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About this book

This book presents selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER 2019), providing a comprehensive coverage encompassing all fields and aspects of energy in terms of generation, storage, and distribution. Themes such as optimization of energy systems, energy efficiency, economics, management, and policy, and the interlinkages between energy and environment are included. The contents of this book will be of use to researchers and policy makers alike.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Determination of Steam Energy Factor for Wort Kettle as a Tool for Optimization of the Steam Energy

Increased focus on sustainability and energy conservation in process industries has led to a tremendous shift toward energy savings through reduced steam consumption. Evaluation of steam energy utilization by determining the steam energy factor (SEF) for energy intensive equipment in a Brewhouse such as the Wort kettle helps to demonstrate the potential for a substantial reduction in steam consumption. The high steam demand in a Brewhouse is often subjected to change due to various factors, and conventional techniques to estimate steam requirement might not be adequate to capture this versatility. The study proposes a methodology for determining the SEF for Wort kettle. A machine learning-enabled model is developed taking into account all the critical factors that primarily influence the steam energy requirement in a Brewhouse. The model was incorporated into our cloud-based platform and installed at major Breweries across India. Initial analysis done for 400HL and 440HL batches emphasized the parametric sensitivity of the model that subsequently characterized the various losses occurring in the Wort kettle and also the effect of each of the process parameters on steam energy requirement. A Wort kettle running at a sweet wort composition of less than 34% and having an SEF of 1.76 accounted for 27% evaporation loss, 8.2% condensate loss, 2.4% flash loss, 1.3% heat recovery loss and 6.4% miscellaneous loss. The model helped in establishing a relationship between the losses and all the process parameters which helped in optimizing the process control. The average SEF value was reduced from 1.76 to 1.6 with a better control strategy achieved through SEF that translated to a reduction in average steam consumption of 5371–4720 kg/brew within 7 months. Further optimization of the model overtime may help in achieving an SEF value of 1.58 with a massive reduction in energy requirement.

Shripad Kulkarni, Alex Bernard

CMG-Based Simulation Study of Water Flooding of Petroleum Reservoir

In petroleum industry, water flooding is used as secondary recovery method to increase oil production. It is the most widely used and popular method due to easy water availability, ease of injection, and mobility, etc. but at later stages, it becomes uneconomical due to the cost of separation and treatment of the produced water. Hence, in order to maximize the oil recovery in an economical way from waterflooding, it is important to make some changes in the flooding pattern. The aim of the present study is to analyze the waterflooding performance for the enhancement of oil production of virtual reservoirs using CMG-IMEX (Computer Modeling Group) reservoir simulation tool. The performance analysis is done for different flooding layout (horizontal or combination of vertical and horizontal well) and of different length of injection and production well. Three parameters such as cumulative oil production, percentage water cut, and water–oil ratio are used to predict the performance. The fresh simulation performed for the condition available in open literature, called base case, is in good agreement with the earlier published results. Nine different alternative arrangements were simulated and the best combination is reported where the highest amount of cumulative oil production and highest percentage of enhancement of oil production can be achieved.

Pratiksha D. Khurpade, Somnath Nandi, Pradeep B. Jadhav, Lalit K. Kshirsagar

Exergy-Based Comparison of Two Gas Turbine Plants with Naphtha and Naphtha-RFG Mixture as Fuels

The aim of this study is to develop a detailed thermodynamic analysis of naphtha-based GT power plant. For this purpose, a comprehensive energy analysis followed by exergy analysis of GT1 (Naphtha) and GT2 (Naphtha & Residual fuel gas) is presented. The parameters such as exergy efficiency, physical exergy, chemical exergy and exergy destruction are evaluated considering real values of power plant control unit. Analysis pointed out that exergy destruction of GT2 is higher as compared to GT1 because of the introduction of Residual fuel gas at 92 °C. Also, this paper produces and compares Sankey and Gassman diagram for energy and exergy results of two gas turbines.

Sankalp Arpit, Sagar Saren, Prasanta Kumar Das, Sukanta Kumar Dash

Decentralized Solid Waste Management for Educational-Cum-Residential Campus: A Pilot Study

Growth of population and urbanization has given boost to municipal solid waste generation in India. The municipal corporations throughout the country are facing problems to improve collection efficiency of waste and subsequently, treat, and dispose the tonnes of waste generated daily. The decentralization of solid waste management could prove effective in managing such problems. The waste generated in India has more than 40% of biodegradable organic matter. The existing methods of composting and biomethanation with numerous modifications by researchers have proved effective in treatment of such wastes and produce quality products viz compost and biomethane which can be used further to improve soil quality and replace fuel, respectively. This paper is a case study of these methods at a decentralized level to investigate their feasibility and present their applicability. The results show that composting using windrows is suitable in terms of area requirement and nuisance created and produces 0.179 kg of manure/kg of food waste of quality as recommended by various researchers and fertilizer control order. A pilot plant for biomethanation is also designed and operated based on recommendations by researchers to produces biogas (treated methane) of 0.162 m3/kg of TS.

Deepak Singh Baghel, Yogesh Bafna

Does the Criteria of Instability Thresholds During Density Wave Oscillations Need to Be Redefined?

Two-phase flow instabilities and in particular density wave oscillations (DWOs) are unwanted in boiling, condensation, and other flow boiling systems as it can cause severe deterioration in the performance or even damage the system. For decades, efforts have been focused on designing equipment or processes that operate far from the conditions where the two-phase flow instabilities are present. And hence multiple studies in particular experiments were carried out to identify the characteristics of the instability thresholds during the DWOs. In this work, we show that the conventional approach of identifying the instability thresholds does not hold good to determine the global stability behavior of the system. This includes identifications of the limit cycle oscillations and the Hopf bifurcation across the instability thresholds. And hence, this study postulates the need for redefining the criteria and the approach to identify the instability thresholds experimentally.

Subhanker Paul, Suparna Paul, Maria Fernandino, Carlos Alberto Dorao

Solar Energy for Meeting Service Hot Water Demand in Hotels: Potential and Economic Feasibility in India

This paper presents an assessment of utilization potential and financial feasibility appraisal for meeting service hot water demand in star category hotels in India with solar energy. Service hot water demand and the means of hot water generation in such hotels were reviewed with the levelized (unit) cost of useful thermal energy estimated for the same. Using the software RETScreen4®, the required solar collection area and solar fraction for different locations in the country for both flat plate collector (FPC)-based and evacuated tubular collector (ETC)-based solar systems were estimated. The collector areas vary in the rage of 258–407 m2 with average 0.55 solar fraction for FPC and 237–373 m2 with average 0.65 solar fraction for ETC for 27 locations. Total roof area of few selected hotel buildings is estimated using satellite image system with the help of Google EarthTM version 7.3.2. The levelized (unit) cost of useful thermal energy delivered by solar water heating systems (SWHS) based on FPC and ETC is found to vary between 0.85–1.05 Rs./MJ and 0.68–0.80 Rs./MJ, respectively. Other measures of financial viability such as discounted payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return for an incremental investment in solar water heating systems for generation of service hot water in star category hotels in India have also been estimated. The estimates of payback period and NPV point toward financial viability of the same.

Niranjan Rao Deevela, Tara C. Kandpal

Techno-economic Feasibility of Condenser Cooling Options for Solar Thermal Power Plants in India

An analysis to study the effect of three condenser cooling options on techno-economics of parabolic trough collector based solar thermal power plants in India has been presented. Wet, dry and hybrid condenser cooling technologies are considered for a 50 MW nominal capacity plant. The annual electricity output and the levelized cost of electricity delivered have been estimated. It is observed from the results obtained that the plants with the dry cooling technology are expected to generate approximately 5% less annual electricity. The cost of electricity delivery was observed to be 16% higher for a dry-cooled plant as compared to a wet-cooled plant. Similar analysis has also been undertaken for a hybrid-cooled plant and results are presented.

Tarun Kumar Aseri, Chandan Sharma, Tara C. Kandpal

Optical Modeling of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

In this article, the flux distribution of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) is performed by considering limb darkening effect in the incoming solar radiation. Inhouse model is developed using the MATLAB tool for the analysis. The effort is also made to reduce the computation time of CPU by converting the complete PTSC problem into two-dimensional model. The proposed model is used to provide the comparison of the flux distribution for sun considered as a uniform source and by considering the limb darkening effect in the sun source. The results have also been provided for the effect of change of aperture for same geometrical concentration ratio, rim angle and errors due to manufacturing incapabilities on the flux distribution. It is desirable to upgrade the manufacturing standards for the manufacturing of the large aperture PTSC to improve the geometrical concentration ratio of the collector.

Anish Malan, K. Ravi Kumar

Cooling Energy-Saving Potential of Naturally Ventilated Interior Design in Low-Income Tenement Unit

This article aims to exhibit the potential of natural ventilation (nat-vent) as a passive cooling method within the low-income tenement units in tropical climatic regions using Mumbai as a case example. Furthermore, it also highlights the significance of interior design and optimized location of ‘active zone’ in delivering improved experiential nat-vent levels. A mixed-mode approach involving iterated design scenario generation based on housing survey, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for natural and mechanical ventilation modes (air-conditioning and ceiling fan) along with energy consumption modelling was implemented here to investigate the cooling energy-reducing potential of the nat-vent efficient indoor design. Results indicate that the selected interior design ‘scenario 1’ was capable of annual saving 364.43 kWh of cooling energy with a cost reduction of INR 2575.86. This study by formulating a method to assess the environmental-economic impact of nat-vent efficient interior design would aid the building engineers in paving a way towards the formation of sustainable design guidelines.

Ahana Sarkar, Ronita Bardhan

Development of an Improved Cookstove: An Experimental Study

The thermal performance and emission characteristics of an improved cookstove utilizing biomass pellets as fuel have been investigated. The present work is focused on the development of an improved forced draft cookstove model having higher thermal efficiency and reduced emissions of particulate matter (PM 2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO). The improved cookstove consisted of two concentric cylinders with provision of both primary as well as secondary air. An air gap was provided around the combustion chamber to preheat the secondary air before being supplied for combustion, thereby reducing the heat losses. The flow rates of primary and secondary air were controlled to supply the optimum quantity of air, resulting in the complete combustion of volatiles and particulates before being released into the environment. The average value of thermal efficiency for the developed cookstove model was obtained to be around 36.82%, while the emissions of CO and PM 2.5 were, respectively, reported to be of 1.02 g/MJD and 29.96 mg/MJD following the standard test procedures mentioned in the Bureau of Indian Standards.

Himanshu, S. K. Tyagi, Sanjeev Jain

Impact of Demand Response Implementation in India with Focus on Analysis of Consumer Baseline Load

The stochastic nature of renewable energy sources creates unpredictable variability making instantaneous demand and supply a big challenge. Demand response (DR) which is an intentional modification of consumer loads as per utility requirement can support the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, helping grid operators to quickly respond to power variability. Smart grids provide an opportunity for consumers to produce energy and feed it into the grid as well as control their energy requirement which is one of the important aspects of DR implementation. This paper provides an overview of various aspects of DR programs available in the literature from point of view of challenges, benefits, and applications. Various opportunities and challenges for DR deployment on renewable energy integration and smart grids from the Indian context are discussed in the work. The objective of the paper is to suggest drivers that will motivate DR deployment with effective renewable energy integration in the country. One of the important aspects of DR implementation in the country is to assess DR potential available among the different categories of consumers. Consumer baseline gives reference consumption which is used to assess DR potential. A case study has been conducted on one of the industrial feeders in Goa state to estimate consumer baseline load (CBL) using different methods. Average, maximum value, adjustment, and regression-based CBL estimation methods used for analysis are compared based on evaluated performance metrics. From the analysis, it is found that the adjustment method is most accurate for CBL estimation.

Jayesh Priolkar, E. S. Sreeraj

Double Dielectric Barrier Discharge-Assisted Conversion of Biogas to Synthesis Gas

In the recent decade, the use of plasma technology for dry reforming of methane has gained significant interest. Owing to the adverse effects caused by the greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4 on climate change, the valorization of these pollutants is imperative, and is also a challenging task. The current study focuses on developing a double dielectric barrier discharge (DDBD) reactor for the conversion of CO2–CH4 mixture to synthesis gas (H2 + CO). The non-thermal plasma was generated using two co-planar quartz electrodes with the outer one wrapped with copper tape that was grounded, and the inner stainless steel rod connected to a high-voltage source. A discharge gap of 2 mm, and a discharge length of 70 mm were maintained. The effects of specific energy input (SEI) and CO2:CH4 composition on the conversion of CO2 and H2/CO ratio were studied. The power dissipated in the reactor was calculated from the Lissajous plot by measuring the instantaneous charge deposited inside the discharge volume. The effective conversion of CO2 increased with increasing SEI, and it was maximum for CH4:CO2 of 50:50 (vol.%/vol.%). These are attributed to higher residence time of CO2, which favors the production of CO and O by electron-induced dissociation, and electron dissociative recombination reactions.

Bharathi Raja, R. Sarathi, Ravikrishnan Vinu

Thermo-Hydrodynamic Modeling of Direct Steam Generation in Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

Direct steam generation (DSG) in the parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) has the potential to improve the thermal efficiency and minimize the investment cost for solar thermal power generation. In the present work, three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations of DSG in the absorber tube have been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach to predict the fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena for uniform wall heat flux condition. Wall boiling model under Eulerian multi-phase flow has been used in this study and it includes modeling of turbulence, mass transfer, and wall heat flux partition. The numerical modeling of DSG has been performed in CFD software ANSYS Fluent 19.0 and the results have shown good agreement with the available experimental results. Two-phase flow boiling pressure drop, volume fraction of vapor, liquid temperature, and variation of fluid velocity in axial direction have been studied for various operating pressures and inlet mass flow rates. It is observed that pressure drop is more at lower operating pressure for the same mass flow rate and wall heat flux. Contours of volume fraction of vapor at different positions along the length of absorber tube have been predicted. It is found that vapor phase moves upward due to gravity and the upper section of the tube gets dried.

Ram Kumar Pal, K. Ravi Kumar

Hydrodeoxygenation of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Pinewood Over Various Catalysts

Fast pyrolysis is the most promising technique for the production of biomass-derived fuels, which is a substitute for petroleum-based fuel oil. Catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapours from biomass improves the quality of bio-oil to a greater extent by deoxygenation so that the upgraded bio-oil can be used as a hydrocarbon fuel. This work is mainly focused on studying the effect of various catalysts such as hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolites of different Si/Al ratios, commercial HZSM-5, and W2C/γ-Al2O3, on hydrodeoxygenation of organic compounds from pinewood pyrolysis. Catalytic hydropyrolysis experiments were conducted in an analytical pyrolyzer with ex-situ catalytic upgrading zone, which was connected to a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Hierarchical zeolites exhibited significant deoxygenation activity producing aromatic hydrocarbons. The degree of deoxygenation had a good correlation with the acidity of the zeolites. Hierarchical HZSM-5 (20) produced aromatic hydrocarbons at ~88% selectivity. Furthermore, unconventional W2C/γ-Al2O3 serves as a potential hydrodeoxygenation catalyst, producing 97% selectivity to hydrocarbons. In addition, W2C/γ-Al2O3 overcomes the drawback of coke formation on acidic sites of zeolites.

Kavimonica Venkatesan, Parasuraman Selvam, Ravikrishnan Vinu

Simulation of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Using NREL FAST Solver

The work presented here demonstrates the simulation of flow through a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) using the NREL FAST solver. Computation of flow past the NREL phase VI experimental horizontal axis wind turbine is performed. The computations are made on the basic model with $$0^\circ $$ 0 ∘ yaw angle and $$3^\circ $$ 3 ∘ pitch angle at the tip. The turbine rotates at 7.54 rad/s for wind speed ranging from 5–25 m/s. This turbine has been extensively used for testing purposes. We compute the flow through the HAWT blades using the solver and compared the solution with both the experimental and computation fluid dynamics (CFD) results available in the literature. We are able to obtain the results with very good accuracy, and compared to CFD, the solution was achieved with significantly less computational effort.

Asmelash Haftu Amaha, Prabhu Ramachandran, Shivasubramanian Gopalakrishnan

Do Energy Policies with Disclosure Requirement Improve Firms’ Energy Management? Evidence from Indian Metal Sector

Climate change poses serious threats to mankind and biodiversity and the concerns have resulted in efforts from all nations. India alone is responsible for 6% of global CO2 emissions with a significant contribution from energy-intensive industries. Energy policies with different compliance requirements have been introduced to lower firms’ emissions. Some policies require specific quantitative information to be disclosed, while others have more general requirements. However, the empirical evidence of the impact of different energy policies on emissions remains limited. This study, therefore, examines what role disclosure-based energy policies have on the decarbonization of firms. For this, the study builds and examines the emission profile of firms from the energy-intensive sector: metal sector. Further, using the economics of emission framework, it is argued that energy policy with disclosure requirements can reduce emissions. The study has implications for public policy and corporate managers.

Mousami Prasad

Power Management of Non-conventional Energy Resources-Based DC Microgrid Supported by Hybrid Energy Storage

DC microgrid is advantageous over AC microgrid in terms of compatibility with the non-conventional power sources like solar, energy conversion devices like fuel cell, storage devices like battery and supercapacitor and modern DC load. Power management in an isolated electrical system has been always a great concern to guaranty maximum utilization of intermittent sources and supply the reliable power to load. This paper presents a power management scheme for the proposed DCMG. The proposed DCMG includes an intermittent renewable source (solar PV), an energy conversion device (fuel cell), a hybrid energy storage system (battery and supercapacitor) and a variable DC load. Solar PV is connected to the DC bus through unidirectional DC/DC converter, and storage devices and fuel cell connect with the DC bus through bidirectional DC/DC converter. The output power of the solar PV is controlled by hill-climbing incremental conductance (INC) algorithm to operate at MPPT. A MATLAB/Simulink demonstration of the proposed system is simulated, and the obtained results are discussed.

Jaynendra Kumar, Anshul Agarwal, Nitin Singh

Sizing of a Solar-Powered Adsorption Cooling System for Comfort Cooling

Solar-powered adsorption cooling technologies have been demonstrated by various researchers worldwide to be feasible for small-scale applications and part load conditions. Similar to the other solar thermal-powered cooling technologies, the constraint of oversizing issues pertains in autonomous systems without backup. In the current study, the performance assessment of a solar thermal adsorption cooling system has been carried out in TRNSYS for a polygeneration system project aiming to address the comfort cooling needs of a staffroom of a school building near Roorkee, India. A simplistic approach has been proposed for the estimation of collector aperture area and storage volumes, using the monthly averages of daily cooling energy, peak cooling loads and daily average solar irradiation. An economic analysis applied on the results obtained from the proposed approach yielded the optimal collector area and storage volumes of 40 m2 and 300 L, respectively, to mitigate CO2 emissions with minimal costs under the given load conditions. A detailed analysis conducted in TRNSYS with various collector aperture areas and storage volumes along with control strategies adapted to follow the IMAC thermal comfort recommendations showed that there was little deviation (around 5%) between the solar cooling fractions estimated using the proposed approach and those computed from TRNSYS, for various collector areas. It was also observed that the costs incurred for CO2 mitigation varied by less than 1% using the optimal collector sizing estimated by the proposed approach from that of the costs incurred using the optimal sizing suggested by TRNSYS.

Sai Yagnamurthy, Dibakar Rakshit, Sanjeev Jain

Experimental Evaluation of Common Rail Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine with EGR Using Biodiesel

India is poised to introduce the new Bharat Stage VI emission norms on its IC engines with effect from April 2020. Hence the study was undertaken to evaluate performance and emissions of a CRDI diesel engine using diesel, i.e. B0 and B25 blend with water-cooled EGR arrangement. Single-cylinder four-stroke direct injection engine was modified to common rail direct injection and EGR provision made with water cooling arrangement. The engine was run on petroleum diesel with and without EGR arrangement at five different loads from 0 to 100% of rated capacity. Similarly, the biodiesel prepared from Honge oils was used in B25 blend to run the engine at no load, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of rated capacity. The smoke emissions from engine running on diesel with EGR are greatly reduced in engine from 25 HSU to 1 HSU at full load operation vis a vis Non-EGR. Similarly, B25 with EGR has shown a 50% reduction in smoke when compared with without EGR from 3.4 to 1.7 HSU at full load operation. NOx emissions increased after 50% of loading to 1800 ppm and 2000 ppm at full loads for diesel and B25, respectively, without EGR. With EGR one-third reduction in NOx was observed at 600 ppm with both the fuels. CO and HC emissions show an increasing trend with EGR operations due to want of oxygen for combustion. To meet the upcoming Bharat Stage VI norms next year it is evident that EGR and three-way catalytic converters with after-treatment equipment like DPF will be essential to meet the stringent emission standards for diesel engines.

Suresh D. Mane, Chinna Bathulla

Emission Measurement Considerations for Power Industry

An increase in coal consumption for coal-based power plants in recent years led to an increase in implementation of air quality control systems. The operation of air quality control systems is dictated by the availability of better emissions measurement system. Recent advances in optical technology enabled better in situ and extractive method of monitoring the pollutant species from the flue gas. Sample handling is a very important aspect of measurement process as important as the measurement technique. In situ is the best technique for measuring emitted species without interfering the flue gas composition. However, due to various challenges like high temperature, dust and slurry particulate carryover and moisture interference, extractive approach with advanced filtration and sampling system is generally preferred. Advanced techniques using quantum cascade lasers have recently opened up highly sensitive measurement at high temperatures (above 200 °C). This paper gives a general view of emission measurement methods and also discusses both the monitoring methodologies available and state-of-the-art research in progress globally.

A. Bekal, S. K. Karthick, Y. Rajeshirke, G. Balasubramaniam, M. Upadhyay, S. Bhandarkar, D. Kuvalekar, C. Mitra

Impact of Growing Share of Renewable Energy Sources on Locational Marginal Prices

In this paper, the impact of renewable energy sources (RES) on the locational marginal prices (LMP) of a fully competitive pool-based electricity market is analysed. Renewable energy sources are usually given the highest priority in market clearing problem by assigning zero or negative energy offer prices. It is expected that inclusion of such sources with zero bidding price would bring down the marginal price, especially as the penetration of such sources increases. In this paper, changes in LMPs observed under different levels of wind penetrations into conventional grid have been analysed. It is observed that in congested networks, in some buses LMP increases with increase in wind penetration instead of decreasing. Secondly, a tipping point is observed in the nature of LMP at every bus. In the case study adopted for validation in this paper, the nature of LMP changes when wind penetration has gone beyond 20%. Analysing such changes in LMPs provide insight to the market participants such as conventional power plant owners, wind turbine owners and demand response aggregators into the nature of LMP. This would, in turn, help them in optimally plan their bidding and offer strategies.

Leena Heistrene, Yash Shukla, Yaman Kalra, Poonam Mishra, Makarand Lokhande

Performance Evaluation of Wind-Solar Hybrid System in Indian Context

Renewable energy is an abundant and clean source of energy, which is also economical nowadays. To utilize these energies, current technologies are still not developed enough and we still have to greatly depend on non-renewable energies for meeting the baseload demand. Development of new methods for renewable energy generation, storage and distribution and improvements in the existing technologies is essential to meet the increasing energy demand. Keeping this in mind, the present investigation was carried out on the wind-solar hybrid system of 15 kW capacity out of which 5.4 kW is solar energy based and 9.6 kW is wind energy based. The system was monitored and data was analyzed throughout the year for performance evaluation of the system. The energy generation data was used to compare the actual performance of the hybrid system against the expected performance with respect to the demand. It was observed that the performance of the solar PV system was better than the expected output and the performance of the wind turbine was not as per the expectations in most of the months due to low wind speed. However, it was observed that the energy generation from the solar modules and wind turbines was complementary to each other. The poor performance of the solar modules during the rainy season was compensated by the maximum power generation by the wind turbine. The overall energy generation from the wind-solar hybrid system was stable throughout the year which was otherwise not possible from the independent solar or wind installations.

Rahul Shityalkar, Ranjan Dey, Anagha Pathak, Niranjan Kurhe, Sandesh Jadkar

Structural, Electrical and Cell Performance Study on Lithium Germanium Phosphate Glass Ceramics-Based Solid-State Li-Electrolyte

Solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) can address the safety issues related to liquid electrolyte and chemical stability at high temperature. Among others, glass ceramics, based on NASICON phase, are well studied as ionic conductor because of their high room temperature ionic conductivity. In this work, we report the synthesis of lithium germanium phosphate glass of composition Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5P2.9Si0.1O12 (LAGPS) by conventional melt-quenching technique and conversion into glass ceramics using optimized process parameters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement confirmed the formation of the desired phase (Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5P2.9Si0.1O12). The ionic conductivity was measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the value was found to increase from 1.02 × 10−6 to 2.03 × 10−4 Scm−1 with the increase in temperature from 223 to 303 K. Low-temperature EIS was done to see the individual contribution from grain to grain boundary. The activation energy of ionic conduction was calculated, and the value was found out to be 0.45 eV. Cells were fabricated with LiFePO4 (LFP) as cathode and Li metal as anode. The cell operated successfully giving capacity of 130 mAhg−1 with coulombic efficiency of 99% at 0.05C (1C = 170 mAg−1) at the initial stage of experiments.

Anurup Das, Madhumita Goswami, P. Preetham, S. K. Deshpande, Sagar Mitra, M. Krishnan

Adaptive Relaying Scheme for a Distribution Network with Highly Penetrated Inverter Based Distributed Generations

The integration of inverter-based distributed generations (IBDGs) is gaining huge popularity in the modern distribution network owing to its clean generation in comparison to the conventional sources. Such deployment poses a problem for protection system engineers to maintain reliable, dependable and coordinated operation of relays. The reason being the inverter control techniques to supply limited current in the network in order to protect its electronic components. The problem aggravates when its penetration increases. The staircase current waveform is obtained in such a network as a magnitude of current increases with each disintegration of IBDGs, depending on the protection scheme for the IBDGs. Keeping this in mind, an adaptive method has been proposed by using Superconducting Fault Current Limiters (SFCLs) to limit extra current, subsequently no requirement of further modifications in the setting of relays. The proposed method has been tested and verified on IEEE 12 bus distribution network.

Kirti Gupta, Saumendra Sarangi

Optimization in the Operation of Cabinet-Type Solar Dryer for Industrial Applications

One of the major constraints in the acceptability of solar dryer in industrial applications is the lack of control on the drying temperature. This paper proposes a mathematical model of a cabinet-type solar dryer that exhibits a control on the drying temperature using auxiliaries. The proposed model takes set temperature and solar radiation intensity as input and estimates auxiliary energies required to maintain the desired temperature. The analysis minimizes the energy consumption of auxiliaries while maintaining a constant dryer space temperature. Results with an illustrative example indicate that at a set temperature of 45 °C, total auxiliary energy will be minimum at 97.3 kWh per day. Dryer will be more effective if operated in the day time. Then, the optimum set temperature will be 50 °C, while auxiliary consumption will be reduced to 39.4 kWh per day. The proposed model assures to be a simple tool in the resource estimation of batch-type industrial dryers suitable for integration with solar heat.

Vishal D. Chaudhari, Govind N. Kulkarni, C. M. Sewatkar

Modeling of Solar Photovoltaic-Assisted Electrolyzer-Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell to Charge Nissan Leaf Battery of Lithium Ion Type of Electric Vehicle

In this paper, electric vehicle’s battery of lithium ion type (Nissan Leaf) is being charged with the help of solar photovoltaic modules assisted by electrolyzer-polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The study is made for Nissan Leaf battery capacity considered to be 40 kWh which can allow traveling of 400 km with a single 40 kWh battery at single full charge. The working voltage is 360 V. The study has been conducted for the month of May and December for the city of Kolkata because if the battery can be charged in maximum solar radiation (May) and minimum solar radiation (December), then the charging of the battery can be done throughout the year. The study reveals that 10 solar photovoltaic modules in parallel each having 11 modules in series of Central Electronics Limited Make PM 150 with a 15.661 kW electrolyzer and 1 PEM fuel cell stack of 21.24 kW can support the current requirement of electric vehicle throughout the year when considering system voltage to be 360 V. Thirty-four solar photovoltaic modules in parallel each having 2 modules in series of Central Electronics Limited Make PM 150 are needed to run the gas compressor for storing hydrogen in the cylinder during sunshine hours when considering system voltage for compressor to be 48 V.

Kamaljyoti Talukdar

Performance Study of an Anode Flow Field Design Used in PEMFC Application

Fuel cell systems offer an efficient and sustainable energy conversion solution for automobile and stationary backup application. Fuel cell stack consists of a bipolar plate made of a conductive material usually graphite. Bipolar plate is a key component in the fuel cell stack, as it associates every cell electrically, supplies reactant gasses to both anode and cathode, and expels heat from the cell. This paper will discuss on the performance study of a four different anode flow field configurations keeping cathode flow configuration same. The four different configuration flows designed, namely serpentine flow with uniform curvature, combined pin and parallel flow, serpentine flow with 90-degree uniform curvature, and combination of parallel and serpentine flow channels. Numerical and experimental analysis are carried out, and the performance results are compared with the voltage and current curve (polarization curve). The assembly consists of single-cell setup open cathode with in-house prepared membrane electrode assembly; testing has been carried out with consistent flow rate of air and hydrogen to investigate the anode stream channel impact on the performance. The outcomes were plotted in V–I polarization curve. From the results, combination of serpentine flow with uniform curvature on the anode side flow channels offered higher performance at a current density of 350 mA.cm2. Also, the temperature variation are carried out in the maximum performance flow field design and the outcomes were plotted in V–I polarization curve w.r.t to temperature.

S. A. Yogesha, Prakash C. Ghosh, Raja Munusamy

Effect of Top Losses and Imperfect Regeneration on Power Output and Thermal Efficiency of a Solar Low Delta-T Stirling Engine

Stirling engines are known for converting thermal energy to mechanical work with fair efficiency and no emission. A simple and relatively accurate model is necessary to predict the effective performance of energy systems utilizing solar thermal energy from preliminary design stage. Therefore, a finite time thermodynamic model of an irreversible low-temperature differential Stirling engine incorporating top loss due to heat transfer has been presented for the first time. The effect of parameters such as absorptivity of the glass cover, top loss coefficient and time for regeneration process on thermal efficiency, and power output of the engine is investigated. The absorptivity of the glass cover did not significantly influence the top loss coefficient and thermal efficiency of the solar Stirling engine. The top loss coefficient reduced thermal efficiency of solar Stirling engine by 3%. Further, the power output of the engine increases about 3 W if the engine is operated at higher speed, i.e., by reducing regenerative time duration by 0.005 s. The present model could predict the temperature of working fluid within a deviation of ±10% compared with experimental results.

Siddharth Ramachandran, Naveen Kumar, Mallina Venkata Timmaraju

Investigations on Recovery of Apparent Viscosity of Crude Oil After Magnetic Fluid Conditioning

The reduction in viscosity of crude oil due to magnetic field and its subsequent recovery after certain time is an important method of paraffin wax deposition control. It is less energy-intensive than the commonly used heating method. Three crude oils with varying wax content were subjected to magnetic fields of strengths 1000, 3000, 6000 and 9000 gauss for one minute. Reduction in viscosity of the samples was recorded instantaneously. Thereafter the viscosity readings were taken at regular intervals of time and the trend for recovery of viscosity to its original value was observed. Investigations were performed with respect to changes in magnetic field on crude oils having different wax content. It was found that more was the initial reduction, slower was the regain of viscosity. A possible mechanism for recovery of viscosity has also been discussed. The knowledge of recovery trend would help the flow assurance engineer to predict the optimum number of pumping stations thereby conserving energy.

A. D. Kulkarni, K. S. Wani

Investigation on Different Types of Electric Storage Batteries Used in Off-grid Solar Power Plants and Procedures for Their Performance Improvement

Electric storage batteries are the vital part of off-grid photovoltaic power plants which are widely used in most developing and underdeveloped nations of the world. Batteries are also needed for load leveling and frequency voltage stabilization in grid connected solar and wind farms. More than 10,000 numbers are the estimated number of off-grid battery-based large and small community solar power plants in India. Almost all of these power plants and their batteries suffer from major capacity degradation within five years of installation although the design life of batteries with minimum 80% capacity retention is 8–10 years. This paper studies the capacity loss due to cycling in batteries used for solar power plant application through solar simulated laboratory tests. Through the tests, capacity degradation process could be simulated in laboratory conditions. It was found therefrom that the degradation pattern is different in different types of batteries. Further, the said degradation in capacity can be reversed through a servicing process termed as equalizing charge. The periodicity of equalizing charge has been determined for two major battery types used in solar power plants. The said equalizing charge process if done periodically can reverse the degradation due to cycling, thus extending the battery life to its design value of 8–10 years.

Anindita Roy, Rajarshi Sen, Rupesh Shete

Saving Electricity, One Consumer at a Time

This paper provides long-term field evidence from Bangalore on a possible low investment pathway for demand side management by enabling household consumers to take control of their electricity consumption. Conceptualized as a citizen-led program, “VidyutRakshaka” aims to reduce the electricity consumption of residential consumers in Bangalore. The strategy adopted is to provide nudges to consumers for behavior change along with recommendations to adopt energy efficiency. VidyutRakshaka is implemented by creating awareness, conducting surveys with voluntary participants, providing customized reports with social and monetary nudges. Analysis of consumption indicates a cumulative average savings of 22% for about 48% of the participants.

K. Ravichandran, Sumathy Krishnan, Santhosh Cibi, Sumedha Malaviya

Study of Effects of Water Inlet Temperature and Flow Rate on the Performance of Rotating Packed Bed

The study of gas–liquid contacting devices like rotating packed bed (RPB) gained impetus not only due to their promising capacity for volume reduction up to 2–3 order in magnitude but also for process intensification among the participating fluids through the packing. However, the thermal transfer phenomenon involved between the interacting fluids flowing in counter-current direction, due to centrifugal acceleration inside the RPB, is hard for discernment from experimental perspective alone. For this reason, CFD simulation has been undertaken in the present work to explore the effects of water inlet temperature and flow rate on the pressure, velocity, and temperature distribution inside the RPB domain. This communication aims toward achieving rigorous understanding of the multi-physics involved in the thermal process intensification pertaining to the RPB using air–water system. The heat transfer rate results bearing futuristic vision for replacement of fills structure in giant and voluminous conventional cooling towers using compact and efficient rotating packed beds are finally discussed.

Saurabh, D. S. Murthy

Integrated Thermal Analysis of an All-Electric Vehicle

Simulation of electric vehicles is essential to analyze vehicle parameters and vehicle components. Components like battery, power electronics and electric motor need to be below specified temperature range in order to operate safely and efficiently. Simplified first-order simulations to estimate vehicle range and energy consumption along with component temperature variation for a specified driving cycle was completed. “Backward” faced simulation method is used to calculate traction force, total power, battery current, state of charge (SOC) serially in a direction opposite to power flow. Output parameters like range and energy consumption per 100 km obtained from simulations compared against first-generation Chevrolet Volt specifications. A lumped capacitance-based thermal model was derived to predict the temperature of vehicle components. Heat loss in component estimated based on simplified drivetrain model assuming constant efficiency of electric motor and power electronics.

Vinayak Kulkarni, Shankar Krishnan

Computation of Higher Eigenmodes Using Subspace Iteration Scheme and Its Application to Flux Mapping System of AHWR

This paper presents the computation of fundamental and multiple higher eigenmodes of a reactor using subspace iteration scheme. This scheme generates a large set of dominant eigenmodes simultaneously instead of successive evaluation of higher eigenmodes. Using this set of eigenmodes and in-core detector measurements, a three-dimensional flux map of a reactor configuration can be estimated. In this paper, the subspace iteration (SSI) scheme is used to generate multiple higher eigenmodes simultaneously for conventional as well as modified flux mapping algorithms (FMAs). An improved modified flux synthesis method (IMFSM) has been proposed which uses few higher eigenmodes of the snapshot configuration generated from SSI to better estimate the three-dimensional flux distribution of a reactor. The performance of various flux mapping schemes has been studied for advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) by varying the set of flux modes and the number of in-core detectors.

B. Anupreethi, Anurag Gupta, Umasankari Kannan, Akhilanand Pati Tiwari

ESCO Model for Energy-Efficient Pump Installation Scheme: A Case Study

Agricultural usage forms a significant portion of approximately 20% of the electricity consumption in India, most of it through irrigation pumpsets. Studies have shown that less than 2% of irrigation pumpsets have an efficiency greater than 40%. To tap into this huge energy saving potential, various projects have been implemented under AgDSM (Agriculture Demand Side Management) in the last four decades. Pump replacement is one such initiative being given renewed focus by Energy Efficiency Services Limited. One model involves an ESCO or Energy Service Company that installs and maintains pumps and gets paid based on energy savings. We investigate this business model through a recent project. The government implemented a pilot pump replacement and maintenance project in Solapur from 2010 to 2017. Though the Solapur project is claimed to be a success, there is no formal document publicly available yet. The aim of this study is to gain an understanding of the feasibility of a third-party maintaining energy efficiency in agriculture. The model is analyzed on technical, financial, and social aspects. We investigate the basic financials, the monitoring, and verification process used to measure pump efficiency in the field, the loading of the system and resultant voltages, and the effect of farmer behavior. We find that the methodology used for energy savings has much ambiguity and hence the scheme does not truly test the ESCO model. We also find that farmer education and awareness building regarding pumping systems is important for the success of such a scheme.

Saurabh Khobaragade, Priyanka Bhosale, Priya Jadhav

Transient Numerical Model for Natural Convection Flow in Flat Plate Solar Collector

Natural convection flow in the annulus air gap of a flat plate solar collector constitutes the majority of heat losses in the solar collector. Here we report the development of a numerical model to simulate the transient behaviour of natural convection flow in the solar collector. The model is validated against benchmark results available in the literature, i.e. Vahl Davis et al. [17] and Samdarshi et al. [18]. An error of less than 13% is observed for the top heat loss coefficient parameter of flat plate solar collector in comparison with these benchmark results. We report the natural convection flow for a particular case to evaluate the ability of the transient model to simulate the natural convection flow. Various structural and material parameters of the solar collector could be optimized using this transient model

Nagesh B. Balam, Tabish Alam, Akhilesh Gupta

Rice Paddy as a Source of Sustainable Energy in India

The advancement of a microbial fuel cell, a plant microbial fuel cell, acts as a source of sustainable bioelectricity generation. Apart from incorporating green plants, the fuel cell produces in situ bioenergy thus conserving the ecosystem. Over the past decade, a lot of technological innovations have been exploited to find different models of the PMFC for effective outcomes. On the same note, various plant species are tried and tested. India being an agricultural land highly depends on rice paddy. The vast paddy fields can prove to be a unique source of bioenergy by incorporating in the PMFC. In this study, rice paddy was used in three different PMFC models. The adaptability of the plant to the model is tested, and it achieved a high-power density of 1.048 W/m2 anode geometric area in a dual-chambered PMFC. Other proof of claim tests was conducted, and the microbial activity in the PMFC media was studied.

Mohnish Borker, T. V. Suchithra

Cost and Emission Trade-Offs in Electricity Supply for the State of Maharashtra

This paper analyzes synergies and trade-offs in cost and emission minimizing operating strategies in electricity supply for the state of Maharashtra. We developed an optimization model in TIMES framework with data of all power plants for January 2019 to analyze electricity dispatch. The cost and emission minimization scenarios are compared in terms of operating units, cost of electricity, emissions and age of units. We found that emissions from thermal power can be reduced by 9.2 percent in emission minimization with respect to cost minimization on the day of operation from existing power plants. This also results in escalation of cost of electricity by 30.8 percent in emission optimal scenario. The cost of carbon abatement is 8827 Rs/ton, which is much higher than the cost of carbon in most of the developed countries. Emission minimizing operation requires an additional Rs 269 Million per day. This analysis can be helpful in identifying and prioritizing cleaner power plants for electricity generation.

Pankaj Kumar, Trupti Mishra, Rangan Banerjee

Technological Interventions in Sun Drying of Grapes in Tropical Climate for Enhanced and Hygienic Drying

Agriculture has been the backbone of Indian economy on account of its prominent gaining place in the socioeconomic development of the nation. The untimely rains and over-exploited groundwater have disturbed ecology balance making water as a scarce resource. This study envisages technical interventions into adoption of solar energy to dry agricultural produce for reduced wastages of produce and better pricing through enhanced storage life. The obvious strategy for energy users has to be a blended energy usage pattern with a substantial renewable segment essential to make it sustainable. Every drop of fossil fuel burnt leaves behind an environmental mark termed as ‘carbon footprint.’ Sustainability stresses minimizing environmental damage through adoption of green technologies are also identified as renewable or nature-based sources. The chemical pre-treatment in drying of Thompson seedless grapes by free convection provides suitable drying characteristics, but with scope for few modifications to improve drying rate.

Mallikarjun Pujari, P. G. Tewari, M. B. Gorawar, Ajitkumar P. Madival, Rakesh Tapaskar, V. G. Balikai, P. P. Revankar

Effect of Temperature on the Hydrodynamics of Steam Reactor in a Chemical Looping Reforming System

A cost-effective carbon capture and storage process has been addressed by using a three-reactor chemical looping reforming technology (CLR) that produces hydrogen in an innovative manner. Ansys FLUENT is used to model the steam reactor based on kinetic theory of granular flow. A user-defined function has been implemented for customizing the reactive fluid dynamics system by incorporating the oxidation kinetic of the metal oxide. In the current work, iron oxide and manganese oxide are used as oxygen carriers with steam as the fuel for the reaction kinetic model. The development, up-surging, growing and bursting of bubbles in the steam reactor are observed. Unsteady and quasi-steady bubble hydrodynamics in steam reactor are captured through numerical simulations, and the relationship between molar fraction of products and gas phases and bubble formation are investigated at different temperatures. Solid volume fraction contour has also been qualitatively compared with similar results available in open literature.

Agnideep Baidya, Saptashwa Biswas, Avinash Singh, Debodipta Moitra, Pooja Chaubdar, Atal Bihari Harichandan

Enhancement in Product Value of Potato Through Chemical Pre-treatment and Drying Process

The large magnitude of the post-harvest losses in the agricultural sector has been a serious concern to the Indian economy. The Indian agriculture that supports large population base is however in peril owing to lower return on investment on account of uncertainty in revenue to cultivators. The challenging situation at times has resulted in public resentment by farm community leading to extreme steps dangerous to nation’s social fabric. The interventions are thereby essential to control this menace and instill confidence in farm community. The proposed work targets on an improvised method to enhance end value of potato crop through hygienic drying. The 0.4 kg sliced potato as treated and untreated samples subjected to electric drying required inlet air at 100 °C with 0.025 kg/s flow rate during the shortest drying rate of 4.5 h. The hygiene value of chemically treated dried potato as food item indicated permissible limits of microbial presence without any prevalence of fungi. The potato samples that lacked chemical treatment exhibited deterioration in quality on account of bacterial and fungal influx and hence did not pass acceptability test for consumption as a food item. The reported work has assessed most suited magnitudes of drying air temperature, air flow rate and chemical treatment parameters in potato drying along with assessment of dried product food quality.

M. B. Gorawar, S. V. Desai, V. G. Balikai, P. P. Revankar

Desalination Using Waste Heat Recovery with Active Solar Still

Water plays a vital role in human life. The human body consists of 70–80% water in which body, bones, cells, and blood contain 22%, 95%, and 75% water, respectively. Water and energy are imperative entities for flourishing life and civilization. Population growth, rapid industrialization, and fast-growing agriculture sector lead to ineffective use of water and pollution of very less available water resources. Most of the states in India depend upon the groundwater, hence facing the problem of excessive salinity, fluoride content, and heavy amount of nitrate. As per the WHO guidelines, most of the state’s drinking water is un-potable. As per the Government of India census report, nearly 75.1% household still use solid fuel for biomass cookstove. Desalination of this polluted water using renewable energy is the only option to make this water potable. At a big scale, there is a major expense in desalination. The solar energy integrated with the waste heat of pellet-based cookstove will be able to run the desalination system during off shine hours. This hybrid system will be able to enhance the productivity of the solar still. In the present work, simulation has been carried out to find the optimum water jacket thickness and mass flow rate of water to recover the waste heat from cookstove. The heat loss from the outer surface of the cookstove has also been calculated analytically.

Sandeep Kumar Singh, S. K. Tyagi, S. C. Kaushik

Incorporating Battery Degradation in Stand-alone PV Microgrid with Hybrid Energy Storage

Batteries are commonly employed as energy storage systems for PV stand-alone microgrid. The instantaneous, diurnal, and seasonal variation in load and PV generation degrades the battery rapidly. This affects the life cycle cost of the system. This paper aims to combine battery storage with supercapacitor (short term) and hydrogen storage (long term) and investigate and compare the reliability and annualised life cycle cost of the system with manufacturers given life and by incorporating battery degradation. The hybrid storage system is simulated for two stand-alone PV microgrid contexts, i.e. off-grid telecom tower and an off-grid welding shop. From the simulation results, it is obtained that battery degradation is lowered with the use of hybrid storage. Based on the reliability (loss of load probability) and per unit cost of the system, the designer/consumer can select what type of storage combination will be suitable for the PV microgrid. As an example, the isolated welding shop with annual energy demand of 1408.5 kWh and the addition of supercapacitor improve the life of battery from 2 years to 8 years, thereby improving life cycle cost of the system from 18 ₹/kWh to 13 ₹/kWh. In addition, the daily LOLP is reduced from 7.2% to zero.

Ammu Susanna Jacob, Rangan Banerjee, Prakash C. Ghosh

Simulation Studies on Design and Performance Evaluation of SAPV System for Domestic Application

Energy is one of the crucial needs of the modern society. The dependency on the fossil reservoir has resulted in a n unrepairable harm to the earth’s ecosystem. The demand of energy is increasing at an alarming rate due to growth in population and improved standards of living. Rural area is prone to loss of grid connectivity because of uneconomic capital involved in establishing transmission system to cater lower energy demands. Solar power generation is a key solution for off-grid rural areas where reach of grid power supply is not feasible. Solar photovoltaic generation is one of the alternative sources of energy generation with the least impact on the ecosystem catering the societal energy demands. The source of photovoltaic generation is intermittent and subjected to the constraints like time of the day, season and sky conditions. The generation of such a system is nonlinear and unpredictable. Hence, there arises the need for predicting the output and behavior of the system before installation. The presented research elaborates the simulation studies carried out on stand-alone photovoltaic system using PVsyst for domestic application. The input site data and performance results of solar power generation system generated through simulation tool give interesting operational strategies to predict the implications of a SAPV installation.

M. R. Dhivyashree, M. B. Gorawar, V. G. Balikai, P. P. Revankar

Development of a Dynamic Battery Model and Estimation of Equivalent Electrical Circuit Parameters

This paper aims to develop a dynamic electrical equivalent model of a battery for the estimation of its internal impedance parameters. The results of the estimation include the parameters obtained as functions of the state of charge (SOC) of the battery. The parameter estimation methodology is performed with two different types of batteries (vanadium redox flow battery and Li-ion battery) for different nominal voltages to demonstrate the robustness of the model. A comparison of errors obtained in the responses of the model is carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model and the applicability of the dynamic parameters inside the battery subsystem. The proposed model is a generalized one and can be very useful for designing efficient electrical interface for the battery storage with renewable energy sources, since battery modeling is the key to various battery storage system designs, especially in areas of renewable energy storage. Renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, do not produce a prolonged power output; and hence, electrical energy storage from a non-conventional energy source becomes essential.

Sourish Ganguly, Subhrasish Pal, Ankur Bhattacharjee

A Novel Switched Inductor Switched Capacitor-Based Quasi-Switched-Boost Inverter

The power electronics plays a main role in interconnecting the renewable energy sources to the grid. This research paper discusses a novel switched inductor cell combined with a switched capacitor cell-based quasi-switched-boost inverter (SL-SC-based qSBI) topology which can be used for renewable energy applications. This boost inverter topology is capable of providing a boosted AC voltage with high voltage gain and greater EMI immunity in a single stage compared to conventional voltage source inverter (VSI). In addition, it does not require any dead time period in its switching states since shoot-through is permitted. Instead, shoot-through state is used to achieve a high boost. This paper presents the principle of operation, steady-state analysis of the proposed inverter, modulation strategy adopted to produce the firing pulses and provides the performance comparison with the existing qSBI topologies. A single-phase 113 V (rms) load voltage is obtained with the DC source voltage of 32 V and duty ratio of 0.22. It provides the boost factor of 6.4. The proposed topology is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink platform to validate the theoretical concepts and the results are presented in detail.

P. Sriramalakshmi, Sreedevi V. T.

Investigation of Energy Performance of a High-Rise Residential Building in Kolkata Through Performance Levels of Energy Conservation Building Code, 2017

The building sector in India consumes over 30% of the total electricity consumed in the country annually and out of that residential buildings consume about 75% of total electricity used by building sector. Further rise of multistoried buildings in urban areas with increased use of decentralized room-based air conditioning units adds pressure on energy requirements for residential buildings. This increased demand also offers opportunity for energy saving, and hence, Bureau of Energy Efficiency has established energy codes for new buildings as an essential administrative tool in order to ensure energy efficiency in the building sector. This paper aims to explore energy saving potential of high-rise residential building based on performance-level approach of Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) 2017. The building models were designed as per ECBC guideline with focus on envelop and HVAC system. Energy performance analyses were carried out using e-QUEST energy simulation tool for actual design, ECBC baseline, ECBC+ and ECBC super. The results revealed that the improved levels of design help to reduce the space cooling load along with overall energy requirements of the building. Further exploration of the energy performance of the residential buildings in light of the ECBC Residential Code is deemed necessary for better understanding of the process.

Gunjan Kumar, Biswajit Thakur, Sudipta De

Addressing Last Mile Electricity Distribution Problems: Study of Performance of SHGs in Odisha

Distribution of electricity becomes inefficient when rural areas are sparse or remote. Un-metered/illegal connections, poor bill collection efficiencies are some common practices found in villages, especially remote areas. Consumers also remain unsatisfied with service provided by Distribution Utility due to long hours of supply cut, unscheduled outages, low voltage levels, and wrong meter readings. To address these problems at the last mile and to improve the performance of the electricity distribution sector, Electricity Act 2003 has introduced Distribution Franchisees (DF). DFs are contracted to manage the last mile functions of the electricity sector for a specified area. This paper presents a study of an initiative by a DF in the state of Odisha, which contracted 142 women self-help groups (SHGs) to undertake metering, billing, and revenue collection, leading to reduction in electricity losses by 30%. The objective of this study is to gain deeper understanding of different aspects of the role played by SHGs in handling these last mile governance functions. The study relies on semi-structured and unstructured interviews with different stakeholders. The study would help understand the feasibility and relevance of SHGs in addressing the governance crisis in the last mile of the electricity sector.

Sneha Swami, Subodh Wagle

Transient Stability Analysis of Wind Integrated Power Network Using STATCOM and BESS Using DIgSILENT PowerFactory

In this paper, the transient stability of the wind integrated power system has analyzed with or without a battery energy storage system (BESS) and static compensator (STATCOM) under large disturbances. The large penetration of wind energy into the power grid is the major challenge for reliable and stable operation of the system. The transient stability of such type of power systems can be improved by utilizing the BESS and STATCOM. In this paper, the large disturbances such as a sudden change in load demand, three-phase fault, sudden change in wind speed, and wind gust have investigated. The energy storage system such as BESS is utilized with wind farms in order to modulate the fluctuations in power output. It also improves the response of synchronous generators to transient events. The paper also highlights the effective control of BESS and STATCOM for transient stability improvement. For validation of the proposed techniques, the IEEE 14 bus test system has utilized. All the simulation studies have been performed with DlgSILENT PowerFactory 2018.

Neha Manjul, Mahiraj Singh Rawat

Experimental Investigation of Solar Drying Characteristics of Grapes

This work presents solar drying characteristic of grapes using cabinet type solar dryer. In this study, various analytical drying models were used to estimate the optimum drying time. Characteristics of grapes are expressed well by the Newton model by thin-layer models. This model has shown grape characteristics with drying air temperature from 34 to 52 °C and air circulation velocity of 0.4 to 0.9 m/s. Drying kinetics such as air temperature and velocity plays an important role in the drying process. The time required for drying of grapes was also measured experimentally. The analytical estimate was 52 h while the same was 56 h experimentally. Drying rate depends predominantly on the drying temperature.

S. P. Komble, Govind N. Kulkarni, C. M. Sewatkar

Feedback and Feedforward Control of Dual Active Bridge DC-DC Converter Using Generalized Average Modelling

The small-signal approximations which are generally used in the DC-DC converters provide the limited range of operation which is around the steady-state point. However, if the ripples are large, this approximation is generally not true for which the generalized average modelling is better to capture the effects of other harmonic components along with the DC component. Here, the author has employed the generalized averaging technique including the input and output side parameters using the feedforward and feedback control on the dual active bridge converter. The inductor current is alternating and to capture the behaviour of system parameters, the generalized average modelling is done. It is found that the input parameter will also affect the overall dynamics and using MATLAB/Simulink tool the overall analysis is validated.

Shipra Tiwari, Saumendra Sarangi

Performance Assessment and Parametric Study of Multiple Effect Evaporator

Multiple effect evaporators (MEE) use steam of temperature 120–200 °C for evaporation of water. Conventionally, the steam fed to MEE is generated by conventional fuel-fired boilers, in the current study concentrated solar energy is employed as an alternative. A system model was designed to study the temperature of steam generated on an hourly basis throughout the year and its exergy performance in different climatic zones of India. Except winter months and monsoon days, the solar concentrator generated the desired temperature of steam, thereby was not affecting the performance of the multiple effect evaporator system. Auxiliary support will be necessary during such durations to raise the steam temperature from 70 °C to the desired range. An hourly variation in solar radiation does not significantly affect the performance of the solar-assisted MEE system. Influence of the system performance on varying parameters has also been studied using the model. Reynolds number (Re) of the wastewater flow was found chiefly influencing the energy and exergy performance of the device, the change in Re can cause up to 60% variation in exergy and energy of the system.

Pranaynil Saikia, Soundaram Ramanathan, Dibakar Rakshit

An Approach Towards Sustainable Energy Education in India

Renewable energy (RE) has been identified as an appropriate response to climate change and fossil fuel depletion by many governmental bodies. It has shifted the energy industry towards renewable and sustainable energy systems over the last few decades. This expansion has also increased the demand of specialists for design, installation and maintenance of different RE systems. Most people working in this sector are not well trained or educated enough whereas some of them are not even aware of sustainability. This has shifted towards formulation, model, develop and incorporation of new courses and programmes that would provide sufficient knowledge and skill in the sustainable RE sector. Moreover, the implementation of these new RE courses shouldn’t be limited to engineering level but also focuses on providing basic knowledge to everyone working in this field. Hence, in the present study, two-course structures have been suggested, i.e. general course which would offer basic knowledge and awareness of different RE systems in school level (including primary, elementary, intermediate and secondary) and in the professional programmes (Industrial Training Institute (ITI), diploma, undergraduate, postgraduate and research). Moreover, adequate knowledge would be provided not only in the theoretical field but also in the practical field depending upon the level of programme. Furthermore, undergraduate, postgraduate and research levels students would be provided with a broad knowledge of science, engineering design, planning and implementation of RE systems, while ITI and diploma level would acquire skill development and training in the RE systems.

Pankaj Kalita, Rabindra Kangsha Banik, Samar Das, Dudul Das

Simulation-Based Economic Optimization of Nuclear Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems with Reliability Constraints

Growing energy demands and concerns about environmental consequences of energy generation by conventional methods led to greatest ever focus on renewable energy worldwide. Due to technological advances, solar and wind powers are almost reaching grid parity in recent years in various countries. However, the stochastic and unreliable nature of renewable energy sources poses problems with grid integration in case of large penetration. Hybrid energy system (HES) combines two or more energy sources and energy storage elements to stabilize the supply, thereby increases the reliability. As nuclear power is carbon free, concentrated and continuous source of energy, it is an attractive option to meet base load demand as a part of HES. Such systems are called nuclear renewable hybrid energy systems (NRHES). In this paper, a techno-economic model for simulation-based cost optimization of NRHES is presented along with a case study to demonstrate the optimization process.

Saikrishna Nadella, Anil Antony, N. K. Maheshwari

Exergy Analysis and Cost Optimization of Solar Flat Pate Collector for a Two-Stage Absorption Refrigeration System with Water-Lithium Bromide as a Working Pair

In the present work, a thermodynamic analysis of a two stages half effect absorption system has been done. The two stages half effect system is driven by the low-temperature hot water provided by the flat plate collector (FPC). The area of solar FPC for LP and HP generator is optimized. The cooling load of 25 kW was assumed for an office building at Delhi. The area of FPC is minimized at the optimum generator temperature which is associated with the cost of HVARS. The cost of half effect system is compared with that of a vapour compression system with similar input parameters, and the payback period is calculated. The optimum temperature for LP and HP generators is obtained to be 80 °C. The maximum COP, exergetic efficiency and global efficiency obtained corresponding to the optimum generator temperature are 0.416, 7.36% and 18.7%, respectively. For this generator temperature, 7 °C evaporator temperature and 38 °C condenser temperature, the minimum area required at HP stage is AHP (291 m2) and LP stage is ALP (346 m2) which is associated with the cost of HVARS. For the same input parameters, the running cost of VCRS (Rs. 4 lakhs approx.) for a year is compared with the HVARS. The total cost of the FPC required is Rs. 16 lakhs approx. This is the only cost which is considered to cool the given space. Therefore, the payback period obtained is 4 years.

Abhishek Verma, S. K. Tyagi, S. C. Kaushik

Characterizing the Helical Vortex Frequency of HAWT

To fulfil the growing energy demand with sustainable source and ensuring the preview of environmentally friendly generation, wind energy plays a vital role in providing the same with eco-friendly perspective. In present era of high tech, booming industrialization, population growth and global collaborations, there is drastic increase in energy demand. Wind energy being the source of highest renewable energy in India has the ability to provide efficiently because of vast ability of wind flow across the globe. For large-scale energy demand, designing and forecasting proper layout of wind farm is of great interest by many researchers and because of the unsteadiness in wind flow, annual flow variation, atmospheric boundary layer effects, seasonal climatic change and most importantly the effect of wake flow downstream of wind turbine in subsequent arrays of turbine makes the wind farm modelling a difficult task. So present article highlights the work carried out in wind tunnel defining the significance of tip vortex frequency response and velocity deficit near rotor plane further to understand the wake flow downstream of HAWT (Horizontal axis wind turbine) and subsequently designing of efficient wind farm for various flow conditions.

Ojing Siram, Niranjan Sahoo

Design and Development of Concentrated Solar Cooker with Parabolic Dish Concentrator

Renewable source is a green system for power generation without any impact on environment. In recent trends, the applied solar energy devices become more popular near couple of decades. The main objective of the current research is to design and develop a concentrated solar cooker with a parabolic dish concentrator system at cheaper cost in order to save the environment by preventing burning of fossil fuel for cooking food. A parabolic solar concentrated cooker with capacity of cooking 645 g of rice in 5 h at peak solar has been proposed. The thermal efficiency of the cooking system has been evaluated and performance was studied in Visakhapatnam geographical location in southeast India. The experimentation is done in normal clear sky atmosphere on dated February 27, 2019, in the area of Visakhapatnam located in latitude 17.68° N, 83.2185° E. The cooking procedure has been done in three cycles from 9.30 am to 3.30 pm.

Susant Kumar Sahu, Natarajan Sendhil Kumar, K. Arjun Singh

Thermal and Electrical Performance Assessment of Elongated Compound Parabolic Concentrator

In this work, a non-imaging low concentrating 3X Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) truncated to 1.7X has been explored. Since, CPC is a linear concentrator, the linear image formed on the absorber results in non-uniform distribution of flux. To reduce the non-uniformity in flux distribution, an optimized homogenizer has been integrated with the CPC, referred to as Elongated CPC (ECPC). Thereafter, numerical model has been developed for predicting the thermal performance of the ECPC integrated with homogenizer using actual meteorological data (wind speed and ambient temperature). Finally, the system is fabricated, and its performance is evaluated under real-world conditions. Experimental results showed a peak thermal efficiency of ~35% and peak electrical efficiency of 10%. The outlet water temperature obtained from simulations and experiments show a good match with variation of ±2 ℃.

Chandan, Sumon Dey, V. Suresh, M. Iqbal, K. S. Reddy, Bala Pesala

Thermodynamic Analysis of a 500 MWe Coal-Fired Supercritical Thermal Power Plant Integrated with Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) at Flue Gas Stream

India, being one of the largest emitters of CO2 globally has a huge obligation to curb the emission levels and meet International Agreements. In view of this, the proposed study integrates a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) at cathode side in the flue gas path of a 500 MWe coal-fired supercritical thermal power plant. High ash Indian coal is used as fuel in the present study. A gasifier is used to cater the syngas as fuel at anode side of the MCFC. Thermodynamic analysis of this combined cycle power plant is done using a flowsheet computer program ‘Cycle-Tempo’. The results revealed an increase in the proposed plant energy efficiency by 2.53% and a decrease in the specific CO2 emission by 11.07% compared to the standalone 500 MWe supercritical thermal power plant considered in the study. The thermodynamic analysis reveals that maximum energy loss and exergy destruction take place in the cooling water and combustor, respectively.

Akshini More, A. Pruthvi Deep, Sujit Karmakar

Three-Dimensional Investigation on Energy Separation in a Ranque–Hilsch Vortex Tube

This paper addresses the study of energy separation associated with a Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube (RHVT) using three-dimensional numerical simulations. As pressure is the only available energy at the inlet, therefore, design of nozzle imparts a strong effect in temperature separation. In this context, the effects of total inlet area and nozzle number have been set as the prime objective of the problem. To achieve so, a three-dimensional geometry of the model has been incorporated to avoid modelling errors due to the hypotheses involved in solving two-dimensional axisymmetric one. Subsequently, reliability on the axisymmetric models reported in the open literature by other researchers in this field is another agenda of the present computational simulation.

Nilotpala Bej, Pooja Chaubdar, Anish Pandey, K. P. Sinhamahapatra

Bamboo Plant Intellect Deeds Optimization Algorithm for Solving Optimal Reactive Power Problem

In this paper, Bamboo Plant Intellect Deeds Optimization Algorithm (BPD) is proposed to solve optimal reactive power problem. By changing physiology, phenotype, and architecture Bamboo Plants can search for their food. Normally Bamboo Plants alter its morphology, physiology, and phenotype accordingly to natural conditions. In Bamboo Plants Signal transduction will trigger the biochemical actions in the plant as a response to the conditions. Bamboo Plant Intellect Deeds Optimization Algorithm (BPD) has been tested in standard IEEE 57 bus test system and simulation results show the projected algorithm reduced the real power loss considerably.

Kanagasabai Lenin

Actuator Fault Detection and Isolation for PEM Fuel Cell Systems Using Unknown Input Observers

An unknown input observer design problem based actuator fault detection and isolation scheme for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems are presented. The algorithm is derived assuming that a single actuator fault occurs at any time instant. First, a number of unknown input observers are designed for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems such that one specific unknown input observer will be sensitive to a specific actuator and then residuals are determined. Then, fault detection and isolation algorithm are formulated based on the residuals. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is shown with simulated results for proton exchange membrane fuel cell system single actuator fault scenario.

Vikash Sinha, Sharifuddin Mondal

Analysis of Heating and Cooling Energy Demand of School Buildings

This paper presents a simulation study to investigate the impact of insulation on the heating and cooling energy demand of school buildings in two climate conditions of Bhutan. The average annual heating and cooling energy demand of school buildings without insulation are 19 kWh/m2 and 36.5 kWh/m2, respectively. By adding 100 mm layer of mineral wool between the ceiling and the roof can potentially reduce the heating energy demand by 1.3% in temperate climate and 7.2% cooling energy demand in a tropical climate. In a temperate climate, the addition of insulation in the external wall can reduce heating energy demand by 52% but it increases the cooling energy demand by 5.4 times the baseline. The net decrease in total heating and cooling energy demand is not significant. Thus, the addition of insulation in the external wall in a temperate climate is not advisable unless combined with a ventilation system. In a tropical climate, the addition of insulation in the walls results in 70% increase in the cooling energy demand.

Tshewang Lhendup, Samten Lhendup, Hideaki Ohgaki

Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of Adsorption Cooling and Resorption Heating System Using Ammoniated Halide Salts

In the present work, a combination of gas–solid sorption system, namely Adsorption Cooling and Resorption Heating System (ACRHS) in which cooling and heating effects are observed by adsorption and resorption processes, respectively, is thermodynamically analyzed using different halide salts MnCl2, FeCl2, CaCl2 and SrCl2. The adsorption heat, which is lost in basic adsorption or resorption cooling system, is transformed into useful high temperature thermal energy. The overall coefficient of performance of the ACRHS is improved due to the production of heating effect in addition to cooling effect. This dual effect of heating and cooling is produced by a single heat input which is realized because of the recovery of heat between two salt beds (high and medium temperature salt). MnCl2 is having low desorption enthalpy and high adsorption capacity due to which the COP is 34% higher than that for FeCl2. The maximum value of COP of ACRHS is found to be 0.72

Rakesh Sharma, K. Sarath Babu, E. Anil Kumar

Correlating Partial Shading and Operating Conditions to the Performance of PV Panels

Harvesting solar energy as a renewable source to meet the expanding energy demand is essential for sustainable growth and a greener planet. The performance of the photovoltaic panels is affected by factors such as partial shading, elevated temperature, mismatch between the cell parameters, etc., which contribute to the loss in an inter-correlated manner. In the current study, we isolate the contribution from each factor through experiments. The partial shading is configured through distributed paper chips in different patterns keeping the overall shaded area constant. The isolation of shading loss from the total loss allows us to find out the total contribution from the mismatch and temperature factors. In a further set of experiments, we isolate these two factors as well. We find that the major contribution comes from the shading loss. We also observe that not only the fraction of the partial shading but also the shading pattern has a crucial bearing on the panel performance. For equal fraction of the partial shading, the more distributed the shade, the less the loss. The next major contributor is the temperature loss for which we find out empirical formulae to predict the performance under different operating conditions. The overall effort is aimed at estimating the operational efficiency of the PV panels under soiled or partially shaded conditions.

S. Gairola, M. K. Sharma, J. Bhattacharya

Engineering of O2 Electrodes by Surface Modification for Corrosion Resistance in Zinc–Air Batteries

The development of stable, high performance and cost-effective oxygen electrode is necessary in metal-air battery for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reaction. Carbon-based air electrodes are conventionally used in metal-air batteries due to its high specific surface area, porosity and high electrical conductivity. However, the highly oxidative environment of metal-air batteries during charging corrodes the carbon air electrodes which lead to poor cyclic stability. The current study develops a hybrid air electrode with a nickel interlayer between carbon and electrocatalyst. This approach protects the carbon from corrosion and also provides low-resistant pathway for electron conduction by metallic nickel interlayer and improves the electrocatalytic activity of silver electrocatalyst deposited on metal nickel layer. The electroless deposition of nickel interlayer was optimized by deposition time. The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were investigated to study the stability during cycling. Charge–discharge cycling shows the excellent stability over 500 cycles for nickel interlayer deposited for 3 h. These results prove that the Ni interlayer circumvents the carbon corrosion at higher oxidative potentials during oxygen evolution reaction. This work demonstrates the potential of Ni-modified electrode for use as high performance, stable air cathode in zinc–air battery.

Imran Karajagi, K. Ramya, Prakash C. Ghosh, A. Sarkar, N. Rajalakshmi

Energy Farming—A Green Solution for Indian Cement Industry

Cement sector in India is playing an important role in overall development and infrastructure. Coal is the main fuel for the manufacture of cement in India, given the high cost and inadequate availability of oil and gas. Another fuel required to operate the cement plant is diesel. It is required for drilling machine (in mines for blasting), for earth moving machines and in clinker production process for diesel generator to generate emergency power, kiln initial light up, various material handling vehicles, etc. Lot of research is being done to reduce coal consumption in cement plant by replacing the coal through alternative fuels like shredded tyre chips, plastic waste, refused derived fuel (RDF) from MSW, agrowaste, etc. Research for reducing the energy consumption is also in advance stage where Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has made the scheme for Mandatory Energy Audit of cement plants. Cement industry still has not focused on saving of diesel consumption as the consumption of diesel is less as compared to main fuel (Coal). However, it is well relevant to specify here the rise in diesel cost in India in last five years is alarming for the cement industry. This paper highlights the saving in diesel cost by introducing energy farming (EF) concept in place of green belt area which is statuary requirement for obtaining environmental clearance for cement plant and mines area.

Kapil Kukreja, Manoj Kumar Soni, B. N. Mohapatra, Ashutosh Saxena

Energetic and Exergetic Performance Comparison of a Hybrid Solar Kalina Cycle at Solar and Solar Storage Mode of Operations

In this study, the energy and exergy analyses are performed to compare the performance of a hybrid solar Kalina cycle (KC) in the solar storage (SS) and solar mode of operations. The solar radiation was calculated for the geographical location of Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, at 7 a.m. and 2 p.m. on 21 February to represent the above two modes of operation. Due to higher global radiation, the heat gain, the collector and the exergy efficiency of the parabolic trough collector (PTC) were found to be more during the SS mode of operation. Similarly, the KC also performed better in terms of net power output and exergy efficiency during the SS mode. Further, in the SS mode, water heating also could be obtained additionally. Highest irreversibility occurred in the PTC. Compared to the solar mode, the PTC irreversibility was, however, more in the SS mode. The water heater also contributed a significant amount of irreversibility. Among the KC components, the condenser irreversibility was the highest followed by the vapour turbine (VT) and the regenerator, during both the SS and solar modes of operations. The number of collectors in a single row and the rows of collector elements, the flow rate of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and its temperature at PTC inlet finally decide the heat source temperature at inlet of the vapour generator, the mass flow rates and the net power output of the KC.

P. Bhuyan, P. Borah, T. K. Gogoi

Assessment of Different Multiclass SVM Strategies for Fault Classification in a PV System

Fault detection and diagnosis is an imperative choice for the long life of a PV system. The conventional protective devices fail to detect possible faults, owing to the non-linear nature of the voltage-current characteristics of the PV system impelling the need for a better technique. A novel approach to classify PV faults, making decision boundaries using SVM, propelled by dimension reduction using PCA is demonstrated for classifying different fault classes. Faults considered for classification are short-circuit fault in any module, inverse bypass diode fault, shunted bypass diode fault, and shadowing effect in a module. SVMs are binary classifiers and involve meticulous effort for extending the theory to more than two classes. The paper highlights the efficiency and runtime complexities of the various multiclass SVM techniques like One versus One, One versus All, Decision Directed Acyclic Graph, and Adaptive Directed Acyclic Graph. Methods are compared for the results of different ‘training: testing data samples’ (60:40, 70:30, 80:20) using synthetic PV data points from PVLIB toolbox.

Rahul Kumar Mandal, Paresh G. Kale

Performance Analysis of Double Glass Water Based Photovoltaic/Thermal System

In order to improve the photovoltaic (PV) system efficiency and to get a high yield per unit area, much research has been done in the field of hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) system. This system co-generates both heat and electricity with better yield compare to independent photovoltaic and solar thermal systems. The present study experimentally analyzes the performance of an in-house developed double glass water based PV/T system under the climatic conditions of Surat, India (21.1702° N, 72.8311° E). Under the tested condition, the average value of the electrical efficiency of the system was observed to be 13.8% while thermal efficiency was found to be 66%. Besides, it was observed that the present system was capable to support hot water requirement of the domestic sector with an average overall efficiency of 80%.

Ajay Sharma, S. Vaishak, Purnanand V. Bhale

Modeling Polarization Losses in HTPEM Fuel Cells

A numerical model for simulating the distributed charge transfer in HTPEM is presented. The electrodes are discretized along its thickness and the model resolves the species composition, mixture density, and the ionic and electronic potential. The rate of hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions is derived based on rate limiting assumptions applied to a set of elementary single-electron transfer reactions. Subject to the rate determining step chosen the derivation results either in Butler–Volmer-type or non-Butler–Volmer-type rate expressions. The form of exchange current density is a result of derivation and depends on the concentration of reactants and products. The order of the rate depends on the symmetry factor for charge transfer reaction. The model is validated by reproducing experimentally measured cell polarization data and activation losses.

Vamsi Ambala, Anusree Unnikrishnan, N. Rajalakshmi, Vinod M. Janardhanan

Effect of Diesel Injection Timings on the Nature of Cyclic Combustion Variations in a RCCI Engine

In this study, the combustion stability of RCCI engine is investigated to determine the underlying nonlinear dynamic characteristics. The 0-1 test is used for the estimation of dynamic characteristics by analysing the normalized maximum pressure rise rate (PRRmax) time series of 1000 consecutive engine cycles. Start of injection (SOI) timing of diesel is used as a control parameter to investigate the effect of system parameters on the combustion dynamics. Two low reactivity fuels (gasoline and methanol) are used to achieve the RCCI combustion. The cyclic variations in combustion need to be controlled for stable engine operation. The experiments are conducted on a modified single-cylinder CI-engine equipped with a separate port fuel injector to operate the engine in dual fuel mode. Measured in-cylinder pressure data is used for analyzing the combustion characteristics. For the entire range of diesel SOI timings, the chaotic nature of the RCCI combustion is revealed by the 0-1 test. For too retarded and too advanced injection timing, the existence of a strong chaotic behavior signifies a more complex combustion system, i.e., a high sensitivity towards the small changes in the initial condition and more unrepeatable combustion characteristics.

Ajay Singh, Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Mohit Raj Saxena

Investigating the Impact of Energy Use on Carbon Emissions: Evidence from a Non-parametric Panel Data Approach

Existing evidence for the role of energy consumption as a significant determinant of carbon emissions is very well studied. However, there are only a handful of studies in the South Asian context which are specific to individual country data and the use of parametric models. Thus, the impact of energy use on carbon emissions is investigated in this study by using a non-parametric panel data approach for five South Asian countries. The non-parametric approach discovers the true relationship from the data itself rather than having any pre-defined functional form. The data in this study was compiled for five South Asian countries—India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka using the World Development Indicators database. The study period in this study is 1978 to 2011. The estimated impact of energy consumption on carbon emissions is found to be linear and positive in nature. More specifically, there is a monotonically increasing impact of energy use on carbon emissions. However, the estimated impact of income is found to be nonlinear in nature and it shows an N-shaped type relationship. The study also investigates the impact of some other contributing factors such as trade and population density. The results indicate that in the initial stages of globalization, more openness in trade has no significant impact but in the later stages there is a positive impact. However, there is no empirical evidence that population density is a determining factor for carbon emissions.

Barsha Nibedita, Mohd Irfan

Studies on the Use of Thorium in PWR

A study was taken up to assess the use of thorium in PWR type of lattice. The case study was done for the 17 × 17 square lattice fuel assembly (FA) of Westinghouse design used in modern PWRs namely AP1000 and EPR. This work describes some theoretical results obtained by loading thorium in oxide form as main fertile with either LEU or PWR grade Plutonium as fissile seed. The fuel assembly of PWR, i.e. 17 × 17 lattices with 4.9% enriched UO2 fuel is taken as reference Thorium has a prominent position in fuel cycle envisaged for Gen-IV reactors owing to its promises to contain the production of transuranic and minor actinides and introducing intrinsic anti-proliferation feature owing to inevitable production of U232. Another aspect of Thorium loading which is worth mentioning is the possibility of burning of Plutonium and Uranium without further producing Minor Actinides (MA) and Transuranic (TRU). Properties of Thoria, such as its extraordinary stability against corrosion and high melting points being additional advantages, Thorium loading has been studied in considerable detail in functional and hypothetical nuclear reactors including in PWRs. PWRs being the most widely installed power reactor system makes it the most desirable target for the early deployment of thorium pending Gen-IV systems that are developed and become a common occurrence.

Devesh Raj, Umasankari Kannan

Coaxial Thermal Probe for High-Frequency Periodic Response in an IC Engine Test Rig

Coaxial Surface Junction Thermocouples (CSJTs) are efficient thermal probes, mostly used for capturing transient response characteristics in case of unsteady flows. For the present study, a K-type (Chromel-Alumel) CSJT thermal probe has been fabricated in-house and its response characteristics have been tested in an IC engine based experiment. The probe is mounted at the exhaust of a variable compression research engine running in petrol mode at compression ratio 10:1. The transient temperature is recorded for 6 s. After post-processing of the signals, cyclic repeatability of the engine cycles are observed. From the recorded temperature history, time taken by the engine for completion of one complete cycle is calculated for two different RPMs (1500, 1700) and compared with the theoretical cycle time calculated analytically from the recorded RPM by the engine sensor. Appreciable matching between the cycle times is observed. Therefore, the fabricated CSJT is quite fast in capturing the transient phenomena and can be used as a temperature sensor for capturing transient phenomena in IC engines. The application can be extended to capture other transient phenomena in case of unsteady flows.

Anil Kumar Rout, Santosh Kumar Hotta, Niranjan Sahoo, Pankaj Kalita, Vinayak Kulkarni

Effect of Injection Pressure on the Performance Characteristics of Double Cylinder Four-Stroke CI Engine Using Neem Bio-diesel

In the recent past, due to the depletion of fossil fuels, crude oil prices have been raised drastically due to which the researchers are urged to find suitable bio-fuels which might supplement the conventional fuels used in the present days. Bio-diesels is one of several alternative fuels designed to enhance the utility of petroleum, durability, and neatness of diesel engines. To satisfy this difficult and ruinous situation, Neem can go about as an ecological amicable elective feed-stock for bio-diesel production. This paper represents the effect of Neem bio-diesel and its blending with pure mineral diesel at different injection pressure on diesel engine performance to evaluate break-specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature and thermal efficiency. A four-stroke double cylinder compression ignition engine performance parameters were measured. The experimental research is carried out using different biodiesel blends such as B20, B40 and B60 at different injection pressure 220, 240 and 260 bar. Based on the experimental research it can be stated that as the injection pressure increases, the brake thermal efficiency rises and specific fuel consumption reduces. It is observed that B40 (40% Neem bio-diesel + 60% diesel) has the most suitable performance characteristics. By comparing the performance at injection pressure 220, 240 and 260 bar it is observed that Maximum BTHE is obtained at 260 bar injection pressure with an increase of 8.4% at full load condition while relatively lower specific fuel consumption as compared to all the blends of bio-diesel and pure diesel among different injection pressure.

Sushant S. Satputaley, Iheteshamhusain Jafri, Gauravkumar Bangare, Rahul P. Kavishwar

Experimental Study of a Helical Coil Receiver Using Fresnel Lens

Helical coil cavity receivers have been the object of interest in the past decade for concentrated solar power systems. Fresnel lens is utilized in this study instead of commonly used parabolic dish concentrator owing to its higher optical efficiency and ease of integrating it with the receiver for concentrating the solar radiation at the aperture of the upward-facing open cavity helical receiver. Experimental study is carried out for studying the performance analysis of the helical receiver. The experiments are carried out with compressed air as heat transfer fluid for around 2.5 h about solar noon in Bangalore, India (12.9716° N, 77.5946° E). The variation of efficiency of the receiver during the course of the experiment is studied for three flow rates of 100, 125, and 150 L/min. The maximum air outlet temperature obtained is 164 °C for 100 L/min at 44% efficiency and 140 °C for 150 L/min at 53% efficiency. The effect of direction of flow of heat transfer fluid is also studied, and it is found that higher efficiencies are achieved when the flow is from top to bottom of the receiver. The performance is evaluated based on efficiency and loss coefficient from the receiver.

Sumit Sharma, Sandip K. Saha

Substrate-Assisted Electrosynthesis of Patterned Lamellar Type Indium Selenide (InSe) Layer for Photovoltaic Application

Indium selenide (InSe) thin films are synthesized by electrodeposition technique over diagonally scratched stainless steel substrates in potentiostatic mode. Growth kinetics of film studied to optimize deposition parameters. Suitability of thin film for photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) has been done with various characterization techniques. PEC study of thin film is performed by using current-voltage characteristics. The crystalline, lamellar type stoichiometric indium selenide thin-film indicates good photoresponse with n-type conductivity. Work demonstrates a novel approach for obtaining cost-effective, patterned, lamellar-type, and photosensitive indium selenide thin film.

A. B. Bhalerao, S. B. Jambure, R. N. Bulakhe, S. S. Kahandal, S. D. Jagtap, A. G. Banpurkar, A. W. M. H. Ansari, Insik In, C. D. Lokhande

Optimization of Injector Location on the Cylinder Head in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

The injector location and orientation on the cylinder head of a direct injection spark ignition engine greatly influence the performance, combustion, and emission characteristics. As the cylinder head is the most crowded area, an in-cylinder investigation needs to be performed for the optimization of the spark plug and injector location. In this study, a gasoline direct injection (GDI) injector location was optimized for the upgradation of a port fuel injection (PFI) engine to direct injection engine. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool of ANSYS Forte was used for the numerical simulation. The injector location was optimized based on the air-fuel homogeneity inside the combustion chamber at the time of ignition. A computational model was developed for the existing single-cylinder PFI research engine, and full-cycle simulation was performed for both motoring and combustion mode. An experimental analysis was performed and compared with the simulation results. It was found that the experimental in-cylinder pressure trace showed a good agreement with the simulation results. Prior to the numerical modeling, the GDI injector spray characterization was performed numerically and validated with the existing literature. The possible GDI injector locations were identified by diagnosing the cylinder head. The spray data was used at different possible locations and injected directly into the combustion chamber. The in-cylinder equivalence ratio at the time of ignition was presented for different injector locations and optimized based on the air-fuel homogeneity.

Srinibas Tripathy, Sridhar Sahoo, Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava

Automated Cleaning of PV Panels Using the Comparative Algorithm and Arduino

The need for renewable sources of energy is increasing day by day. Out of these sources, the solar energy of the sun is one of the most promising sources as it is abundantly available. However, harvesting solar energy has its own problems. The energy density per unit area reaching earth at ground level is less. Further, PV cells can absorb up to 80% of incident solar radiation from the solar band but, only a small amount of absorbed incident energy is transformed into electricity depending on the conversion efficiency of the PV cells. This is further reduced when the panels get dirty due to dust deposition. From our observations, the efficiency drops by about 7% in 23 days. In large solar farms, a huge amount of energy loss is incurred due to dirty panels and at the same time, a huge amount of water is spent on cleaning. Hence, an efficient and automated cleaning system that knows exactly when the panels need cleaning, needs to be developed. We have thus developed an automated cleaning system using the comparative algorithm for cleaning and the Arduino for the automation of the same

Huzefa Lightwala, Dipesh Kumar, Nidhi Mehta

Performance and Degradation Analysis of High-Efficiency SPV Modules Under Composite Climatic Condition

High-efficiency commercial solar panels have an appreciable solar energy to electrical energy conversion efficiency as compared to other Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) modules. It generates 36% more efficient power in panel over 25 years as compared to other modules and shows module wise highest efficiency of over 20%. The performance of an SPV module depends on environmental conditions and it degrades with the time of exposure. In the present work the degradation study of 100 kW high-efficiency SPV power plant installed at NISE Campus, Gurugram, Haryana, India has been carried out after 2 years of installation in (Indian) composite climatic conditions. The annual degradation rate of the high-efficiency technology is calculated from I-V measurement data of the individual modules of the power plant after subjecting them to visual inspection, thermal imaging and insulation resistance testing. The annual degradation rate of maximum power was found to lie in the range of 2.8% to 4.3% per year with a median of 3.9% for 2 years.

Shubham Sanyal, Arpan Tewary, Rakesh Kumar, Birinchi Bora, Supriya Rai, Manander Bangar, Sanjay Kumar

Energy Literacy of University Graduate Students: A Multidimensional Assessment in Terms of Content Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior

To create energy literate citizenry, we must address the lack of energy literacy as a matter of urgency in both formal and informal learning environments. The Ethiopian energy sector faces the dual challenges of limited access to modern energy and heavy reliance on traditional biomass energy sources to meet growing demand. Efforts are to be promoted to strengthen the energy efficiency improvement programs which may help Ethiopia meet future energy demand. A knowledge on the extent of energy literacy among the citizens of Ethiopia will enable the policy makers in developing new strategies related to energy security. In this backdrop, it is the need of the hour to find the extent of energy literacy among the students, especially the university students, who are considered as the future workforce of the nation. The present study analyzes energy literacy from multidimensional perspectives and tries to group the student into various personas depending on their attitude and perceptions toward energy.

Divya Chandrasenan, Jaison Mammen, Vaisakh Yesodharan

Waste-to-Energy: Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities for RDF Utilization in Indian Cement Industry

Alternative fuels utilization in the cement industry has gained momentum from last one decade due to numerous advantages. Municipal solid waste (MSW)-based refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is one of the promising alternative fuels identified for co-processing with coal to achieve the national target of 25% thermal substitution rate (TSR) in Indian cement industry by the year 2025. However, even after consistent efforts of Government of India, cement industries and different stakeholders, percentage thermal substitution rate based on RDF is very low. This article highlights the issues, challenges, and opportunities for Indian cement industry for RDF utilization with respect to the new Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) guidelines and changing scenario of RDF utilization in near future.

Prateek Sharma, Pratik N. Sheth, B. N. Mohapatra

Predict the Effect of Combustion Parameter on Performance and Combustion Characteristics of Small Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

To predict the effect of change in combustion parameter which can be achieved through newly CRDI system on the performance of small cylinder diesel engine, a MATLAB programme based on a mathematical model has been developed. Developed mathematical model results are verified by comparing with those obtained through a trial on conventional small diesel engine and found very well matches. Further made changes in modelling for a different combination of combustion parameters such as injection pressure and injection timing and observed the effect of the same on performance and combustion characteristics of the diesel engine. These estimates are most useful for understanding basic engine performance as well as assessing modifications as regards high injection pressure system, valve and cam sizing, other geometrical parameters and various fuels.

D. K. Dond, N. P. Gulhane

Experimental Investigation of a Biogas-Fueled Diesel Engine at Different Biogas Flow Rates

The evolving energy demand and depletion of fossil fuels are the major drive toward the presage on economic growth and energy security. These challenges make necessary to find out an alternative energy resource in around the globe. The substitution of petroleum products by various biofuels especially in the transport sector could be a potential supporter for the feasible environment. Hence, in this present study, a single-cylinder, 4-stroke, direct injection (DI) diesel engine was changed to work on a dual-fuel operation with biogas (crude)–diesel where, for starting the combustion, diesel was used as injected fuel, while biogas used as a primary gas which is supplied through the intake of the engine. During the dual fuel operation, the effect of varying the biogas flow rates from 0.25 to 1 kg/h with an interval of 0.25 kg/h was studied at different engine loads. At each step, the percentage replacement of biogas and performance and emissions analysis of this study were compared with standard setting of the engine with diesel, and the results are presented in this paper.

Naseem Khayum, S. Anbarasu, S. Murugan

Characteristics of an Indigenously Developed 1 KW Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Stack

Efficient and high-power electrical energy storage is a key technology to harness renewable sources of energy. Vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) systems have emerged as strong contenders for large-scale energy storage applications. The paper presents the characteristics of an indigenously developed 1 kW VRFB stack of two designs. The fabrication of stack was preceded by a large amount of cell-level studies; important characteristics of interest to a design engineer such as materials of construction, cell sizes, operating conditions, power, charge/discharge capacity, energy efficiency and cycling behaviour are reported here. The project aims to develop eventually a 5 kW/25 kWh redox flow battery system capable of drawing electrical power from solar PV panels or the main grid, as necessary, and deliver uninterrupted power to a community of mixed DC/AC users.

Sreenivas Jayanti, Ravendra Gundlapalli, Raghuram Chetty, C. R. Jeevandoss, Kothandaraman Ramanujam, D. S. Monder, Raghunathan Rengaswamy, P. V. Suresh, K. S. Swarup, U. V. Varadaraju, Vasu Gollangi, L. Satpathy

Dynamic Demand Response Through Decentralized Intelligent Control of Resources

With the advent of machine learning and IoT capabilities built into resources, it is becoming feasible to implement data analytics-based strategies where the loads and renewable resources dynamically predict and publish their ability and extent of reduction or generation. This paper explores how the traditional demand response programs can be made automated, independent and dynamic—in the sense of allocation of load reduction dynamically to various resources, based on the data published by them regarding how much each of them is able to contribute. This will facilitate extending the demand response paradigm itself—by making it a tool to achieve load-curve tweaking at any point of time, rather than using it just when demands peak. With the increasing penetration of renewable power generators and EV loads which are highly variable in nature, we believe our dynamic demand response paradigm would be of high utility for future smart grids.

M. T. Arvind, Anoop R. Kulkarni

Transient Analysis of Pressurizer Steam Bleed Valves Stuck Open for 700 MWe PHWRs

Indian pressurizer heavy-water reactor (700 MWe) is a horizontal-channel-type nuclear reactor with partial boiling present at the outlet of channels. Heat which is generated due to fission reaction in the reactor core is transferred to primary coolant through primary heat transport system. There are two loops in the primary heat transport system, and each loop is in the shape of figure-of-eight and has two steam generators connected in series. The steam generated in the steam generators through the transfer of energy from primary side drives the turbine for generation of power. Primary heat transport system (PHTS) pressure control is done with the help of pressurizer. It has heaters and two pressurizer steam bleed valves (PSBVs). Pressurizer level control is achieved by feed and bleed control system. In this work, it is postulated that both the pressurizer steam bleed valves are stuck open. The scenario can be the result of faulty pressure control signal and is thus analyzed in this work. The impact of such an event on the overall safety of the reactor is hereby analyzed using in-house developed computer code ATMIKA-T. ATMIKA-T code is a coupled thermal hydraulics and 3D neutron kinetics computer code which captures the plant dynamics.

Deepraj Paul, S. Pahari, S. Hajela, M. Singhal

Transient Analysis of Net Load Rejection for 700 MWe IPHWRs

Indian pressurizer heavy water reactor (700 MWe) is a horizontal channel-type nuclear reactor with partial boiling at the channel outlet. Heat generated due to fission reaction in the reactor core is transferred to primary coolant through the primary heat transport system. There are two loops in the primary heat transport system, and each loop is in the shape of figure of eight and has two steam generators connected in series. The steam generated in the steam generators through the transfer of energy from the primary side drives the turbine for power generation. There is a generator circuit breaker (GCB), which is between generator and generator transformer and another generator transformer circuit breaker (GTCB) which is in between generator transformer and the grid. In the case of net load rejection (NLR), the GTCB opens to disconnect generator from the grid. GCB remains closed, and the generator continues to supply the buses to which unit transformers (UTs) are connected and continue to feed the house load. Transient analysis to simulate the timeline along with the sequence of events and study various parametric variations of the power plant is performed using in-house developed computer code ATMIKA.T. ATMIKA.T code is a coupled thermal hydraulics and 3D neutron kinetics computer code which captures the plant dynamics.

S. Phani Krishna, S. Pahari, S. Hajela, M. Singhal

A Comparative Experimental Investigation of Improved Biomass Cookstoves for Higher Efficiency with Lower Emissions

Traditional biomass cookstove emits high level of incomplete combustion particulates which leads to air pollution and causes negative impact on human health and environment. In the current research work, an improved biomass cookstove (IBC) is designed and tested out by using woody fuel to reduce carbon emissions with higher efficiency. The performance of IBC was evaluated in terms of energy efficiency, power output, and emission reduction potential. For the experimentation, two different designs of IBC were taken with varying insulation material in between. The first design included plaster of Paris (POP) as insulating material, while the other has glass wool as insulating material. The results showed that the IBC with glass wool insulating material exhibits higher thermal efficiency (32.66%) with lesser CO level (29.36 ppm), and PM 10 emissions (3.64 mg) as compared to IBC with POP. The maximum power output of 7.3 W was obtained for glass wool-based IBC. The experimental results of IBC were compared with the results of traditional cookstove available in the literature. In the end, it was concluded that the designed IBC has performed better in terms of efficiency and emissions.

Sandip Bhatta, Dhananjay Pratap, Nikhil Gakkhar, J. P. S. Rajput

Assessment of Floating Solar Photovoltaic (FSPV) Potential in India

This study deals with an assessment of the potential of utility-scale floating solar photovoltaic (FSPV) plants in India. Global Solar Atlas (GSA) and Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) databases are used for examining water bodies such as man-made reservoirs used for hydroelectricity generation, irrigation, drinking water purposes, and few lakes in India. Considering 10% coverage of water surface area by FSPV systems, a gross potential estimate of 124.6 GWp is arrived at. Further screening by fixing technological and other criteria limits the potential to 111.9 GWp.

Ashish Kumar, Ishan Purohit, Tara C. Kandpal

Effect of Non-Revenue Water Reduction in the Life Cycle of Water–Energy Nexus: A Case Study in India

In developing countries due to improper management of water supply systems, a bulk of treated water is lost during transmission or is unmetered. This unaccounted water is termed as non-revenue water due to which, an additional amount of water is supplied by the authorities adding to more energy and environmental burdens. The municipal corporations are attempting to reduce non-revenue water to make water supply systems sustainable. This study quantifies the water and energy nexus in the municipalities of the Pune Metropolitan Region and evaluates the change in environmental impacts when the non-revenue water is reduced. Environmental impacts of two scenarios vis-à-vis, business as usual (BAU) and government established targets (GET) were evaluated through life cycle assessment approach using GaBi software. The environmental impact categories for scenarios were global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone creation and eutrophication. Results showed the average energy intensity for the treatment and supply of water in Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation was 0.29 kWh/m3. The global warming potential ranged between 90 million kg-CO2e in year 2017 to 160 million kg-CO2e in year 2047 for BAU scenario and dominated the environmental impacts. After controlling non-revenue water to 15%, it was possible to reduce 24% of environmental burdens from water supply systems. This study represents the case of a metropolitan region in India and depicts the advantages of non-revenue water reduction in terms of environmental benefits in water supply systems.

Rajhans Negi, Vipin Singh, Munish K. Chandel

Policy Intervention for Promoting Effective Adaptation of Rooftop Solar PV Systems

The paper focuses on the targets set under India’s national solar mission and cumulative installed capacity of solar PV system. Analysis of the status of implementation of the solar mission reveals that the development in rooftop solar category has been extremely slow. A comparison of solar policy of five Indian states brings out the most effective policies adopted till date. The paper recommends an economic model for promoting rooftop solar PV system along with demand-side management.

Sabreen Ahmed, C. Vijayakumar, Arjun D. Shetty

Improved Dispatchability of Solar Photovoltaic System with Battery Energy Storage

Photovoltaic power is variable in nature as its output power continuously changes with the change in the solar irradiance level. This paper presents a method to balance power between the fixed power demand and the variable photovoltaic power. Perturbation and Observation algorithm is used to operate the photovoltaic system at maximum power point so that maximum power can be extracted from it. When solar photovoltaic power changes with the solar irradiance level, there is a power mismatch between the generated power and load power demand due to which the voltage across the DC link capacitor changes. This power mismatch is overcome by connecting battery energy storage device with DC link capacitor through bidirectional power converter. The bidirectional power converter is controlled to operate the battery in charging and discharging modes which help in power balance, thus stabilizing the voltage across DC link capacitor. Maintaining constant voltage across the DC link capacitor has many advantages such as connecting different energy storage devices directly to DC link capacitor and feeding DC loads, and it improves power quality when the inverter is operated and controlled as voltage source converter.

Sheikh Suhail Mohammad, S. J. Iqbal

Numerical Investigation of the Performance of Pump as Turbine with Back Cavity Filling

The objective of this paper is to investigate the internal flow profile of ‘pump as turbine’ (PAT) and influence on the internal flow physics due to novel modification as back cavity filling (BCF). This study is carried out by numerical simulation using fluent software for low specific speed (Ns = 19.9 rpm) end suction centrifugal pump used in turbine mode. As it is very difficult to visualize the internal flow physics in turbo-machines due to use of nontransparent materials, best approach is to use flow simulation software such as fluent, which gives insight and internal flow physics helping to understand and improve the system performance. Internal flow hydraulics indicates various losses in the impeller as well as clearly shows main flow region, which contributes mainly in the power generation. Due to insertion of filling material in the back cavity, shaft torque increases also there is reduction of the secondary flow and leakage of main flow into the back cavity, which results into an improvement in the performance of PAT. Large wake is observed at pressure and suction side of impeller blades for without-BCF and with-BCF stage of PAT. At overload condition, wake is even wider that prevents the movement of fluid from blade passages and contributes to the hydraulic losses. Further, this study can be extended for optimization of shape and size of fill component for improvement in the performance and life of PAT.

Rahul Gaji, Ashish Doshi, Mukund Bade

Mining Representative Load Profiles in Commercial Buildings

Benchmarking the load patterns in buildings is an important problem that can help in energy savings and automatic anomaly detection. This paper proposes a framework for benchmarking the load profiles in commercial buildings, temporal knowledge discovery from the load profiles and anomaly detection. We use clustering to group the similar power consumption patterns. For each cluster, we discover a set of load profiles which can benchmark other load patterns in the cluster, named as representative load profile (RLP). RLPs have been discovered using symbolic representation of the time series data. The proposed methodology reveals insight about load consumptions of commercial buildings in Ireland.

Kakuli Mishra, Srinka Basu, Ujjwal Maulik

A Simplified Non-iterative Method for Extraction of Parameters of Photovoltaic Cell/Module

Current interest in development of a photovoltaic performance model is intended to make it more robust, broad-based, and inclusive in light of steady improvement in established technologies and emergence of new photovoltaic technologies. In all the cases, reliable estimation of output power available from cell/module in spatial and temporal dimensions is one of the most important aspects of a photovoltaic performance model. The single-diode five-parameter model is of interest because it is simple, requires only a small number of input data, works satisfactorily under normal operating conditions of the cell, and has served the need till date. In this work, a reasonably simplified analytical method is proposed for calculating all the five parameters of a single-diode model of solar cell/module. Surprisingly, it resulted in reasonably better prediction. Also, the method could be an easy and quick computational tool for long-term performance prediction under commonly encountered operating conditions. It has been demonstrated for two entirely different technologies like multi-crystalline silicon and next generation organic photovoltaic solar cell.

Kumar Gaurav, Neha Kumari, S. K. Samdarshi, A. S. Bhattacharyya

Design, Analysis and Hardware Implementation of Modified Bipolar Solid-State Marx Generator

Bipolar Marx generator generates high voltage, repetitive pulse with both positive and negative half, which is being used for application like food processing industries, medical fields, agricultural and environmental. This paper deals with design, simulation, implementation and testing of the bipolar Marx generator. Simple monopolar Marx generator is modified by connecting an H-bridge circuit to the last stage. Ten-stage bipolar Marx generator topology with specification, output voltage 10 kV, 10% voltage droop, pulse repetitive frequency (PRF)—1 kHz and pulse width of 5 µs is designed and simulated using MATLAB (R2009a). The most suitable inductor and resistor required for charging are selected using transfer function modeling. A two-stage prototype is implemented to validate the design. Pulses for triggering the Marx switches and the H-bridge switches are developed using LPC2148 arm controller. Hardware circuit is tested with an input of 100 V and PRF of 110 Hz. During erection, the full voltage appears across the switches in the H-bridge. Hence, this can be used only for few kilovolts.

Neelam S. Pinjari, S. Bindu

Viability Study of Stand-Alone Hybrid Energy Systems for Telecom Base Station

Telecom sector is playing an important aid for the rapid progress of various segments of the economy. These telecom towers are increasing heavily with the increasing population. In rural areas, more power shortages lead to the usage of conventional energy resources which leads to high costs because of more fuel consumption and an increase in environmental pollution. To tackle this situation, the present work aims to study the viability of an individual hybrid renewable power system for telecom tower in Vizianagaram. Initially, the electrical load on hourly basis of telecom tower is estimated for all months in a year for the telecom tower. Monthly solar irradiance and wind speed using NASA meteorology and monthly biomass availability data are collected from the records of the ministry of new and renewable energy. Different hybrid energy systems have been designed based on technical and economical features of various components. Simulations are carried out by HOMER Pro software for solar-wind, solar-biomass, and solar-fuel cell hybrid energy systems. Economics of different hybrid energy systems is compared. The values indicate that the solar-biomass hybrid energy system is economically viable among different systems considered in the present work. The optimal size of solar-biomass hybrid energy system is a combination of photovoltaic cells of 28.4 kW capacity and biomass of 6 kW capacity and converter of 4 kW with a net present cost of ₹ 22,68,578 with an initial cost of ₹ 1.16 M and with a payback period of 7.46 years.

M. Siva Subrahmanyam, E. Anil Kumar

Effect of Temperature and Salt Concentration on the Properties of Electrolyte for Sodium-Ion Batteries

Electrolyte plays an important role in the success of rechargeable batteries. Identification of appropriate electrolyte materials for sodium-based batteries is an active research area today. Using molecular dynamics method, we simulate a widely studied electrolyte for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs): NaPF6 salt in ethylene carbonate solvent. The roles of temperature and salt concentration on the structural and dynamic properties of the electrolyte are studied. Temperature and salt concentration affect the molecular structure of the solution. The electrolyte tends to form contact-ion-pairs and multi-ion aggregates at higher temperature and concentration. An in-depth understanding of the effect of temperature and concentration on various properties of the electrolyte that define the rate and safety characteristics of the battery is required to rationally guide the design of electrolytes for SIBs.

Bharath Ravikumar, Surbhi Kumari, Mahesh Mynam, Beena Rai

Carbon Deposition on the Anode of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Fueled by Syngas—A Thermodynamic Analysis

Decentralized power generation can be used to address the problem of energy crisis at remote locations. Use of renewable energy helps to provide clean energy, and the gasification route helps to use locally available solid fuels to generate a gaseous fuel for efficient prime movers. Syngas generated from the gasification of biomass/coal can be used in solid oxide fuel cells to generate electricity for decentralized power generation. While using syngas in SOFCs, the presence of carbonaceous compounds like CO and tar could potentially result in carbon deposition on SOFC anodes, eventually resulting in anode and cell degradation. Thermodynamic calculations using NASA Computer program CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications) were carried out to provide a first-hand understanding of carbon deposition during syngas-fueled operation. The studies point to the need for higher hydrogen/steam content in fuel or a higher cell operating temperature to reduce carbon formation on SOFC anodes.

N. Rakesh, S. Dasappa

Numerical Study on CO2 Injection in Indian Geothermal Reservoirs Using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2a

India has the potential to generate 10,600 MW of electricity to meet the electricity demands especially in rural areas from 400 thermal springs across the nation. Due to high investment cost and acute work in R&D in geothermal prospects of India, this clean and reliable technology is not yet explored to its fullest potential. In this work, we have analyzed the performance of two different geothermal systems, namely engineered geothermal system (EGS) and carbon dioxide plume geothermal system (CPG) utilizing carbon dioxide and water as working fluids in geological subsurface using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2a.

Nandlal Gupta, Manvendra Vashistha

Modification in the Rotor of Savonius Turbine to Reduce Reverse Force on the Returning Blade

In the present study, conventional semi-circular rotor blades of Savonius turbine are modified to reduce the reverse force on the returning blade. The modification is in the form of converging or diverging passage in the blades. The effect on such passages on the net drag has been numerically studied. Two-dimensional transient simulations are carried out to analyze the performance of modified blades. ANSYS Fluent 15.0 is used for the simulations. The performance of the turbine has been quantified in terms of power and torque coefficients. From the results, for the preferred geometry modification, drag reduction in the returning blade has been observed. However, there is a reduction in the net drag as well.

J. Ramarajan, S. Jayavel

Design and Fabrication of Grating-Based Filters for Micro-thermophotovoltaic Systems

Micro-thermophotovoltaic systems are an appealing alternative as portable power generators with high energy density and longevity. Recent advances in the nanofabrication have enabled the design of spectrally selective thermal emitters matched to the low bandgap PV cells. Here, we propose a one-dimensional amorphous silicon grating-based structure on quartz substrate as selective filter. The simulations are performed to optimize the grating parameters to minimize the transmission of below bandgap photons for GaSb PV cell (cut-off wavelength of 1.8 μm). The fabrication of the optimized design is carried out using interference lithography. The fabricated grating parameters are grating period (2.49 μm), duty cycle (39–41%), and grating thickness (520 ± 30 nm). The fabricated filter is characterized using an optical setup and the obtained transmission spectrum when convoluted with blackbody spectrum at 1500 K showed that 71.17% of above bandgap photons are transmitted and only 24.3% of below bandgap photons are transmitted. Therefore, approximately 75% of the below bandgap photons are reflected by filter which provides the advantage of reduction in heat loss and enhancement of the combustion which contributes to the overall increase in TPV system efficiency.

M. V. N. Surendra Gupta, E. Ameen, Ananthanarayanan Veeraragavan, Bala Pesala

A Systematic Investigation on Evaporation, Condensation and Production of Sustainable Water from Novel-Designed Tubular Solar Still

In the current scenario, mammoth task is the management of the potable water supply. Clean water is considered to be the fundamental need for humans. In this study, we explore the performance of new design for the solar desalination integrated with parabolic-line concentrator. The newly designed system consists of two separated chambers, i.e. the evaporation and condenser chambers having evacuated tube placed at the focal line of the parabolic trough collector and thermic oil as a heat transferring medium. A newly designed steam separator was used to separate steam and hot water in the condensation chamber. A set of experiments was carried out to investigate the evaporation, condensation and distilled water production performance, independently. The temperature obtained at the copper tube surface was 135 ℃. The temperature of condenser plate was found to be 35 ℃. The results revealed the dependence of evaporation, condensation and water production on the surrounding air temperature. The results compared to the conventional system revealed in an increase of approx. 40% giving a yield of 7.08 l/m2/day. The reported design can be used to change the face of water desalination system throughout the world.

Mihir Lad, Nikunj Usadadia, Sagar Paneliya, Sakshum Khanna, Vishwakumar Bhavsar, Indrajit Mukhopadhyay, Devang Joshi, Abhijit Ray

Novel Design of PV Integrated Solar Still for Cogeneration of Power and Sustainable Water Using PVT Technology

Clean water is considered to be the fundamental need for human survival. In this work, we explore a novel approach toward desalination of brackish water using renewable energy. Compared to the conventional solar still, the proposed work is an integrated system that uses solar energy to generate power and sustainable water. The proposed hybrid solar still is efficiently designed by integrating the concepts of both building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and solar thermal (PVT) technologies. A typical solar PV panel is around 15% efficient for turning solar irradiance into electricity, wasting the remaining energy in the form of heat. The motive is to use this low-grade waste heat in the most effective manner by having a tubing structure mounted on the rear side of the semitransparent BIPV module leading toward an effectively preheated water up to 45–50 °C with continuous water circulation at 380 g/min at the exit along with increasing the efficiency of the solar PV module by around 1% per day. A systematic investigation was performed to analyze system performance via multiple aspects such as distilled water yields, instantaneous and daily power production considering BIPV module. The results revealed that BIPV modules do not have a significant effect on distilled water yield. However, it is revealed that modifying the design of the condensing system along with specially designed spiral heating collector (efficiency 56%) leads to an increase of water yield. The maximum water production of 4.9 l/m2/day is achieved for an integrated system of BIPV and solar thermal (PVT) technologies.

Nikunj Usadadia, Mihir Lad, Sagar Paneliya, Sakshum Khanna, Abhijit Ray, Indrajit Mukhopadhyay

Cellulose Nanocrystals Incorporated Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Application

The present work deals with the study of proton exchange membrane prepared by employing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as a novel, green, cost-effective and sustainable nano-material as reinforcer into poly (ether ether ketone) based polymer matrix. The membranes were fabricated through the solvent casting process and further evaluated by different techniques for their efficiency as suitable polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells. The presence of cellulose nanocrystals has a profound effect on the membrane properties especially on proton conduction, a crucial feature determining the performance of fuel cells. A maximum value of 0.14 S/cm at 90 °C under humid conditions was obtained for proton conductivity in the composite membranes with 4% CNC loading which is comparable to the conductivity achieved in similar conditions for Nafion.

Saleheen Bano, Asif Ali, Sauraj, Yuvraj Singh Negi

Study of the Effect of Biomass-Derived N-Self Doped Porous Carbon in Microbial Fuel Cell

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) has great potential as a green and alternative form of energy. The main disadvantage of MFC is low power generation. The present work aims at developing biomass-derived nitrogen self doped porous carbon to be used in the cathode of MFC to increase its power output. Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) underwent hydrothermal treatment along with pyrolysis at 700 °C using CaCl2 as the activating agent for the preparation of nitrogen self doped porous carbon (AWL). The BET surface area of the AWL was found to be 555.672 m2/g with a mesoporous structure which was also confirmed with SEM image obtained from the AWL. XPS analysis showed that the nitrogen content of AWL was 3.64% along with the presence of graphitic, pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen. The presence of C–N and O–H group in AWL was detected by FTIR analysis. Dual-chamber MFC was developed using kitchen waste as a substrate in the anode chamber. AWL was coated in the stainless steel electrode and was then used as a cathode. Open-Circuit Voltage and power densities of MFC were recorded for a period of 10 days. A comparative study was also made of AWL coated electrode with plain electrode and also non-activated carbon (WL) coated electrode. MFC using AWL coated cathode exhibited maximum open-circuit voltage of 696 mV along with the increase in power density by nearly 3 times.

Saswati Sarmah, Minakshi Gohain, Dhanapati Deka

Analysis of Nature-Inspired Spirals for Design of Solar Tree

The paper demonstrates the feasibility of using nature-inspired spiral patterns in the design of solar tree. Analysis of properties of Fermat’s spiral has shown that due to its uniform packing density, it is optimal for designing a solar tree with all solar panels of equal size. Further, solar panels with arithmetically increasing size may be used for the design of solar tree using Archimedes spiral. For a given set of spiral parameters, the size of the solar panels and the corresponding divergence angles has been optimized. The results show that >99% energy extraction efficiencies can be obtained using optimized solar panels dimensions at divergence angles 157.5° and 99.5° for Archimedes and Fermat’s spiral, respectively. It is observed that, for the same scaling factor and number of panels, the total projected ground footprint area is ~60 times higher in case of Archimedes spiral. Due to the higher packing fraction, Archimedes spiral-based design offers higher energy density. However, Fermat’s spiral-based solar tree design provides higher energy density in cases where equal sized solar panels are used. Also, it is observed that, there are multiple divergence angles except the most commonly observed golden ratio (137.5°) that can offer optimal energy extraction.

Sumon Dey, Madan Kumar Lakshmanan, Bala Pesala

Effective Use of Existing Efficient Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) Technology for HVAC Systems—Consultative Research Case Studies

The paper intends to illustrate our consultative research outcome on improving the use of already existing efficient Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) for the HVAC systems. The study highlights few noticeable operating practices which fail to capitalize on the maximum benefits of such efficient technologies, via case studies on Water-Cooled Screw Chillers and associated Cooling Towers. These assessments are further useful for a centralized air conditioning system employed throughout the year in several industries and commercial spaces which poses significant challenges for effectively operating, reducing energy consumption and who are presently using or are planning to incorporate energy-efficient technologies such as VFD. It is aimed to help convey the entities to have a holistic approach while incorporating energy efficiency measures and avoid overlooking the fundamental operating conditions of the HVAC system. It was concluded that effective use of VFDs for chillers and cooling tower operations improves the chiller performance and coefficient of performance (COP) increases.

Rahul Raju Dusa, Atulkumar Auti, Vijay Mohan Rachabhattuni

Thermodynamic Analysis of a Combined Power and Cooling System Integrated with CO2 Capture Unit of a 500 MWe SupC Coal-Fired Power Plant

The present paper proposes a combined power and cooling system (CPCS) driven by solar energy and low-graded heat sources released from the CO2 compression and flue gas condensation systems in a 500 MWe supercritical (SupC) coal power plant with MEA-based CO2 capture unit (CCU). The proposed system is modeled in computer-based modeling software ‘Cycle-Tempo’ at different operating conditions. The results show that the energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant can be increased by about 4.23 and 3.90% points, respectively, over the 500 MW standalone plant with CCU due to additional net electric power of about 30.68 MW using solar-assisted CPCS at full load. Additional electric power helps in the reduction of auxiliary power requirement for the CO2 capture system by about 58.42% in a 500MWe SupC coal power plant. Additional cooling effect of about 52.57 MW can also be obtained from the proposed system at full load. The net energy and exergy efficiencies of the solar-assisted CPCS are about 22.79 and 38.47%, respectively, at full load and its variation at different operating conditions is also analysed. The proposed system reduces coal requirement by about 22 t/h at full load, and about 29.29 t/h of CO2 emission can also be avoided for the 500 MWe SupC steam plant without CO2 capture due to low-scheduled generation. Economic analysis also shows that the levelized cost of electricity (LCoE) generation and simple payback period (SPP) of the proposed plant is about Rs. 3.50/-per kWh and 5.42 years, respectively.

Rajesh Kumar, Goutam Khankari, Sujit Karmakar

DFT Studies on Electronic and Optical Properties of Inorganic CsPbI3 Perovskite Absorber for Solar Cell Application

We computed electronic and optical properties of inorganic cubic perovskite CsPbI3 absorber using Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE) with Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) and modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) exchange-correlation potential. The optimized lattice parameter is 6.3772 Å and the computed direct bandgap values at high symmetry point-R are 1.42 and 1.72 eV for GGA-PBE and mBJ exchange-correlation potential, respectively. Electronic as well as optical properties are investigated by computing projected density of states (PDOS), dielectric function, refractive index, extinction coefficients, reflectivity, and absorption as the function of energy. The large absorption coefficient of CsPbI3 is making it a promising absorber for photovoltaic applications.

Abhijeet Kale, Rajneesh Chaurasiya, Ambesh Dixit

Biowaste Derived Highly Porous Carbon for Energy Storage

The demand for activated carbon (AC) is incessantly growing with population, due to its widespread applications in wastewater treatment, air purification, hydrogen storage, gas separation, and energy storage devices, but the complicated fabrication procedures, necessity of sophisticated instruments, and requirement of expensive precursors restrict its use. In this article, extremely porous activated carbon has been prepared from biowaste sweet lime peels (Citrus limetta). KOH solution was used as an activator because of its low activation temperature and high product yield. Carbonization was performed at 500 ℃. The structural and morphological properties of as prepared porous carbon were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical characterizations such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out at different scan rates and current densities in an aqueous electrolyte (1 M H2SO4). The GCD for activated carbon electrodes resulted in superior electrochemical performance with a high specific capacitance of about 243 F/g at 1 A/g. The activated carbon also showed excellent cyclic stability over 5000 charge–discharge cycles without any reduction in its initial capacitance. This shows the excellent performance of sweet lime peels derived AC as a stable and inexpensive material for energy storage applications.

Dinesh J. Ahirrao, Shreerang D. Datar, Neetu Jha

Bio-Ethanol Production from Carbohydrate-Rich Microalgal Biomass: Scenedesmus Obliquus

Microalgae are considered as a promising and inexpensive feedstock for biofuel production by microbial fermentation. Algal-based fuels are renewable, effective, and environment friendly as they have the potential to match the global demand for fuel in the future. The pre-treatment and carbohydrate extraction from algal cell are the main obstacle in the bio-ethanol production step. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential of using Scenedesmus obliquus (SO), a carbohydrate-rich microalgae species as feedstock for bio-ethanol production via various pre-treatment techniques. Herein, pre-treatment and fermentation process were carried out followed by distillation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as fermentative microorganism. Various characterizations of the raw sample such as proximate analysis, gravimetric analysis, FTIR were performed to test the suitability of SO for bio-ethanol production. The cellulose content of the raw SO was found to be 53.08% which proves its suitability for the production of bio-ethanol. Bio-ethanol formation was confirmed by gas chromatography.

Maskura Hasin, Minakshi Gohain, Dhanapati Deka

Safety Analysis of Loss of NPP Off-Site Power with Failure of Reactor SCRAM (ATWS) for VVER-1000

Loss of off-site power in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) with failure of reactor SCRAM, i.e, inability to automatically drop control rods into the core after reactor trip signal during transient for PWR, is considered as a Design Extension Condition (DEC). Such an event is called ATWS, i.e., Anticipated Transient Without Scram. The event has been analyzed using thermal hydraulic computer code RELAP-5/MOD 3.2 for Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP). RELAP-5/MOD 3.2 uses a one-dimensional, two fluids, non-equilibrium, six equation hydrodynamic model with a simplified capability to treat multi-dimensional flows. KKNPP has two operating VVER-1000 Reactors. VVER-1000 is a Pressurized Water Reactor having active and passive safety systems for such event mitigation. As a result of the initiating event, i.e., Loss of NPP station service power, trip of reactor coolant pump, closure of turbine governor valve, and loss of steam generator feedwater take place. This affects heat removal from the reactor core due to loss-of-coolant circulation and pressurization of the primary and secondary circuits due to closure of the turbine governor valve. This results in the generation of reactor scram signal. Failure of reactor SCRAM is considered in the event. Thus, the reactor power is not decreased even after the scram signal and ATWS condition is identified. This results in the actuation of both passive and active safety systems for boron addition to the core, designed for ATWS mitigation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the thermal hydraulic and neutronic behavior of the core and verify the capability of safety systems for event mitigation. The thermal hydraulic parameters are checked against the applicable acceptance criterion for the event.

Manish Mehta, Sanuj Chaudhary, Anirban Biswangri, P. Krishna Kumar, Y. K. Pandey, Gautam Biswas

P-type Crystalline Silicon Surface Passivation Using Silicon Oxynitride/SiN Stack for PERC Solar Cell Application

Silicon nitride layers have been long used as front side passivation layers for n-type silicon substrates. Here we explore the passivation property of silicon oxynitride (SiON) and silicon oxynitride/silicon nitride stacks, instead of SiO2, on p-type silicon wafers for back-surface passivation. SiON and SiON/SiN stacks can be deposited at low temperatures with very high deposition rates compared to SiO2. Since SiN and SiON form an inversion layer at the interface when contacted with p-type silicon, these dielectric layers are not ideal for passivating p-type substrates but the commercial benefits of these dielectric layers in terms of low thermal budget and high deposition rates motivated us to look deeper into the passivation properties of these dielectric layers by using capacitance–voltage and carrier lifetime measurements. Different types of charges like fixed charge, mobile charge, and interface charge have been calculated using “MOS capacitor” like structures with SiON and SiON/SiN stack as insulating layers. These results indicate that the interface charge dictates the passivation quality of these dielectric layers.

Irfan M. Khorakiwala, Vikas Nandal, Pradeep Nair, Aldrin Antony

Pressure Propagation and Flow Restart in the Subsea Pipeline Network

Waxy crude oil transportation at cold subsea condition encounters a severe flow assurance problem. Occasional maintenance and emergency shutdown requirement of the crude oil pipeline may profound gelation process. The gelation of crude oil may result in pipeline blockage. In order to restart flow in a gelled pipeline, a high axial pressure gradient is applied, across the gel plug, to breakdown the gel structure. During shutdown, waxy crude gelation leads to shrinkage in the gel structure as seen in dead oil (gas de-saturated oil) and subsequently releases free gases. Free gases result in void formation and a multi-plugged gel in the industrial pipeline. The gel separated by gas pocket is termed as multi-plugged gel, which may form due to uneven earth surface, especially on sea-bed. In this work, flow restart in multi-plug gelled pipeline is investigated by solving mass and momentum balance equations together with strain-dependent rheological equation. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is utilized to distinguish bulk phases and the advection equation of volume fraction traces the motion of gel–gas interface. The time evolution of applied pressure propagation in the gelled pipeline has been compared with earlier works. It shows that the present profile exactly matches with the pressure profile in the single-phase flow before it encounters the gas pocket. The effect of multi-plug in restart operation may result in early gel degradation and flow restart. The result obtained in this work can be used to reduce the margin of safety commonly adopted due to overestimated pressure requirement.

Lomesh Tikariha, Lalit Kumar

Electrodeposition of Cu2O: Determination of Limiting Potential Towards Solar Water Splitting

This work demonstrates a detailed case study on the electrodeposition of p-Cu2O onto FTO substrates. Cu2O thin films were prepared at different potentials ranging from −0.2 to −0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl. Structural, morphological, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and Autolab PGstat, and the performances were measured and compared at each potential. It was observed from the electrochemical studies that for the electrodeposition of Cu2O, there exists a limiting potential, at which the generation of photocurrent density is maximum. The impedance studies, film thicknesses, and XRD analysis, together implied the potential of −0.4 V to be the limiting potential in this work.

Iqra Reyaz Hamdani, Ashok N. Bhaskarwar

Design and Development of an Economical and Reliable Solar-Powered Trash Compactor

In this paper, a reliable and economical solar-powered trash compactor has been developed and demonstrated. This increases the capacity of existing trash bins by 5–8 times per day, depending on the equipment used. An important advantage of this waste compaction mechanism is integrating solar PV source with the existing trash compactors thereby improving its operation flexible and economically viable. Considering the intermittency of solar PV source, battery storage is also integrated with the system to ensure the power supply reliability. In this paper, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT)-based charging topology is used to transfer the maximum power from the solar PV to the battery and thus to enhance the power conversion efficiency of the power electronic interface. As prolonged monsoons can disrupt the compaction process due to the unavailability of solar PV source, grid integration with the proposed system ensures the long-term continuity of operation. Moreover, surplus solar energy is exported to the grid, thereby cutting down the electricity tariff significantly. A prototype of the solar-powered trash compactor system with one-time garbage compaction capacity of 2.5lbs has been developed to validate the proposed topology to be applicable for large capacity trash compactors as well.

Ridhi Lakhotia, Abu Fazal, Ajay Yadav, Ankur Bhattacharjee

Performance and Emission Characteristics of CI Engine Fueled with Plastic Oil Blended with Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel

This work is to present the results of the performance and emission of compression ignition (CI) engine fueled with waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) blended with diesel. Two different blends (20 and 40%) varying WPPO, JME, and diesel proportions were experimented in the CI engine whose compression ratio was 17.5:1. CI engine is most used engine in both power and transport sector, but rapid consumption of conventional fuels results in increase of fuel price as well as environmental pollution due to the release of exhaust gases. In order to reduce both pollution and cost of fuel, we need an alternative fuel. Jatropha is chosen as one of the fuels due its non-edibility and larger source found in India. WPPO is chosen as another fuel in order to reduce the waste deposit and also to utilize the energy from waste.

S. Babu, K. Kavin, S. Niju

Performance Analysis of Hybrid Photovoltaic Array Configurations Under Randomly Distributed Shading Patterns

The aim of this paper is to study the performances of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) array configurations under randomly distributed shading patterns. The hybrid PV array configurations considered in this paper: Series Parallel-Total Cross Tied (SPTCT), Bridge Linked-Total Cross Tied (BLTCT), Honey Comb-Total Cross Tied (HCTCT) and Bridge Linked-Honey Comb (BLHC) have been derived from the classical configurations. The analysis has been carried out by comparing the performances of these PV array configurations justified by the values of their maximum powers, fill-factors, thermal voltages and relative power losses for five randomly distributed shading patterns. Moreover, one realistic shading pattern has also been developed for practical investigation of the performances of hybrid PV array configurations. The complete research has been done on PV arrays of size (6 × 4), made of HIT-N240SE10 PV modules. The maximum powers of hybrid PV array configurations obtained for six randomly distributed shading patterns have been examined by cumulative distribution function to forecast regarding the order of the performances of hybrid PV array configurations under partial shading condition (PSC).

Vandana Jha

Flow Improvement Aspect with Stagger Angle Variation of the Subsequent Rotor in Contra-rotating Axial Flow Turbine

Flow in an axial flow turbine stage is complex due to the presence of different types of blade rows, gap between them, tip clearance provided, and twisting of blades. This flow aspect may change, if the parameters like speed, gap, and blade angles are changed. Current work contains computational study of the flow aspect of contra-rotating axial flow turbine stage with different stagger angles of second rotor, ranging from 8 to 13°. Mass flow rates are varied from 3 to 4.5 kg/s. Stage constituents, stator, rotor 1 (R1), and rotor 2 (R2) are modeled for all the cases of staggering, considering an axial gap of 30% of the axial chord between the blade rows. At stator inlet, total pressure and at stage outlet, mass flow rate are identified as boundary conditions. Skin friction lines on rotors, flow, deviation angles, and velocity contours are used to study the flow physics. Not much variation of skin friction lines is observed in case of R1 on the pressure side. Skin friction lines on the pressure side of R2 show re-attachment lines and nodes. For the same region in R1, there is proper re-attachment, as nodes are observed instead of lines, suggesting that more improved flow is occurring in R1 than R2. This aspect is reduced with staggering. Also, effort is made to capture the flow aspect in the second rotor, measuring incidence angle and drawing velocity contours incidence angle is less and flow is better in case of S10. Thus, staggering of second rotor shows beneficial effect.

Rayapati Subbarao

Performance Assessment of Pelton Turbine with Traditional and Novel Hooped Runner by Experimental Investigation

Hydro turbomachines are used since long as a water wheel, even before knowledge of fluid mechanics. A newly developed concept at runner, i.e., hooped is considered here for investigation purposes. This paper mainly focuses on the performance comparison between traditional and hooped type Pelton wheel turbine runner. The performance characteristic of any hydraulic machine describes the behavior of the machine under operating conditions. The downcomer jet impingement to the rotor buckets provides more velocity and thereby impulse to a runner. Efficient performance behavior of any turbomachine under consideration can be easily estimated from performance curves for that machine under specified conditions. In case of impulse type machines, it relies on the quality of jet and other aspects of jet-vane interaction too. In the present investigation, the performance of two types of runner has experimented on the same setup and flow conditions. The main objective of this paper is to compare the performance of a regular runner with a novel hooped runner. It has been found that hooped runner exhibits the same characteristics with some loss of efficiency due to overweight and loss of energy at buckets due to restricted passage created by a hoop (flanges) but on the contrary, the reliability and safety of buckets can be ensured. In addition, less deflection of the bucket can also be ensured under heavy jet force.

Vimal K. Patel, Hemal N. Lakdawala, Sureel Dohare, Gaurang Chaudhary

Evaluation of LVRT Control Strategies for Offshore Wind Farms

The penetration of offshore wind farms (OWF) connected to the electric utility grid through voltage source converter-based high-voltage DC (VSC-HVDC) increased year by year in some countries. However, penetration of HVDC-connected OWF affects electric power system voltage and frequency stability during a grid disturbance, which enforces system regulators to update their grid code regulations for secure and stable operation. Low voltage ride through capability (LVRT) for OWF ensures that OWF stays grid connected during a voltage disturbance and supports the electric grid during such low-voltage fault events instead of direct tripping. Several LVRT strategies for HVDC connected OWF are reported in the literature, however, without considering a critical factor of active power recovery (APR) ramp rate requirements. In this paper, three LVRT strategies have been investigated to comply LVRT and APR requirements. The different LVRT strategies for OWF considered in this study were tested under different scenarios in IEEE 39 bus benchmark system, and a comparative analysis of these LVRT strategies has been reported in this paper.

M. M. Kabsha, Zakir Rather

An Experimental and CFD Analysis on Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Characteristics of a Tube Equipped with X-Shaped Tape Insert in a U-Shaped Heat Exchanger

In this chapter, the performance of a heat exchanger equipped with X-shaped tape insert was investigated and reported. Experimental investigation was performed to calculate overall heat transfer coefficient, effectiveness, friction factor and pressure drop of the fluid flowing through U-tube fitted with X-shaped tape insert. Mild steel was used to manufacture X-shaped tape insert due to the ease of availability and machinability. Two X-shaped tape insert of 1 m length each was incorporated in the U-shaped tube of length 2.4 m. Resistance thermometers were employed to measure the temperature of the working fluid at the inlet and the outlet of the test section. It was evident that the turbulence (Re > 4000) created by the X-shaped tape insert in the fluid, enhanced the heat transfer of the system. The results showed that the heat transfer rate and overall heat transfer coefficient of U-shaped tube fitted with X-shaped tape insert were 2.5 times and 3.15 times, respectively, than the U-shaped tube without the insert. The experimental data were substantiated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The simulated results supported the experimental results with an error ranging from 2 to 5%.

Sagar Paneliya, Sakshum Khanna, Jeet Mehta, Vishal Kathiriya, Umang Patel, Parth Prajapati, Indrajit Mukhopdhyay

Single-Particle Analysis of Thermally Thick Wood Particles in O2, N2, CO2 Atmosphere

In this era of shortages of non-renewable energy resources and rapid price hike, biomass gasification is re-emerged as an efficient option for energy production which can convert 60–90% of biomass energy into product gas which can be used either in heat generation or electricity production. Pyrolysis and char conversion are two major processes that finally lead to overall biomass conversion to fuel gas. Extensive work is available for volatile combustion model and char reduction model; however, very limited work has been proposed for pyrolysis model. Also, very few literature is available for thermally thick particles in modeling work. The existing pyrolysis models are adopted from inert pyrolysis or flaming pyrolysis in the presence of air. Therefore, research needs to be conducted using various reactants apart from air like N2, O2, CO2, oxy-steam, etc. The present study focuses on the experimental evaluation of pyrolysis rate and char conversion rate of single biomass particle under similar conditions in packed bed gasification. The pyrolysis and char conversion rates were then analyzed from the view of various factors such as varying gas flows, shape and density of biomass at fixed mass flux of inlet stream. The mass loss characteristics for each case were used as the tool for analysis, and it was studied by fabricating the single-particle reactor. NASA SP 273 code was used for getting equilibrium concentration of various species in gas stream and the adiabatic temperature.

Shruti Vikram, Sandeep Kumar

An Analysis for Management of End-of-Life Solar PV in India

Climate change and depleting energy resources have led the world to adopt new energy resources. Over the years, renewable energy sources and the associated technologies have witnessed giant progress towards sustainable development. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems are the global as well as Indian flag bearers of renewable energy. Solar panels contain hazardous but valuable materials, which give an opportunity to be recycled and reused. A proper waste management strategy can tackle the PV waste generation as well as reclaim required materials from it rather than being discarded in the landfills which can raise environmental concerns. India being the second most populated country relies more on conventional sources. The demand for electricity has grown exponentially since the past decade and a gradual shift towards renewables is increasing to meet the demand. In this paper, we have analyzed the status of the global PV market and the time when the critical point of generated PV waste will reach. We have also discussed about the need for PV waste management and recycling, and also the ways how policies and regulations can help for the same.

Snehalata Pankadan, Swapnil Nikam, Naqui Anwer

Localized Energy Self-sufficiency (Energy Swaraj) for Energy Sustainability and Mitigating Climate Change

Mitigating climate change is one of the major global concerns of the twenty-first century. Increasing energy consumption and dependence on conventional fuels is the primary challenge to contain global warming. The world needs to switch toward renewable energy sources and utilize energy efficiently for sustainability and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, decentralized renewable energy access based on the Gandhian principle “-not mass production but production by the masses” would be useful for energy sustainability and to address United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The authors present a conceptual model wherein local communities get involved in generating and fulfilling their own energy needs which is technically feasible and economically viable. Based on this approach, Solar Urja through Localization for Sustainability (SoULS) initiative is implemented in rural areas of nine states in India to provide clean, affordable, reliable, and complete energy access. Local people are trained to own, manage, and operate solar enterprises at every level including assembly, distribution, after-sales service, and manufacturing to create solar energy ecosystem by locals for locals. The SoULS project at IIT Bombay has demonstrated that by involving local community in fulfilling their energy needs, growth can be observed across other dimensions of development including social, economic, environment, institution, and technology. Preliminary field findings from impact analysis of the implementation are discussed. This paper presents the conceptual model of localized energy self-sufficiency (LESS) or Energy Swaraj approach and brings the idea of how the deployment of renewable energy technologies can become sustainable over time.

Chetan Singh Solanki, Sayli Shiradkar, Rohit Sharma, Jayendran Venkateswaran, Nikita Lihinar, Harshad Supal, Swati Kalwar

Pseudocapacitive Energy Storage in Copper Oxide and Hydroxide Nanostructures Casted Over Nickel-Foam

In the present study, we investigate the pseudocapacitive behavior of the copper hydroxide-oxide nanostructures casted over Ni-foam. Highly textured nanorods of copper oxide and hydroxide were developed over the copper foil (Cu–F) using the wet-chemical etching technique. Structural and morphological analysis of the prepared material was carried out using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, which confirms the formation of nanorods with large surface area and presence of dominant (002) and (130) planes of copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2), (−111), and (111) planes of copper oxide (CuO), which are highly favorable for charge storage applications. Further, the active material (nanorods) was loaded over Ni-foam. In order to determine the pseudocapacitive behavior, electrochemical studies were conducted. The specific capacitance of the copper hydroxide-oxide nanostructure casted over Ni-foam was found to be 1–2 F/g. Electrochemical frequency measurements were conducted to investigate the electrode charge transfer kinetics for the electrodes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that electrode having copper hydroxide-oxide mixed-phase exhibit faster charge transfer kinetics and lower equivalent series resistance as compared to the electrodes having crumbled pure copper oxide nanorods.

Priyanka Marathey, Sakshum Khanna, Roma Patel, Indrajit Mukhopadhyay, Abhijit Ray

Validation of Computer Code Based on Nodal Integral Method Against KAPS-2 Phase-B Data

One of the major activities involved in the operation of Indian PHWRs includes commissioning of nuclear reactor before commercial operation of reactor. The commissioning activities can be divided into three principal phases viz Phase-A, Phase-B, and Phase-C. The commissioning program assures that the plant is made operational in a systematic, informative, and safe manner after its construction. It also verifies that the performance criteria, design intent, and quality assurance requirements are satisfied. Phase-B tests are performed up to 0.1%FP, and its objectives are to confirm that the reactor is suitable for start-up and power operation and to check that core characteristics, control systems, reactor physics parameters are satisfactory. Important activities in Phase-B include initial fuel loading, addition of heavy water into PHT and moderator, first approach to criticality, and low power physics tests. Some of the Phase-B results of Kakrapar Atomic Power Station-2 (KAPS-2) commissioned in 2018 are compared with the theoretical estimations carried out by computer code based on nodal integral method (NIM). The variation of neutron count rates during approach to criticality, critical boron and the worth of reactivity devices etc., are compared with the observation at KAPS-2.

Manish Raj, Sherly Ray, A. S. Pradhan, Suneet Singh

Bipolar DC Micro-Grid Based Wind Energy Systems

This paper describes a bipolar DC micro-grid with a predictive controlled three-level boost converter interfaced wind energy conversion system (WECS). The micro-grid consists of a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based wind energy conversion system, battery energy storage system (BESS) on each pole with DC-loads. The BESS is interfaced to each pole of the bipolar DC micro-grid with a bidirectional buck–boost converter which regulates the individual pole voltages to its reference. The power imbalance in each pole due to unbalanced loading/power generation will lead to the deviation in the pole voltages. In order to balance these bipolar DC-link voltages, a three-level boost converter (TLBC) is used to interface the PMSG and a predictive control is developed to achieve the objectives of maximum power extraction and balancing of bipolar DC-link voltages. Simulation studies are carried using MATLAB/Simulink to examine the performance of the controller for variation in loads and power generation and results are found to be satisfactory.

Dodda Satish Reddy, Suman Kumar, Bonala Anil Kumar, Sandepudi Srinivasa Rao

Processing Thermogravimetric Analysis Data for Pyrolysis Kinetic Study of Microalgae Biomass

Microalgae is a fast-growing, concentrate source of lipid, and economically viable third-generation feedstock for biofuels. For the modeling of thermochemical conversion processes a detailed kinetic analysis is inevitable. A comprehensive analysis of thermal degradation characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics of Scenedesmus sp. microalgae is carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). A nonisothermal thermogravimetric data was obtained by heating the microalgae sample from 25 to 800 °C, with four different heating rates 10, 20, 30, and 50 °C min−1, under atmospheric conditions using nitrogen gas. The differential thermal gravimetric (DTG) used to determine thermal behavior and reaction steps, where 14.15 wt% min−1 degradation rate was observed at 50 °C min−1 heating rate. The production of high volatile organic with less ash formation demonstrates the utilization potential of microalgae biomass for biofuel production. Model-fitting and model-free isoconversional integral kinetic methods employed to accurately determine the kinetic triplets of the pyrolysis process. From the knowledge of activation energy and pre-exponential parameter, the thermal degradation mechanism of the biomass determined using the master plot method. The kinetic parameters calculated using isoconversional integral kinetic methods show good agreement. The kinetic analysis resulting from this study can be utilized for modeling thermochemical conversion of microalgae biomass to design the pyrolysis process for biorefinery.

Pravin G. Suryawanshi, Vaibhav V. Goud

Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors with Phase Change Material for Southeast of England

Temperature elevation of solar photovoltaic (PV) in the exposure of sun should be bound to avoid the fall in efficiency. Phase changing material (PCM) is a proven technology to capture the waste heat of photovoltaic. It provides cooling to PV, increase in efficiency and storage of waste heat. In this paper, the thermal conductivity of PCM heat sink is enhanced by using fins. The dual effect of PCM and fins is explored to increase the efficiency of the photovoltaic collectors. Different types of phase change material arrangements are investigated. Twenty collectors of 200Wp original PV are compared with the photovoltaic thermal PCM collectors. It is conveyed that, at Southeast England, the collected electricity is boosted by 1.20, 1.33, 1.40, 1.43 and 1.44 kWh/day through different types of phase change material arrangements.

Preeti Singh, Rajvikram Madurai Elavarasan, Nallapaneni Manoj Kumar, Sourav Khanna, Victor Becerra, Sanjeev Newar, Vashi Sharma, Jovana Radulovic, Rinat Khusainov, David Hutchinson

Modeling and Simulation of Hollow Fiber Biocatalyst Membrane Reactor

Hollow fiber biocatalytic membrane reactors (HFBMR) combine selective mass transport with chemical reactions in a tubular geometry. The selective removal of products from the reaction site increases the thermodynamically unfavorable reactions. In this work, a mathematical model of HFBMR, operating under steady state and isothermally, has been developed. The model comprises of a set of two nonlinear ODEs; where one of the ODEs is a second-order BVP in radial direction (depicting diffusion-reaction in radial direction in spongy region) while the other ODE is a first-order IVP in axial direction (depicting a classical PFR performance equation at steady state). A Mathematica based program has been developed to numerically simulate HFBMR for various reaction kinetics and a comparison of the obtained results has been made with those obtained by using an available approximate expression for effectiveness factor. Using this program, effectiveness factor at various locations in the reactor has been successfully evaluated and validated with the available literature results. This study is quite useful for the future use of biocatalyst reactors for arbitrary reaction kinetics at an industrial level.

Nooram Anjum, Mohammad Danish, Sarah Anjum

Efficient Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment of Sterculia foetida Fruit Shells for Production of Reducing Sugar: Effect of Process Parameters on Lignin Removal

The efficient delignification of low-cost lignocellulosic biomass is of utmost importance for its viable conversion to biofuel. In the current study, agricultural waste biomass of Sterculia foetida fruit shell was pretreated by heating at 60 ℃ and 121 ℃ in the presence of alkaline and alkaline peroxide conditions. The objective was to study the effects of concentration of NaOH & H2O2 and temperature on lignin removal efficiency and reducing sugar content. The structural and functional changes caused to the biomass were also studied using FTIR and XRD analysis. The optimum lignin removal of 81.66% was achieved by heating at 60 ℃ for 3 hours using 3% H2O2 and 5% NaOH aqueous solution showing an increase in crystallinity of the pretreated samples, removal of lignin as well as easy accessibility of cellulose and also indicates reduction of yield due to in situ degradation of the released sugars in the presence of NaOH and H2O2 at higher chemical concentrations. The developed pretreatment procedure showed appreciable delignification of the biomass which could be easily scaled up for continuous operations at low costs.

S. Sardar, A. Das, S. Saha, C. Mondal

Performance Enhancement of Savonius Hydrokinetic Turbine with a Unique Vane Shape: An Experimental Investigation

Hydrokinetic turbine produces the power output from the kinetic energy available in the flowing water flow. For power production, there is no need of massive construction of dam, and power can be derived without changing the natural path of the water stream. In spite of many advantages of the hydrokinetic turbines, it suffers with the biggest drawback of very low power coefficient. Hence, in the present investigation, an attempt is made to enhance the performance of the Savonius hydrokinetic turbine by evaluating novel designs of the vane shapes. Two different types of the vanes are investigated, considering the efficiently flow pattern passing over from the turbine vane. The performances of the designed vanes are compared with the third conventional semi-cylindrical vane. The performances of all turbine vanes are investigated experimentally. The experimental results indicate that the extended semi-cylindrical vane, design—1, provides the best performance among all investigated turbine vane designs.

Vimal K. Patel, Kushal Shah, Vikram Rathod

Techno-economic Analysis for Production of Biodiesel and Green Diesel from Microalgal Oil

Microalgae has massive potential for the production of biofuels. Thermochemical conversion of microalgal oil is the potential route to produce diesel-range biofuels. This work provides the process design using Aspen Plus and economic analysis for transesterification and hydrodeoxygenation of microalgal oil to produce biodiesel and green diesel, respectively. In the present study, the microalgal oil derived from Nannochloropsis salina is considered as feedstock. Capital, operating expenses and the manufacturing cost of the biodiesel and green diesel have been estimated for various plant capacities ranging from 0.05 to 0.15 million metric ton microalgal oil per annum. The effect of plant capacity and different cost-contributing factors on the manufacturing cost of biodiesel and green diesel has also been studied. The manufacturing cost of diesel oil-equivalent biodiesel and green diesel was USD 4.425 and USD 4.294 per kg, respectively, for 0.125 million metric ton microalgal oil per annum.

Swarnalatha Mailaram, Nitesh Dobhal, Sunil K. Maity

Numerical Investigation on the Effect of EGR in a Premixed Natural Gas SI Engine

Compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered as a promising alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines. Higher antiknock quality of CNG is best utilized when the engine will operate at a high compression ratio. Engine exhaust emission at higher compression ratio might be a changeless, particularly NOx emission. However, power output and emission in the CNG engine are still a challenge. Thus, the engine can be operated with EGR dilution at the stoichiometric operating condition. In this paper, numerical simulation on the effect of EGR rate in a SI CNG engine was conducted. A very good agreement between experimental and simulated pressure trace was obtained for validation of the model. The performance output, combustion behavior, and emission analysis were investigated by varying EGR rate (0–20%). Significant reduction in power output and IMEP was observed with the introduction of EGR. Combustion pressure and heat release rate were found decreasing due to lower available chemical energy, longer combustion duration, and slow chemical reaction rate of the EGR mixture. However, a substantial reduction in CO and NOx emission was noticed with the introduction of EGR. This study shows that the EGR rate between 10 and 15% gives satisfactory result from performance and emission point.

Sridhar Sahoo, Srinibas Tripathy, Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava

Transitions in the Indian Electricity Sector: Impacts of High Renewable Share

India’s aggressive plan to increase the share of renewables in electricity generation capacity from 43 GW in 2015 to 175 GW in 2022 is expected to have implications on not only the power sector, but also the consumers, the economy and the environment. This project describes a simple aggregate model created to analyze macro-effects of any future electricity generation mix scenario. It uses MATLAB to create this model, which takes input variables like demand shape, electricity yield from solar and wind, both for 12 representative days of a year (one from each month). It also uses average hourly demand and growth rate, renewable installed capacity projections and ramp rate limits for thermal power plants to define scenarios. This paper showcases results for 2040 with different load curves, high and low renewable penetration levels. The results include storage requirements, cost changes, PLF of coal power plants and CO2 emissions of the different scenarios. The study also looks at Delhi and Mumbai demand curves. The model can be customized for any city, state or country and be projected to any final year of analysis. The results are intended to inform policy decisions on an aggregate scale.

Aishwarya V. Iyer, Rangan Banerjee

Comparison of Physics Characteristics of Pressurized Water Reactor Type Advanced Light Water Reactors

Advanced light-water reactor (LWR) systems with improved passive safety features that claim to meet Generation III + safety criteria are of growing interest worldwide in meeting future energy demand. As an effort to understand the basic differences in lattice and core physics aspects of such advanced LWRs, preliminary steady-state reactor physics analyses are carried out for some of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) type of advanced LWRs like Westinghouse AP-1000 and European/Evolutionary PWR EPR-1650. The reactor physics parameters such as neutron multiplication factors, core average neutron flux spectra, worth of control systems, various reactivity coefficients and effective delayed neutron fraction are calculated and compared with the Russian PWR design VVER-1000 reactor for a clean initial core configuration at hot operating conditions. A lattice burnup code, DRAGON and a Monte Carlo (MC) code are used for the purpose. The study not only highlights the differences in nuclear design and estimated core physics parameters of VVER-1000, AP-1000 and EPR-1650 reactors but also demonstrates the capability of advanced reactor physics computer codes available for safety evaluations of such reactor systems.

L. Thilagam, D. K. Mohapatra

Development of a Python Module “SARRA” for Refuelling Analysis of MSR Using DRAGON Code

The renewed interest in molten salt reactor (MSR) is primarily due to several advantages and unique characteristics pertaining to online refuelling and reprocessing of molten salt fuel. Thus, there is need of development of computational tools for analysis of online refuelling and reprocessing of circulating fuel systems like MSRs. A Python module, SAlt Refuelling and Reprocessing Analysis (SARRA), as a computational tool is being developed, which utilises lattice code DRAGON for MSRs specific analysis like online refuelling and reprocessing. In the present paper, the online refuelling and removal capabilities of molten salt fuel have been analysed at lattice level for MSRE lattice. The results of analysis are presented in paper.

A. K. Srivastava, Anurag Gupta, Umasankari Kannan

The Effect of Concentration Ratio and Number of P-N Thermocouples on Photovoltaic-Thermoelectric Hybrid Power Generation System

In this paper, a theoretical model has been developed for a concentrated PV module integrated with a thermoelectric module (CPV-TEG) and simulated in MATLAB. The effect of simultaneous variation of concentration ratio of concentrator (C) and number of p-n thermocouples of TEG module (N) on the power output and electrical efficiency of PV module, thermoelectric generator (TEG) module, and the hybrid system on whole has been studied. The variation in the temperature of PV module (TPV) and the temperature difference across the thermoelectric module (∆TTE) due to simultaneous variation in C and N has also been studied. The results illustrate that the power output of PV module (PPV), power output of TEG (PTE), and power output of hybrid system (PHS) achieved maximum value at C = 2N = 127. The maximum temperature and minimum efficiency of PV module was observed at C = 2N = 1. For TEG, maximum temperature difference and minimum efficiency were observed at C = 2N = 1 and C = 1, N = 127, respectively.

Abhishek Tiwari, Shruti Aggarwal

Evaluation of Annual Electrical Energy Through Semitransparent (Glass to Glass) and Opaque Photovoltaic Module in Clear Sky Condition at Composite Climate: A Comparative Study

In present paper, two types of PV module technologies have been considered for evaluation: one is semitransparent (glass to glass) and second is opaque (glass to tedlar). The comparative detailed analysis has been made an attempt for definite parameters like the temperature dependent electrical efficiency of solar cell, PV module and electrical energy. The area of each PV module is 0.605 m2 and output wattage is 75 Wp. The solar cell material is polycrystalline silicon for each module. The annual performance of PV module for both types is also studied. Arithmetic computations have been carried out for clear sky condition of composite climate: Delhi, India. It has been observed that opaque PV module is dominated by semitransparent PV module in generating electrical outputs. The electrical efficiency of PV for opaque is obtained 18.5% higher than semitransparent PV module. The annual electrical energy gain for opaque is evaluated 3.50 kWh, whereas 2.95 kWh for semitransparent which is 1.18 times higher than semitransparent PV module.

Rohit Tripathi, Nitin K. Gupta, Deepak Sharma, G. N. Tiwari, T. S. Bhatti

Current Practices and Emerging Trends in Safety Analysis of NPPs

Safety analysis is an important element of overall safety assessment and licensing process, which is used to comprehensively demonstrate that nuclear facility meets the desired safety goals. Analysis of a given initiating event requires mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of one or many physical phenomena occurring in the plant which necessitates complex computer codes. Overall methodology and computation tools used in safety analysis have evolved continuously. Plant states considered in safety analysis and their classification have also evolved gradually. This paper presents an overview of evolution of safety analysis methods and associated computational tools. Presently, practiced safety analysis approaches and emerging trends have been discussed.

K. Obaidurrahman

Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 on Ionic Liquid Stabilized Reverse Pulse Electrodeposited Copper Oxides

We, with this work, report the effect of ionic liquid (IL) as an additive in electrolyte bath for electrodeposition of copper oxides, their self-assembly, and activity toward CO2 reduction. For further analysis, we studied the effect of intermittent pulsed current, null pulses as well as negative polarity pulses on the self-assembly of copper on carbon fiber paper (CFP), its crystallinity and its electrocatalytic behavior toward reduction of CO2 into fuels of importance. The physical characterization of deposited films was done with techniques like XRD, SEM, TEM, and FTIR. The gaseous products obtained were detected by GC, and liquid products were analyzed by NMR. We found a strong dependence of CO2 reduction activity on the mode of deposition and presence of IL in the electrolytic bath.

Nusrat Rashid, Pravin P. Ingole

Performance of Flux Mapping System During Spatial Xenon Induced Oscillations in PHWRs

Pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) are natural uranium fueled pressure tube type reactors which use heavy water as coolant and moderator. Large PHWRs are neutronically loosely coupled and are prone to spatial xenon instabilities. In core instrumentation for monitoring and liquid zone compartments (LZCs) are provided for suppressing these local oscillations in addition to global power control. Since, the zonal instrumentation measures the local flux, they have to be corrected. Flux mapping system (FMS) is present in large PHWRs to correct the zonal detector readings. This system uses flux synthesis method and reconstructs the flux shape in the reactor with the help of several vanadium self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs). FMS will also provide power trimming functions based on different parameters and these will be very important during the operation at full power for PHWRs which have boiling at the exit. In this paper, the comparison of the estimations of the flux mapping system is done with those obtained from the solution of the space-time dependent neutron diffusion equation using improved quasi-static approximation (IQS) is carried out for situations with limited spatial power control which demonstrates the accuracy of the FMS estimations when the regional powers are allowed to oscillate. Based on these simulations, experiments involving spatial xenon oscillations will be planned in the upcoming 700 MWe PHWR to verify the accuracy of FMS during such oscillations.

Abhishek Chakraborty, M. P. S. Fernando, A. S. Pradhan

Forecasting of Electricity Demand and Renewable Energy Generation for Grid Stability

The electricity generation units, network operators, and consumers operate in sync by making commitments based on their projections of the consumption and generation capacities. The balance between generation and demand is very important for smooth operation of the system, reduction in the harmonics and losses, and moreover for the grid stability. This requires accurate forecast of electricity demand along with its self-sufficiency in terms of renewable energy generation. The short-term forecasting of electricity demand and its generation from the renewable sources like solar and wind have been considered in this paper. An hourly forecasting of electricity demand, solar generation, and wind generation has been carried out with 24 and 48 h advance forecasting. To maintain the stability of the grid, it is important to generate the electricity with due consideration to solar and wind generation. We hence present the machine learning-based models to directly forecast the net generation requirement of electricity with solar and wind generation data. We present the exhaustive results to analyze these forecasts with and without the availability of future weather information. For various machine learning algorithms, forecasting accuracy has been compared for different seasons, days of the week, and hours of the day to evaluate the robustness of the algorithms.

Joel Titus, Urvi Shah, T. Siva Rama Sarma, Bhushan Jagyasi, Pallavi Gawade, Mamta Bhagwat, Arnab De

Platooning of Flat Solar-Panel-Mounted Mini Bus Model—A Numerical Investigation

In the view of limited source of conventional fuel and environmental concern, the researchers are working on alternative energy source for automotive applications. One of the ways is to utilize solar energy by using rooftop solar panel on ground vehicles. But any geometric change in exterior vehicle body disturbs flow around it which affects drag and lift coefficient significantly. The aerodynamic drag plays a significant role to define overall performance of ground vehicle in terms of fuel economy. Also, the effect of yaw angle is more significant in some cases. The various technologies are being developed and used in the field of automotive aerodynamics, to reduce drag. The vehicle platooning is one such emerging idea where the drag is decreased by driving the vehicles in a platoon. The objective of present work is numerical investigation of aerodynamic behaviour of flat solar-panel-mounted mini bus model under platooning effect. First numerical investigation is carried out to assess the impact of flat solar panel on the coefficient of drag. To validate numerical result, the wind tunnel test is performed on scaled down prototype model and results show the close correlation between experimental and numerical analysis. Further numerical investigation has been carried out with combination of two and three vehicles in a platoon, considering variation of separation distances from 3 to 12 m for range of speed from 80–120 kmph. Also, numerical investigation is carried out by considering variation of yaw angles from 6–18° for selected separation distance at 80 kmph. The result shows significant changes in drag and lift coefficient under platooning effect.

Mohammad Rafiq B. Agrewale, R. S. Maurya

Co-sensitization of Perovskite Solar Cells by Organometallic Compounds: Mechanism and Photovoltaic Characterization

Organic–inorganic halide perovskites constitute a new emerging class of materials for solar cell applications. In this paper, we report synthesis of methyl ammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3) hybrid perovskites doped with the bipyridyl-based Ruthenium dye-N719. Doping with the dye on CH3NH3PbBr3 exhibits a broad absorption peak in visible region with a shift in band gap from 1.66 to 1.51 eV. The influence of doping on optical properties and current–voltage characteristics were studied using microscopic, spectroscopic, and photovoltaic characterization techniques. Photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in the range of 4.8–6.8% were observed for the dye-doped perovskites solar cells. Short-circuit current densities were in the range of (Jsc) of 8.0–10.3 mA/cm2 with open-circuit potential (Voc) ~0.96-V and fill factors (FF) in the range 60% under illumination of 100 mW/cm2. The corresponding efficiencies and current density values for the undoped perovskites were ~1% and ~2.0 mA/cm2, respectively, clearly indicating the establishment of co-sensitization. Potential of co-sensitizing agent on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells is being reported for the first time.

Nisha Balachandran, Temina Mary Robert, Dona Mathew, Jobin Cyriac

Nuclear Power Plants and Human Resources Development in South Asia

The clean-energy demand for industrial and socio-economic development necessitates developing countries to seek nuclear energy/technology for power generation to supplement and reduce their absolute dependency on fossil fuel. However, the lack of skilled manpower is one of the main constraints to achieve this goal. Moreover, the lack of nuclear experience, knowledge, educational infrastructures and resources is another constraint for developing skilled human resources for the safe use of nuclear technology in emerging countries. This paper discusses the recent trend in worldwide nuclear energy plant growth in the developing countries and the need for qualified manpower development programs for viable nuclear energy plant design, construction, operation, maintenance, se-cured repair and cost effective use. The paper also enlightens the nuclear engineering education in South Asia.

Firoz Alam, Rashid Sarkar, Akshoy Ranjan Paul, Abdulaziz Aldiab

Highly Stable Pt/CVD-Graphene-Coated Superstrate Cu2O Photocathode for Water Reduction

Here, we demonstrate a highly stable protected superstrate architecture Cu2O photocathode for water reduction. The Cu2O layer was electrodeposited on F-SnO2 (FTO) substrate via a modified method to obtain larger grains, 3.0–4.0 µm size owing to minimize the short-circuit current at the grain boundaries. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene being a robust material and also possessing the requisite properties (work function 4.6 eV and high conductivity) for cathode protection was coated on top of the device. Pt cocatalyst (30 nm) was deposited via e-beam evaporator on top of CVD-graphene to enhance the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) kinetics at the electrode-electrolyte interface, also helped in blocking the microcracks in the graphene layer. The transparent FTO substrate enables back-illumination during the experiment, thereby allowing a non-transparent protective coating. This protected device shows stable photocurrent generation of ~2.5 mA cm−2 under one sun illumination in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte for one hour of the experiment.

Chandan Das, Akhilender Jeet Singh, K. R. Balasubramaniam

Thermodynamic Studies on Steel Slag Waste Heat Utilization for Generation of Synthesis Gas Using Coke Oven Gas (COG) as Feedstock

Steelmaking process is energy intensive with specific energy consumption of around 6–6.5 G Cal per ton of crude steel produced. The effective recoveries of waste heat reduce the specific energy consumption and in turn the carbon emissions. During the process of iron-making and steelmaking in integrated steel plants, various waste gases and solid wastes are generated at high temperatures. The generated waste gases are utilized as a fuel in reheating furnaces and for power generation. However, in the case of solid wastes such as blast furnace slag and steel slag, the heat is typically not recovered. With a view to utilize this high-grade energy, a thermodynamic analysis is carried out in this work to produce synthesis gas (syngas) with CO2 sorption using hot Linz and Donawitz (LD) steel slag as the heat carrier. Coke oven gas (COG) is used as a feedstock for CO2 reforming. The thermodynamic equilibrium yields are obtained using Gibbs free energy minimization route. The simulations are carried out at atmospheric pressure over a wide range of operating conditions such as reformer temperature (400–1000 °C), CO2-to-COG ratio (CCR = 0.5–2) and steel slag-to-CO2 ratio (SSCR = 0.5–2.5) to identify the best operating parameters. The study shows that the best operating temperature is 700 °C for maximum conversion of CO2 and also for maximum yield of H2, at all feed ratios.

M. Srinivasarao, Nilu Kumar, A. Syamsundar

Reactivity-Initiated Transients for 700 MWe PHWR

Safety analysis for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) is carried out for various postulated initiating events as per regulatory requirement and may be categorized into normal operation, anticipated operational occurrences and design basis events etc. The analyses of these events are carried out with the objective of verifying that acceptable design limits are not exceeded for these categories. The safety analysis report is made based on the above-mentioned analyses. However, certain special transients are also analyzed to confirm the behavior of the reactor during such events to be within acceptable design limits. In present paper, we have analyzed certain reactivity-initiated plant transients like loss of regulation (LOR) incident for initial distorted flux shape, local change in reactivity due to pressure tube-calandria tube (PT-CT) break and inadvertent entry of fuel locator into coolant channel for 700 MWe PHWR, which allows boiling at the exit of coolant channel. The above transients have been carried out for the first time for Indian PHWRs with 3 dimensional transient code IQS3D based on improved quasi-static (IQS) approach coupled with thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA-T. The analysis results show that fast power rise during transients get terminated by reactor protection system and slow power transients are controlled by Reactor regulation system (RRS) and all safety parameters are within acceptable limits.

Suresh Kandpal, M. P. S. Fernando, A. S. Pradhan

Multi-field Solar Thermal Power Plant with Linear Fresnel Reflector and Solar Power Tower

The Linear Fresnel Reflector (LFR) system with direct steam generation (DSG) has lower capital cost owing to flat mirror and less construction requirements. Its optical efficiency, concentration ratio, and maximum temperature reached are lower compared to other concentrated solar technologies. The solar power tower (SPT) with molten salts can reach high temperatures around 590 °C with higher optical efficiency compared to other technologies. But due to high capital costs, commercialization of SPT in India has been limited. Concentrated thermal power plant is cost-intensive and so prior to detailed design, it is important to develop conceptual design considering type and size of solar field, site location, power cycle, working temperature and pressure, energy storage, heat transfer fluid, size of power block and economics of project. In this paper, a multi-field collector system configuration with integrated LFR-DSG and SPT-molten salt is proposed. The objective of this work is to compare multi-field configuration with SPT and LFR system on simple techno-economical parameters - solar multiple, storage capacity, and their levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The system is evaluated on an hourly basis for a year by means of a simple energy-mass balance code developed in-house. For a 100 MW conceptual multi-field design and 14 h storage backup, the study shows annual energy output of 494 GWh with a capacity factor of 56.44 and LCOE of $0.18 kWh.

Shridhar Karandikar, Irfan Shaikh, Anish Modi, Shireesh B. Kedare, Balwant Bhasme

Experimental Investigation Using Enriched Biogas in S-I Engine for Stable Rural Electrification

The experimental work focuses to convert harmful GHGs (CH4) into moderate GHGS (CO2) by means of energy exchange. Biogas produced from large-scale floating drum plant is purified and fed into gasoline engine in varying and fixed ratios. The output power and the exhaust emission were analyzed by various techniques like variation in electric load and exhaust gas analyzer, etc. The biogas input to the engine was facilitated through an external flange arrangement. Maximum loading condition of 540 W at a voltage of (227.777 ± 5.08478 V) and the engine frequency of (47.3121 ± 0.48296 Hz) is obtained, when the input concentration is enriched biogas (90% CH4 and 10% CO2). The engine conversion of the hydrocarbon beyond the 70% CH4 concentration limit was found to remain stagnant. A higher methane concentration does not result in a higher CH4 conversion; instead, it resulted in a partial conversion with higher carbon monoxide (CO) production. In the case of emissions, minimum CO level was registered for 70% CH4 and maximum for 90%, so it can be concluded that enrichment beyond 70% methane in biogas mixture tends to enhance CO level at outlet

Antony P. Pallan, Deepak Mathew, Yohans Varghese

Solar Autoclave for Rural Hospitals Using Aerogel as Transparent Insulation Material

An autoclave is a device which is used to sterilize surgical instruments in hospitals. Shortage of electrical power supply in rural hospitals and pollution due to fossil fuel lead people to find other power sources to run autoclave. The solar autoclave can be used in those places. At present, no commercial solar autoclave is available in the market. Many researchers have developed solar autoclave, but most of them needed tracking which makes them costly. This paper presents a non-tracking solar autoclave which uses compound parabolic concentrator to concentrate diluted sunlight and optically transparent and thermally insulating aerogel to reduce thermal losses from receiver surface. The collector was designed, fabricated, and experimented for sterilization purpose by using sterilization load requirements from nearby hospitals. The experiment shows that the aerogel collector with compound parabolic concentrator and polycarbonate sheet can generate saturated steam for sterilization.

Manoj Kumar Yadav, Anish Modi, Shireesh B. Kedare

Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Reactant Gas Concentration on the Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

The present study numerically investigates the influence of reactant gas concentration on the performance characteristics of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The effect of reactant gas configurations of the electrodes is discussed in terms of performance characteristics viz. cathode water concentration, current density, power density, and overpotential. Our study reveals that cathode water concentration, current density, and subsequently power density has a linear relationship with the concentration of reactant gases. It is found that the cell performance becomes superior with an increase in the concentration of reactant gases. Furthermore, overpotential is observed to be minimum at higher concentrations of reactant gases. The findings of this study bear utility towards designing an efficient PEM fuel cell system that can deliver a higher power density, current density with minimal overpotential.

Brajesh Kumar Kanchan, Pitambar R. Randive, Sukumar Pati

Energy Efficiency Analysis of a Building Envelope

The improvement in thermal comfort of a building passively helps in reducing its energy utilization, throughout the year. Several factors are directly related to reducing the cooling and heating load of the building such as orientation and the material used in it. In this study, authors have proposed a new wall and roof panel system namely Ferro Cellular lightweight-concrete Insulated Panel Assembly (FCIPA) for a building. This panel system has been tested experimentally in direct axial compression and is compared with brick masonry wall at small scale. Further, it has been tested theoretically for thermal analysis using eQUEST energy simulation program. The thermal study was conducted on an existing residential building of New Delhi, India, by changing the components of wall and roof of the building with three different kinds of construction material namely brick, concrete, and FCIPA. Moreover, the effect of orientation and the type of window glass on the thermal efficiency of the building were also studied. It was found that the FCIPA has the load-bearing capacity equivalent to half brick thick (120 mm) masonry wall. In addition, in terms of the energy use, FCIPA based building consumes nearly half of the thermal energy to that of the precast concrete and brick masonry based buildings. The results of the theoretical analysis also show that the north-south orientated building with longer axis running toward east-west having gray glasses window/doors openings is the most energy-efficient.

M. Y. Khan, A. Baqi, A. Talib
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