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2024 | Book

Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies for Rail Transportation (EITRT) 2023

Rail Transportation Operation Management Technologies

Editors: Yong Qin, Limin Jia, Jianwei Yang, Lijun Diao, Dechen Yao, Min An

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering


About this book

This book reflects the latest research trends, methods, and experimental results in the field of electrical and information technologies for rail transportation, which covers abundant state-of-the-art research theories and ideas. As a vital field of research that is highly relevant to current developments in a number of technological domains, the subjects it covered include intelligent computing, information processing, communication technology, automatic control, etc. The objective of the proceedings is to provide a major interdisciplinary forum for researchers, engineers, academicians, and industrial professionals to present the most innovative research and development in the field of rail transportation electrical and information technologies. Engineers and researchers in academia, industry, and government will also explore an insightful view of the solutions that combine ideas from multiple disciplines in this field. The volumes serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working on rail transportation and electrical and information technologies.

Table of Contents

Study on the Compilation of Train Diagram and Transportation Capacity of Urban Rail Transit

The train diagram of urban rail transit is the concentrated embodiment of the transportation organization of the whole urban rail transit system. By analyzing the passenger flow data of a metro line in a city, the section passenger flow in peak hours and the maximum section passenger flow in time period in the whole day are calculated from the OD matrix. The number of running trains and the running interval are also calculated, and fine-tuning is carried out, so as to get the full-time driving plan. On the basis of determining the train routing, stop plan, turn back plan and vehicle operation plan, the train diagram shall be prepared. In order to ensure the subway operation enterprises to arrange transportation production reasonably, through the analysis of subway line capacity and train capacity, the transportation capacity is analyzed and studied.

Guangjian Zhang, Lizhu Zhang
Research on High-Speed Railway Timetable Rescheduling Based on Genetic Algorithm

This paper presents an effective approach to address the challenge of rapidly restoring train operation order and automatically generating scheduling optimization schemes during abnormal events. The study focuses on high-speed railway, and establishes a high-speed railway train operation adjustment model, with the primary objective of minimizing the weighted total arrival delay time while satisfying various time and capacity constraints. To overcome the NP-hard nature of the problem, we propose a genetic algorithm approach with an appropriate coding mode, fitness function, crossover, and mutation rules. To validate the proposed model and algorithm, we use the operational data from the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway. The results of comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the genetic algorithm with the interval-only accelerated operation method demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of genetic algorithm, which can provide decision support for dispatching high-speed railway train operation scheduling.

Xinyi Du, Li Wang, Xianghao Wang
An Optimization Method of Suburban Railway Stopping Scheme Under the Need of Running Multiple Train Types

With the development of regional integration, suburban railway need to interconnect with national railways and operate networked within itself. Passenger flow in the region show the following trends: increasing cross-line passenger volume, uneven spatial-temporal distribution, and the inability of local trains in meeting fast access needs. To adapt to those trends, the suburban railway need to operate multiple train types, especially express and local trains. In this paper, we take the stopping scheme of express trains as the research object, take the total travel time of passengers and the operation cost of railway enterprises as objectives, establish the optimization model, design an improved ant colony algorithm based on computer simulation, so as to calculate the number of stops and specific stopping station of express trains. Finally, taking Shanghai suburban railway Airport Connecting Line as an example, the optimized operation scheme is running 3 express trains and 6 local trains in peak hour, the stopping station of the express train are SLN, DJQ and PDJC. The total travel time of the optimized scheme is reduced by 1.8% compared with the direct trains, despite the increase in operation cost. The case proves that optimizing the stopping scheme of express trains can save the overall travel time of passengers while meeting the transportation demand, proves the effectiveness of the model and algorithm, improves the service quality of suburban railway.

Rudong Yang, Ming Xu, Xiang Wu, Zhenhao Fei, Ruihua Xu
Urban Rail Transit Track Area Extraction Using LiDAR

The intrusion of obstacles into the track area is a significant issue that impacts the safety of urban rail transit. The obstacle detection technology based on LiDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) meets the detection requirements of urban rail transit. However, under the limitations of current LiDAR performance, existing methods can only extract the track area up to 100 m, which is insufficient for the speed and braking distance of urban rail transit trains. In light of the characteristics of urban rail transit lines, a new method is proposed to indirectly extract the track area by detecting references parallel to the rail, i.e., tunnel walls, protective walls, and sound barriers. By means of border points selection, clustering, and curve fitting, two curves of the references on both sides are obtained. A track centerline is obtained from the two curves and is expanded to extract the track area according to size specifications. The proposed method in this paper is evaluated in a variety of scenes, including tunnel, elevated, and ground sections of urban rail transit lines. The result shows that the proposed method successfully extracts the track area within 150 m.

Shen Tuo, Zhou Jinhuang, Xie Yuanxiang, Deng Chenxin, Qian Yanzuo
Evaluating First-Train-Timetable-Network Performance in Urban Rail Transit with Percolation Theory

As modern large cities heavily rely on urban rail transit (URT) systems as their most crucial transportation infrastructure to meet daily commuting demands, the irrational design of the first train timetable and the lack of effective connections between different lines could result in excessively long travel times for passengers. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the flow organization mechanism of the URT system. In this paper, based on the temporal network theory, the concept of the First-Train-Timetable-Network (FTTN) is proposed, and the FTTN organization mechanism of Beijing and Shanghai’s URT systems is studied based on the percolation theory. We discovered an important parameter that can characterize the rationality of the first train timetable arrangement, namely, the critical time $${\text{t}}_{\text{c}}$$ t c . Additionally, we observed the FTTN’s percolation transition phenomenon and evaluated the network performance. The results show that the FTTN model proposed in this study, together with the URT network performance evaluation method, can effectively reflect the actual situation of the URT network, providing valuable insights for URT operators to formulate the first train timetable.

Tianlei Zhu, Zhiao Ma, Xin Yang
Probabilistic Power Flow Analysis of All-Parallel AT Traction Power Supply System

In order to evaluate the impact of train randomness and volatility on the traction power supply system, this paper firstly establishes the probability model of the train based on the probability distribution function of the train position from the time-position curve obtained by the train traction calculation. Then, considering the multiconductor characteristic and real structure of all-parallel autotransformer (AT) traction power supply system with a traction substation and two power supply arms, the probabilistic power flow calculation of the train-network system under the actual line parameters is carried out using the Monte Carlo simulation method. The results show that the probability model of the train and the probabilistic power flow calculation method can well analyze the probability distribution of the output power of the substation, the voltage amplitudes of the train, contact wires, rails and feeders under different train operation conditions.

Lan Yuan, Lyu Xiaoqin
Fully Automatic Dispatch of Coupling and Uncoupling Based on Interoperable Flexible Formation

Urban rail transit has the characteristics of tides and different spatial passenger flow distributions. Many technologies are raised and researched recently. Based on its operational demand characteristics, fully automatic online coupling and uncoupling can solve some of the contradictions between transportation capacity and energy consumption, headway and service quality. Based on the inter-operable protocol and flexible formation, the dynamic identification of coupling trains is designed based on the precise location messages from ZC. Meanwhile, with the definition of coupling and uncoupling service trips in the timetable, the detail about the fully automatic dispatch process of coupling and uncoupling is carried out in this paper. At the same time, relevant operational suggestions are provided for some abnormal scenarios.

Sheng Wang, Bo Zheng
Research on Soil Potential Distribution Caused by Metro Stray Current

The harm of stray current in urban rail transit is becoming increasingly serious, and the corrosion of buried metal pipelines and DC bias of grounding transformers caused by it have attracted attention from various aspects. Soil potential distribution is a common entry point for metal corrosion and DC bias problems. Therefore, from the perspective of urban soil potential distribution, this article constructed a four-layer ground grid return current model and deduces the voltage distribution of steel rails, and constructed a urban soil potential distribution model. Analyzed the interference range and degree of stray current during subway operation. The results indicated that an increase in the DC resistance of the rail will significantly increase the soil potential, increase the range of stray current influence, and increase the risk of DC bias and rail corrosion in the substation. Increasing the rail-ground transition resistance can effectively reduce the risk of stray current hazards in nearby soil areas. The larger soil resistivity also has a certain limiting effect on the propagation of stray currents.

Tang Yuhang, Yu Kun, Ni Yanru, Cheng Xinxiang, Zeng Xiangjun, Han Wei
Research on Hybrid Hub-and-Spoke Transportation Network of High-Speed Rail Express

In recent years, the rapid development of China's economy has driven the booming logistics industry, and then puts forward higher requirements for the ability and efficiency of the express industry. High-speed rail express, as a new mode of transportation, will play an important role in the improvement of China's logistics capacity. At present, most studies on high-speed rail express network are based on the hub-and-spoke network. This paper firstly analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of fully connected network and pure hub-and-spoke network, and then proposes the necessity of constructing hybrid hub-and-spoke network in high-speed rail express. Then, with the goal of minimizing the total cost of network transportation, an integer programming model is established to construct a hybrid hub-and-spoke network of high-speed rail express, considering the constraints of node operation ability and number of hubs, and a numerical experiment is designed to solve and verify the model. The influence of number of hubs on the optimal target value is analyzed, and the proportion of OD flow taking different transportation modes is calculated. Finally, the optimal target values of fully connected network, pure hub-and-spoke network and hybrid hub-and-spoke network are compared, and it is found that the use of hybrid hub-and-spoke network in the fast freight transportation of high-speed rail can not only exert the scale effect, but also effectively reduce the detour transportation to save the transportation cost.

Yansen Pei, Xiaoning Zhu
Optimization of Train Operation Control Based on Soft Actor-Critic Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithm

With the rising interest in the application of artificial intelligence methods in society, the focus on the use of deep reinforcement learning in railway transportation networks has grown significantly. This study aims to explore the optimization problem in train operation control and proposes a deep reinforcement learning approach based on the Soft Actor-Critic algorithm as a training framework. The objective is to achieve energy efficiency and on-time arrivals. By considering various factors such as train speed limits, energy consumption, and operational efficiency, a reward function is designed to guide the train in learning appropriate operating strategies. Through the integration of a realistic train dynamics model and mechanical characteristics, simulation experiments validate the feasibility of this approach in achieving energy savings and punctual arrivals.

Zhuyuan Lan, Huiqin Pei
Rolling Element Localized Fault Diagnosis Method for Train Bearings Based on Orthogonal Bi-axial Signals

This paper proposes a rolling element fault diagnosis method for train bearings based on orthogonal bi-axial vibration signals, which addresses the complex and difficult-to-diagnose rolling element fault signals due to the lack of reference signals and the high diagnostic difficulty. Firstly, the coupling form of orthogonal bi-axial vibration signals in rolling element fault signals is analyzed. Secondly, a reference setting method based on orthogonal bi-axial signals is proposed. Finally, the effectiveness and advancement of the proposed algorithm are verified by processing localized rolling element faults on a laboratory-scale test rig and collecting signals at different speeds. This method provides a certain reference and theoretical guidance for the diagnosis of rolling element faults in train bearings under complex service environments.

Yongliang Bai, Hai Xue, Jiadong Meng, Jiangtao Chen
Modeling of Hybrid EMUs and Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy

In recent years, railway transportation has developed rapidly, and in order to cope with sustainable development, hybrid power systems (HPS) are applied in rail transportation to achieve energy saving and environmental protection. In the de-sign of hybrid electric multiple units (EMUs), most of them use a combination of diesel generator (DG) sets and energy storage devices to provide energy for the load from multiple power sources. In this paper, firstly, the HPS is modeled, and the DG, power battery and traction system are established. Secondly, a rule-based energy management strategy is designed, which formulates the operation rules of the HPS according to the operating characteristics and status of the power battery and DG set, which can be used to ensure the reliable operation of the system with low fuel consumption under various operating conditions. Finally, simulation experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed method.

Dongfan Nie, Chao Li, Ke Su, Yuxin Yang, Jie Chen
Research on Parameter Sensitivity About Singular Characteristics of Contact Force of High-Speed Railway

The alteration of contact force of pantograph- catenary (CFPC) at the dropper points (DP) is amplified remarkably when the speed of train is enhanced, and the collecting current character of pantograph- catenary took a turn for the worse. The chain-catenary/pantograph simulation model was established by adopting the finite element method (FEM) in the research to probe optimizing method of CFPC, which is analyzed that is obtained by calculation. First, the CFPC ridge-line on both sides of the DP is located by using the wavelet-ridge method to analyze singularity of the CFPC used by the Lipschitz exponent (LE). The conclusion is drawn that the CFPC reduction- rate on the right hand of the DP is larger than the increasing-rate on the left hand. Then, Sobol method is used to quantitatively analyze the relation between the CFPC singularity index and catenary-parameter. The results show that the singularity of CFPC can be reduced by increasing the contact wire tension and decreasing messenger wire tension, and the effect of catenary tension on the singularity at the DP is greater than the linear density of contact wire and messenger wire.

Jian Zhang, RuiKai Niu, Wenzheng Liu, Qing han
Risk Factors of Streetcar Intersections Based on the FISM Method
A Case Study of Jiaxing Streetcar Line T1

This paper highlights the utilization of the Fuzzy Interpretive Structural Modeling (FISM) method to analyze the interrelationships among influencing factors. By identifying the top influencing factors, including other traffic participants, the number of intersecting roads, performance of other traffic vehicles, streetcar lane priority, and streetcar drivers, the research provides a comprehensive understanding of the factors directly impacting streetcar operations at intersections. Based on the findings, several practical management strategies are proposed. These include strengthening safety education and standardizing driver behavior through increased driver rotation frequency and regency response, and public participation. By implementing these strategies, the paper aims to ensure the safe and efficient operation of streetcars at urban intersections, contributing to a sustainable and reliable urban transportation system.

Congcong Chen, Yufei Jin, Weiwei Song, Yuling Ye
A Method for Optimizing the Configuration of Fuel Cell Hybrid Trains

Capacity configuration is an important step in the design of hybrid trains, which directly affects the operational stability and economy of the train. In this study, a capacity configuration method for fuel cell hybrid trains considering train performance and economy is proposed. The characteristics of train demand energy and power under acceleration, cruising, and hill-climbing conditions, as well as the characteristics of the corresponding power sources, are analyzed to establish the corresponding allocation principles. The constraints of the train under different acceleration, cruising, and range conditions are studied, and the differences in power system mass and other aspects due to different capacity configuration combinations are considered, and each configuration combination is verified in a differentiated manner. The optimization objective of this study is to minimize the total cost, and the energy management strategy of Pontryagin's minimization principle(PMP) is used in comparing the fuel cell consumption, and a particle swarm algorithm is used to obtain its optimal solution. The cost differences and configuration differences arising from the different operation methods are analyzed in terms of whether the initial and final values of SOC change in conjunction with the operating road conditions.

Chang Rui, Cao Yufeng, Liu Yang, Liu Jianqiang
Magnetic Levitation System Control Based on Improved LADRC

In response to the problem of poor anti-interference and stability caused by the complex structure of the magnetic levitation ball system, an improved sparrow search algorithm (ISSA) combined with linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC) is adopted to solve the above problems. Firstly, a mathematical model of magnetic levitation ball was established based on the research object of magnetic levitation ball; Secondly, an improved sparrow search algorithm is used to adjust the parameters of the linear active disturbance rejection controller (LADRC) to achieve stable control of the magnetic levitation ball; Finally, PID, LADRC, and ISSA-LADRC were introduced for simulation analysis and experimental verification. The final results indicate that ISSA-LADRC has strong stability and anti-interference ability.

Ziwei Wu, Kuangang Fan, Xuetao Zhang, Weichao Li
Synergia Evaluation of Multi-type Rail Transit Operation Oriented to the Four-Railway-Network Integration

The four-railway-network integration is the policy guidance of multi-type rail transit for intensive resource usage, transportation efficiency enhancement, and regional society and economy development. The synergia improvement concerning multi-type rail transit is an important rising of the service level of regional rail transit system and guidance for urbanization progress. Based on the summary of the current status and policy directions of the synergetic development, the concept and key indicators evaluating the degree of synergia are introduced. Four main synergetic patterns are distinguished referring to the typical cases, including independent operation, passenger service integration, cross-line operation, and regional coordination. Detailed patterns and evaluation indicators with respect to the passenger service integration and cross-line operation are further put forward respectively according to the improvement of passenger service and the difficulty of connection implementation. The proposed theoretical methods and indicators provide the firm support and active reference for the synergetic development of multi-type rail transit systems.

Gehui Liu, Ling Liu, Jun Liu, Qing Li, Huiru Zhang
Development Status, Main Issues, and Policy Suggestions for Transportation Science Popularization Bases

Science popularization bases are crucial venues for conducting science popularization activities, serving as public platforms for providing scientific education services, and constituting an essential component of science and technology popularization work, with distinct characteristics of public welfare. This article, based on extensive and in-depth research on transportation science popularization bases, comprehensively analyzes the current development status and main existing issues in aspects such as regional distribution, base types, supporting units, accreditation institutions, resource conditions, and science popularization activities of industry science popularization bases. It puts forward policy recommendations for the development of transportation science popularization bases from six perspectives: strengthening the mission of science popularization development, optimizing the macro-layout of science popularization bases, promoting innovative development of science popularization bases, enhancing the development of science popularization resources, strengthening the construction of science popularization talent teams, and optimizing the accreditation of national transportation science popularization bases.

Ben Niu, Jing Dong, Wenhao Shang, Xiaofei Li
Simulation-Based Resource Allocation for Railway Container Terminals

The railway container terminal is an essential pillar of the intermodal transport network. Although many researches using mathematical models have conducted in this field, most of which only focus on the local operation instead of the global system. Based on this, this project proposes the study of simulation and optimization. Taking Wuhan Railway Container Terminal as an example, FlexSim software is used to design a complete container terminal operation scheduling simulation process and to explore the impact of different resource allocations. It provides scientific support for the selection of operation mode and resource allocation of railway container terminals.

Jing Tang, Jialu Yan, Zhaoyuan Sun, Li Wang
Research on Virtual Coupling Technology for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Delay

The virtual coupling technology based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication can significantly shorten the distance between trains and improve the efficiency of the railway network, which is at the forefront of rail transit research. As a critical link in the virtual coupling system, vehicle-to-vehicle communication profoundly affects the coordinated operation of the trains under the virtual coupling state. Under the background of the shorter distance between trains and more complex train control technology, the virtual coupling system has more strict requirements for communication delay. This paper discusses the effect of communication delay on the virtual coupling of trains, which can provide theoretical support for vehicle-to-vehicle communication system performance design. In the first stage, a train dynamics model is proposed, and the model predictive control (MPC) method is used to realize the virtual coupling among multiple trains. In the second stage, using this dynamics model, the effect of communication delay on the virtual coupling train control system is analyzed through a simulation experiment. Finally, according to the experimental conclusion, the communication delay will not only cause the response lag of the following train but also aggravate the vibration phenomenon of the control system’s output. These problems will challenge the smooth operation of trains and railway energy conservation.

Yiheng Chen, Jinbai Zou, Xiaoyong Wang, Zhepu Xu, Ziran He
Optimizing Train Platform Allocation in Busy Complex Passenger Stations with Fixed Track Utilization Scheme

The allocation of tracks in busy complex passenger station is generally based on Fixed track utilization scheme for the station, with the aim of enhancing operational efficiency and safety at the passenger station. This paper introduces a mixed-integer programming model designed specifically to address the train platforming problem in such stations. We propose constraints that align with the fixed track utilization scheme and aim to achieve balanced track usage objectives. Additionally, an enhanced genetic algorithm is presented, incorporating improved crossover and selection methods while maintaining compliance with the fixed track utilization scheme. Taking Wuchang Station as an example, the efficiency of the model and algorithm is verified, which operates under fixed track utilization scheme. Overall, this research provides efficient approaches for the TPP in busy complex passenger stations that adhere to fixed track utilization scheme.

Ruihua Hu, Qiongfang Zeng, Yinggui Zhang, Yuhang Wang
Service Quality Evaluation for High-Speed Rail Express Transportation with EAHP

To objectively evaluate the service quality of high-speed railway (HSR) express transportation and mitigate the influence of subjective factors such as evaluators’ perception and preferences, this study constructs an evaluation model for HSR express transportation service quality. The model focuses on four aspects of the operation process: reservation and arrival processing, transportation, distribution, and after-sales service. Firstly, the Extenics Analytic Hierarchy Process (EAHP) is employed to determine the weights of each evaluation index in both the criterion layer and indicator layer of the evaluation system. This approach establishes the evaluation model and utilizes it to assess service quality. The results demonstrate that applying the EAHP method to evaluate the service quality of HSR express transportation effectively captures the fuzzy nature of subjective human evaluation. Furthermore, the combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis compensates for the limitations of other evaluation methods. The findings of this study provide guidance for HSR express transportation providers to identify and improve weak links in the service process. By enhancing service levels in a targeted manner, these providers can establish a stronger presence in the express market.

Zhongjie Sun, Li Wang, Xiaoning Zhu, Meiyan Chi
A Model Predictive Control Approach for Virtual-Coupling Train Operations Using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming

Virtual-coupling (VC) train operation is seen as an emerging technology that can effectively increase the capacity of railway transportation. Based on advanced train-to-train communication, VC allows trains to travel minimal distances without physical connections. This paper proposes a model predictive control approach based on Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) for virtually coupled trains, the nonlinear characteristics, and space-depending variables such as route gradients can be modeled based on time in the MILP model, leading to more flexibility in modeling for complex engineering scenarios. Result shows the model predictive control approach based on MILP needs about 18% solving time compared with Nonlinear Model Predictive Control with the equivalent prediction horizon. Our simulation results also demonstrate the proposed method can control the leader train to follow the reference speed and the follower train to keep an acceptable interval during the journey, which means the proposed method is effective for virtual coupled trains.

Junjie Wang, Bolun Zhang, Shaofeng Lu
Developing Typical Disturbance Scenario Library for High-Speed Railways

As one of the modern transportation modes, high-speed railway plays an important role in boosting economic and social development. However, the operation of high-speed railways is susceptible to interference from various factors such as external and internal ones, and researchers have designed methodologies and approaches to minimize the impacts on high-speed railway operation of these disturbances. To comprehensively test the methodologies that cope with these unexpected events, this study analyzes the factors that could influence the normal operation of high-speed railways. Based on the classification of disturbances, a disturbance scenario library software is developed that can record different types of disturbances and can be used as input for testing and validating the railway rescheduling approaches designed by railway practitioners or railway researchers.

Yuxin Chen, Xiaoning Zhu, Li Wang, Zhiyuan Yao
Design of Track Utilization Plan of High-Speed Railway Passenger Station Based on Offline Sorting

Track utilization is an important part of the high-speed railway passenger station operating organization. On account of the idea of off-line sorting, taking the design of the high-speed railway passenger station track utilization plan as the research object, taking into account the constraints of track occupation, route occupation, safety time interval, etc., taking the best balance of track occupation as the optimization objective function, the parallel machine off-line sorting model that does not allow interrupt processing is constructed for the design of the high-speed railway passenger station track utilization plan, and the improved MLS algorithm based on the distribution rules is designed to solve that. In the end, based on the background of a class plan of a Railway Station, based on the proposed method, MATLAB is used to program to verify the rationality and feasibility of the constructed model and algorithm. The results of the comparative analysis of the plan show that the proposed model and algorithm can formulate the track utilization plan of the high-speed railway passenger station in a short period of time, improve the balance and robustness of the plan as much as possible, and provide a strong decision-making support for the high-speed railway dispatchers to formulate and adjust the track utilization plan of the High-speed railway passenger station.

Yinggui Zhang, Yuhang Wang, Min An, Ruihua Hu, Juan Wang
Research on the Evaluation Model of Urban Main Transformer DC Bias Caused by Metro Stray Current

During the actual operation of metro locomotives, some traction current leaks and injects into the ground, forming stray currents, resulting in surface potential differences along the line and causing DC bias of the main transformer in the urban area. Reasonably evaluating the degree of influence of transformer DC bias can effectively guide the suppression of transformer DC bias. In response to the above issues, this article first established a coupling model between stray current and DC bias of the main transformer in urban substations, and further modelled the distribution of transition resistance during subway operation, which achieved dynamic calculation of stray current; By selecting indicators such as neutral point DC, excitation current DC component, and harmonic distortion deviation, effective evaluation of the degree of DC bias influence on the main transformer along the subway line was achieved. The simulation results show that as the ground potential difference increases, the DC flow at the neutral point of the transformer increases. Along with the degree of hysteresis loop distortion in the iron core increases, the DC component of the excitation current and the deviation of harmonic distortion rate gradually increase. It is show that DC bias of the transformer becomes more severe.

Cheng Xinxiang, Yu Kun, Ni Yanru, Tang Yuhang, Zeng Xiangjun, Han Wei
Research on the Design of High-Speed Railway Express Space-Time Network

Aiming at the “multi-hub-multi-distribution-spoke” multimodal network layout and specific transportation needs in the operation of high-speed rail (HSR) express transportation, this paper builds a space-time network with the coupling of physical network layer and task layer based on space-time network theory, aims at reducing the operating cost of HSR express transportation network and focuses on the transportation capacity and cargo timeliness of HSR. This paper constructs a space-time network design model of HSR express cargo considering “rail-rail” horizontal transfer mode and “highway-rail” vertical collection and distribution mode. In this paper, 20 transport demand cases are designed and solved by using CPLEX in Python to verify the validity of the model and provide an effective solution to the actual HSR express cargo hub-and-spoke network design problem.

Qi Zhou, Li Wang, Xiaoning Zhu
Optimization Strategy of Arrival and Departure Tracks Distribution in China Railway Highspeed Express Based on Lateral Transshipment Between Trains

Railway highspeed rail express transportation has become a current hotspot, and its operation will inevitably have an impact on the current highspeed rail passenger transport organization. Therefore, this article takes highspeed railway stations as the research object, fully considering the resources of the section, throat area, arrival and departure tracks, and the lateral transshipment demand of China railway highspeed express, constructs a space-time network for the station. With the shortest delay time of highspeed rail passenger trains as the optimization goal, a 0–1 integer programming model is established. A case study is designed and solved using CPLEX to verify the effectiveness of the model and achieve a reasonable distribution of stations to arrival and departure tracks.

Hanchen Zuo, Li Wang, Xiaoning Zhu
Design on Hub-and-Spoke Network of High-Speed Railway Express Transport

With the rapid development of China's economy, consumption up- grades and the booming e-commerce express delivery industry, China high-speed rail express freight transportation came into being, and at present, more than 500 cities have opened this service. This paper based on hybrid configuration hub network, taking the high-speed rail express network and stations in northern China as an example model, a two-stage algorithm is used to divide the node level in the high-speed rail express network considering the requirements of timeliness, convenience, and benefit scale in view of its imperfect transportation network. In the first stage, the network nodes are stratified by constructing a high-speed rail express network planning index system and using the system cluster analysis method; in the second stage, based on the spatial location of each node, the K- means algorithm is used to optimize the node stratification scheme, finally obtaining the high-speed rail express hub-and-spoke transportation network layout in northern China.

Ruijie Gao, Xiaoning Zhu, Li Wang
Research on Related Elements of Train-Cargo Matching Based on High-Speed Rail Express Transportation

With the continuous development of China's high-speed rail express transportation, high-speed rail express transportation has outstanding advantages among various modes of cargo transportation, and the market is broad and highly dynamic. However, the problems such as asymmetric information of train-cargo matching and low efficiency of cargo allocation in the process of railroad transportation are becoming more and more obvious, which has drawn wide attention from government enterprises and academia. This paper summarizes the main views of scholars at home and abroad on high-speed rail express transportation delivery scheme, introduces the transportation organization modes adapted to the high-speed rail express transportation market, and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages respectively. And the factors involved in the problem of matching trains and cargoes in the context of high-speed rail express transport are listed and matched one by one to derive the mechanism of interaction between transported goods and high-speed rail express train operation scheme.

Qi Zhang, Li Wang, Xiaoning Zhu
Optimization of Rolling Stock Scheduling for Multi-line Suburban Railways with Minimization of Deadhead Time. A Case Study of Wenzhou Suburban Rail Network

This study focuses on optimizing rolling stock utilization in multi-line suburban railway networks to minimize empty running time during operations. A mixed-integer programming model is developed, considering multiple depots, diverse train compositions, and capacity constraints. The model is applied to Wenzhou City's suburban railway network, specifically the S1 and S2 lines, using IBM ILOG CPLEX software. The results demonstrate the significance of optimizing rolling stock utilization in suburban railway networks. The implemented model effectively addresses the complexities of multi-line operation and multiple depots, improving rolling stock management. It validates the feasibility and effectiveness of minimizing empty running time in the Wenzhou City network. This research contributes to transportation planning by addressing the challenge of reducing empty running time in multi-line suburban railway systems. Optimizing rolling stock utilization enhances operational efficiency, reduces costs, and improves overall performance. Future studies can further explore additional factors and constraints to enhance optimization for diverse suburban railway networks, considering real-world operational conditions and evolving transportation demands.

Weiwei Song, Yuling Ye, Congcong Chen, Ziyue Zhu, Wentao Zhou
Track Limit Detection Algorithm of Fully Automatic Train Based on Vision Sensor

With the benefits of a wide monitoring range, easy installation and maintenance, as well as good remarkable observability, vision sensors are gradually being applied to engineering measurement and environmental perception research in rail transportation. A sliding pane-like track limit detection algorithm based on vision sensor is proposed for the track limit detection in the field of obstacle detection for fully automatic driverless trains in rail transit. The algorithm uses the two-stage inter-frame differential thresholding method to detect the motion of video frames, and uses grayscale distribution feature extraction and adaptive Sobel operator thresholding edge detection methods to improve the accuracy and integrity of the image scene recognition and edge detection. The track limit was extracted by the tack limit search module based on the sliding pane, and Kalman filter is used to improve the accuracy and robustness of the detection results. The experimental validation results show that the algorithm has good detection performance on track limit.

Tuo Shen, Yuanxiang Xie, Lanxin Xie, Jinhuang Zhou, Chenxin Deng
Examining the Relationship Between Built Environment and Urban Rail Transit Inter-Cluster OD Passenger Flow

Research on the impact of built environment on Origin Destination (OD) passenger flow is essential for combining urban land planning and public transportation planning. However, the sparsity of inter-station OD makes the relationship between built environment and OD passenger flow not significant enough. To address this issue, this study proposes a clustering model based on passenger flow destination and station location. Firstly, the clustering is initialized based on the station location and station type. Then, a modular index of the road network clustering is established to optimize the clustering by considering the passenger flow destination, determine the optimal clustering, and classify it afterwards. Furthermore, considering the combination of different types of clusters, the GBRT model is used to study the relationship between different types of inter-cluster OD passenger flow and built environment. A case study in Beijing shows that the noise of the nonlinear effect of built environment on inter-cluster OD is smaller than that of the noise of the nonlinear effect of built environment on inter-station OD. This is because the aggregation of stations into clusters makes the regularity more significant, achieving better fitting results.

Lidan Chen, Xinyue Xu
Research on ATO Control Algorithm for Urban Rail Trains Considering Conversion Characteristics of Train Operating Conditions

Precise control of the train along the target speed curve is one of the goals of the development of urban rail transit automatic operation system. Overshoot caused by the train's working condition conversion characteristics during the actual operation of the train is an urgent need to be solved by the current train automatic operation controller as excessive overshoot will trigger emergency braking of the train. In this paper, a rigid multi-mass point model was established and the kinematic equation was constructed to describe the changing basic resistance and the additional resistance of the ramp and curve. Secondly, the characteristics of the train when changing among train operating conditions were analyzed, and the cruising operating condition of the train was decomposed into the combination of traction, coasting and braking conditions. The transmission response model of the train command acceleration and the motion model of the train in the coasting condition were given, and the conversion process between traction and braking conditions is modeled by combining these two models. Then, an early switching algorithm combined with the conventional PID controller and the sliding mode PID controller is proposed and the specific steps of the early switching algorithm for both controllers are elaborated. Finally, by simulating a specific subway line in China, it is concluded that the early switching algorithm can suppress the overshoot of the original controller without affecting arrival punctuality and stopping accuracy when the train condition is switched.

Kaile Zhang, Dongxiu Ou
Design Method for Facility Location and Freight Flow Allocation of China Railway Highspeed Express

China Railway Highspeed Express (CRH Express) is in the stage of mode exploration and technological innovation. This paper takes CRH Express as the research object, studies the operation and organization mode of CRH Express in the future CRH Express market, and makes a study on hub location and cargo flow distribution. This article analyzes various current CRH Express modes from multiple dimensions and proposes a “multi station-multi hub-multi mode” high-speed rail express operation mode. Then build a large-scale Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) optimization model to portray the high-speed rail express network. Based on the analysis and refinement of the CRH Express network, the optimization model is built to depict the operational performance of the CRH Express network under various transportation modes by constructing a scenario of the CRH Express hub facility location and cargo flow distribution.

Shuangsong Xu, Kanglin Liu, Xinghan Chen, Maoxiang Lang
The Mutual Feed Response Model of Typical Disturbance and Dispatch Command in High-Speed Railway Express

As an important component of the comprehensive transportation system, high-speed railway has the characteristics of large transportation capacity, fast punctuality, efficient and convenient. In recent years, high-speed railway freight has also been booming. With the continuous increase of the scale of high-speed rail network and train operation density, the probability of various random internal or external disturbances in the high-speed rail system is also greatly increased, resulting in train delays in emergencies, and thus affecting the safe and stable operation of the entire railway system. Based on the typical disturbance library, the dispatch and command mutual feed-response model based on the spatio-temporal network is constructed to reveal the spatio-temporal evolution law of the high-speed railway operation network and realize the spatio-temporal prediction of delays under different typical emergencies, which provides theoretical and technical support for reducing the negative impact of emergencies and improving the elasticity of schedule. It has important theoretical and practical significance to ensure the smooth and safe operation of high-speed railway.

Zecheng Wang, Li Wang, Xiaoning Zhu
Energy-Saving Optimization Study of Train Timetable Based on Regenerative Braking Technology

In this paper, we consider the effect of instantaneous power on the amount of regenerative braking energy recovery and divide a series of short time intervals to refine the calculation of energy consumption. Based on this, an optimization model with the objective of minimizing energy consumption is constructed, which uses the first station departure interval, inter-station travel time and station dwell time to describe the train timetable, and a running line adjustment algorithm is designed to ensure the arrival and departure intervals are reasonable. By using the hybrid genetic algorithm embedded with harmonic search, the case of a virtual line with 20 stations and 200 trips is solved and the results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively reduce energy consumption.

Zheng Yajing, Ma Zihan, Jin Wenzhou
Dynamics Simulation Model of Pantograph and Conductor Rail in Electrified Railway and Its Application

Overhead conductor rail which has become the main form of the overhead catenary, is widely used in low headroom tunnels. In order to understand the vibration behavior of pantograph and conductor rail, it is necessary to carry out the study of the interaction between pantograph and conductor rail. In this paper, we will present a dynamic simulation model of the contact force between a pantograph and a rigid catenary. The contact point change matrix with time and the calculation procedure of contact force will be given. Finally, applying the dynamic simulation model, the dynamic response and the maximum limit speed of conductor rail have been analyzed.

Jinfa Guan, Jiqin Wu, Jiawei Zhang, Zhonglin Liang
Multi-level Simulation Modeling Technology for Urban Rail Traction Power Supply System

The structure of urban rail traction (URT) power supply system is complex and includes multiple levels. Conventional modeling methods focus on a single level, neglecting the correlation between multiple levels, which cannot meet the requirements of accurate, efficient, and comprehensive analysis of the entire system. To solve this problem, this article analyzes the principle of multi-level interaction in the urban rail traction power supply system, formulates interaction strategies, and builds a URT simulation model based on multi-level modeling methods. Finally, simulations were conducted using examples to obtain simulation results that combine the macro scale of the system level with the micro scale of the station level. The results show this multi-level model has high accuracy and fast simulation speed. It can provide effective reference for the comprehensive design and operation of urban rail traction power supply systems.

Caiyi Chen, Gang Zhang, Jingjian Yang, Zhigang Liu
Embedding Group Operation Control Strategy into Heavy Haul Railway Transportation

In order to improve transportation efficiency, heavy haul railways often adopt a large marshalling scheme. This involves coupling multiple locomotives to pull hundreds of carriages, resulting in a marshalling length of several thousand meters. While large marshalling improves the efficiency of heavy haul train freight transportation, it also poses challenges. For instance, it reduces the flexibility in goods transportation due to slow marshalling changes. Additionally, the longer braking distance associated with large formations requires more safety protection distance, occupying more line resources and ultimately decreasing transportation efficiency. This article examines the application of a group operation control strategy based on virtual coupling technology aimed at improving the efficiency of heavy haul railway transportation and enabling flexible organization of heavy haul trains. Compared to fixed block and moving block strategies, the train platoon under the group operation control strategy occupies smaller track segments and demonstrates higher stability. The proposed group operation strategy has the potential to achieve better conflict control in railway traffic and improve train control system efficiency. Furthermore, as physical coupling is no longer required, the marshalling process of heavy haul trains becomes more efficient, which ultimately results in improved flexibility and greater capacity.

Huang Susu, Zhang Miao, Zhao Yang
Dynamic Container Trucks Scheduling Strategy for Container Terminals Based on Station-Truck Interconnection

Container terminals are important nodes in the container intermodal transport network. China's rapidly growing container throughput puts forward higher requirements for the operational efficiency of container terminals. At present, due to the lack of a platform for effective communication between container terminal operators and container truck operators, a large number of container trucks arrive and leave in a centralized manner, resulting in congestion at terminal gates and the roads in the operation area, and reducing the efficiency of container terminals. Aiming at the pain points faced by the operation practice of container terminals, this project takes external container truck dynamic scheduling of container terminals as the research object, develops a station-truck interconnection APP that can realize the dynamic interaction between the two types of subjects: container terminal operators and container truck operators. A container terminal operation scheduling simulation system was built to simulate the load of operating equipment under different container truck arrival numbers, and determine the optimal container truck arrival quantity in different time periods. In the face of uncertain arrival situations such as truck in-transit failures, a dynamic adjustment algorithm for container trucks scheduling of container terminals is proposed to realize the dynamic adjustment of container truck scheduling strategy. It provides a theoretical method and platform support for the external container trucks dynamic scheduling of container terminals.

Xiaoyu Hu, Yang Chen, Boyu Du, Li Wang
Continual Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Bearing Fault Diagnosis Under Variable Working Conditions

Unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA)-based fault diagnosis models have been intensively studied. UDA focuses on establishing a model that can transfer knowledge from one or more source domains with labeled data to help learn a target domain with unlabeled data. However, in the field of fault diagnosis, an obvious drawback is that UDA ignores the case of multiple target domains. In real scenarios, fault data are distributed in a continuous flow of constantly generated information due to variable working conditions. The collected unlabeled data may be in different domains, resulting in an increase in the number of target domains, which is called domain increments. Continual unsupervised domain adaptation (CUDA), which combines continual learning (CL) and UDA, is proposed to address the problem of domain increments. CL aims to create a deep learning (DL) model that can learn in dynamic environments, similar to humans. The core of CL is to prevent DL from catastrophic forgetting. In this paper, a CUDA fault diagnosis (CUDAFD) method is proposed for bearing fault diagnosis under variable working conditions. In CUDAFD, the maximum mean discrepancy is used to continually adapt the model to new domains, and the idea of prototype learning is introduced to overcome the catastrophic forgetting. Finally, CUDAFD is applied to a diagnosis case of domain increments to verify its effect.

Bojian Chen, Changqing Shen, Lin Li, Juanjuan Shi, Weiguo Huang, Zhongkui Zhu
Energy Minimization for Low-Latency Downlink Rate Splitting Multiple Access

This paper investigates the energy minimization problem in a dual-user downlink system with strict delay constraints. To satisfy these delay constraints and balance the trade-off between block length and reliability, we use a normal approximation formula with finite blocklength code (FBC) capacity instead of the traditional Shannon formula. We consider a transmission scheme based on rate splitting multiple access (RSMA). The results show that although the objective function is not convex and does not have a closed-form expression, the RSMA problem can still be approximated to an equivalent convex function to obtain suboptimal solutions. Simulation results demonstrate that the RSMA scheme achieves significant energy savings compared to simpler non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and orthogonal multiple access (OMA) schemes.

Hao Tang, Xiaofang Sun, Li Yang, Guangxiang Hu, Zhangdui Zhong
Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Passenger Flow on Urban Rail Transit Under Train Failure Scenarios

The deduction of passenger flow distribution is the basis of restoring normal operation order under train failure scenarios, and provides the basis for the formulation and implementation of train rescheduling and passenger flow control measures. In order to calculate passenger flow accurately and efficiently and ensure operation safety, a method for deducing the passenger flow spatial and temporal distribution is proposed to solve the above problems. Based on the route selection model, considering the changes of passengers’ travel behavior after failure, the function of passengers’ willingness to wait time is constructed to calculate the inbound passenger flow. Individual route choice behavior is updated according to the change of transport capacity, and reassign the route selection. The Multi-agent simulation modeling technology is used to dynamically deduce the temporal and spatial distribution of passenger flow. The empirical analysis of train faults in Hefei Metro shows that the average relative errors of the inbound and outbound stations of the fault line are 4.89% and 8.74%, respectively, which verifies the validity of the method to deduce the passenger flow distribution. In the fault scenario, compared with the normal operation scenario, the change rule of inbound traffic over time is similar but greatly reduced. The outbound passenger flow of a single station arrives at an interval, and the number of passengers in the interval is much greater than that in the same period and then slightly less than that in the same period.

Xiaoke Deng, Yao Chen, Xujie Feng, Yun Bai
Influence Analysis of the Metro Nstray Current on AC Power Grid Based on Surface Potential Gradient

The metro stray current can change the surface potential distribution, which will affect the grounding equipment of the power grid. In order to analyze the interference range and influence degree of metro stray current, the DC traction power supply system was equivalent to the resistance network model, so the stray current and rail potential can be calculated numerically. Based on the potential field distribution of the point current source in uniform media, by using the superposition principle, the potential distribution and gradient change of the whole line stray current at any position were realized. The research showed that the stray current is closely related to the running state of trains on the metro line. The more trains in accelerating and decelerating state, the wider the spreading range of stray current and the larger the amplitude of surface potential.

Ni Yanru, Yu Kun, Zeng Xiangjun, Cheng Xinxiang, Tang Yuhang, Han Wei
Can China’s Carbon Market Pilot Cope with Uncertainty Shocks?
Taking the Example of the COVID-19 Pandemic

This paper introduces a novel approach by explicitly considering the COVID-19 pandemic as an analytical framework for assessing uncertainty shocks. Focusing on average trading volume and average trading prices, the study quantifies the impact of the pandemic on the carbon market in pilot regions. It compares the market performance of these regions in response to the pandemic shock while incorporating existing response measures. Relevant variables are identified and applied in a partial correlation analysis model. The findings reveal a significant correlation between the extent of the pandemic's impact on the carbon market and factors such as the proximity to the contract expiration date and the level of pandemic risk. This study provides the first empirical evidence of the effectiveness of current measures in mitigating the pandemic's impact on the carbon market. Additionally, recommendations are proposed for further optimizing response strategies.

Qi Wei, Kehao Wang
Research on Travel Route Recommendation of Urban Rail Transit Based on Passenger Portrait

With the development of the economy and science and technology, the construction scale of urban rail transit networks is gradually deepening and improving, and it tends to the development trend of network operation. Passengers can choose more travel plans between destination stations. The diversity of passenger travel plans leads to uneven passenger flow distribution, on the other hand, which makes the operation and management of urban rail transit face great challenges. At the same time, with the rise of the concept of travel and service, passengers' requirements for travel services are gradually improving. At present, the main travel route recommendations are mainly based on the comparison of the routes themselves, and the characteristics and needs of passengers are less considered. Therefore, it is of great significance to provide passengers with efficient and accurate urban rail travel routes suitable for them. In this paper, a travel route recommendation method based on passenger portrait is proposed, and grouping design is carried out based on passenger portrait, to provide a travel plan that meets the characteristics and needs of passengers for low-frequency passengers. This method quantifies the characteristics of passengers’ travel and gives a personalized travel recommendation scheme, which provides passengers with accurate operation services, improves service quality, and improves the efficiency of passenger flow organization of operation managers.

Jie He, Yong Qin, Xuan Sun, Jianyuan Guo
Urban Rail Train Diagram Compilation for Unbalanced Passenger Flow

Train diagram is an important basis for train operation and a decisive condition to ensure the safe and efficient travel of passengers. In view of the unbalanced characteristics of passenger flow in the morning commute, the train operation plan is formulated in combination with multi-routing mode, fast-slow mode and dynamic stop mode. The model is constructed to compile the train diagram with the goal of minimizing the average overload rate of the train, the average waiting time of the passengers and the travel distance of the train. The bi-level optimization algorithm is used, and the lower simulation is nested in the upper genetic algorithm to solve the model. The feasibility of the model and algorithm is verified by the actual data of Beijing Metro Line 6. The experimental results show that the mode of combining multi-routing with fast-slow train and dynamic parking reduces the average overload rate of trains and the average waiting time of passengers by 31.6% and 43.7% respectively. The method in this paper effectively improves the dynamic matching degree between the train diagram and the disequilibrium passenger flow, and meanwhile ensures the safe and efficient travel of passengers.

Jiaji Li, Jianyuan Guo, Yong Qin, Yueyue Wang
Research on Application Technology of Virtual Coupling Based on Adaptive Tracking

In this article, firstly, the research status of virtual coupling technology at home and abroad is summarized, and reviews the process and typical application scenarios of virtual coupling technology. Then, the minimum tracking distance model for virtual coupling operation was built, and an adaptive tracking algorithm based on error correction time was proposed to correct the speed curve of slave controlled vehicle. Finally, the application verification of the algorithm is carried out through the live vehicle test. When the speed of the virtual coupling cooperative operation reaches about 41 km/h, the tracking distance from the control vehicle is 48 m, which realizes the stable and reliable virtual coupling cooperative operation. In this article, the application technology of virtual coupling is studied, which has a good guiding significance for the scholars who are still in the stage of theoretical research.

Hou Chengbin, Liu Han, Shi Yan Hong, Zheng Chenglong, Kang Yuan Lei
Research on Collaborative Optimization of Passenger Flow Control and Train Skip-Stopping in Urban Rail Transit

Considering passenger flow will be stranded on the platform during the peak hours of urban rail transit, passenger flow congestion will be caused when the safety threshold is exceeded. A collaborative optimization model of station passenger flow control and train skip-stopping is established with the goal of minimizing the number of people exceeding the platform safety threshold and the average waiting time of passengers. A double deep Q network is used to solve it. A case study of Beijing Metro Line 13 and Changping Line is carried out with comparative analysis. In the morning peak station platform, there is a situation where the safety threshold is exceeded, and this safety problem is solved after optimization and the average waiting time of passengers is smaller than that before optimization. The case verifies the optimization effect of the model.

Shuning Jiang, Jianyuan Guo, Yong Qin, Qi Sun, Hui Zhang
Influence of Wall-Attached Antenna Distance on Channel in Tunnel Scenario

The transformation of high-speed railway is moving toward intelligence, information technology, and digitalization. Railway 5G dedicated mobile communication (5G-R) system has become the first choice for high-speed railway communication systems and an important guarantee for the safe operation of high-speed railways. Tunnels are one of the typical railway scenarios, and the deployment of a reliable and stable 5G-R system is the guarantee for the safe operation of future intelligent high-speed railways. However, in an actual tunnel, the electric cables erected on the upper wall of the tunnel and the smooth passage of trains will limit the installation position of the antenna. Generally, the transmitting antenna is selected to be installed near the side wall. This paper takes the tunnel as the research scenario, and uses ray tracing technology to simulate the wireless channel characteristics of the transmitting antenna at different installation positions on the side wall of the tunnel in the 2.1 GHz frequency band, including received power, K factor and Root-Mean-Square Delay Spread (RMS DS), which can be used for this scenario. The construction optimization and deep coverage of the railway 5G network provide a theoretical basis to deploy a more stable and reliable 5G mobile communication system.

Yao Liu, Jianwen Ding, Bin Sun, Siyu Lin, Wei Wang
Do High-Speed Railway Inhibit Earnings Management?
Evidence from China’s Capital Markets

The opening of the high-speed railway has made a huge difference on China’s economy and society. A series of studies on its macroeconomic consequences have been carried out, but not enough attention has been paid to corporate governance. Based on the natural experimental background of the high-speed railway opening in 2008, this paper took the China’s a-share listed companies from 2005 to 2021 as the research samples, and conducted an DID model to test the relationship between the high-speed railway and earnings management. It found that the opening of high-speed railway significantly inhibited the earnings management of listed companies, and the effect was stronger in prefecture-level cities than in cities at or above the sub-provincial level. This paper also discusses the internal mechanism of the effect of high-speed railway opening on earnings management, and found that the opening of high-speed railway can further affect earnings management through information transparency. This study not only enriches the research in corporate finance and other related fields, but also has practical significance for the effective supervision of regulatory authorities and rational decision-making of investors.

Litian Guo, Zhan Wang, Wei Fang, Zhijie Liang, Xiaoman Song
Modeling of Spatial Transfer of Affected Passengers to and from Stations Under Delayed Urban Rail Trains

The rapid development of urban rail transportation requires more and more emergency events such as train delays. This paper proposes a spatial transfer model for affected passengers entering and leaving stations under train delays in urban rail, aiming to provide a basis for emergency response under train delay type of emergencies. The study analyzes the influencing factors of passenger travel under train delay conditions, constructs physical network and spatio-temporal expansion network under train delay conditions, and establishes effective physical path set and spatio-temporal path set. Based on the spatio-temporal path set, the generalized cost of passenger travel under train delay is calculated, and the spatial transfer probability of affected passengers in and out of stations is obtained by Logit model, and the spatial transfer model of affected passengers in and out of stations is established by using particle swarm algorithm for parameter optimization. The prediction model was validated using the data of a train delay event on Beijing Metro Line 10.

Ziyu Wang, Limin Jia, Jianyuan Guo, Ming Chen
Design of Parallel Auxiliary Converter with Different Capacity Based on Flexible Marshalling EMUs

With the development and progress of high-speed railway and rail transit equipment technology, EMUs play an increasingly important role in railway transportation. In order to improve the flexibility of EMUs operation, more and more attention has been paid to the flexible marshalling technology of EMUs. Aiming at the apply problem of flexible marshalling of EMUs, this paper puts forward an auxiliary power supply system based on flexible marshalling of EMUs, introduces the power supply mode and load distribution mode. At the same time, this paper designs a parallel control strategy of auxiliary converters with different capacities based on adaptive improved droop control, which realizes the proportional allocation of active and reactive power according to the capacity of the auxiliary converter. The effectiveness and accuracy of the control strategy are verified by Matlab simulation and experiment.

Junbo Zhao, Tao Jia, Bo Zhang, Qingwen Sun, Xinyu He, Xuan Su, Hongguo Li, Xiang Feng
Collaborative Optimization of Train Scheduling and Passenger Flow Control with Adjustable Dwell Time on a Congested Metro Line

Metro lines in megacities often experience extreme congestion during peak hours, causing passengers to strand on platforms and pose serious operational risks. This paper formulates a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model (MINP) for the train scheduling and passenger flow control coordination problem with adjustable dwell time on overcrowded metro lines. It can offer a service-oriented schedule plan and implements the effective passenger flow control strategy to reduce platform congestion while maintaining transportation capacity. By employing a linearization method, this paper transformes the proposed model into a linear program that can be efficiently solved via Gurobi. Finally, numerical experiments show that the total waiting time of passengers is reduced by 40.8%, which can effectively reduce rail traffic congestion, and verify the effectiveness of the model.

Zhengjie Wu, Kai Yang
Analysis of Risk Factors of Railway Trespassing Accidents Based on Multinomial Logit Model

In order to solve the problem of imprecise alarm of foreign objects in railway encroachment, realize foreign object risk stratification and early warning. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the trespasser factors, environmental factors and track factors associated with the severity of injuries in railway trespassing accidents from the perspective of trespasser, so as to identify features that rail monitoring needed, and propose optimization measures for accident prevention. This paper uses the Multinomial logit model to identify the factors and characteristics of trespasser injury severity based on Federal Railroad Administration accident record data. The pre-accident acts and location are the most important factors influencing the severity of the accident. Driving is the most common acts in trespassing incidents, while lying, standing and walking have a significant relationship with fatality outcomes. Combinations of some different behaviors and orbital locations can lead to polarization of accident risk with a higher risk of death, and it should be pay more attention when monitoring these features. This paper can be used to determine the relative level of risk for of each feature of illegal trespassing accidents and infer the severity of accident casualties, so as to construct an evaluation index system for foreign body characteristics. This paper helps to improve the detection and early warning accuracy of intrusion accidents by considering trespassers’ acts, weather and track scene types in the framework of railway foreign object video detection, which has practical significance.

Xu Wang, Xiaoping Ma, Hanqing Zhang, Fei Chen
Design of Indoor Navigation Scheme Based on Bluetooth Low Energy

Navigation based on mobile devices has developed rapidly in recent years, but GPS positioning technology cannot work effectively in indoor environments, so a variety of indoor wireless positioning technologies have emerged. Due to the low power consumption, convenience and cheapness of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) devices, Bluetooth wireless positioning has become one of the most commonly used solutions in current indoor positioning technology. In order to solve the problem of strong fluctuation of Bluetooth signal and large positioning error in the indoor navigation process, this paper uses Kalman filter to weaken the influence of random disturbance on the real Bluetooth signal, uses maximum likelihood to estimate the position coordinates of the locator, and makes full use of multiple beacon nodes to improve positioning accuracy. In order to verify the feasibility of the indoor navigation algorithm, an indoor navigation system is designed and deployed in the field. The experimental results show that the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the method proposed in this paper is 2.336 m, and the RMSE in the X and Y directions is less than 3 m, which can meet the indoor positioning and navigation needs of ordinary users.

Zhaotian Wu, Xiaoping Ma, Jiayin Li, Ruojin Wang, Fei Chen
Research on the Optimal Coupling and Uncoupling Position Decision of Flexible Marshalling of Urban Rail Transit

The expanding scale of the rail network presents vital challenges to urban transportation operation. The demand for energy savings and improved service levels is increasing. Flexible marshalling on spatial lines can achieve a win-win situation for both operation level and passenger service. In this paper, we construct a comprehensive objective model for selecting the optimal coupling and uncoupling positions of trains under imbalanced spatial passenger flow. The model minimizes both the traction energy cost and passenger congestion penalty cost with a genetic algorithm to determine the optimal coupling and uncoupling position of trains under different operating frequencies, focusing on the entire section of the line, considering constraints such as line conditions and capacity, decision variables as the marshalling position. The optimal solution can reduce the traction energy cost by 20.08% to 27.13% and the passenger penalty congestion cost by 14.97% to 34.99%.

O. U. Dongxiu, Shaogang Dai, Xinyin Zhang, Rei ZhG
Large-Scale Language Models for PHM in Railway Systems - Potential Applications, Limitations, and Solutions

Prognostics and health management (PHM) technology, by monitoring the faults and degradation of railway systems, predicting the remaining useful life of equipment, and providing maintenance recommendations, can effectively improve the safety and reliability of railway systems. In recent years, large-scale language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT have achieved groundbreaking accomplishments and led a new wave of innovation in various fields. Consequently, the potential impacts of LLMs on PHM applications in railway systems are worth researching and exploring. This paper first introduces the basic principles and technical characteristics of LLMs. Subsequently, it analyzes the potential impacts of these models in PHM applications within railway systems, exploring how they can be applied in various processes of PHM, including operations management, condition monitoring, maintenance recommendations, and knowledge management, to enhance the effectiveness of PHM. Moreover, this study analyzes the limitations of LLMs in PHM applications within railway systems from a practical perspective and discusses relevant solutions accordingly. Based on these solutions, these models are expected to become more specialized and intelligent, playing a crucial role in the maintenance and management of railway systems. Finally, this paper provides an outlook on LLMs’ prospects and research directions in PHM applications within railway systems.

Huan Wang, Yan-Fu Li
An Adaptive Fourier Decomposition Method for Gear Fault Diagnosis of Railway Vehicle in the Non-stationary Process

The vibration signal of railway vehicle gears has prominent non-stationary characteristics, and its feature extraction is a challenging issue for fault diagnosis. To tackle this issue, we proposed an adaptive Fourier decomposition method to extract the fault frequency characteristics in non-stationary signals. This method, combined with the computational order tracking technique, can eliminate the signal’s fast-changing characteristics and improve the algorithm performance obtaining intrinsic mode decomposition by taking advantage of the orthogonality, completeness, locality, and adaptability of the Fourier decomposition method (FDM). Then, a parameter setting-free AFDM method is established based on the reconstructing signal using FDM entropy and weighted kurtosis. Finally, the simulation signal and experimental signal study cases are carried out to verify its effectiveness. The results show that the proposed method’s peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of the reconstructed signal is higher 23.2% than the empirical mode decomposition method (EMD), which can effectively extract the weak sideband frequency features generated by the modulation of the impact behaviour, and demodulates the weak frequency to identify the gear spalling fault of the railway vehicle.

Zhongshuo Hu, Qiang Li, Jinhai Wang, Jianwei Yang, Dechen Yao
Short-Term Passenger Flow Prediction for Urban Rail Based on Improved EEMD-Ensemble Learning

Urban rail transit passenger flow prediction encounters two primary challenges: the inability to effectively capture the variations in passenger flow patterns and the limited accuracy of prediction models. Therefore, this paper proposes three improved Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) methods to accurately capture the characteristics of passenger flow sequence data: (1) Grouped Reconstruction of IMF (Intrinsic Mode Function) Components in EEMD; (2) High-Frequency Disturbance Removal EEMD; (3) Hybrid EEMD. Simultaneously, a short-term passenger flow combination prediction model for urban rail transit stations is established. In order to enhance the prediction accuracy and robustness of the model, the base models utilized include XGBoost, LightGBM, and LSTM. Additionally, the Stacking ensemble method is employed to fuse the models together. Finally, a short-term passenger flow prediction model for urban rail transit based on improved EEMD and ensemble learning is constructed. Taking the entry passenger flow of Beijing West Station in the Beijing Subway as an example, the effectiveness of the model in predicting short-term passenger flow in urban rail transit is validated.

Yaoqin Qiao, Huijuan Zhou, Xiayu Zhang, Lufei Liu
Research on Train Delay Forecast of High-Speed Railway Based on Data Driving

China’s high-speed railway exhibits high train density and small tracking intervals. Once a train is delayed, the delay easily propagates, leading to further delays. Therefore, accurate prediction of train delays can assist dispatchers in formulating timely optimization and adjustment plans, minimizing the negative impact of delay propagation, and enhancing the reliability and punctuality of train operations. This paper constructs a train delay prediction model based on the cyclic neural network (RNN) algorithm, enabling accurate prediction of train arrival delay times. The model is then validated using actual operational data from the Wuhan-Guangzhou high-speed railway, with the experimental results demonstrating high prediction accuracy.

Mengchen Wang, Yong Qin, Li Wang, Xianghao Wang, Xinyi Du
Research on Factors Influencing Decision-Making Behavior for Evacuation Path Selection of Personnel Inside Subway Station

Subway transportation is characterized by high passenger flow, limited space, and complex evacuation paths. In the event of a sudden incident such as a fire, flooding, or toxic gas leakage, it is crucial to study the factors that determine the selection of evacuation paths for subway station personnel. This study focuses on subway passengers in Beijing. Through a questionnaire based on cognitive mapping theory, we collected data on the emergency evacuation path selection strategies of subway participants in disaster scenarios. Based on different strategy preferences, we analyzed the determining factors of evacuation path selection behavior and proposed targeted improvements and preventive measures accordingly.

Mengmeng Yin, Mengting Liu, Jingjing Wang, Wei Zhu
Research and Simulation of Multi-objective Optimization of Urban Rail Train Automatic Driving System

The automatic driving system serves as the central component for efficiently managing the operation of urban rail trains, enabling train control through algorithmic means. Evolutionary algorithms are commonly employed to optimize control strategies for autonomous driving systems. This paper presents a segmented multi-objective optimization model for the train operation phase and employs a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with an elite retention strategy to solve the model. This approach achieves global optimization with respect to the smoothness, accuracy, punctuality, and energy efficiency of urban rail trains. The simulation results demonstrate that traction and braking operations can be optimized for stability and energy conservation, while intermediate operations can be optimized for precision, punctuality, and energy efficiency. This optimization strategy enhances the multi-objective optimization performance of the automatic driving system, accommodating the intricacies of the rail line, and offering valuable insights for enhancing the automatic driving system of urban rail trains.

Changzhi Lv, Dongyu Liu, Ke Li, Xiaoming Wang
Research and Implementation of Video Intelligent Auxiliary Recognition System for Smart Stations in Urban Rail Transit

This paper focused on the operation and management for smart stations in urban rail transit, we analyzed the key technologies of intelligent video auxiliary recognition, designed and implemented a video intelligent analysis subsystem which suitable for subway stations. This system monitors and analyzes various videos in the subway station in real-time, alerts and notifies the station operators when analyzing important information, abnormal events, and abnormal behaviors in the station, which supports typical application scenarios to assist in operation management.

Li Youwen, Li Yongzheng, Le Linzhi
Establishment and Validation of a Model for Predicting Snow Drift Distance in Cold Area Tunnel

To study the snow drifting distance law and the main influencing factors of the entrance and exit section of the alpine tunnel, and to improve the safety of the tunnel entrance and exit section in the cold area, firstly, the data of wind speed, snowfall and snow drifting distance of the entrance and exit section of the alpine tunnel at high altitude were collected, and the correlation analysis of the independent variables of wind speed and snowfall on the distance of the entrance drifting snow was investigated by using the method of statistical analysis to set up a prediction model of the snow drifting distance of the tunnel in snowy days; Secondly, in order to verify the accuracy of the prediction model, FLUENT software is used to simulate the wind-blown snow scenario in the tunnel entrance section, and then the simulated values of the simulation results are analyzed in terms of the error with the calculated values calculated by the prediction model. The results show that the simulation results are in good agreement with the calculation results of the prediction model, indicating that the prediction model is able to better quantify the important characteristic of the distance of drifting snow in the tunnel entrance and exit sections. This provides a reference for further research on the evolution of the friction coefficient of tunnel pavement in cold regions, and also lays a foundation for safe driving in the entrance and exit sections of high-altitude tunnels in cold regions.

Hailong Ling, Chen Wang, Bing Wang, Yingqi Li
Evaluating Regional Rail Transit Safety: A Data-Driven Approach

To grasp the trend of safety conditions in the operation process of multisystem rail transit, and allocate transport capacity and maintenance resources reasonably, the managers should master accurate and comprehensive safety evaluation of regional rail transit system. A data-driven model for safety evaluation of regional rail transit system was proposed in this study. The deep autoencoder networks were employed to reduce the dimensions of the evaluation index system. The hybrid hierarchical k-means clustering method was applied to obtain the set of all possible safety status. The tree-augmented naïve Bayes algorithm was used to evaluate the overall safety. The validity and practicality of the model were verified using actual operations data from a rail transit network in regional urban agglomeration in China. A comparison with the actual situation shows that the proposed approach can evaluate the safety level of the network effectively.

Qing Li, Ling Liu, Jun Liu, Wanqiu Zhang, Gehui Liu
Variable Channelization and Signal Coordination of Level Crossing

To solve the problem that the current intersection control form is fixed and can not adapt to the dynamic and random traffic flow. A new type of intersection dynamic control, variable channelization and traffic signal coordination control based on video traffic flow detection, is proposed. Real-time traffic flow is detected through video, and different channelization and information control schemes are adopted according to different traffic flows. Finally, taking the most common two-way four-lane lane as an example, the variable channelization and traffic signal coordination control scheme based on video traffic flow detection is designed and completed, including the channelization scheme design, the coordination and cooperation design of the main pre-signal light, the peak shift threshold design, the variable channelization and information control coordination design under different flow states and the transition design between the peak channelization scheme. And through the VISSIM simulation, from the parking times, queue length, delay three aspects of the operation benefit assessment under different flow state, verify the feasibility of the scheme, reduce the overall delay of the intersection, improve the efficiency of the intersection. It provides a new idea for the improvement of urban intersection.

Yingqi Li, Lipeng Zhang, Bing Wang, Hailong Ling
Research on Safety Assessment Methods for Urban Rail Transit Operation

With the continuous expansion of urban rail transit operation scale, it presents the characteristics of long operation mileage, complex passenger flow characteristics, and heavy equipment service load, etc., which requires the study of risk generation and evolutionary propagation mechanism in the operation process to guide the active safety control. In this study, Event Evolutionary Graph based Bow-Tie Analysis is proposed. With the help of natural language processing technology to realize the event relationship analysis and automatic extraction, for the text characteristics of urban rail transit field, the sequential relationship to indicate the evolution law of the event, and the bow-tie combination of the cause, effect and control measures of the risk of the path of safety assessment. On the one hand, the assessment is carried out from the evolution path of control measures, and on the other hand, the risk is comprehensively assessed in terms of the possibility of risk occurrence, the possibility of oriented consequences, and the severity of consequences, which provides a reference for the quantification of the safety level. Finally, the application of the method, which is highly operational and can effectively guide the safety management work, is demonstrated by means of a typical scenario of urban rail transit operation in a given location.

Zhengjiang Li, Qianqi Fan, Bin Han
Study on Optimization of the Adjustment Mechanism for the Allocation of Funds for Transferring Consumption Tax on Refined Oil Products

The reform of prices and taxes of refined oil products has great and far-reaching significance in financing the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure in accordance with the law and promoting the stable and healthy development of transportation. It has been more than ten years since the reform, and the tax collection method of the existing consumption income of refined oil products used for transportation in China has to be changed, and the distribution mechanism needs to be improved urgently. By sorting out the collection mechanism of the consumption tax on refined oil products used for transportation and the distribution mechanism of the transfer funds, this paper analyzes the problems of this mechanism according to the distribution and use of the transfer funds of the refined oil product tax reform. On this basis, this paper proposes the adjustment plan of the distribution mechanism at the level of the transfer funds supply of the consumption tax on refined oil products, according to the direction of the reform concerning the division of financial affairs.

Ma Yanjun, Cui Min, Luo Shiyi, Huang Liya, Wang Jing, He Jiayuan
A Sparsity-Free Compressed Sensing Method for PHM Data Quality Assurance Using Generative Adversarial Network

Recovering missing data to improve data quality is of great importance for prognostics and health management (PHM) of structures and machinery. Existing missing data reconstruction methods are generally limited by strong assumptions such as signal sparsity, coupled with heavy computational burdens, making them poorly adaptable to PHM data. To obtain more reliable PHM results, a novel algorithm is developed to handle missing data based on compressive sensing and enhanced context encoders (CS-ECE). The CS-ECE can reconstruct the detailed characteristics of signals in both the time and frequency domains. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated using real-world data collected from a high-speed train. The results demonstrate that CS-ECE can obtain realistic and accurate recovered results, thereby providing a high-quality dataset for data-driven PHM studies.

Qinglin Xie, Jing Wang, Gongquan Tao, Chenxi Xie, Zefeng Wen
Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies for Rail Transportation (EITRT) 2023
Yong Qin
Limin Jia
Jianwei Yang
Lijun Diao
Dechen Yao
Min An
Copyright Year
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN