management in the EU and for developing and pursuing evidence-based EU policies. True to the provisions of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the DRMKC follows an all-hazards, multi-stakeholder approach. Its driving force is collaboration, and it fosters knowledge transfer, the co-development of solutions for existing needs, as well as the continuous uptake of innovative approaches to managing disaster risks. It also reinforces the existing links across Disaster Risk Management- and Disaster Risk Reduction-related policies. At the occasion of the Sendai Midterm Review a number of successful DRMKC initiatives and products are described.
Christina Corbane, Montserrat Marin Ferrer, Elisabeth Krausmann, Ainara Casajus Valles, Karmen Poljansek, Charalambos Moussas, Tiberiu-Eugen Antofie, Marzia Santini
Chapter 6. Infrastructure Resilience: A Framework for Assessment, Management and Governance
Abstract
An infrastructure resilience framework is introduced presenting processes, tools and outcomes for system assessment, management and governance. This can be used for analysis or design of systems prior to or following actual disruptions. For this framework, infrastructure is defined as the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., building clusters and lifeline systems) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. The framework emphasizes infrastructure systems and how they support community resilience through eight key elements. These elements provide the foundation for system assessments, management and governance of resilient infrastructure systems. Elements underpinning assessments identify the framework processes for evaluating existing or proposed systems and provide a strong basis for management and governance. The elements primarily underpinning management and governance identify the processes and tools needed to provide the outcomes to ensure resilient infrastructure systems; they also draw from and provide feedback for improving the other elements. Resilience management and governance utilizes the knowledge and results of system assessments and incorporates other tools to engineer, manage and govern resilient systems that properly support the resilience of the communities they serve.
Craig Davis, Bilal M. Ayyub, Sue McNeil, Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Hirokazu Tatano, Masamitsu Onishi, Yoshikazu Takahashi, Riki Honda, Toshio Koike, John van de Lindt
Chapter 7. Harnessing Scientific Knowledge and Technological Innovation for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Sub-Saharan Africa-Case of Social Media
Abstract
The biggest challenge to disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Sub-Saharan Africa is being presented by climate change due to the continent’s acute vulnerability inherent in multiple stresses and low adaptive capacity. It is common knowledge that the task of managing disaster risks and disaster events is heavily dependent on scientific knowledge and evidence-based technique which doubles up as a pillar for investment in DRR and used as a basis for formulating disaster risk management techniques. In this way, the application of science and technology has the potential to substantially reduce losses of lives and property. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change special report (AR6) on managing the risk of extreme events and disasters thoroughly interrogates this aspect and provides the essential evidence base. Equally important is to note that climate change appreciation and discourse demands high scientific standards. As such, its acceptance and readiness to move to reduce its impacts through DRR techniques requires much more systematic and proven sets of data, methods and tools and much stronger scientific and technical support capacities than is the case at present in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Sendai Framework for DRR 2015–2030 (SFDRR) sent clear signals to the mandate of science, technology, and innovation in driving government activities that is based on developing and sharing the knowledge and solutions needed to improve the resilience of communities. As such, there is need to harness the new global scientific challenges to DRR if Sub-Saharan Africa is to remain afloat in the DRR framework. Fortunately, the current science and technology advances have reached levels where a global village has been created which makes available more than ever before, immeasurable amounts of information relevant to DRR through a simple mouse click. In this way, more actors from different disciplines and policy areas can harness the emerging scientific challenges for the enhancement of DRR in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper is predominantly concerned with how disaster risks and losses in Sub-Saharan Africa can be further reduced through harnessing science and technology innovation in the case of Social Media.
Desmond Manatsa, Lucy Sakala

Group Discussion Sessions

Frontmatter
Chapter 8. Concept Notes for Group Discussion Sessions
Abstract
The concepts notes were developed to facilitate discussion among various stakeholders gathered from around the world to share information on their ongoing research activities and current research projects, find collaborative activity partners, showcase research achievements, and challenge further improvements to disaster risk reduction and resilience to disasters.
Shoko Arakaki, Masahiro Chigira, Rodrigo Cienfuegos, Andrew Collins, Ana Maria Cruz, Craig Davis, Tom De Groeve, Haruo Hayashi, Srikantha Herath, Yoshiki Ikeda, Michel Jaboyedoff, Wilma James, Sameh Kantoush, Kenji Kawaike, Hiroshi Kawase, Toshio Koike, Paul Kovacs, Elisabeth Krausmann, Wei-Sen Li, Yuki Matsushi, Irwan Meilano, Robin Eve Miller, James Mori, Khalid Mosalam, Mahua Mukherjee, Virginia Murray, Soichi Nakajima, Eiichi Nakakita, Kazuyoshi Nishijima, Maria Camila Suarez Paba, Indrajit Pal, Ram Sateesh Pasupuleti, Jean-Paul Pinelli, Ortwin Renn, Charles Scawthorn, Subhajyoti Samaddar, Rajib Shaw, Takahiro Sayama, Jörgen Sparf, Kaoru Takara, Tetsuya Takemi, Hirokazu Tatano, Annisa Triyanti, Irina Zodrow

Selected Presentation Papers (Arranged by Country Order)

Frontmatter
Chapter 9. Community Resilience Against Flood: The Case of the LIFE PRIMES Project
Abstract
Natural forces pose threats to human communities. Ongoing changes to the environment worsen these hazards, causing the associated risk to increase. Whilst the number of disasters is observed to decline worldwide, the costs of the disastrous events are increasing, showing how higher and higher human values are exposed and vulnerable to hazards. There is a growing acknowledgement of the need to enhance the resilience of local communities. At the same time, it is important to act accordingly to a common and broadly-shared strategy. International and regional organisations can be very effective in supporting local projects, providing solid knowledge and valuable funds. The European Commission manages the LIFE funding programme, aimed to support projects addressing environmental and climate challenges. It started in 1992 and until now it has supported more than 4600 projects Europe-wide. Amongst them is the PRIMES (Preventing flooding RIsks by Making resilient communitiES) project that ran from October 2015 to December 2018. The LIFE PRIMES project intended to increase the resilience of local communities against floods by strengthening risk awareness and promoting the involvement in innovative participatory tools. Ten flood-prone municipalities within three Italian Regions were involved in the activities, along with Regional Environmental Institutions, local Authorities and Academic Institutions. The activities included assessments of the project’s impacts. The analysis suggests a sensible increase of local communities’ resilience, thus highlighting the success of the PRIMES project and encouraging a further implementation of its methodology in other communities, to help build societies better prepared to cope with extreme events.
Eleonora Gioia, Alessandra Colocci, Fausto Marincioni
Chapter 10. Yonmenkaigi System Method as an Educational Framework for Climate Change Within the United Kingdom: A Pilot Study
Abstract
Climate change can be viewed as probably one of the greatest environmental issues that society is currently facing. It is already being argued that society is already feeling the effects of climate change, with an increase of 1 °C being experienced worldwide. Climate change impacts within the United Kingdom are expected to be extensive, with an increased probability of droughts, heatwaves and flooding events by the end of the century. Despite these potential effects, there is at the moment only a limited education on the subject of climate change mitigation and adaption strategies within the United Kingdom’s education curriculum. One potential option to overcome this issue is an engagement framework that can be used within schools and colleges, such as a Yonmenkaigi System Method [YSM]. Therefore, a Yonmenkaigi System Method was undertaken with sixteen first year Northumbria University Environmental Management students on the 4th October 2018; a questionnaire before and after was given to monitor the students perception of climate change throughout the engagement exercise. It was found that there was a significant change (p < 0.10) in the way a number of questions were answered within the questionnaire. This demonstrates that the Yonmenkaigi System Method has a potential to be used as an educational approach for educating students within the United Kingdom about environmental issues, such as climate change.
Mark Ashley Parry
Chapter 11. Personalizing a Low Cost Weather Forecasting System
Abstract
Performance and cost of rainfall observation systems use in the study phase of Centre for Urban Water (CUrW) of Metro Colombo Urban Development Project (MCUDP) were compared and a low cost observation system that can be used to customize rainfall forecast was tested. System includes an IOT-based real time rainfall observing station which can be configured personally and access data directly along with a computational system. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with freely available Global Forecasting System (GFS) data, is used to forecast a set of possible rain systems and real time observations are used to select the most suitable forecast in Kelani river basin which effects the water level variations in the Metro Colombo area.
Muditha Dantanarayana, Srikantha Herath, Dilum Bandara
Chapter 12. Transforming Flood Risk Management: A Case of Kakching, Manipur, India
Abstract
North-eastern regions of India are progressing slower in terms of development than in India’s mainland since the Independence of India in 1947. Moreover, the most triggering and frequently occurring factor, natural disasters, especially floods, adds more burden to the Local Government. Despite many natural disasters in recent years like floods and landslides, no or few disaster-related planning projects have been conducted so far to participate in any local or regional development projects to avoid the vulnerability of the people. On the other hand, Master Plan, Kakching (draft) n.a. has not been revised for the last three decades by the concerned authorities. To help in the development, we have demonstrated the assessment of green vegetation cover and impervious surface for the near future, benefit the labour cost and take less time in strengthening the upcoming plans in the case of Kakching, Manipur, India. This study analysed the spatio-temporal of vegetation cover and built-up area for the last two decades in the study area. Furthermore, we studied the trend analysis of vegetation and built-up area by comparing it with the flood extent. It is found that there is an enormous loss of vegetation cover and proliferation of urban areas in last two decades are detected. Therefore, we have recommended that the concerned authorities should integrate to strengthen and shape the future for better development plans to build urban resilience in changing climate.
Vickyson Naorem, Mahua Mukherjee, Atul Kumar
Chapter 13. Adaptive Architecture—A Pathway to Resilient Communities
Abstract
Adaptive architecture can be explained wherein contemporary construction and vernacular architecture techniques can be brought together to makes its inhabitant feel safe and secured and can be adapted to the local environment. Through the evidence based on the example of the Sangkhola School built for Human Resource Development Department (HRDD), Sikkim State Government, India, in earthquake prone region of East India Sikkim, the study is intended to understand how an architectural intervention can adapt itself within the community instead of just being an architectural artefact, and how this construction can help the community feel prepared and resilient towards next earthquake. The study indicated that, with the hybrid RCC and Ikra, contemporary construction and vernacular architecture techniques brought together to create Sangkhola Primary School, it has attempted in imparting safety and comfort to its users and is adaptive to local weather and environment which is proven from the testimonies of its users.
Rakhi Kashyap
Chapter 14. Return Period Analysis of Major Flood Events Considering Homogeneous Regions
Abstract
Extreme flood events cause huge amount of money and human resources in handling the catastrophic during and post to the disaster. In order to cope for these events, mitigation strategies to reduce the impact or occurrence are crucial. One of the ways is to better design the flood defense structures using possible highest rainfall values that might occur at a specific location represented by rainfall return periods. The main idea of this research is to consider using extreme rainfall homogeneous regions to help predict the best return period for designing flood defense structure using information of historical flood events occurring at the location of similar extreme rainfall homogeneous regions. The objectives of this research are to identify major flood events in Peninsular Malaysia and to map the rainfall return period associated to the flood events within similar homogeneous regions. The method of pooled frequency analysis was used to combine annual maximum series (AMS) data in each homogeneous region. The best distribution model is selected based on highest rank according to Kolmogrov Smirnov, Anderson Darling, and chi-squared. The highest return period of rainfall event occured at zone 1, zone 2, zone 3, and zone 4 is 50 years, 333 years, 500 years, and 20 years, respectively. The use of the highest return period values may be applied for designing flood defense structures located in the specific homogeneous region as those return periods have already occured within respective homogeneous regions.
Nor Eliza Alias, M. Mahayuddin M. Tarmizi, M. Syazmi Chebby
Chapter 15. Conceptual Design for Flood Warning Study at Recreational Area—Case Study Gunung Pulai Mountain, Johor, Malaysia
Abstract
It is important to conduct detail hydrological study at recreational area located at mountain sides. This is due to the fact that the geographical location and topographical conditions may post a risk of landslide dam outburst flood (LDOF). As a case for Gunung Pulai Recreation Area located at the foot hills of Gunung Pulai Mountain to be opened to public, a detail hydrological study needs to be carried out. The purpose of this study is to establish the preliminary baseline information on hydrological characteristics of the study area and to assess and analyse the existing hydrological parameter that can potentially cause flash flood within the recreational area. Then, proposing a long-term engineering solution towards prevention loss. A study area potential to be exposed to the LDOF within the recreational area needs to be determined. Hydrologic modelling is conducted to get a better understanding of the parameters in the study area. Rain gauge and water level were inserted at certain elevation level of the study area were conducted to provide the hydrological parameters needed to estimate the relationship between the rainfall and water level. Data obtained from the rain gauge and water level were plotted. The relationship between rainfall and water level is imperative to show the time needed for an alarm to be triggered. In conclusion, the parameters that can potentially indicate the occurrence of flash flood has been analysed and can be altered to make them useful against future flash flood events. A long-term solution has also been devised and ready to be deployed.
Kamarul Azlan M. Nassir, Muhamad Syamil M. Zaini, Nor Eliza Alias
Chapter 16. Impact of Vibration and Moisture Content to Light Non-aqueous Phase Liquid Migration in Double-Porosity Media
Abstract
Disaster such as earthquake has an impact to water resources particularly groundwater. The migration of pollutant in groundwater is crucial particularly due to earthquake impact. In addition, the soil moisture content also might influence the pollutant migration. Therefore, this paper presents the investigation of light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) migration in laterite soil with two dissimilar moisture contents with and without vibration. The study of LNAPL migration was investigated using digital image analysis. The lab-scale experiments were conducted by using soil column, mirror, LNAPL and Nikon D90 digital camera. Unsaturated laterite soil was poured in the acrylic column then compressed until 100 mm height. Then, LNAPL was poured onto the soil column surface instantaneously. The pattern and behavior of LNAPL migration in laterite soil was monitored and recorded using digital image processing technique (DIPT) at certain time intervals. The images were processed with Surfer software and Matlab routine inorder to plot the LNAPL migration pattern using hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) value. The study found that higher rate migration of LNAPL with high moisture content, and the rate of LNAPL migration decreases with presence of vibration and with lower moisture content. The migration time required to reach bottom of soil was longer for low moisture content with/without vibration as compared to the high moisture content with/without vibration.
Mohd Fadhli Abd Rashid, Noraliani Alias, Kamarudin Ahmad, Radzuan Sa’Ari, Mohd Zamri Ramli

Closing Session—Resolution of the 4th Global Summit of GADRI

Frontmatter
Chapter 17. Resolution of the 4th Global Summit of Research Institutes for Disaster Risk Reduction: Increasing the Effectiveness and Relevance of Our Institutes Held at the Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan from 13 to 15th March 2019
Abstract
The Fourth Global Summit of Research Institutes for Disaster Risk Reduction: Increasing the Effectiveness and Relevance of Our Institutes was held at the Disaster Prevention Research Institutes (DPRI), Kyoto University, Uji Campus, Kyoto, Japan from 13th to 15th March 2019. The three-day conference included keynote speeches by prominent stakeholders from a multidisciplinary array of specialisations; group discussion sessions, panel and poster presentations. The 4th Global Summit aimed to achieve critical challenges facing the disaster risk research community in implementation of the Science and Technology Roadmap; and particularly focused on the conceptualisation of the Science and Technology Roadmap. The Final Resolution summarises the inputs from the group discussion sessions, commitments by the Members of GADRI; and the results shared at the UNDRR Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction held in May 2019.
James Mori, Andrew Collins, Hirokazu Tatano, Wilma James

Closing Ceremony

Frontmatter
Chapter 18. Closing Ceremony
Abstract
Mr. Daisaku Kadokawa opened his greetings by stating that he understands that the Global Alliance of Disaster Research Institutes (GADRI) is a research network that aims to contribute to the reduction of disaster risk and the improvement of disaster resilience from an academic point of view by collaborating with disaster research and disaster prevention research institutes around the world through sharing information, knowledge, experience, and ideas.
Wilma James
Metadata
Title
Proceedings of the 4th Global Summit of Research Institutes for Disaster Risk Reduction
Editors
Hirokazu Tatano
Andrew Collins
Copyright Year
2023
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-5566-2
Print ISBN
978-981-19-5565-5
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-5566-2