Skip to main content

2024 | Book

Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Geotechnics, Civil Engineering and Structures, CIGOS 2024, 4-5 April, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Advances in Planning, Architecture and Construction for Sustainable Development

Editors: Cuong Ha-Minh, Cao Hung Pham, Hanh T. H. Vu, Dat Vu Khoa Huynh

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering


About this book

This book includes peer-reviewed articles from the 7th International Conference on Geotechnics, Civil Engineering and Structures (CIGOS 2024) held on April 4-5 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. It highlights recent advances in planning, architecture, and construction for sustainable development. The book features a compilation of articles presented at the conference, bringing together researchers, academics, and practitioners from around the world. The topics covered range from Planning, Architecture, and Industrial Design to Construction, Materials, Structures, and Digital Technologies, as well as Geoscience, Environment, and Energy, and Transportation, Infrastructure, Management, and Investment. The book emphasizes the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to sustainable development in order to address environmental, social, and economic challenges faced by societies worldwide. It provides insights into best practices and innovative approaches for achieving sustainabledevelopment goals, such as reducing the carbon footprint, enhancing energy efficiency, promoting the use of eco-friendly materials, and implementing sustainable construction techniques. Overall, this book offers valuable knowledge and advice to professionals, researchers, and policymakers engaged in sustainable development initiatives.

Table of Contents


Keynote Lectures

Energy Geotechnology: A New Era for Geotechnical Engineering Practice

Energy geotechnology provides low carbon, cost-effective and local energy solutions to structures and infrastructures, which opens a new era for the geotechnical engineering practice, by extending the conventional role of structural design to the one of addressing acute energy challenges of our century. The paper initially goes over the idea behind energy geotechnology by highlighting its scope and applications to various geostructures for structural support and energy supply of built environments. Aspects of primary importance for maximizing the energy, geotechnical and structural performance of energy geostructures and solutions to address this challenge are presented. Moreover, analytical solutions and design tools, as well as performance-based design of energy geostructures are introduced. The goal of this paper is to uncover the great potential of energy geotechnology on the path of less dependency on fossil fuels and to emphasize the new critical role of geo-technical engineers to take full advantage of this technology.

L. Laloui, M. Sutman
Recent Research on Built-Up Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The paper describes the main outcomes of a recently completed project on built-up cold-formed steel structures, including experimental, analytical and numerical advances. The project covers columns failing by distortional buckling or interactive global-local or global-distortional buckling, and laterally restrained and unrestrained beams. The cross-sections studied feature two, three or four component sections, arranged to produce singly or doubly cross-sections, including open sections and sections with closed loops.The paper first summarises the main experimental observations and results, then presents analytical solutions for determining the flexural, torsional and warping rigidities of built-up sections, followed by recent finite strip analyses to determine the local and distortional buckling loads of built-up sections accounting for discrete fasteners, including the Compound Strip Method and the modal Finite strip Method, the latter for determining the pure modes of built-up sections. The development of fully nonlinear shell finite element models is outlined next, as specific for built-up sections. Lastly, the paper summarises proposed provisions for the design of built-up sections with two or more component cross-sections, covering columns and beams failing by local, distortional and/or global modes as well as combinations of these modes.

Kim J. R. Rasmussen, Mani Khezri, Hao Zhang, Benjamin W. Schafer
The Ecological Turn of Urbanism in Times of Global Warming
Design Explorations in the Đồng Nai - Sài Gòn - Vàm Cỏ Estuary (Vietnam)

Worldwide, the consequences of global warming are becoming ever more apparent. Higher temperatures, and more severe floods (and droughts) are wreaking havoc on settlements, productive landscapes, infrastructure, ecological systems, and the health (of human and non-human species). In Vietnam, concurrent with the climate crisis are a cascade of other crises—socio-cultural, ecological, and spatial—that stem from its accelerating development boom. The tried-and-true imported system of master planning based on monofunctional land use planning in Vietnam might seem very appropriate to accommodate and canalize development. However, it is incapable of critically responding to the contemporary context, which is embroiled in a major socio-ecological crisis. A paradigm shift, where ecology and landscape systems are the framework for urbanization, is needed. The contribution will focus on distilling lessons from design strategies from the Đồng Nai - Sài Gòn - Vàm Cỏ Estuary that focus on the conceptualization of a Ho Chi Minh City metropolitan park. It will reveal an inherent intelligence in the longue durée of the ‘as found’ territory where nature was the structure of settlements embedded in the landscape. It will highlight the capacity of design research to formulate context-responsive bold visions and feasible strategies to create neo-natural structures that re-capitalize on locational assets and regenerate qualitative human and non-human relationships across scales.

Kelly Shannon, Bruno De Meulder

Invited Lecture

“Greening” the Construction Industry: Sustainable Alternatives to Conventional Cements Made Possible Through New PCE Superplasticizer Design

Concrete is the most commonly used man-made material globally. Regretably, cement - its major ingredient – exhibits an extremely high CO2 footprint. However, substituting cement clinker with supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) that possess a low carbon footprint can substantially decrease CO2 emission. The two main alternatives to clinker which are currently under investigation include calcined clay and slag (GGBFS). A prominent example of a low carbon binder based on thermally activated (calcined) clay is LC3 which contains 50% clinker, 30% calcined clay, 15% limestone and 5% gypsum and exhibits a CO2 footprint of 550 - 600 kg CO2/ton. Advanced chemical admixtures are indispensable to achieve sufficient workability (especially slump retention) and – depending on the composition of the raw clay – high early strength. The second concept involves clinker substitution by incorporating slag from the iron industry and – at high clinker replacement rates – an alkali activator. An extreme example of such alkali-activated slag cement comprises 15% clinker, 82% slag and 3% alkali activator. This binder allows to reduce CO2 emission from ~825 kg CO2/ton for OPC to ~220 kg CO2/ton for this slag cement. Despite the remarkable progress achieved in reducing CO2 emissions through the use of low carbon substitutes for cement clinker, the problem emerged that these binders often exhibit much inferior rheological properties and low early (1d) strength. Consequently, substantial research efforts have been made to develop suitable superplasticizers and accelerators. This article presents about novel polycarboxylate admixtures (PCEs) for low carbon binders and innovative new materials which can greatly promote early strength. Finally, some still unresolved problems are addressed and the decisive role of chemical admixtures in the transition process to “green” binders is evidenced.

J. Plank
Linking Climate Change to Urban Water Infrastructure Design: Recent Advances and Shortcomings in Downscaling Methods

Climate models have been extensively used for assessing the climate change impacts. However, due to the current limitations on detailed physical modelling and computational capability, outputs from these models are provided at resolutions that are too coarse and not suitable for impact studies. Hence, different downscaling methods have been proposed for linking the coarse-scale climate change projections to extreme hydrologic processes at the required space and time scales. Of particular importance for urban infrastructure design are those procedures dealing with the linkage of the large-scale climate variability to the historical observations of the precipitation and temperature extreme processes at a location of interest. If this linkage could be established, then the projected change of climate conditions given by climate models could be used to predict the resulting changes of the precipitation and temperature characteristics at the given local site. Therefore, the main focus of the present paper is to provide an overview of recent advances and shortcomings in the downscaling of extreme rainfall and temperature processes from both theoretical and practical viewpoints. In particular, another focus of this paper is on the development of a technical guide to provide some guidance to water professionals in Canada on how to consider the climate change information in the design of urban water infrastructures.

Van-Thanh-Van Nguyen
New Sustainable Development Strategies in the Provincial Planning of Khanh Hoa

Khanh Hoa is perhaps one of the most attractive provinces of central Vietnam, with historic landmarks, beautiful natural landscapes and beaches, especially great development potentials of its three-bay areas, including Van Phong Bay, Nha Phu Bay, Nha Trang Bay, and Cam Ranh Bay. Still, recent hasty developments during the recent decades have put many serious threats to the sustainability of those areas.Examined using an interdisciplinary qualitative method, focusing on analyzing and synthesizing information sources, to answer the questions of What, Why, and How to promote sustainable development in the urban areas of Van Phong Bay, Nha Trang Bay, and Cam Ranh Bay, this paper has synthesized five strategic directions for sustainable development, to be integrated into the General Planning of Khanh Hoa Province for the period 2021 - 2030, vision to 2050, specifically: (1) Developing green zones in separation with brown zones; (2) Promoting Transit-Oriented-Development Model to boost motivations and feasibilities for new urban projects; (3) Enhancing regional connection and socio-economic cooperation; (4) Preserving natural and urban heritage, while promoting new urban development with new identity of the 21st Century; (5) Applying interdisciplinary approach to planning and management to enhance the sustainability and feasibility of infrastructure projects.The integration of the five strategic directions for sustainable development into the General Planning of Khanh Hoa Province for the period 2021 - 2030, vision to 2050, has been useful to reduce environmental issues and to create many new development opportunities for the province, “without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. These directions would unlock the potentials to explore many new forms of management and development in Khanh Hoa, such as Environmental Zoning, Transit Oriented Development, Airport city, regional cooperation programs, … These experiences could become good references for the goals of promoting sustainable developments in many other seaside provinces in Vietnam.

Nam-Son Ngo-Viet

Construction, Materials, Structures, Digital Tech

A Framework for Sustainability Analysis of Construction Projects to Achieve Net-Zero Emission Goal by 2050

Many regard the construction industry as a non-sustainable sector due to its energy-intensive activities, coupled with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and low productivity. According to a recent United Nations Environment Program report, building and construction account for 36% of global energy use and 37% of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) and greenhouse gas emissions. Concerning the current emerging rules and regulations related to sustainability, Canada has introduced the 2030 emission reduction plan, which aims to achieve clean air and a strong economy. The 2030 plan is a detailed road map that outlines a sector-by-sector path for Canada to reach its emissions reduction target of 40% below 2005 levels by 2030 and net-zero emissions by 2050, and it is intended to be continuously updated. The construction industry is also involved in the 2030 emission reduction plan, as it has a prominent role in generating emissions during the life cycle of its projects. Therefore, the construction industry has no option but to shift gradually toward achieving sustainability. The core concept of sustainable construction is to maximize value and minimize harm by achieving a balance between social, economic, technical, and environmental aspects, commonly known as the pillars of sustainability. In general, the integration of sustainability in any construction project remains a complex and open issue due to the involvement of a large number of factors influencing the decision. This paper analyzed significant factors causing greenhouse gas emissions considering the project’s complete life cycle and developed a framework to suggest action plans to reduce those gradually. The outcome is expected to enhance interdisciplinary collaboration among researchers, industry practitioners and policymakers to integrate the information available to support decision-making to achieve net-zero GHG emissions targets in construction.

Mohammad Masfiqul Alam Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rezaul Karim, Ahmed Hammad
Adopting Bamboo as Green Building Material – An Overview and Its Status in Vietnam

Bamboo is an incredibly versatile plant that has a wide range of applications across many different industries. Structurally, bamboo has been used widely both in its natural round forms or being processed to engineered bamboo aiming to substitute timbers. The amount of research on bamboo has been increasing significantly recently due to strong interest in bamboo as part of the trend of carbon neutral and sustainable development. This paper provides a summary of research on bamboo material that makes it a sustainable building material. Current research trends, and codes and regulations for the design of bamboo are highlighted. The paper also discusses applications and research on bamboo in Vietnam.

Song Hong Pham, Cao Hung Pham
An Investigation on the Embodied Energy of Cement Concrete Blocks and AAC Blocks in Vietnam

One of the most popular construction materials in Vietnam is the fired clay bricks (FCB). However, the manufacturing of this material has high CO2 emission and consumes high amount of agricultural soils. Therefore, the Vietnamese government has demanded to substitute the traditional FCB by other materials having “greener” properties. The current strategy proposed is using the unburnt blocks such as cement concrete blocks (CCB) and autoclaved aerated concrete bricks (AAC). This paper presents a study on the embodied energy (EE) of three current materials in Vietnam: FCB (as reference), CCB and AAC. First, the data from different manufacturers of these materials have been collected. Then, EE was calculated: from the extraction of the raw materials, the transformation of the raw materials to the final blocks, and the transportation of the final blocks to the construction sites. The results obtained on each type of block have been analysed and compared to evaluate the sustainability of each material.

Quoc-Bao Bui, Tuan-Dung Nguyen, Dirk Schwede, Lavinia Ruf
Applicability of Various Interpretation Criteria for Pre-bored Precast Concrete (PC) Piles Under Uplift Loading

An evaluation of the various interpretation criteria when applied to pre-bored precast concrete (PC) piles under uplift loading conditions is presented in this paper. Ten field load test results were collected and utilized for the analysis, and representative interpretation criteria were applied to these load test data to evaluate their relative merits and interrelationships. The load test database was separated into drained and undrained soils. Using the interpreted results from various interpretation methods, the normalized load-displacement curve was established to assess the possible location of each method along the curve. The L1 method provided the initial loading stage at mean displacements of 2.3 mm for drained and 4.9 mm for undrained soils. The interpretations of DeBeer, slope-tangent, van der Veen, and L2 all fell on the transition region to the initial stage of the final linear region of the normalized load-displacement curve, with mean displacements ranging from 5.1 mm to 10.8 mm for drained soils and 10.3 mm to 24.0 mm for undrained soils. On the other hand, Fuller and Hoy and Chin overestimated the capacities, with mean displacements exceeding 15.9 mm for drained soils and 33.0 mm for undrained soils. Normalized load-displacement equations have also been developed and proposed for engineering practice and future designs of pre-bored PC piles under uplift loading for both soil conditions.

Yit-Jin Chen, Mary Abigail Jos
Application of Bamboo Materials in the Field of Interior Architecture Design - Modern Landscape

Bamboo is a type of grass known as the fastest growing plant in the world, it has become a popular material choice in architectural projects and interior design - landscape. They are loved by many countries because of their sustainable structure, bamboo has a higher compressive strength than concrete or wood, comparable to the strength of steel, especially has the advantage in heat resistance for buildings due to its non heating properties like concrete and is especially suitable for hot and humid climates. Beautiful natural pattern of bamboo fibers suitable for any interior space, from traditional to modern. Not only a material with good durability, the use of bamboo as a green, environmentally friendly, non polluting material that is a rich resource is applied in the field of creative sustainable design.Today, under the advancement of modern science, the bamboo processing industry has developed to create new applications and products of bamboo in the industry of modern interior architecture - landscape design such as processed bamboo materials by industrial methods to create bamboo blocks or pressed bamboo sheets with specifications similar to wood or other man-made materials such as iron and steel, plastic, composite, etc., while still retaining their superior physical and mechanical properties inherent qualities of bamboo materials such as hardness, elasticity, water resistance and even the ability to prevent termites. In addition to the solid architectural structure, in terms of modern furniture, bamboo can be used as flooring, ceiling wall materials and equipment such as cabinets, tables and chairs, decorative lights…In short, the sustainable bamboo material is widely applied in the field of modern interior architecture design today. It is both hard but also highly elastic, durable and highly economical, meeting the consumption needs of society. Therefore, this issue needs to be concerned, discussed and exchanged to find effective creative solutions that take advantage of available raw materials.

Hong Chau Thuy Linh
Applying FRP Composites Materials for Repairing and Reinforcing Dien Bien Phu Bridge, Binh Thanh District, HCMC: Effective and Economic Solution

Using FRP composites for repairing and reinforcing structures can increase their durability and load-bearing capacity, while reducing construction time and costs, which is particularly important for transportation infrastructure. However, applying this method requires skilled technicians and workers with experience. There needs to be a shift in mindset and approach towards reusing and reinforcing existing structures to minimize environmental impact.One method of using FRP composites for reinforcing existing bridge piers is by wrapping them around the piers to enhance the load-bearing capacity of the components. Research results have shown that this method significantly improves the load-bearing capacity of bridge piers, while providing an economical and effective solution for reinforcing bridges using FRP composites. Therefore, using the method of repairing and reinforcing structures with FRP composites could be an effective solution for strengthening the Diên Biên Phủ bridge in Bình Thạnh district, Ho Chi Minh City.

Van Giang Nguyen
Applying Reliability Theory to Assess the Danger Level of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings According to Vietnamese Standards

In order to meet the need to reuse existing reinforced concrete buildings and to have a design and renovation plan, these works must be evaluated and classified for quality. However, when applying the guideline based on Vietnamese standards to evaluate such existing works, there are still some limitations, such as using coefficients for the importance of the elements and the ratio between the prominent bearing elements and the extra. This article applies reliability theory, considering several factors as random quantities to assess the danger level of existing reinforced concrete building structures. Examples applied to evaluation results are substantial. Some comments and discussions on the study’s methodology and results are also provided.

Bac An Hoang
Approximation of the Continuous Spectrum by the Discrete Spectrum for Tridimensional Linear Viscoelastic Models of Bituminous Materials

Within the small strain domain, the behavior of bituminous materials including bitumen, asphalt mastics, asphalt mixtures are considered as linear viscoelastic and can be simulated by analogical models. The spectrum of the linear viscoelastic models can be either continuous or discrete. Continuous spectrum models are often used to simulate experimental results due to the simple fitting between experiments and modelling. Meanwhile, discrete models are more convenient in computational programs that require explicit behavior equations. This paper focuses on the approximation of two linear viscoelastic parameters of bituminous materials including complex modulus and complex Poisson’s ratio by both continuous and discrete spectrum models. The continuous and discrete spectrum models used in this study are 2S2P1D and generalized Kelvin–Voigt model respectively. The 3D behavior formulas of these models are presented in the paper. The parameters of 2S2P1D continuous spectrum model were obtained by fitting the experimental results. In this paper, a method has been developed to determine the parameters of generalized Kelvin–Voigt discrete model by approximating the complex modulus and complex Poisson’s ratio from continuous model 2S2P1D. The obtained results show that the approximation method gives very good results for both complex modulus and complex Poisson’s ratio (i.e., the tridimensional behavior of the material). The method works efficiently even when the number of discrete elements is limited to 20 elements.

Quang Tuan Nguyen, Thi Thanh Nhan Hoang, Van Phu Bui
Assessment of Change in Vibration Responses for Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with FRP Sheets Under Various Loadings

Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a crucial field in evaluating the health status of structures, especially for complex structures commonly used in modern construction. The durability of these structures is affected by several factors, such as material degradation, corrosion, and overloading, which result in damage over their lifetime. In this study, the changes in natural frequencies and mode shapes for reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) sheets are assessed. First, a reinforced concrete beam strengthened with FRP sheets is simulated by the finite element method to analyze the beam’s behavior and get vibration responses. The reliability of the simulation is verified by comparing the load-displacement relationship between numerical and experimental results. Next, the frequency change-based damage detection method and the modal assurance criterion are employed to alarm the damages (cracking and debonding) in the beam. The damage’s occurrence in the beam is analyzed and assessed according to each load level corresponding to the actual working state of the target beam. The results show that the frequency change-based damage detection method and the modal assurance criterion have high accuracy in existing damages.

Manh-Hung Tran, Tran-De-Nhat Truong, Chi-Khai Nguyen, Hong-Huan Chiem, Duc-Duy Ho
Axisymmetric Modelling of Circular Concrete-Filled Double-Skin Steel Tubular Short Columns Under Axial Compression

Recently, concrete-filled double skin steel tubular (CFDST) columns have been extensively developed and used for many structures. CFDST columns consist of inner and outer steel tubes with the concrete filled in the space between them. Compared to conventional CFST columns which have only a single steel tube with concrete core, the CFDST column offers some advantages such as lighter weight, better cyclic performance, and higher fire resistance period, etc. This paper proposes an effective axisymmetric model for performing the nonlinear inelastic analysis of CFDST columns subjected to uniaxial compression in ABAQUS software. An efficient constitutive material model of the concrete infill was employed to consider the confinement effects which increase the ultimate stress, strain, and ductility of the column. The accuracy of the proposed model was verified by comparing its prediction with experimental results and predictive results obtained by the three-dimensional (3D) model of the CFDST column. It was demonstrated that the predictive results obtained from the proposed model agree well with those of the experimental data. In addition, it was pointed out that the proposed axisymmetric model of CFDST column can significantly reduce the computational time (about 30 times) compared with the corresponding 3D model.

Tuan-Dung Pham, Van-Minh Ngo, Van-Ninh Nguyen, Van-Thanh Pham, George Papazafeiropoulos, Quang-Viet Vu
Behavior of 3D Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete Frame Structure Under Seismic Load with Soil Model in Vietnam

In the past, Vietnam lacked a national code for designing construction subjected to earthquakes. The initial seismic code, referencing Eurocode 8, was not introduced until 2006. However, the absence of historical earthquake data, especially in large cities, given a significant challenge in designing structures under seismic loads. This paper investigates the structural behavior and performance assessment of utilizing Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC), a relatively novel material in Vietnam, for multi-story buildings under earthquake conditions. A three-dimensional (3D) model of the five-story building subjected to earthquake, taking into account of actual geological conditions of Vietnam, using a soil-structure interaction model, was calculated. The ground acceleration data were selected from the 2001 Dien Bien earthquake, which occurred in the highly seismic zone of the northwest area of Vietnam. The results of the numerical analysis are also compared to High Strength Concrete material to highlight the loading capacity of the UHPFRC frame structure under seismic loads. From the study, it is recommended that UHPFRC is a potential material in Vietnamese construction conditions to ensure safety against earthquakes.

Cong-Binh Dao, Thanh Binh Pham, Viet-Chinh Mai, Ngoc-Quang Vu
Behavior of Cold-Formed Channels with a V-shape Web Stiffener Bending About the Asymmetrical Axis

The current Direct Strength Method (DSM) is calibrated on the CFS sections bending about the symmetrical axis. It is conservative for determining the ultimate strength of the members subjected to bending about the asymmetrical axis. Research was conducted for the latter, but the quantity was modest, mostly focusing on plain C sections. Thus, this article will investigate the behavior of cold-formed channels with an intermediate V-shape web stiffener subjected to bending about the asymmetrical axis. The program THIN-WALL-2 is used to solve the elastic buckling problems of a series of 81 cold-formed C200x80x20x2 sections with and without stiffeners. The discussions are centered around buckling modes, the signature curve, and the minimum buckling moment. The result of the simulation shows that the local buckling of the web governs the buckling of the whole section.

Huy Hoang Vu, Quoc Anh Vu, Cao Hung Pham
BIM-Integrated System: A Successful Alternative for Calculating Cash Flow in Large-Scale Projects

Cash flow calculation is an essential economic aspect of evaluating the success of a construction project. Strong cash flow positively impacts not only project effectiveness but also company profitability. Cash flow calculation is a good way for the contractors to avoid risks related to delay, cost overrun, or incompletion caused by financial deficits in the project’s performance. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a revolutionary technology 4.0 that has been mandated by many countries. In Vietnam, a roadmap for BIM application in the construction sector was issued in 2023. This mentions that from 2023, the application of BIM is compulsory for works in large-scale projects, specifically class I and higher public investment projects; from 2025, the application of BIM is compulsory for works in class II and higher in public investment projects, projects funded by non-public investment state capital, and PPP projects. In addition, for new investment projects funded by other capital sources, main investors are required to provide BIM files to serve for the appraisal of feasibility study reports, for construction permits, and for acceptance testing tasks. However, the Vietnamese contractors are still facing the inaccuracy of results when applying BIM technology to cash flow calculations. Therefore, this paper proposes a framework for calculating cash flow in large-scale projects by integrating BIM authoring programming, a cost estimation system, a project scheduling system, and a spreadsheet system. The expected outcome of this research is to enhance reliability in computing the project cash flow through an easier and more accurate BIM approach.

Hang Thu Thi Le
Calculation Guide of Cold-Formed Channel Girts by AISI S100 Using DSM Analytical Solution

Although girts and purlins are important parts of factories and other structures that consume significant amounts of steel materials, their calculations to comply with relevant structural design codes have not received much attention. Reference materials such as textbooks only provide parts of the problem as separate examples, mostly about determining available strength, so it is difficult for structural engineers to apply them in practice. Therefore, in this article, complete guidance for calculating cold-formed steel channel girts under AISI S100 is recommended in the form of calculation flows (one main and six dependent), which involve several design codes. The result of applying the guide to an example shows that the computational load is great for a secondary element like a girt. Thus, enhanced methods should be used to simplify the calculations, such as numerical solutions used to determine the critical buckling forces. Many other conclusions are also drawn from the example.

Huy Hoang Vu, Quoc Anh Vu, Cao Hung Pham
CO2 Curing for Surface Hardening of Flowable Fill with By-Product Material and Air-Foam: A Sustainable Approach

The impact of CO2 curing on the surface hardening of flowable fill material containing by-product material and air foam is investigated in this study. The utilization of air foaming technology resulted in the poor surface quality of the hardened specimens due to high air voids in the mortar skin. To address this issue, CO2 curing was employed to enhance the durability of the specimens. The mix design involved using low-strength materials with dredged soil (50% replacement of normal sand) and bottom ash (30% substitution of cement) to promote sustainable construction practices. Air-foaming was introduced to the fresh slurry at a 10% volume content to improve workability. Unconfined compressive strength and the CIP (Chloride Ion Penetration) test were conducted at various ages (3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days). The test results revealed that CO2 curing significantly enhanced the strength of the CLSM (Controlled Low-Strength Material), particularly at early ages, with improvement percentages of 21%. The CIP test results further confirmed the effectiveness of CO2 curing, as all mixtures demonstrated promising increases in CIP resistance. Overall, CO2 curing shows great potential as a technique to enhance the quality of CLSM incorporating by-product materials, particularly in the challenging climate conditions of the Mekong Delta.

Sang-Yum Lee, Jun-Seong Choi, Khoa Dang Truong, Dang Duy Do, Tri Ho Minh Le
Cold Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Using Cement Admixture

Over the past two decades, Cold Recycling (CR) technology has been widely implemented in many countries worldwide. Compared to hot recycling technology, CR offers numerous benefits regarding environmental impact, construction techniques, safety, engineering, and economics. In Vietnam, the budget allocated for road maintenance only covers 30–40% of the demand. Adopting cold recycled asphalt pavement technology in Vietnam can reduce costs by 15–20% compared to new construction, thereby addressing 60% of the remaining road maintenance work in Vietnam. Nevertheless, applying cold recycling technology requires careful attention to technical issues such as materials, recycling processes, and mix design. This paper reports the outcomes of utilizing Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR) technology with cement in Vietnam. Besides, the optimum cement content in the mixture following cold recycling technology was selected based on three criteria: bulk density, compressive, and splitting tensile strength.

Nguyen Thu Trang, Pham Van Luong, Pham Hong Quan, Ngo Van Dai
Cold-Rolled Aluminium Channel Sections in Shear: Experimental and Numerical Approaches

Cold-rolled aluminium channel sections are widely used as primary load bearing members such as roof purlins, floor joists and rafters due to its remarkably corrosion resistance and high strength-to-weight ratios. However, when aluminium channels are subjected to shear forces, they may become susceptible to shear buckling due to the high web slenderness and low elastic modulus. This paper presents the details of experimental and numerical studies using the finite element method. The actual dual actuator shear tests program was performed on cold-rolled aluminium channel sections conducted by the authors at the University of Sydney to investigate the shear strength and behaviour of cold-rolled aluminium sections in shear. In this test program, a standard channel section supplied by BlueScope Permalite featured a depth of 200 mm, flange width of 76 mm and thickness of 2.5 mm was selected to observe the shear post-buckling behaviour. The aspect ratio was selected by 1.0 and 2.0 to maximise the shear action. A series of finite element models were developed using ABAQUS software to simulate the actual test. A good agreement is achieved by comparing the ultimate shear strength of cold-rolled aluminium sections in shear between the actual tests and finite element models. The ultimate failure modes of the aluminium channel sections from the finite element models are compared to those from the actual tests. Both the tests and finite element models show a clear shear failure mode with a diagonal shear band across the shear span with no effect of bending moment.

Xuyang Chen, Duy Khanh Pham, Cao Hung Pham
Combined Effect of Sulfur and Lithium on Intensification of Portland Cement Clinker Burning

Lithium significantly reduces the temperature of clinker melt formation and its viscosity, and sulfur promotes the formation of monoclinic alite modification M1, which guarantees higher mechanical strength of cement compared to cement with M3 modification. By a suitable combination of both dopants, it is possible to reduce the burning temperature of clinker by 100 – 150 ℃ and, as it was found, to increase the mechanical strength of the cement prepared from this clinker. The initial strengths of this cement show an increase of up to 100% compared to the conventional cement CEM I. Lowering the burning temperature of the clinker would lead to a reduction in the energy demand of the production of the main intermediate product for cement production. At the same time, it is also one of the possibilities to reduce CO2 emissions in cement production, which is one of the current priority goals. X-ray diffraction analysis, optical microscopy, electron microscopy and microanalysis were used for the research.

Theodor Staněk, Eva Bartoníčková, Ingrid Khongová, Anežka Zezulová, Jakub Palovčík, Alexandra Rybová, Jiří Másílko, Martin Boháč
Comparative Analysis Between the Bridge Standards of USA, EU, Canada, and Vietnam in the Preliminary Design of Seismic Base Isolation

Seismic Base Isolation (SBI) was considered an effective solution in earthquake-resistant design and is increasingly being used to enhance the seismic performance of critical infrastructures, especially bridge structures. The SBI is designed to prolong the fundamental vibration period and improve the energy dissipation capacity of structures, resulting in a reduction of seismic impacts on the bridge. Thus, seismic properties, notably those of spectral acceleration, have a strong impact on the SBI design criteria. In Vietnam, the seismic load is currently determined according to two different design standards, which are developed separately based on the Eurocode and American standards. Accordingly, the spectral shape determined by such methods is considerably different, especially over long periods, which is the range of interest for the SBI technique. Therefore, the seismic performance and the potential application of SBI are evaluated in different manners. This paper aims to investigate the effects of such different methods on the seismic responses of isolated bridge structures. A comparative study of the current Vietnamese seismic design standards was carried out to critically evaluate their effects on the seismic performance of SBI applications in seismic regions of Vietnam. The obtained results show that the seismic calculation according to TCVN 11823:2017 is significantly different from the standards of the US, EU, and TCVN 9386:2012. Updating and synchronizing seismic calculations in the Vietnamese standard system is critically necessary.

Thanh Dong Nguyen, Ba Thang Phung, Xuan Dai Nguyen
Compressive Strength of Bamboo Column with Concrete Inside: Experimental Study

In tropical countries such as Vietnam, the demand for bamboo as building materials is increasing, especially for environmentally friendly structures. In this study, the high strength concrete was pouring inside bamboo culms, which bamboo’s knots were drilled by a drilling system. In addition, a concrete-pouring and a multi-level compressing system were designed for casting concrete into long-small hole of bamboo culms and for carrying out experiments on sample with various lengths. About 32 experiments were performed Also, the bamboo concrete samples show much higher ultimate load than concrete column samples. A good corelation between the slenderness ratio of sample and the ultimate load of that sample, that the engineers can rapidly define the ultimate bearing capacity based on the general properties of bamboo culms.

Trung-Phong Le, Canh -Thai Nguyen
Concrete Volumetric Building Units for Highly Environmental-Efficient Modular Houses

Volumetric building units can be very attractive due to several benefits in comparison with traditional construction, mainly, a reduced building time and reducing associated costs, material waste reduction, safer working environment, and improved quality. In our study, several concrete prototypes modules or Prefabricated Finished Volumetric Concrete Construction (PFVCC) was fabricated, then modular houses based on this concept were built. This allows to characterize all the construction process of the PFVCC, and to gauge its mechanical efficiency, including during their transportation. This new concept of concrete modular houses fulfils the actual requirements of modern construction as optimal insulation, acoustic performance, environmental aspects and modern architecture.

S. A. S. L. Sawadogo, T. T. Bui, A. Bennani, H. David, D. Damichey, A. Limam
Damage Detection in Beam-Like Structures Using Mode Shape Curvature Change-Based Method

In this paper, the mode shape curvature change-based method is improved to detect the damages in beam-like structures. A steel beam, whose damages are simulated by reducing the bending stiffness of the beam’s elements, is analyzed for vibration with undamaged and damaged cases. Additionally, a damage threshold is investigated to detect the damage zone and evaluate the accuracy of the detection method. The effectiveness of the improved damage detection method is evaluated through a damage index. This study also proposed using the Spline function to smooth data and perform interpolation. Furthermore, the mode shape curvature is calculated by using two different functions, which are a central difference approximation algorithm and an alternative algorithm, to make a comparison about the effectiveness of damage detection. This paper shows that the mode shape curvature change-based method, using a central difference approximation algorithm, which is combined with the Spline function, gives highly accurate results of the damage detection in both the damage’s occurrence and location.

Chi-Khai Nguyen, Tran-De-Nhat Truong, Manh-Hung Tran, Anh-Khoa Nguyen, Quang-Dan Phan, Quoc-Anh Duong, Duc-Duy Ho
The Design of Self-Compacting Concrete with High Fly Ash Content in the Construction of Rural Transportation Infrastructure in Vietnam

This article presents the results of an experimental study on the design of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with high fly ash content, applied in the construction of rural transportation infrastructure in Vietnam. The study applies the SCC mix design method following the guidelines provided by Japan, with fly ash replacing cement at the ratio of 40% to 80%. The evaluation of the SCC mixtures is based on various workability criteria, including slump flow (SF), T500 time, J-ring passing ability, L-box passing ability, V-funnel flow time, segregation resistance (SR), and concrete’s compressive strength at 28 days. Through the experimental research, the proposed SCC mix design process is presented, aiming to simplify and expedite the implementation process while meeting the objectives of rural transportation construction.

Nguyen Hung Cuong
Determination of Climate Zones for Bitumen Performance Grading Distribution Map in Laos

Classification of bitumen according to the performance grade (PG) presents many advantages and is widely applied in the United States, Canada, Korea… The principle of selecting bitumen according to performance grade is to match the asphalt characteristics with the geographical and climate conditions, traffic level and traffic speed of each project. Therefore, the selection of bitumen grade will promote the performance of the asphalt binder in the mixture and increase the service life of the asphalt pavement. The PG asphalt classification has been studied for a long time for North America (United States and Canada). Laos has differences in natural conditions, climate, temperature, driving conditions and economic conditions compared to the US. In this paper, research is carried out to gradually apply PG asphalt classification in Laos. The data of 41 MERRA2 stations were collected and analyzed. Based on the analysis of obtained results, bitumen performance grading distribution map in Laos according to climate zones is established.

Phouxay Khamkhanpom, Surya Deuanhaksa, Quang Phuc Nguyen, Quang Tuan Nguyen, Xuan Quy Le
Determining the Residual Prestressing Force in Unmonitored Full-Scale Prestressed Concrete Members

The accurate determination of the residual prestressing force is essential in the assessment of existing prestressed concrete structures (EPCSs). Since construction practice has not considered the incorporation of measurement devices in the EPCSs for monitoring over time, prestressing losses are usually unknown, and therefore the residual prestressing force. In the case of old prestressed concrete members, additional complexity must be considered in relation to the initial prestress, the materials (prestressing reinforcement and concrete) properties and the short- and long-term prestress losses. From several analyses carried out on EPCSs, it should be pointed out that the residual prestressing force is not always in agreement with the expected value.In this context, this paper compiles a database of experimental tests carried out on old full-scale prestressed concrete members over the years, which were commonly salvaged from decommissioned bridges, and examines the different techniques and methods used to determine the residual prestressing force. Cases with both destructive and non-destructive approaches are included detailing pros and cons together the uncertainties to be considered in the assessment of EPCSs. The summarized information will serve to a better understanding of the testing techniques and may help to protocolize the assessment of case studies with unknown prestressing force.

J. A. Mateu-Sánchez, M. C. Castro-Bugallo, E. Giménez-Carbó, J. Navarro-Gregori, J. R. Martí-Vargas
Digital Technologies and the Pandemic: The Rise of ICT-Enabled Governance Strategies for Combatting COVID-19 in the Smart City of Bhubaneswar, India

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, this rise of ICT-driven infrastructures and services became manifold and the sector of urban governance and healthcare management benefitted the most from such digitalized changes. The already ‘Smart’ Bhubaneswar City, the provincial capital of the eastern state of Odisha, India, saw innovation in their governance strategies through usage of digital aids like drones, launching of new smartphone-based applications, city-level managed online citizen database, management and evaluation of healthcare units, helpline channels, and so on. Thus, it was interesting and imperative to explore this interface between digital technology and COVID-19 ushered governance strategies in Bhubaneswar Smart City. The study analysed how administration-led COVID-19 interventions incorporated digital technologies from a highly politicized perspective in monitoring and for surveillance of the city population during the lockdown and quarantined phases. By adopting an explorative lens, the study collected qualitative data through in-depth telephonic interviews across four categories of respondents – slum, non-slum, city officials, and transgender populations, over a period of roughly two years (late 2020-early 2022). The study further indulged in content analysis of social media platforms that highlight the incorporation of digital technologies in smart governance processes in general as well as for combatting and monitoring the COVID-19 situation in Bhubaneswar Smart City and the existing lacunas therein.

Sramana Mukherjee, Sthitapragyan Ray
Effect Investigation of Delamination Shape on Detectability of Active Infrared Thermography in Painted Concrete Structures

In infrastructures, the development of defects in the core of not only normal concrete (NC) but also painted concrete (PC) structures is unavoidable. Meanwhile, the determination of the detectability of defects like delamination using non-destructive evaluation methods, i.e., active infrared thermography (IRT), has been focused much more on NC than on PC structures. Although the shape of defects varies significantly as a random variable, only square damages have been examined for PC components. This motivates the present study investigating the ability of active IRT in the detection and characterization of subsurface anomalies, i.e., delamination, with different shapes which are also then compared to those on NC structures. It is proven that the delamination shape highly affects the performance of active IRT surveys on PC structures. Particularly, the maximum absolute contrast (MAC) of square defects moderately differs from the A-shape and V-shape defects. Additionally, an A-shape defect achieves higher MAC making it more clearly observed on thermal images than the V-shape damage. Moreover, hidden defects with the same size, depth, and shape in PC components become more detectable on thermal images thanks to greater values obtained of the MAC in comparison with those in NC structures.

Quang Tai Ta, Van Ha Mac, Jungwon Huh
Effect of Sheath Spacing and Grout Filling Status on Sheath Corrosion Cracks of Post-tensioned PC

To investigate a simple method for estimating the state of grout filling from cracks along a sheath, we focused on cracks caused by sheath corrosion. An electrolytic-corrosion test was performed using the space between two sheaths and the grout filling condition as parameters. In addition, two-dimensional finite element analysis was performed to confirm the occurrence of stress and strain due to these changes. As a result, we demonstrated that if the space between two sheaths is small, internal cracks might occur earlier than in the concrete surface. In addition, in cases where grout is not filled, the possibility of cracking due to sheath corrosion at that portion is small. However, we showed that corrosion of an adjacent sheath may affect the corrosion cracking properties.

Takuya Kondo, Kaori Hisakawa, Hikaru Yoshida
Effects of Emission-Reducing Measures on Performance of High Performance Stone Mastic Asphalt

In this study, measures to reduce emissions on the asphalt pavement are investigated. For this purpose, several high performance Stone Mastic Asphalts (SMA_HP) with different viscosity reduced modified binders were produced and investigated with regard to their performance characteristics at high, medium and low service temperatures. The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare different temperature reduced asphalts in terms of performance properties. Stiffness modules, Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test and cyclic compression test were performed to determine the impact of the reduction of mixing and compaction temperatures on the performance properties of asphalt. Conventional (softening point ring and ball and penetration) and performance oriented (DSR and BBR) tests were also performed on virgin, RTFOT and PAV aged bitumen. The mixing temperature of SMA_HP was 160 °C and the compaction temperature of specimen were 145 °C and 130 °C. The gained test results show that it is possible to reduce the mixing temperature by up to 30 °C without significantly affecting the performance properties of SMA_HP which can be used for industrial pavement areas, roundabouts and bus lanes.

Pahirangan Sivapatham, Tim Schroedter, Barbara Esser
Effects of Printing Patterns on Tensile Strength of 3D-Printed Cement Mortar

The layer-by-layer deposition process in 3D printing of cement-based materials and structures lead to inherent weakness at the interfaces between layers. This severely affects the strengths of 3D printed structures, given weak interfaces trigger failure and promote fast crack propagation. In this sense, the orientations of the interfaces in relation to loading directions on 3D-printed specimens dictate the strength of the specimens. In this work, 3D-printed cement mortar specimens are fabricated following different printing patterns, and their tensile strengths are investigated through a series of indirect tensile tests. Advanced image-based instrumentation is used to obtain the evolutions of full-field strains on the specimen surfaces. Variation of layer orientations and printing patterns have been found to have strong effects on the integrity of the 3D-printed specimens, and the obtained results indicate strong correlations between printing patterns and specimen strengths. This opens potential for optimizing layer orientations in relation to stress conditions to improve strength properties of 3D-printed cement mortar.

Zili Huang, Zulfiqar Ali, Giang D. Nguyen, Murat Karakus, Ha Bui, Tung Tran
Evaluating Impact Resistance of Rubberized Cement-Stabilized Aggregates

Incorporating rubber aggregates ground from end-of-life tyres in concrete mixtures as a replacement for coarse/fine aggregates could help to improve the resistance of rubberized concrete to impact loading. However, the literature found neither investigations on the impact resistance of rubberized cement-stabilized aggregates. In this paper, cement-treated materials (maximum size of 25 mm and 4% cement content), in which rubber aggregate 3–6 mm was used to replace mixed aggregate from 0.425–9.5 mm at different contents of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, were subjected to impact loadings. Experimental results showed a better impact resistance of rubberized cement-stabilized aggregates through the number of blows at composite failure and a variation in the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of the sample before the first visible crack. A damage variable was also used to evaluate the resistance of the mixtures to impact loading. Higher rubber content resulted in lower damage with the narrowest cracks and wide cracking distribution than significant opening damage on the reference cement-treated aggregates.

Phuong N. Pham
Evaluation of Displacement of an L-shaped Concrete Specimen using Recurrent Neural Networks

In engineering, most structural elements are damaged locally during fabrication or maintenance. Under different loading conditions, such localized damage will further expand into larger cracks and cause structural collapse. As a result, identifying the displacement under various loads in the structural elements is critical in the risk assessment of engineering structures. The objective of the present paper is to propose a deep-learning model to examine the displacement of L-shaped concrete specimens under loading conditions. The three state-of-the-art models such as Simple RNN, LSTM, and GRU are built and trained based on load-displacement data. The experimental results show that the R2 values obtained from the Simple RNN, LSTM, and GRU models are 0.9967, 0.6169, and 0.5291, respectively. This proves that Simple RNN is superior to LSTM and GRU in the task of predicting the load-displacement relationship.

Quoc H. Nguyen, Vi T. T. Doan, Thanh Danh Tran, Tan-No Nguyen
Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Concrete Strength on the Bond Interface between CFRP Sheets and Concrete Members

CFRP to concrete bond behavior has a significant role in transferring the stress between the concrete and the CFRP sheets and has a direct influence on the failure mode of a CFRP- strengthened RC beams. The bond behavior is influenced by several factors, including concrete compressive strength, stiffness of CFRP sheets, adhesive resin, CFRP-to-concrete width ratio. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the influence of concrete strength on the bonding strength of concrete - CFRP sheet using a near-end supported single-shear pull test. Experiments were performed on nine specimens using three concrete mix proportions. The test results indicated that the strain of CFRP sheet is proportional to the concrete compressive strength. Additionally, the failure modes were found to be dependent on the concrete compressive strength.

Tran Xuan Vinh, Nguyen Trung Hieu, Pham Xuan Dat
Experimental Study on Photocatalytic Efficiency of TiO2-Coated Cement Plaster in Reduction of Ambient TVOC

The emission of pollutants and harmful gases like VOCs from vehicles and industries have degraded the air quality significantly and consequently affected human and structural health. Although the photo-catalysis technique is widely used for the treatment of air pollution, selecting an efficient photo-catalyst having strong oxidizing ability and chemical stability is still a major challenge. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 in reducing air pollutants such as total VOCs. A parametric study has been conducted with the characterization of different proportions of TiO2 sprayed over the selected building surface to determine the optimum dose. The decontamination efficacy of TiO2 was obtained from the initial and final concentration of known TVOCs inside the reaction chambers. The obtained results showed the variation of degradation rate from 7E−07 to 5E−07 s−1cm−2 of coating and the maximum degradation rate constant of 8.70E−06 s−1cm−2 corresponding to 14.9% of TiO2 dose by cement weight. Which justifies the viability of TiO2 in the purification of the surrounding environment and advocates its widespread use on the building surfaces.

Shweta Mishra, Putul Haldar, Indramani Dadha
Experimental Testing of Centrically Compressed Cold-Formed Steel Members with Web Holes

In this paper, the experimental investigation of centrically compressed cold-formed steel members with web holes was outlined. Compression tests were conducted on 4 columns with two web holes and 4 columns with three web holes. Furthermore, two different cross-sections were taken into account. Hinged boundary conditions around major bending axis of tested elements were designed in order to achieve the desired type of connection with the testing equipment. With the aim of proper definition of material behavior and initial geometric imperfections of tested elements in subsequent numerical analyzes, material testing and geometry control were carried out prior to the experimental tests. Material tests were performed on flat and corner coupons, while the non-contact geometry control was conducted using the optical 3D scanner. For each type of specimens, nonlinear shell finite element simulations were carried out, providing good agreement with the experimental results. The failure of tested specimens is manifested mainly due to local, distortional or flexural buckling, occurring almost instantly, without prior warning. However, the pre- and post-buckling behavior slightly differs, depending on the members’ type of cross-section, which could be attributed to the different buckling load ratio around the two cross-sectional axes of the tested specimens.

Vladimir Živaljević, Igor Džolev, Andrija Rašeta
Fastening in Timber Structures: Performance Assessment of Glued-in Rod Connections

The use of biobased materials as timber, known for their carbon sink potential, marks a change in the construction field. In this way, the glued-in rod connection (GiR) is emerging because of its high mechanical properties and esthetic. However, the lack of standards makes its use confidential. This work aims to have a better understanding of the use and design of the GiR connection in France. A state of the art and an analysis of the professional uses were conducted to enlighten the research and practical aspects of this fastening. Relevant case studies were studied to analyze the standard design methods. The outputs underline the current monopolistic expertise of one manufacturer. Even though the opening of new markets for GiR thanks to the entry in the new version of Eurocode 5, the high cost and the specific expertise may curb their development.

Richard Louann, Fabien Delhomme, Yannick Salaün, Gaël Le-Bloa
Fatigue Growth and Small Testing of Welded Connection in a Residual Life Assessment (RLA) Strategy

This paper presents a computational fracture mechanics approach for Residual Life Assessment (RLA) of a welded connections in a typical crane and lifting equipment. These structural details are submitted to cyclic loadings, resulting in fatigue damage around microcracks in the heat-affected zones (HAZ), and consequently to safety and reliability issues. The complexity of crack propagation in welded structures requires experimental validation tools, determination of microstructural and physical properties in the HAZ, and fracture mechanics using efficient simulation tools for. A 3D finite element post processing analysis software – Z cracks – has been used to simulate the rate and direction of crack growth along the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of the welded connection using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) principles. The numerical results were then compared with fatigue crack growth tests results on a crane subsystem containing the welded connections. The numerical tool implementation procedure has resulted in identification of the strong and weak points of the LEFM-based crack growth simulation used. Based in a better understanding of the crack propagation, the results obtained should contribute to the improvement of engineering practices for the prediction of the Residual Life Assessment (RLA) of welded structures and to the definition of improved procedures maintenance procedures.This study could also use of small punch testing and statistical fractography to obtain material parameters in a quasi-non-destructive characterization method.

B. Depale, J. Malrieu, M. Dhahri, D. Brancherie, S. Kemgang, P. Breitkopf
FEM Analysis of Web Crippling Phenomenon of Cold-Formed Steel Lipped C-Sections Subject to Two Flange Loading Cases

Cold formed steel lipped C-sections have been widely used in roof systems as purlins, decks as structural beams, and portal frames, etc., due to their superior properties such as higher strength and lighter weight compared to hot rolled steel. However, the webs of these sections are vulnerable to crippling phenomenon under localised loading when they are not generally strengthened by web stiffeners in cold-formed steel structures. This paper presents, in detail, the numerical studies using the finite element (FE) program ABAQUS to simulate the web crippling behaviour of cold-formed steel lipped C-section under two flange load cases. The FE models were developed using ABAQUS/Standard and their accuracy was validated by comparison with experimental results conducted by the authors in a separate experimental program. The section geometries and mechanical properties were based on the measured dimensions and the results of actual tensile coupon tests. Additionally, the initial geometry imperfections were also investigated in this study, and they were proven to have no or little effect on the ultimate strengths and can therefore be neglected. Detailed mesh sizes, contact definitions, interaction properties, boundary conditions and loading cases were considered for the FE models. Good agreement was achieved between the experimental and FE results. The reliable and calibrated FE models in this study will be used for a parametric study to extend data ranges without the need to conduct physical testing in the future research works.

Yiyu Xie, Cao Hung Pham
Few-Layer-Graphene Based Smart Concrete: A New Paradigm in Construction Materials

In recent years, the construction industry has been increasingly focused on finding solutions to improve infrastructure and building performance while fulfilling environmental requirements. One area of focus is the production of cementitious composites, which currently produce high CO2 emissions. However, there are adaptable strategies for decarbonising the cement sector, including nanomaterials like graphene and graphene-related materials (GRM). GRM enhances the lifespan and adds innovative properties to cementitious composites. This study pioneers the application of few-layer graphene (FLG) in cementitious composites, resulting in a notable 94% reduction in electrical resistance and a 55% increase in thermal conductivity. This novel approach can significantly elevate the multifunctionality and performance attributes of cementitious materials, furthering sustainable construction practices.

Salvatore Polverino, Antonio Esau Del Rio Castillo, Francesco Bonaccorso
Free Vibration Analysis of the Functionally Graded Porous Plates with Auxetic Honeycomb Core Laid on Kerr-Type Elastic Foundation

The aim of this work is to analyze the free vibration behavior of sand-wich plates with two porous functionally graded skins and an auxetic honeycomb core resting on a Kerr-type elastic foundation. To accomplish this, a new quasi-3D trigonometric shear deformation theory is presented. This theory considers both shear strain and normal deformation but only requires five variables to approximate the displacement field, regardless of the shear correction factor. The governing equations of the plates on the Kerr-type elastic foundation are derived using Hamilton’s principle, and closed-form analytical solutions are obtained using Navier’s approach. Additionally, a comprehensive set of parametric simulations is conducted to investigate the influence of geometrical, material, and foundation parameters on the fundamental frequency of the plates.

Huu-Loi Cao, Tan-Van Vu
Full Scale Testing of Modular Steel Footbridge

Modular steel footbridges are utilized where rapid installation is required for pedestrian access across roadways and rivers. It is imperative that structural testing is undertaken to ensure the safety of these bridges. In this paper, full scale testing of a modular steel footbridge is described. The footbridge consists of 12 modules connected together to form an overall length of 29.3 m. The main top and bottom chord members of each module consist of square hollow sections while the vertical members consist of channel sections and the vertical triangular bracing consist of square hollow sections. The top and bottom internal members can be folded in such a manner as to bring the sides of the module together, thus allowing the modules to be stacked and transported to the site. The strength performance of the footbridge is assessed by carrying out an ultimate failure test on the footbridge using a combination of uniformly distributed load and point load. The uniformly distributed load was applied by pumping water into two custom-made large watertight bags located on the walkway platform of the bridge. The point loads were applied on the top of the footbridge using a loading jack and heavy I-beams.

Mohanad Mursi, John Papangelis
High Performance Timber Concrete Floor Pannel Connected by Bonding

Structural glued-laminated timber is one of the oldest engineered wood products used in construction. Glued-laminated timber has several advantages over sawn timber and other structured materials. The main disadvantage is related to the considerable variability in material properties. Safety factors on materials properties are therefore integrated in design codes for structural application. In addition, to satisfy serviceability conditions, timber beams must be relatively deep. This is due to the low Young’s modulus value of wood and to its creep behavior, which imposes a consideration of time, humidity and loading to calculate long-term deflection. The deflection may increase by up to 60% in some cases when long-term loading is considered. The main objective when designing such a hybrid section is to make use of the best characteristics of each material. This program aims to develop a new structure component promoting the use of wood and concrete to improve its mechanical performance. This new product is used in the field of construction and combines three materials: wood, concrete (UHPC). This approach aims to meet the increasing expectations of end-users and the needs of a sector of the construction. Long-term creep tests are done on full-scale specimens.

Emmanuel  Ferrier, Laurent  Michel
Influence of Double Protection Layers on the Fire Resistance of Load-Bearing LSF Wall Panels

The adoption of Light-gauge Steel framed (LSF) panels has recently gained a rapid increase in designing low to mid-rise buildings, especially in high seismicity zones due to their light weight and the environmentally sustainable solution that they offer. In this study, a new innovative solution of Double Layers (DL) of Magboard (MGO) is proposed for LSF panel, to evaluate its thermo-mechanical response under an axial compression load, subjected to fire ISO834. Their vulnerability to high temperatures requires more solutions for protection and its configurations in order to improve their fire resistance rating (FRR), taking into account the panel weight and cost. Therefore numerical models are developed and calibrated, using ANSYS APDL, to predict the temperature effect and to study the influence of using of innovative DL of MGO instead of single layer or conventional DL for LSF panels. The outcomes of this research show that the innovative DL may be used instead of the conventional one since they are provided a similarity of behavior for FRR. The latter is increased with more than 55% compared to the single configuration.

Mohammed Hassoune, Abdelhak Kada, Belkacem Menadi, Belkacem Lamri, Abdelhamid Bouchair, Liming Jiang
Influence of Grain Shape to Shear Strength of 2D Cemented Granular Materials: A DEM Study

The mechanical strength of cemented granular materials is influenced by various factors, including grain shape. This study investigates the shear strength of a granular sample composed of clusters of grains of different shapes and smaller circular grains surrounding using 2D discrete element modeling. The clusters of grains are constructed by gluing smaller circular grains together, and the interaction between them is of strong bond, while the interaction between meso-grains and small grains is weakly bond. The bonding in this study is fully cemented involving normal/shear and rolling bonds. Biaxial testing is performed to determine the contribution of meso-grains to the overall shear strength, which is found to be influenced by their shape and other microscopic parameters such as coordination number or grain size.

Trung-Kien Nguyen, Thanh-Trung Vo
Influence of Longitudinal Web Stiffeners on the Bending Capacity of c-shaped Thin-Walled Steel Members

This paper investigates the influence of longitudinal web stiffeners on the bending capacities of C-shaped thin-walled steel members with rectangular or triangular stiffeners. The width and depth of rectangular stiffeners and the sizes of triangular stiffeners are varied to study their impact on the buckling capacities of sections and on the ultimate flexural strength of members. The buckling capacities are determined using a finite strip-based Python code developed on the basis of the public domain code, while the ultimate flexural strength is computed using the Direct Strength Method (DSM) of design formulae in accordance with the Australian Standard for cold-formed steel structures AS/NZS 4600:2018. The results demonstrate that the non-linear relationships between the web stiffener sizes and the flexural capacity vary depending on the thicknesses and the geometries of the members. The findings of this study provide useful information for designers for selecting optimal stiffener sizes to maximize the flexural strengths of C-shaped thin-walled steel members.

Toan Trung Thach, Van Phuc Tran, Song Hong Pham, Cao Hung Pham
Interaction Between Drying Shrinkage and Hardening of Geopolymers

The geopolymers are amorphous mineral materials manufactured from alumino-silicates and a strongly alkaline solution. One of their advantages is a lower carbon footprint than conventional cementitious binders. However, they are subject to significant drying shrinkage. In this study, geopolymer samples are produced from metakaolin, silica fume and a potash solution. The mix compounding is selected to reach the molar ratios: Si/Al = 1.8, K/Al = 1.15 and H2O/K = 5.3. Cylindrical samples are exposed to various curing conditions. The curing temperature reaches 40 ℃ for 0, 6 or 24 h, then 23 ℃. The relative humidity is maintained at 100% RH for 0, 1, 3 or 5 days then at 65% RH. A protocol including periodic weighing, 3D scanning and instrumented macroindentation is used to monitor the drying shrinkage and hardening kinetics. Samples volume measurement and macroindentation are performed periodically. The 3D shrinkage, referring to volume measured just after mold removal, is estimated at each term. The hardness and stiffness of the tested material are deduced from the macroindentation curve. It appears that the hardest samples are also the most cracked. Covering the sample for 5 days at 23 ℃ or 24 h at 40 ℃ limits the shrinkage to ~ 1% but leads to large decrease of the hardness compared to hardest samples. Optimal curing conditions are identified: covering the sample for 3 days at 23 ℃. This optimization allows to limit the shrinkage to 3% without cracking, while reaching satisfactory mechanical properties.

H. Thuilliez, C. Lanos, A. Phelipot-Mardelé, G. Mauvoisin
Investigation on the Compressive Strength and the Microstructure of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Paste and Mortar

Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) production demands high energy consumption and emits high amounts of greenhouse gases. Geopolymer is an alternative binder which can potentially replace OPC. Paste and mortar is one of the important parameters affecting the compressive strength of concrete. The simultaneous study of paste and mortar under different conditions has not been mentioned by many studies. This paper presents the compressive strength and the microstructural properties of the geopolymer paste and mortar containing low-calcium fly ash (FA). Two curing methods were tested: at ambient temperature and 60 ℃ for 24 h. The ratio of alkaline solution (AAS)-to-FA was investigated at 0.40, 0.45 and 0.50 (in mass). The compressive strengths of the geopolymer paste and the geopolymer mortar were determined at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days while their microstructural properties were examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analysis. Results from this study revealed that the compressive strength of paste and mortar increases with age. At the same time, when increasing the ratio of AAS/FA, the compressive strength of paste and mortar decreases gradually. When the sand was added and heat cured, the strength of the samples also increased. The analytical image of SEM was shown to be consistent with this intensity variation. The EDS analysis also showed that the choice of distribution in this study was reasonable.

Hoai-Bao Le, Quoc-Bao Bui
Investigation on the Strain Effect on the Behaviour of Laminated Veneer Lumber Timber Connections

This paper experimentally investigates the influence of the strain rate experienced during earthquake and progressive collapse events on mechanical properties affecting the design of softwood Laminated Veneer Lumbers timber connections. The parallel and perpendicular to grain embedment stiffness and strength, and the Mode I and II fracture energies were examined under four levels of strain rates. Results showed that the embedment stiffness and strength increased by up to 35% from the quasi-static to dynamic strain rates while the embedment ductility decreased by up to 17%. The fracture energies were found to be mostly insensitive to the investigated range of strain rates. Furthermore, the influence of the strain rate on the behaviour of timber connections is further analysed by quasi-statically and dynamically testing one connection type with two different fastener spacings. Results showed that for the connections investigated, the dynamic strength can be up to 30% higher than the quasi-static one, however, the dynamic ductility of the connections can be reduced substantially by up to 32.5%.

Xinyi Cheng, Benoit P. Gilbert, Chunhao Lyu, Hong Guan
Joints in Steel-Concrete Composite Construction

Composite steel-concrete structures have significant benefits in terms of structural performance and construction due to levering the merits of steel and concrete. This paper presents an overview of various joining methods to connect different structural members in composite buildings (i.e., composite columns in the form of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) sections, composite beams, and steel plate composite (SC) shear walls in the form of a concrete core sandwiched between two outer steel plates). The paper will cover both experimental testing, numerical modelling and the behaviour of joints under static and cyclic loadings. This paper focuses on bolting methods due to their simplicity and ease of installation. In addition to the joints between beams, columns, and walls in conventional buildings, this paper also explores the connections between modular units used in modular buildings. The paper can serve as a useful reference for researchers and practitioners who wish to promote the practical use of CFST and SC structures for composite buildings.

Huu-Tai Thai
Low Energy Alite and Belite-Rich LC3: Early Hydration, Isothermal Calorimetry and Strength Development

The paper deals with LC3 cement using low-energy alite and belite-rich clinker. Alite and belite-rich low-energy clinkers were synthetized in laboratory conditions at 1325 ℃ and 1350 ℃. Early hydration, followed by isothermal calorimetry and phase analysis using QXRD, is complemented with strength development after 2d, 7d and 28d. The role of constituents is studied on binary and ternary systems using calcined clay and limestone. Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3) is a blended cement that combines clinker, gypsum, limestone and calcined clay. Alite-rich Portland cement burned at 1450 ℃ is commonly a first choice due to its activation potential. Recently, LC3 belite-rich cement has drawn scientific interest. The third option is to use mineralized low-energy alite-rich clinker, saving a considerable amount of energy and emissions of CO2. The paper reveals the possibility of using alite-rich low-energy clinker for LC3 cement.

Martin Boháč, Michaela Krejčí Kotlánová, Dana Kubátová, Theodor Staněk
Mechanical Behavior of Timber Joists with Large Holes

In wood construction, to optimize the space and the floor height, the feasibility of large holes in timber beams, due to constraints imposed by ventilation or plumbing networks, are more and more studied. Their presence strongly influences the stress flow within the beam, which can cause early failures in comparison to unaltered beam. A non-exhaustive literature review highlights that peak stress in a rectangular hole is situated at the corners and, for circular hole, at approximately 45° ± 180° or 30° ± 120° with respect to the neutral axis for pure shear stress or pure bending moment, respectively. Nevertheless, dowel and plane type reinforcements enable to restore the load bearing capacity of the beam without hole. Experimental tests on glulam beams, monitoring by Digital Image Correlation, show that the stiffness is not affected by a single hole at mid-span in a four-points bending loading. To authorize the use of a wider range of configurations, the design of timber beam with large holes need to be investigate, yet. Moreover, further works will focus on the impact of large holes in timber-concrete floors.

Fabien Delhomme, Jostar Laforet, Emeric Bruyère, Mario Masapollo, Alric Henchoz, Antoine Perceval, Olivier Canat
Multi-objective Optimization of Trusses Using Rao Algorithms

The Rao algorithms are utilized to perform the multi-objective optimization of truss structures in this paper. Rao algorithms are new parameter-free meta-heuristics for global optimization. Due to their simplicity, these algorithms have been increasingly used to solve various engineering optimization problems. Nevertheless, the Rao algorithm’s applicability in multi-objective optimization is still limited. In the present study, the Rao algorithms, including Rao-1, Rao-2, are adapted to solve the multi-objective optimization for 2D and 3D trusses for the first time. The weight and the displacements of the trusses are considered optimization objectives, while the constraints are the member stresses. The effectiveness of the multi-objective Rao algorithms is examined by optimizing two numerical examples, and their performance is shown in comparison with some well-known algorithms.

Hoang-Anh Pham, Viet-Hung Dang
Non-linear Analysis of the Effect of Cold-Formed Stain-Less-Steel Members’ Material Properties on the Portal Frames’ Ultimate Strengths

Cold-formed stainless-steel (CFSS) members are becoming popular in the design of steel structures because of their decent load-carrying capacity and corrosion resistance. The material properties of cold-formed stainless-steel sections ensure that they can be easily manufactured and designated for complex design purposes. For instance, they can be potentially used when designing structures, including floor joists, scaffolds, façade, and portal frames. Therefore, in the scope of this research, the performance of a cold-formed stainless-steel portal frame is investigated using Strand 7. Three material categories are considered for the portal frame, and they are Austenitic, Duplex, and Ferritic stainless steel.Since the material properties of the manufactured CFSS members have uncertainties in the real-life scenario, the uncertainties’ effect on the ultimate strength of the CFSS portal frame will be studied. In each material category, 40 sets of material properties for the CFSS members are randomly generated based on experimental data. Each set of material properties is used to define a stress-strain curve for the portal frame. The curve determines the frame’s flexural behaviour and ultimate strength. After that, Direct Design Method (DDM) is used to evaluate the model’s ultimate strength. During the non-linear analysis, loads over the frame gradually increase, and the frame will fail once its total fibre stress exceeds its ultimate stress. Stop the simulation once the frame fails and record the ultimate load of the frame. Repeat the simulations for the rest of the property sets and plot the obtained ultimate loads in a histogram for each material category.

Ruilin Zhang
Numerical Design Calculation of Fin Plate Connections in Fire

The main objective of this paper is to present the validation, and verification of the Component-Based Finite Element Method (CBFEM) for predicting the resistance of fin plate connections at elevated temperatures. The CBFEM is the quite commonly used method to analyse and design connections of steel structures. It is the combination of the analytical component method and the numerical Finite Element Method (FEM). The fire resistance of fin plate connections was analytically calculated based on Eurocode design specifications to verify CBFEM. The validation of CBFEM is done using experimental results in terms of resistance and failure modes.

Batuhan Der, Frantisek Wald, Martin Vild
Numerical Study on the Failure of Reinforced Concrete Columns Exposed to Fire Including Cooling Phase

It is evident that reinforced concrete (RC) structures exposed to fire can fail during cooling phase, causing significant dangers to firefighters and residents who enter the building after fire has been extinguished. It is therefore necessary to investigate the failure of RC structures exposed to fires with consideration of cooling phase. This paper presents a quantitative study on the delay in failure time of RC columns subjected to natural fires including the cooling phase. Numerical studies on the behavior of those RC columns were performed using SAFIR software. Both standard fire curve and natural fire curve including cooling phase were analyzed in the research, which also involves a parametric study on the influence of different factors (heating time, load ratio, and concrete cover thickness) on the delay in failure time of RC columns.

Thanh Hung Pham, Ha Nguyen, Thi Binh Chu
Optimizing Aluminum Plate Thickness Using Different Optimization Algorithms

The study investigates the differences between three optimization algorithms: modified Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO), Genetic Algorithm (GA), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), for plate buckling optimization. The thickness distributions of the same thin aluminum plates were optimized for specific buckling shape and buckling load targets using the three algorithms, based on FEM linear buckling analysis. A discussion of the three methods is summarized from the optimization effects and computational resources. It is shown that the thickness distribution may be designed in such a way as to control the buckling behaviors, thereby maximizing the opening for building ventilation. The modified ESO method may be a good option to control the buckling of a plate. The PSO and GA are suitable for a quick buckling optimization.

H. Zhang, M. R. Bambach
Peat Stabilization: Mechanisms of Geopolymer

Peat is a highly organic deposit consisting of partially decomposed organic matter typically found in the coastal area. The biggest challenge faced in the construction projects on peat is the unacceptable settlement due to its high compressibility, low shear, and poor mechanical strength. As a result, structures built on peatland experienced localized sinking while road surfaces became undulating. In Sarawak, the ground subsidence issues affect residential areas, commercial lots, and road sections, which leads to abandonment by the residents, safety hazards, and costly maintenance and remediation works. Hence, peat needs to be treated for a stable ground condition. The existing problems with undulating roads and sinking residential areas demonstrate the inefficiency of the current peat management method. Traditionally, cement is used as the common stabilization agent to enhance the geotechnical properties of soft and weak soil. However, the high carbon dioxide emission (CO2) during cement manufacturing prompted the need for a more sustainable material. Additionally, sustainable usage of industrial waste products has recently grown in importance due to their economical and environmentally friendly potential. Therefore, this article aims to describe geopolymer mechanisms and briefly review recent developments in utilizing the materials in peat stabilization.

Fianita Anthony, Kwong Soon Wong, Nagarajan Ramasamy, Wai Wah Low
Prediction of Normalized Modulus Reduction Curve Based on Limited Measurement Data

The precision and reliability of the normalized modulus reduction curve in laboratory tests can be significantly compromised by the scarcity of specimens as well as variations among them, which can further impact the accuracy of seismic response analysis. In this paper, a Bayesian updating framework is proposed to predict the normalized modulus reduction curve with limited measurement data. Different prior distributions and measurement errors are investigated. Results show that the proposed technique is effective and efficient in handling limited data, reducing the uncertainty of variables through measurements, and improving the accuracy of the normalized modulus reduction curve with the acquisition of more measurements.

Yuting Zhang, Bin Huang, Xudong Fu, Di Zou
Scattering of Guided Waves by Interfacial Delamination in Aerospace Composite Laminates

Multi-layered composites have been increasingly used in the aerospace industry since they possess high durability while maintaining low weight to withstand harsh operating conditions. This article examines the utilization of ultrasonic guided waves within laminated composite plates with the aim of applying them in material characterization of composite structures. The investigation focuses on the theoretical analysis of wave motion generated by time-harmonic loads in composites, employing reciprocity theorems. We also explore the scattering of guided waves resulting from delamination at the laminate interface. By applying the reciprocity theorem, the expression for the scattering amplitude ratio of guided waves caused by the delamination defect can be derived explicitly. The results have been computed for the tri-layer aluminum-epoxy-aluminum plate and discussed in detail in terms of the dependence of the depth and width of the delamination defect.

Hoang Ngoc Quy, TruongGiang Nguyen, Tran Dinh Phien, Haidang Phan
Shear Capacity of Beams with Curved Corrugated Webs

Beams with corrugated webs and flat plate flanges are extensively used in the construction industry for buildings and bridges. In the design of these beams, the longitudinal stiffness of the corrugated web is negligible and so the moment capacity is derived entirely from the flanges while the shear capacity of the beam is based on the shear strength of the web alone. Most beams with corrugated webs have trapezoidal shaped corrugations and so research in the past has mainly focused on this type of corrugation pattern. However, it may be possible to obtain a higher shear capacity with curved corrugated webs which may be either sinusoidal or circular in shape. In this paper, the commercial finite element analysis program Strand7 is used to conduct a non-linear analysis on beams with trapezoidal, sinusoidal and circular corrugated webs to determine the ultimate shear capacity. Corrugated webs with different thicknesses, amplitudes and wavelengths are analysed. The aim of this research is to compare the shear capacity between these different types of corrugations.

Jinwen Wang, John Papangelis
Sorption and Moisture Buffering Capacities of Hemp Lime Concrete Embedded with Phase Change Materials (PCM) for Buildings

The use of biobased materials in building construction is increasingly recommended because they have a low environmental impact and allow the reduction of fossil resources and energy consumption. Among biobased materials, hemp lime concrete (HLC) which has high insulation capacity was investigated in many studies highlighting its capacity to regulate interior relative humidity and pollutant. In order to design high-performance biobased concretes, a new hemp lime concrete incorporating micro-capsulated phase change material (HLC-PCM) was developed. The materials studied combine the hygric regulation capacity of HLC with the thermal regulation performance of phase change material (PCM). This article presents hygric properties of three HLC-PCM formulations. The previous studies showed that the thermal conductivity remains low, the heat capacity and thermal inertia increase considerably for hemp concrete with PCM. In this article, the sorption isotherm curves of studied materials were obtained by measuring the moisture content of test samples according to NF EN ISO 12571. Regarding the moisture buffering capacity, it was carried out according to the NORDTEST method. For the three studied composites, the results obtained are consistent with the ones found in the literature. It is shown that these materials are hygroscopic and have good or excellent moisture buffering capacity.

A. M. Omeme Ada, A. D. Tran Le, P. Tittelein, L. Zalewski, H. Toifane, D. M. Nguyen, E. Antzak, T. Langlet
Stiffeners for Enhanced Web Crippling Strength of Cold-Formed Steel Sections

The design efficiency of cold-formed steel (CFS) joists can be improved if the web crippling failure mode, which is a localized failure, can be shifted to a favorable mode of failure by increasing the web crippling capacity using stiffeners. The objective of this investigation is to establish appropriate stiffener arrangements for enhanced web crippling capacity of single web cold-formed lipped channel steel sections. The experimental investigation considered a total of 40 tests, subjected to interior two-flange (ITF), interior one-flange (IOF), end two-flange (ETF) and end one-flange (EOF) web crippling loads. The study also considered the impact of number of stiffeners and the number of screw fasteners. The first test series focused on single web elements subjected to ITF loading, where results showed that stiffened specimens gained about 25% in web crippling strength over corresponding unstiffened specimens. The same trend was found in IOF loading. The ETF tests had 106% increase in strength because the failure mode changed from web buckling to web yielding. The EOF tests had an increase in strength of 68% and failed due to web buckling. Based on these studies, it is concluded that the most effective and economical method to increase the web crippling strength would be to attach a single stiffener to the inside of the web using three screws.

Ken S. Sivakumaran
Study on the Effect of Using Seashells to Partially Replace Large Aggregates in Concrete

Growing concern about resource depletion and global pollution has spurred the development of novel materials derived from renewable resources. Numerous byproducts are used as concrete aggregates. Because seashells acomposed primarily of calcium and have a coarse texture, they can partially replace coarse aggregates, providing a cost-effective alternative to conventional materials such as gravel. Experiments were conducted on both standard concrete and a mixture of concrete and seashells. The percentage of replacements ranges between 3 and 11 percent. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of concrete, including compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, and workability. This research assists in understanding the behavior of concrete blended with seashells and determining the optimal mix ratio. The results indicate that when the rate of gravel replacement by seashells reaches 3%, the compressive strength of concrete reaches its maximum value exceedings the strength of standard concrete samples, and then gradually decreases when the amount of shell replacement reaches 11%. Therefore, seashells can be recommended as a replacement for gravel in concrete mixes, particularly in coastal and near-freshwater regions where shells have been discovered as abundant.

Tuan Minh Ha, Ba-Tung Pham, Manh-Hung Tran, Tran-De-Nhat Truong, Hong-Huan Chiem, Saiji Fukada, Duc-Duy Ho
Study on the Punching Shear Capacity of Flat Slabs Strengthened by Ultra High Performance Concrete

Flat-slab structures have gained considerable popularity in the field of civil engineering, particularly in the construction of high-rise buildings and office complexes. This structural form offers a number of benefits over the traditional slab-beam system. The shear force at the slab-column interface, which may eventually lead to brittle failure in the concentrated load region and its surrounding areas, is an important aspect of flat-slab structures. Such failures are particularly dangerous since they frequently occur without any prior observable warning indicators. The objective of this study is to investigate the punching shear capacity of flat slabs reinforced with ultra high performance concrete (UHPC), an advanced material in the domain of concrete technology. However, due to the high production cost associated with UHPC, it becomes economically feasible to employ this material exclusively in the shear zone rather than throughout the entire flat slab structure. The findings of this study demonstrate a significant improvement in the punching shear capacity of UHPC-strengthened flat slabs when compared to conventional concrete structures.

Van Tu Nguyen, Viet-Chinh Mai, Xuan Dai Nguyen
Study on Use of Two Types of Waste Cigarette Filters in Asphalt Mixtures

The modern industrial society we have created offers us many advantages. It provides us with e.g. comfortable and relatively safe environment for self-realization. The positive aspects of the current socio-economic system are, as usual, redeemed by a few negatives. The most prominent of them is probably global climate change. It is directly or indirectly supported by the increasing consumption of energy, materials and goods, important for the economic growth of our society. However, nothing lasts forever, which is why higher consumption is directly related to higher waste production. Since we live in a somewhat closed container, it is important to use waste as meaningfully as possible. These efforts are supported by the initiative of the company EcoButt s.r.o., which focused on the use of waste from tobacco products. Specifically, shredded used cigarette filters and filters from IQOS cigarettes. A mixture of the SMA 8 NH type was chosen, with polymer modified binder 45/80–65. For comparison, a mixture with commercially available cellulose fibers and a mixture with FORTA-FI® fibers were made. The monitored characteristics were the air voids content, water susceptibility, stiffness modulus, average bitumen drainage and resistance to permanent deformation. The results of this initial study show that the use of waste from cigarette products in asphalt mixtures is possible and these materials could find application in pavement layers in the future.

Peter Gallo, Jan Valentin
Study to Propose Using ABAQUS to Calculate Airport Flexible Pavement on Rigid Foundation

Structure of flexible pavement on rigid foundation in airport pavement structures is an advantage when building new airports in Vietnam and the world. However, when calculating this pavement structure, engineers encountered many difficulties because the working properties of this new system are not completely the same as pure rigid or flexible pavement. This paper is a study using the commercial software ABAQUS to model the working conditions and design the flexible pavement structure on the rigid foundation closely and accurately to help engineers calculate, design efficiently and quickly.

Nguyen Quoc Van, Trinh Trung Tien, Nguyen Van Hieu
Supersulfated Cement Formulation Using Recycled Gypsum from Building Waste

Among the major environmental issues, the production of cement binders limiting CO2 emissions is a topical issue. This study focuses on the recovery of recycled gypsum, from a building waste sorting center, in the formulation of a supersulfated cement (SSC). The recycled gypsum corresponds to crushed gypsum plasterboard and gypsum precast plaster blocks. The obtained mean size of the gypsum grain is 7 µm. The cellulose content is evaluated to 1.1% and the gypsum content to 81%. The investigated formulations correspond to the coupling of a blast furnace slag (BFS) with a recycled gypsum and a CEM I Portland cement. Several series of binder formulations corresponding to constant BFS content (83.4%) or constant cement content (0.6%) and constant cement/gypsum ratio (9.21) or cement/blast furnace slag ratio (0.72) are considered. The compression performances at 2, 7, 28 and 60 days of mortars realized with the SSC binders are evaluated according to EN-196. The results show the relevance of using recycled gypsum in the manufacture of a SSC. The increase in performances is limited at 2 days (4 MPa) but at 7 days, the compressive strength reaches 60% of the final value. 28-days compressive strength reaches 30 MPa. The evolution of performances after 28 days appears limited. The sensitivity to the content of activators, gypsum and clinker is highlighted. Mechanical performance is mainly governed by the clinker content. An optimum, around 0.5%, of CEM I Portland cement, allows to obtain the best mechanical performances.

D. Gaudrel, A. Phelipot-Mardelé, C. Lanos
The Active Effect of the Low-Rise Building Chimney in Withstanding Tornadoes

Recent theoretical and experimental studies showed that tornado-like vortices can generate load coefficients greater than those prescribed by ASCE 7–05 for straight-line wind over open terrain. In cases of closed buildings, vertical uplift coefficients were found to be two to three times the standard provisions due to the effect of a large negative static pressure generated at the core of the vortex. The latest experimental research shows that opening the vent to the outside can significantly reduce the differential pressure between inside and outside the building. In this paper, the authors present the solution to reduce the vertical uplift coefficients by creating a chimney-shaped opening in the roof of a low-rise building, and the calculation of vertical uplift coefficients from the ratio of chimney area to building volume.

Ngoc-Tinh Nguyen, Thanh-Viet Tran, Quoc-Lam Nguyen
The Durability and Potability of Cement-Based Coatings for Drinking Water Reservoirs

Drinking water reservoirs are often made of concrete and coated with a cement-based mortar. These materials exhibit a similar chemical composition as the earth crust. The main elements are Silicon, Calcium, Aluminum, Sodium, Potassium, Oxygen and Hydrogen. A pre-mixed cement-based mortar with quartz sand, a mortar with a cementitious hydraulic binder and a mortar with white cement with quartz sand were used. The main mechanical properties were determined in the fresh and in the hardened state. The use of chemical additives, supplementary cementitious materials or recycled components may endanger the durability and the water potability. Therefore, leaching tests were done in a static and dynamic mode. The mechanical properties exhibited satisfactory values, in spite of a slight trend to cracking. All mortars did not release significant amounts of metallic or non-metallic elements within the waters and the values were below the limits required from the standards.

C. Paglia, A. Jornet
The Past and the Future of Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM)

Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM) have been used for decades to replace fractions of pure Portland cement in concrete applications. These powdered materials can be from natural or industrial origins, and are usually considered as latent hydraulic or pozzolanic as they can react to improve the mechanical properties and durability of the concrete. Well-known SCMs such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), coal fly ash (CFA), silica fumes (SF), metakaolin (MK) and natural pozzolans have been extensively used in industrial applications and numerous studies are reported in the scientific literature. This paper describes their use over time, why they are used and how they work. Finally, it discusses the future of SCMs by giving several examples of SCMs that could be developed in the next years, as well as the methodology to normalize them for secure use in low-CO2 cement and concrete.

Martin Cyr
The Research of Interior Measurement Methods and Robotics

In the process of interior construction, quality inspection of the masonry, plastering and decoration stages using measuring tools is one of the main processes. The purpose of which is to obtain data that can truly reflect the quality of construction through on-site testing, and to control the error within the threshold. The common method is generally manual measurement, but it has problems such as longer time, higher labor cost and greater variability, so automated 3D measurement is gradually receiving more attention. In recent years, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) as an efficient and reliable point cloud data collection method widely used in the infrastructure construction domain.This manuscript presents a systematic review of various 3D measurement techniques. The review begins with an introduction to the measurement techniques of TLS and its application in different situations. The next sections focus on three aspects of ongoing work toward automated interior measurement: 1. Low-cost system design to address the expensive problem; 2. Multi-sensor fusion such as the combination of laser scanners and cameras to enrich point cloud semantic information; 3. Planning for scanning with a priori knowledge to achieve efficient and effective point cloud data collection. The final section introduces a P4S (Planning for Scanning) interior measurement robot. The robot is equipped with dual motors, Raspberry Pi, laser rangefinder and low-cost fixed-focus camera. It realizes all-round fast scanning, real-time data processing and mm-level measurement accuracy in indoor environment, which provides a new solution for interior construction quality monitoring.

Chongwen Xu, Huixing Zhou, Haoyu Li
Application of High-Fly Ash Self-compacting Concrete in Sidewalk Construction in Hanoi City

This article presents the findings of a study on the application of high-fly ash self-compacting concrete (SCC) in sidewalk construction projects in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study focuses on evaluating the mechanical properties, including compressive strength, tensile strength, abrasion and imper-meability of high-fly ash SCC, with a high-fly ash content comprising up to 60% of the total powder mass. A comparison is made between high-fly ash SCC and conventional concrete (CC) of equal compressive strength. The findings reveal that high-fly ash SCC exhibits a 14% increase in tensile strength, a marginally lower abrasion of approximately 1.29%, and attains a water penetration resistance rating of B10, surpassing conventional concrete that achieves B8. Furthermore, the study underscores the economic viability and environmental benefits of employing SCC with a high fly ash content in sidewalk construction within Hanoi. Material costs, construction expenses, and CO2 emissions associated with SCC production are found to be 8.11%, 12.28%, and 40.63% lower than those of CC, respectively. The adoption of SCC not only contributes positively to environmental conservation but also offers economic and technical advantages to the construction sector in Vietnam.

Nguyen Hung Cuong
The Use of Waste Polythene Sachet as Fiber in the Production of Concrete

Approximately 30 years ago in West Africa, the packaging of drinking water became available in the form of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) sachets. This practice, still prevalent today, has resulted in significant health and pollution issues due to inadequate methods for collecting and disposing of Waste Polythene Sachets (WPS). This paper aims to explore an innovative approach to valorize WPS by incorporating it as fibers in concrete. Consequently, the impact of these recycled plastic fibers on the engineering properties of ordinary concrete was investigated. Two mix ratios, 1:2:4 and 1:1.5:3, were cast (water-cement ratio = 0.5) with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% replacement by total mass of constituents using 5 mm x 40 mm shredded pieces of WPS. The results indicate that, regardless of the dosage, the inclusion of fibers does not significantly affect workability (slump and compaction factor) or the strength development from 3 days to 28 days. Particularly at 28 days, the compressive strength and tensile splitting strength exceed the characteristic values specified by European codes up to 0.5% fiber dosage (at least + 10% and + 2.5% on average for compressive strength and tensile strength, respectively). This research emphasizes the potential reuse of WPS as an alternative method for waste disposal.

E. T. Laraiyetan, S. P. Ejeh, M. Mouret, P. Sentenac
Ultra-High-Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete with UAE Red Dune Sand - Some Initial Results

Using local materials is important for reduction of cost and CO2 emission. Dune sand is prevalent in Middle East but has not been widely used in concrete products. In UAE, for construction purposes, quartz sand, which was not available locally, was imported from the neighbour and European countries at relatively high cost. In this paper, we present our early results of our trials using UAE local dune sand to replace quartz sand for UHPC reinforced fibre. Natural dune sand was used directly without any pre-treatment. The dune sand is charaterised as reddish round to subrounded fine sand with 99% particles passing sieve 0.5mm. The chemical analysis results show that the silica content of the dune sand is 67%. Our initial compressive and flexural test results have shown that dune sand is highly suitable for UHPC hence normal concrete. The compressive strength and flexural strength are sufficient, suitable more many applications, suggesting that it can replace quart sand in concrete.

Man Bui, Nader Jaber, Ramzi Jaber, Firozsha Patel, Mohamad Al Jamal
U-net Architecture-Based Image Detection Model Development for Defect Detection in Hot Rolling Mill

As global steel demand increases after the pandemic, competition in the steel industry has intensified, and it is necessary to secure product competitiveness. This study aims to product quality deviation due to strip waves generated in the hot rolling process of steel plants by applying deep learning-based image detection technology. A high-definition camera was installed within the rolling mill to collect strip wave image data. The collected data were preprocessed using the concatenation technique to partition the high-performance images. This study developed an image detection model using the U-net architecture, a deep learning based Fully Convolutional Network (FCN) algorithm proposed for image segmentation. As a result of testing the detection accuracy, the developed model achieved a 97.91% of detection rate. The deep learning-based image detection model developed in this study can potentially enhance the quality and productivity of steel products.

Sea-Eun Park, So-Won Choi, Eul-Bum Lee
Validation of Vierendeel Mechanism in Shear Tests of Cold-Formed Steel Channel Sections with Web Holes

For hot-rolled steel structures with sufficiently large web openings, it is well recognized that local Vierendeel bending moments develop at the four corners of the openings, which subsequently result in the formation of plastic hinges. This mechanism has recently been observed in finite element simulation of shear tests of cold-formed steel structures with substantial web holes. This paper experimentally verifies the existence of the local Vierendeel bending moments by strain measurements at the cross-sections next to the corners of the holes in cold-formed steel shear tests. The measurements are obtained by strain gauges as well as by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method which is based on the processing of series of images taken from the tests. The agreement between the measured strain and the strain computed using DIC is also presented.

Song Hong Pham, Duy Khanh Pham, Cao Hung Pham

Geoscience, Environment, Energy

A Study of Engineering Characteristics of Columbite Tailings

Of great importance is columbite as a source of niobium, which is a valuable alloy of steel needed for numerous applications. In order to obtain this element, columbite is mined and processed and this produces unwanted materials called columbite tailings. Due to environmental, economic, and social impact of tailing materials disposal, studies have been conducted on them but this is very rare for columbite tailings. In this paper, mechanical behaviour of columbite tailings was studied by considering index properties, chemical and fabric characteristics, mineralogy as well as conduction of series of oedometer tests. Similar to other tailings, columbite tailing is poorly-graded in nature. The fabric is dominated by continuous clusters from aggregation of particles. The fabric is isotropic and heterogeneous with few inter-particle and intra-cluster pores. Mineralogy is dominated by ashanite, cristobalite, ilmenite and quartz which confirms the chemical composition that was dominated by silica. It is observed that the compression curves of columbite tailings are parallel and no unique normal compression line is found. This indicates that columbite tailings exhibit a transitional mode of behaviour which makes it to be initial state dependent.

Ismail Adeniyi Okewale, Hendrik Grobler
Analysis of Displacement of Ground During Deep Excavation Construction of Geotechnical Conditions in Da Nang City

Currently, the solution to reinforce the side of deep excavation with barrette walls is quite popular. However, excavation work and lowering the water table often lead to the displacement of the ground around the excavation exceeding the permissible level, which can easily destabilize the excavation wall, affecting the safety of the excavations, existing buildings nearby. The content of the article focuses on clarifying the influence of excavation depth on the problem of subsidence and ground movement around deep excavation when constructing in the geotechnical conditions in Da Nang city, Vietnam.

Luong Tan Luc
Application of Clean and Smart Energy Sources in the Development of Ecological High-Rise Apartment Buildings in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

The speed of urbanization is increasing rapidly in Vietnam’s big cities. To meet the housing needs of people in big cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), the construction of high-rise apartment buildings is absolutely necessary. High-rise apartment buildings that have been built today are mainly concrete blocks, using artificial air-conditioning equipment that release a large amount of CO2 polluting the environment, increases urban heat and consumes a huge amount of energy. Therefore, the construction of ecological apartment buildings to help reduce the using of energy in the building has become an indispensable need in the current period. The use of energy in buildings has been taken care of and has become a standard for assessing green building quality. The use of clean and smart energy in the construction of high-rise apartment buildings will become an inevitable trend for the sustainable development of HCMC, Vietnam. The article offers solutions to apply clean and smart energy sources in the construction of ecological high-rise apartment buildings such as natural ventilation, natural lighting, using solar energy, dynamic architectural solutions, flexible covering structure solutions, creating ecological apartment buildings suitable for environmental, climatic and socio-economic conditions in HCMC. The solutions provided will become the basis for reference designers and policy makers, contributing to the sustainable urban development in the future.

Hai-Yen Hoang
Application of Early Warning System for Monitoring Landslide Vulnerability of Slope

There are many methods to mitigate rainfall-triggered landslide hazards. Among the available methods, the Landslide Early Warning System (LEWS) is one of the soft-type methods. A low-cost LEWS based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was developed and tested on laboratory model tests. To verify its effectiveness the LEWS is deployed in the field. The moisture and acceleration sensors were used to collect the raw data on moisture content and tilt angle. Both types of sensors were embedded in the monitoring holes within the slope at different depths. A rain gauge was also installed to support the rainfall data obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The result shows that the deployed system is able to effectively measure the moisture contents and soil deflection angles.

Muhammad N. Hidayat, Hemanta Hazarika, Masanori Murai, Haruichi Kanaya
Computational Experiment of the External Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on a Durable Housing

This paper presents a computational experiment for calculating the external effect of hydrostatic pressure on a durable housing and laboratory tests. The material for the manufacture of the case is polyurethane BC8782. This experiment consisted of 2 parts – this is an experiment in permissible values of external pressure and exceeding this value. As a result of this work, a good approbation of the results of a computational experiment and laboratory tests in a high-pressure chamber was obtained. Good comparability of experimental results allows us to apply this experience as an additional and possibly necessary stage in the development of underwater systems. This leads to a reduction in material and financial costs and the elimination of possible errors.

M. Zaytseva, A. H. Pak, A. Zaytsev
Creating Sustainable and Friendly Urban Spaces in Viet Nam Through Effective Stakeholder Engagement

Urbanization presents opportunities for sustainable growth, but it can also exacerbate the impacts and dangers to the physical and spatial characteristics of urban areas and the socio-economic status of their residents. Fast urbanization in Viet Nam recently possibly induced unsustainable development. Furthermore, actors’ current understandings of a ‘sustainable city’ in Viet Nam remain fragmented. This article aims to clarify the context of friendly-sustainable urban development in Viet Nam by analyzing the practical activities of stakeholders. It analyses the role and influence of stakeholders in developing friendly-sustainable urban spaces and discusses their suggestions for improving regulations for creating such spaces. The research team used the European Reference Framework on Sustainable Cities, an online tool, to evaluate the extent of stakeholders’ engagement and their roles in developing sustainable urban space. The methods employed included desk-based research, key informant interviews, and questionnaires to understand better the context, policies, and strategic orientations of Viet Nam’s sustainable urban development that influence practical activities.

Nguyen Thi Thanh Mai, Ian Furniss Wilderspin, Do Thi Thuy Hong, Lai Thi Ngoc Diep
Effectiveness of Vetiver-Based Bioengineering in Combination with Recycled Plastic Pin (RPP) for Steep Embankment Stabilization

Due to Bangladesh's geographical location, topography, soil, and disasters, erosion is a very common issue here. A cost-effective and environment-friendly alternative method, i.e., Vetiver Grass Technology (VGT) has been applied for erosion control in different infrastructures. In this study, the suitability and efficacy of VGT has been studied by conducting field performance assessment, numerical analysis and finally cost comparison study. For field implementation, VGT was implemented in three sites (two char land and one saline/coastal zone) from Project LoGIC, a collaborative initiative among different government organizations and international funding agencies. The growth was excellent on those sites. For numerical analysis, PLAXIS 2D was used to explore the impact of vetiver and recycled plastic pins (RPP) on slope stabilization. Results indicate that the inclusion of vetiver and RPP alone and combined enhance the slope's factor of safety and decreases crest deformation. A cost comparison among the conventional and bioengineering methods showed that VGT requires the lowest cost among the conventional methods. And when combined with RPP, cost increases for bioengineering methods, but still, it is lower than conventional methods. These findings suggest that employing vetiver only or in combination of RPP could be a feasible substitute for slope stabilization in locations where traditional methods are cost-prohibitive or environmentally detrimental.

Mohammad Shariful Islam, A S M Kaysaru Zaman Kawshiq, Samira Tasnim Progga, Md. Monirul Islam
Electrification of Road Freight Transport: A Case Study of the Greater Bay Area, China

Transport carbon emissions have posed increasing threats to climate change. While the road freight sector contributes to over 25% of carbon emissions in road transport, there has not been much research on decarbonizing road freight transport. Hence, this study aims to examine the road freight CO2 emissions in the Greater Bay Area, China, during 2000–2018, and identify regional-local electrification policy measures to accelerate freight transport decoupling in the region by 2050. The research methodology is as follows. Firstly, road freight CO2 emissions were estimated using a distance-based approach. Then, the concept of decoupling is applied to gauge the transport decarbonization progress. With electric trucks being more feasible, this study then conducts a backcasting analysis to examine the EV policy measures required to envisage long-term decarbonization in the region. Results show that the total volume of road freight CO2 emissions has increased substantially in the region between 2000 and 2018. Moreover, the decoupling progress has remained limited, with most cities achieving relative decoupling only. The backcasting analysis suggests that proactive policy efforts are required to enhance the market share of electric trucks to 100% by 2030, and to increase the renewable energy to 90% in the electricity grid by 2050 so as to reach the long-term decarbonization target.

Ka Ho Tsoi, Becky P. Y. Loo
Engaging Stakeholders for Danube Floodplain Water Quality Enhancement Through Ecosystem Services in Serbia's Wetland Reserve

Floodplain areas along rivers provide numerous benefits for people, known as ecosystem services (ES). Although the concept itself is not new, its incorporation into water management plans and processes is still in its early stages, especially when it comes to water quality. The project “Improving water quality in the Danube river and its tributaries by integrative floodplain management based on ecosystem services” (IDES) addressed how floodplain areas along the Danube and the ecosystem services they provide can contribute to improving water quality in the river. Recognizing the interests of different sectors and involving them in all stages of project implementation is crucial for achieving project goals. The paper presents a unique methodology adopted at the project level for stakeholder identification, analysis, and engagement. The results of applying the methodology to identify and analyze stakeholders for the Special Nature Reserve “Koviljsko-Petrovaradinski Rit” (KPR) in the floodplain area of the Danube near Novi Sad are presented.

Zorica Srđević, Laslo Galamboš, Bojan Srđević, Senka Ždero, Milica Ilić, Jasna Grabić
Evaluation of the Shear Strength and Dilatancy Behavior of Sand-Clay Mixtures Under Direct Shear Tests

Dilatancy behavior is a critical factor in the study of granular materials’ shear strength and deformation characteristics, as it affects several other geotechnical issues as it plays a vital role in various geotechnical problems such as the stability of slopes, earth dams, and retaining walls, etc. This paper focuses on sand-clay mixtures’ shear and dilatancy behavior with varying levels of moisture content (10%, 15%, 20%) and normal stresses (100 kPa, 200 kPa, 300 kPa). The goal is to investigate the factors that influence the dilatancy behavior of soil to improve the accuracy of geotechnical models and optimize design parameters for structures such as retaining walls, dams, embankments, etc. A series of unconsolidated undrained direct shear experiments in a shear-box apparatus were conducted to observe the evolution of the shear and dilatancy behavior of the sand-clay mixtures. The results show that as the ratio of bentonite clay is 10%, the shear resistance of the soil is not affected by moisture content (10%, 15%, 20%) and normal stresses (100 kPa, 200 kPa, 300 kPa), whereas the dilatancy angle of soil increases with increasing moisture content and decreases with increasing normal stress.

Phu Nhat Truyen, Pham Ngoc Duc Thinh, Huynh Tan Hung, Le Thanh Phong, Vo Dai Nhat
Fully Coupled Moisture and Heat Transfer for Power Cable Rating

To effectively incorporate renewable energies, the electrical power grid requires the extension or construction of numerous transmission lines. In addition to the traditional overhead lines, an increasing number of grid expansions are being carried out with underground power cables.The heat that is produced during the operation of the cables has to be dissipated to the environment. Thus, the current carrying capacity of an underground power cable system depends strongly on the thermal properties of the surrounding bedding material and soil. In addition, local drying-out may occur in the vicinity of the cable. As a result, power cable rating models often employ a two-zone approach for the consideration of partial soil drying-out, dividing the cable bedding into two distinct areas (wet and dry). In this model approach, each zone is assigned with a constant thermal conductivity value. However, in reality, the process is more complex. The apparent thermal conductivity varies and depends on the moisture content of the backfill and soil materials, which, in turn, is influenced by temperature and other hydraulic boundary conditions.This paper compared cable rating results obtained from the two-zone model, IEC 60287-1-1, and a fully coupled model that considers moisture-heat transfer. The results obtained from IEC 60287-1-1 and the two-zone model were similar, while the fully coupled moisture-heat transfer model showed a 30% increase.

Hung Pham, Markus Schedel, Max Ohagen, Ingo Sass
Geotechnical Modelling and Numerical Analysis of the Tailing Dam Stability

The global issue of waste accumulators poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. The total number of tailings, sludge pits, and hydraulic dumps worldwide and in Russia exceeds hundreds of thousands and is considered hazardous due to pollution and potential catastrophic consequences. Issues regarding risk management and forecasting during construction and operation require a broader perspective than departmental interests and pose risks with a planetary character. A case study on the Unal tailing dump of the Mizur mining and processing plant in North Ossetia-Alania exemplifies the unique structure and properties of tailings. Characterizing each type of technogenic tailings requires laboratory testing since standard indicators do not apply. Comprehensively studying the properties of technogenic soils justifies the formation of alluvial technogenic arrays and ensures the reliability of design decisions. The use of fuzzy sets coupled with mathematical planning and circular cylindrical sliding surfaces for modeling and evaluating the bearing capacity of tailing dams offers promising methods for forecasting geotechnical processes, improving design decisions’ reliability.

Alan Lolaev, Aleksan Oganesyan, Aleksandr Badoev, Stanislav Dzeboev, Ilya Tvauri
Influence of Rainfall Duration on Urban Inundation Simulations

Instead of choosing a long rainfall duration in the design hyetograph, a short duration is usually adopted in the design hyetograph for storm sewer design. The reason to use a short duration is all because the size of the urban watershed is relatively small, corresponding to a very short time of concentration, like 60 to 120 min. Consequently, hydrologists believe that the design hyetograph with a short duration can already well reflect the rainfall-runoff process in urban watersheds. However, according to the record from 2018 to 2022, eight typhoons and eight rainstorms caused flooding in urban areas in Taiwan, and most of the flooding resulted from rainstorms longer than 120 min. That reveals that the adequateness of using the design hyetograph with a short duration for sewer system design should be rechecked to avoid biased design work. This study selected an urban area in southern Taiwan as a test site, where severe flooding occurred in June 2021. Different rainfall durations in the historical rainstorm record and the design hyetograph are chosen as the storm sewer model’s inputs to investigate the runoff hydrographs’ peak discharges. The results show that the largest peak discharge is not generated from the short duration rainstorm but from the rainstorm duration longer than 6 h.

Kwan Tun Lee, Ta-Chun Chien, Nai-Kuang Chen, Pin-Chun Huang
Investigating the Effects of Nano-calcite on Microbially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation to Enhance Soil-Sand Bio-Cementation

Incorporating eco-friendly techniques to stabilize soft or loose sandy soils in areas with steep ground slopes and high rainfall levels is imperative to uphold sustainable development principles. Bacterial mineralization, achieved through bio-cementation, is an effective solution that utilizes ureolytic bacteria to decompose urea and precipitate calcium carbonate. This study explores the potential enhancement of bio-cementation by incorporating nano calcite as nucleation sites. The microstructure of the precipitate and its microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation capacity was analyzed using microscopic, SEM/EDS, and X-ray diffraction analyses to identify and characterize the mineral compositions. In addition, a simulated rainfall model and wind flow were established to assess the erosion resistance of the sand samples.

Nguyen Ngoc Tri Huynh, Nguyen Pham Huong Huyen, Nguyen Khanh Son
Landfill Liner Design Employing Local Materials: Bentonite-Sand Mixtures Using Two Sand Types

The objective of this study is to create an impermeable layer for landfill liners to store solid household waste. The soil liner in the waste landfill should meet the saturated hydraulic conductivity, compressive strength and internal friction angle requirements. This paper presents a study on the valorization of local Saharan sands for use as cover soils in landfills. The results of preliminary tests on 10% bentonite - 70% silty sand - 30% crushed sand mixture show that it provides a minimum hydraulic conductivity of around 2 × 10−9m/s. Also, the mixtures showed that the swelling behavior is directly proportional to the water absorbed. This value has been verified using the Carrier and Beckman (1984) relationship. A mechanical study of the characteristics of these mixes using an unconfined compression test (UCS) and a triaxial test (CD) was carried out. The results of the unconfined compression strength test at an age of 90 days reached 1400 kPa for mixes containing 80% and 70% silty sand. In addition, this strength develops with the sedimentation of CaCO3. Triaxial tests were then carried out on these two mixtures. The results show that the angle of internal friction increases (φ’) with the quantity of crushed sand (between 30 ° and 35 °). Finally, the results show that a mixture composed of 10% bentonite, 70% silty sand and 20% crushed sand meets the hydromechanical requirements. This mixture represents an alternative ready-to-use material for designing the bottom layer of landfill sites, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas.

Abdellah Demdoum, Elhadj Guesmia Daheur, Hamza Loualbia, Zahra Bounouara, Khaled Benmehdi
Numerical Stability Analysis of Canal Embankment Using Hill’s Second-Order Work Criterion

Natural disasters are becoming increasingly frequent, causing both human suffering and economic setbacks. The prediction of these risks, especially regarding catastrophic landslides, is crucial. While slope stability analysis is a classic problem in geotechnical engineering, some landslides with low (less than 14°) to very low (less than 8°) slope angles cannot be explained by classical empirical methods or traditional limit analyses (plasticity theories). This paper introduces Hill’s sufficient condition of stability, based on the sign of the second-order work, as a potential criterion for predicting failures that occur before the Mohr-Coulomb criterion is met. The paper details the formulations of both local and global second-order work used in finite element (FE) programs. A plane strain FE analysis of an idealized canal embankment, composed of gravelly sand and considering unsaturated hydro-mechanical coupling behavior, was conducted during excavation and water rise. The results confirm that the second-order work criterion effectively predicts potential instability in the embankment at both local (material) and global (domain) scales.

Dat Vu Khoa Huynh
Numerical Study on the Bearing Mechanism of Hybrid Monopile-Bucket Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines

Various hybrid foundations have been proposed to improve the lateral performance of monopiles for supporting offshore wind turbines. Among them, the hybrid monopile-bucket foundation which consists of a traditional monopile and a wide-shallow bucket has received more and more attention. The existing reported studies on the lateral bearing responses of the hybrid monopile-bucket foundation are extremely limited. This study aims to gain deep insights into its bearing mechanism through validated three-dimension numerical models. Based on the computed results, the soil failure mechanism around the hybrid foundation and the lateral force/moment-bearing characteristics between the components (the pile and the shallow bucket) of the hybrid foundation is revealed. It is found that the load and moment sharing ratios of the monopile decrease with the increase in Dbucket/ Dpile ratio, indicating the monopile of the hybrid foundation will afford less external lateral force and moment when the Dbucket/ Dpile ratio increases. Considering the practical values of Dbucket/ Dpile, the percentage of lateral force afforded by the monopile of the hybrid foundation is in the range of 5%–30%. This reveals the external lateral force is mainly carried by the bucket while not the pile. On the other hand, the percentage of lateral force afforded by the pile of the hybrid foundation varies between 70%–85%, indicating the pile of the hybrid foundation resists most of the external moment. The numerical results presented in this study are expected to provide design references for practical applications of the hybrid foundations.

Yongqing Lai, Ben He, Wei Li, Gen Xiong
Prediction of Liquefaction-Induced Settlement Using Artificial Neural Network

This study aims to propose a machine-learning algorithm for predicting the ground settlement caused by liquefaction. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used. The properties of soil layers, namely unit weight (γ), soil layer depth (d), standard penetration test blow count (N1(60)), cyclic stress ratio (CSR), and corresponding settlements were selected to train, validate, and test the proposed model. Using the R-squared, the proposed model was compared to other machine learning models like linear regression, elastic net regression, polynomial regression, and support vector machine. For the comparison between the real and predicted settlements, the experimental results show that while the lowest R2 value of 0.322 was found from elastic net regression, the highest accuracy of 0.871 was obtained from the proposed ANN model. It concluded the effectiveness of the machine learning method, particularly in the ANN model, in predicting the soil characteristics.

Dung V. Hoang, Phuoc T. H. Bui, An T. T. Phan, Tan-No Nguyen
Remote Sensing Analysis of Urban Heat Island Mitigation by Green Infrastructure: A Case Study of Ho Chi Minh City

In the light of urbanization and climate change, urban heat island (UHI) had become challenge of tropical cities in the world. Due to impact of El Nino, the highest temperatures of the large cities of Vietnam like Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi reached 40–45 ℃ degrees in March and April, 2016. UHI in these cities are causing heat waves with some of the highest recorded temperatures ever in the country, affecting public health. According to EPA, green infrastructure can help reduce UHI effects by shading building surfaces, deflecting radiation from the sun, and releasing moisture into the atmosphere. This study aimed to analyse how green infrastructure help Ho Chi Minh city mitigate with UHI by using remote sensing data from Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellites. Spatial statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient method are applied to find the relationship between the interleaving of green infrastructure and the increase level of land surface temperature. The analysis results show the effectiveness of green infrastructure in reducing the temperature and propose the reasonable distribution distance of green infrastructure, contributing to urban spatial planning of Ho Chi Minh City toward sustainability and better climate change adaptation in the future.

Trong Nhan Huynh, Ho Tuyet Ngan Le
Research of the Dynamics and Propagation of Long Waves in the Coastal Area Using Satellite Data

The paper presents the results of research work on the development of a “Database of subject-specific features and spectral characteristics” (according to the “Database of PSPSH). Most tsunami events (about 80%) are caused by strong underwater earthquakes. In some cases, tsunami formation owes to landslides (6%), volcanic eruptions (5%), and meteorological causes (3%). As a result of the scientific expedition on the Kuril Islands, comprehensive ground-based studies of test sites for testing the spectral hardware and software complex were carried out. The database was tested in some areas of the Sakhalin region. Within the framework of the carbon landfills pilot project, the database development will be used in the Kuril Islands in 2023 to monitor natural and anthropogenic systems in the context of global environmental changes, as well as to search for areas of seismicity and tsunami impact.

R. Leonenkov, L. Shabramova, A. Zaytsev
Research of the Meteotsunamis Impact in the Coastal Zone

The paper presents an analysis of the meteotsunami event, which occurred on 6’th September, 2022. An abnormal change in pressure was registered at the marine scientific experimental base of Pacific Oceanological Institute “Schulz cape”. This event caused large waves in the coastal point Preobrazhenie. Wave heights at this time reached 1 m. Interestingly, this event did not lead to strong excitement in neighboring points. Numerical modeling was performed, the causes of abnormal amplification in the coastal point of Preobrazhenie were determined.

A. Zaytsev, S. Dolgikh, M. Zaytseva
Rheology of Gypsum Foams

Mineral foams are obtained by foaming in the fresh state of a concentrated suspension of mineral binder. The hydration of the binder leads to the solidification of a highly porous media. Controlling the formation of such porous structures in the fresh state requires the identification of a rheological model capable of combining the rheology of the aqueous foam with the rheology of the concentrated suspension. The focus here is solely on the yield stress considered as a coupled function involving the yield stress of the concentrated suspension, the air bubbles volume fraction and dimensions. The studied mineral foams are gypsum foams obtained by direct mixing in the presence of a surfactant. The mixing time is a process adjustment parameter varying from 2 min to 20 min. It determines the pore structure of the mineral foam. The rheologies of aqueous foams, concentrated suspensions and mineral foams in the fresh state are studied using a rheometer equipped with a vane geometry. The fit of conventional rheological models on the results obtained for aqueous foams and concentrated suspensions leads to propose a rheological model for mineral foams. For each air volume fraction, a clear link appears between the yield stress of the mineral foam and the foam structure (size of bubbles). Different experimental results are successfully confronted to the proposed rheological model, which can be used to optimize the formulation - foaming condition pairing.

N. Mortada, A. Phelipot-Mardelé, C. Lanos
Rough and Standard AHP Evaluation of Measures for Reducing Drought Risks in Wetlands

This paper presents the basic settings for the standard and rough treatment of individual and group comparisons within AHP. An example from the field of environmental and water management demonstrates how standard and rough versions of the method are used and the results are commented upon when the problem scope is relatively large (twelve decision-makers/seven decision elements). The general conclusion is that there are no significant differences in the results between the two versions of the method, except that the rough method reduces the weight of the highest-ranked element to some extent compared to the standard method. In allocation tasks, this can have a greater impact on the final resource distribution if the entire method (which includes synthesis of all local evaluations) is used. In selection tasks, only ordinal information (ranks) is usually important, and importance intensities (weights) are not necessarily of primary interest. The second conclusion is that the standard and rough versions of the method are comparable in group applications and that they give similar results and can be used interchangeably depending on the availability of software.

Bojan Srđević, Zorica Srđević
The Use of Oil, Mineralized Water and Non-ionic Surfactants in Flow-Deflecting Technologies for Enhanced Oil Recovery and for Water Isolation of Depleted Reservoirs

In depleted fields the use of geological and technical measures (GTM) such as flow-deflecting technologies to increase oil recovery and water isolation does not give a noticeable effect in the form of additional oil produced and a decrease in the volume of water produced along the way. To reduce the cost of GTM, it is possible to use substances that are available at each field, namely oil (including residual) and mineralized water for the formation of a grouting mass in the reservoir, with a small consumption of specially selected non-ionic surfactants. To increase the effectiveness of exposure and reduce costs, these formulations can be pumped into individual injection wells (focal impact) or through cluster pumping stations (CPS). The compositions can be used for permanent or temporary blocking of the receiving intervals of injection wells (depending on the task), as well as for blocking water-saturated interlayers. It was shown experimentally that formulations based on residual reservoir oil, highly mineralized water (the main components of the grouting mass) and oil-soluble non-ionic surfactant Neonol AF-6 can be used in flow-deflecting technologies and for water insulation.

A. Yu. Shishkov, V. A. Lyubimenko, I. N. Grishina, A. I. Shcherban, V. N. Khlebnikov
Using Artificial Neural Network in Conjunction with Well Log Data to Assess the Permeability Distribution in Fractured Basement Reservoir, BP Oil Field, Vietnam Continental Shelf

Unlike sedimentary rocks, the permeability of fractured basement rock in BP oil field primary derives from dual pore structure and the geometric arrangement of the fracture and vuggy networks. Due to the complication of basement rock’s structure, the “conventional methods” used to assess and identify the permeability distribution of basement rocks are encountered difficulties and remain uncertainties. The permeability measurement from the core analysis is direct and trustful; however, it is not throughout representative for the fractured basement reservoir (FBR). Another reference is the average permeability encountered from production test, and it is strongly based on the effective thickness of the interval-a parameter is still difficult to be determined. In order to determine the permeability distribution, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) system which 02 phases developed in conjunction with well log curves building the relationships between permeability and well log data. Therefore, the ANN is applied to reduce the uncertainty in identifying the permeability of BP FBR. In addition, each well log curve just expresses an aspect of the permeability; hence the permeability essence is fully described by the combination of multi well log curves. In the BP FBR there are four permeability profile types and the permeability values vary by both area and depth in the whole field with six specific areas. The variation trend decays from West to East and from top to bottom, significantly occurring at Central block and trivially occurring at North East block. According to the statistics, in BP FBR the permeability has a log-normal distribution pattern, the decreasing orders of average permeability in basement blocks are appropriately as: Central Block, North West Block, North Block, South Block, minima at North East Block. The study results by Permeability Profile Types allow to acquire more knowledge on FBR Structure, particularly in BP oil field.

An Nguyen Viet, Tuan Nguyen, Xuan Tran Van, Tri Tran Van, Lan Tran Duc, Kha Nguyen Xuan

Planning, Architecture, Industrial Design

Adaptive Transitional Space, Case Study of Row House in Saigon Ho Chi Minh City

Transitional space plays an indispensable role in traditional architecture in many Asian countries such as Viet Nam, Japan, and China. Depending on different positions, either at front, back or in the central of the house, transitional spaces are to fulfill unique values such as climate controlling, multi-purpose functions including family gathering, fengshui solution/manipulation, business support space, preserved space for further development, and so on bringing environmental, social, economic and spiritual values. However, row house design and construction today in Saigon Ho Chi Minh City either those spaces due to limited used area. Some others struggle to sufficiently maximize those values/roles. The research reviewed and redefined distinctive roles and values of transitional spaces in row houses in Saigon HCMC; then, using modeling experiment methods to propose detailed design of transitional spaces for typical row houses to enhance those values. As row houses and/or private houses acquired more than 60% of the built fabric in Saigon HCMC, the wider application of those spaces consequently resulted in better impacts upon the city’s natural environment.

Thi Hong Hanh Vu, Thai Hoang Thong, Hai Truong
AI Technology and the Potential Applications in Architectural Design and Applied Fine Arts Education in the Vietnam Context

In recent years, the development of artificial intelligence (AI) has significantly impacted various fields, including education and human resource training in Vietnam. The use of AI technology in training creative design fields, specifically in Architecture and Applied Fine Arts, has become a hot topic in education and is one of the focuses of the CIGOS 2024 conference.From an educational perspective, AI technology provides new training methods and tools, updates software, and builds data analysis capabilities for faculty members and advanced training programs. Accessing and using AI-supported tools provide students with opportunities and challenges in learning, adapting, and preparing for these changes to enhance creativity and compete with new AI-based technologies, thus creating new products and services. Practical examples of AI technology in training and design can clarify the effectiveness of applying AI technology in terms of impacts, contributions, opportunities, and challenges for the future of high-quality human resources in Architecture and Applied Fine Arts, meeting market demands.In conclusion, AI technology is continuously evolving and advancing. The field of human resource training in Architecture and Applied Fine Arts needs to adapt to these changes so that faculty members and students can quickly acquire AI skills and tools for effective and creative design, meeting societal needs. Therefore, from the perspective of someone directly involved in teaching, we have consistently approached and applied AI technology for teaching and research over an extended period. We hope to garner interest and engage in discussions to explore effective solutions that can contribute to enhancing the current quality of design education.

Vo Thi Thu Thuy
An Exploration Study on the CO2 Concentration in Several Air-Conditioned Classrooms Located in Ho Chi Minh City

The South of Vietnam has a tropical humid climate: the temperature does not significantly vary in the year and there are only two seasons: the dry and the rainy one. The months with highest temperatures are usually from April to June, but the air temperature is rarely more than 35 ℃. The rainy season is currently from June to November. During this season, the rains (usually occurring at the end of the afternoon) enable to refresh the ambient in the evening. Therefore, in general, the natural climatic conditions of the Southern of Vietnam are favorable for bio-climatic architectural designs, which are a basis for sustainable building. Vietnam’s economic boom, however, went along with more resource-intensive lifestyles and changing demands of thermal comfort, particularly driven by the rapidly emerging urban middle class population. One consequence is that the use of air-conditioners has become increasingly popular in Vietnam. Also places of tertiary education get increasingly equipped with air conditioner units, which get equally used during dry and rainy season. This paper presents an exploration investigation on the CO2 concentration in the air-conditioned classrooms at a University in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The measurement equipment used was by Testo® which could measure the air temperature, the air relative humidity and the CO2 concentration. The measurements could be performed during a long period of time with the data continuously recorded and sent to the cloud by Wifi. The results showed the high CO2 concentrations in the classrooms investigated, due to the high number of people within a closed space, without any aeration. The results obtained show the high relevance to take into account proper measures for air-conditioned spaces, to enhance the air-quality and the health of the students and teacher using classrooms in Vietnam.

Quy-Thuong Lam, Quoc-Bao Bui, Le-Minh Ngo, Dirk Schwede, Michael Waibel
Approaching Graffiti in Public Space in Ho Chi Minh City

Globalization is an inevitable trend in history. In the setting of international integration and exchange, the geographical, political, economic, and cultural barriers between countries and territories are increasingly narrowed. Vietnam, as a developing country, and Ho Chi Minh City in particular are not out of the aforementioned trend. In contrast to the positive changes in the economy and society, Ho Chi Minh City is currently facing the dark side of some new artistic phenomena and trends due to the process of exchange and cultural interference such as Hip-hop, Graffiti, backpacking tourism, virtual life. The significant consequences arising from these trends have posed urgent issues that need a solution for cultural art and social security management. In this article, we will discuss Graffiti - one of the most controversial movements in Ho Chi Minh City.

Bui Quang Tien
Awakening Landscape Identity Based on Water Sensitive Urban Design - A Case Study in Bao Vinh Commercial Port, Hue, Vietnam

Bao Vinh was a crowded commercial port in central Vietnam under the Nguyen Dynasty in the 19th century. In the current context, urbanization and climate change including high construction density and frequent flooding directly impact Bao Vinh. Simultaneously, Bao Vinh has lost its original characteristics significantly. Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is a sustainable approach due to the connection with water regarding three perspectives: hydrology, urban planning, and water management - which is the potential implementation for riparian urban. The paper presents an effort that aims to awaken the historical, natural, and operational features of Bao Vinh's landscape using the WSUD principle and tools to activate and promote the regeneration of Bao Vinh towards the challenge of conservation and development. The article's content focuses on 3 parts, including the formation of Bao Vinh commercial port, principles of WSUD considered at the study site, and major measures to recall Bao Vinh's landscape regarding WSUD adaptation. Significantly, flowscape and shaped nodes regarding biophysical and socio-economic-related Huong River factors are defined to revive an interconnected network of waterways in the study area.

Quoc Thang Nguyen, Thu Trang Dam, Anh Tuan Pham
Characteristics of Urban Agricultural Area in Hanoi City

In recent years, urban agriculture in Hanoi city has developed into a remarkable socio-economic phenomenon. Unlike the traditional agricultural space, the urban space of Hanoi today is not only a place to provide food, but also a place of rest, entertainment, and tourism for citizens.Depending on the location, scale, farming method, and purpose, urban agriculture area has different spatial forms. Urban agriculture in Hanoi has outstanding features in 3 areas: inner city, urban edge, and suburban. The agricultural areas in the inner city of Hanoi are narrow, mainly small gardens to meet the needs of entertainment and relaxation; The peri-urban area has a larger and more diverse agricultural space, but it is also a place where many changes in land use due to the strong urbanization process, so the landscape is also difficult to define. The large suburban area of Hanoi is the place that provides most of the meat, milk, fresh vegetables, and fruits for the city. It has huge specialized farming fields, bringing lush green landscapes, and it is a tourist area to explore and experience.The urban agricultural areas of Hanoi are diverse, rich, and vast, serving different purposes of contemporary urban life. It deeply influences and greatly contributes to the distinguishing landscape of Hanoi city.The paper introduces several survey and analysis results on the elements of Hanoi’s agricultural space and categorizes it as a necessary basis for research on urban planning and landscape design for the city.

Tu Quyen Luong
Color Design in the Physical Learning Environment Influences Preschool Children’s Cognitive Development

There is a growing recognition of the significant role played by the early childhood education environment in the development of young children. Nowadays, preschools have become the primary learning and practice settings for most children, surpassing the influence of the home environment. The preschool environment helps to promote young children’s development by providing opportunities for exploration, reflection, experimentation, interaction, and learning. Theories of human development present the relationship between children’s cognitive development and the physically designed learning environment through many theories, paradigms, models, and ideologies (Bronfenbrenner, 1974; Piaget, 1951). There were some studies and research about how the physical environment influences children’s behavior and development; however, most of the prior research highlights architectural elements or landscape designs. That is the reason why this study was generated from a question about the influences of the interior design of the physical learning environment on the conscious development of children. From that point of view, the primary aim of this paper is to extend interior design concepts to preschool children’s development. An optimal interior design of the learning environment could flourish children’s creativity, intelligence, and language development. The current study on color design is presented. Document analysis is the primary method of this study. The interior design of the physical learning space will be analyzed and summarized to elaborate on the color design selected by interior designers or architects as well as their influences on children’s cognition. The outcome of this research is to formulate optimal color palettes for the interior design of preschool physical learning spaces. Color is the essential design element in the physical learning space impacting children’s cognition. These findings may help childcare center interior designers, architects, teachers, and administrators to select productive design projects.

An Nguyen Thi Tam, Eakachat Joneurairatana, Veerawat Sirivesmas
Design Standards to Ensure the Quality of Public Spaces in Social Housing Apartments from a Community Perspective: A Case Study of Saigon – Ho Chi Minh City

Saigon-Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam is a typical mega-city with high population density coping with urban infrastructural issues. Public space is one of the most important elements of an urban area which involves creating a quality of life for people in urban areas. Public spaces are really necessary to promote public health, in addition to allocating adequate budget and resources for preventive health programs and follow-up community health monitoring (Barbarossa 2020). According to Ho Chi Minh City's housing development goal in the 2021–2025 period, “striving to develop low-cost social housing” for the low-income or middle-income community to access (Ho Chi Minh City People's Committee, 2021), the city government is making every effort to improve the quality of life for all classes of people. The paper aims to explore the people's assessment of the current state of public space in their place in HCMC with the case study of four apartment residences in four different districts. It is carried on with 400 surveys and in-depth interviews with the apartment managers. Then, the case of public space in HCMC will be discussed to have a specific look into the design standards to ensure the quality of public spaces. Finally, it provides suggestions for reshaping public spaces in urban planning strategy, meet the demand for using public green space of people living in social housing apartments.

Tuyen T. Vo, Khanh L. T. Ta, Thanh T. P. Tran
Design Strategy in Vietnam Urban Houses Relevant to Green Building Rating Systems

Influences of climate change on living environment and building design. Introduction to concepts of sustainable design and green architecture. Analysis of Vietnam and foreign Green Houses so called. Humans’ immanence of a living space. Introduction to typical Green Building Rating Systems. Generalization of a green philosophy in architectural design. The relationship between criteria systems, design method, making place, and the built environment. Proposal for design strategies of Vietnam urban houses relevant to green building criteria requirements.

Duc Minh Tran
Developing in Smart Buildings Adapting to the Urban Context of Ho Chi Minh City: Chances and Challenges

The concept of “Smart/Intelligent Buildings” was commenced in the 1980s, associated with the development of science and technology. In parallel with the requirements of sustainable development and energy saving in architecture and construction fields, Smart Buildings now interacts with Green Architecture trends and adapts to the natural and urban climate conditions of each city. This has led to the formation of views on Sustainable Smart Buildings, Green Smart Buildings, and Adaptable Smart Buildings. In Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City has a rapid urban development rate, with its characteristics of natural climate, as well as economic and cultural factors in urban areas; simultaneously, this city has the orientation of smart and sustainable urban development in the future. This article focuses on discussing the development of a Smart Buildings that is suitable for the urban context of Ho Chi Minh City, along with the chances and challenges posed by the above issue. The experiences in the development of Smart Cities and Smart Buildings in Asia and Southeast Asia, especially in Hong Kong and Singapore, are summarized and analyzed. From there, the chances and challenges with Smart Buildings development in Ho Chi Minh City are identified and clarified. Finally, some oriented solutions for the development of Smart Buildings that adapt to the urban context and future development requirements of Ho Chi Minh City are proposed.

Nguyen Huy Van
Developing New Urban Areas in Ho Chi Minh City Towards Carbon Neutrality

Carbon-neutral urban development has been attracting an increasing international attention, as well as Vietnam, focusing on policy enactment policies aimed at a more sustainable built environment to improve living environmental quality in urban areas. Finding solutions from policies to design planning solutions, etc. is considered a key factor in the Vietnamese government's urban development plan. This article discusses the following contents: (i) Carbon neutral urban areas in the new trend, identifying urban development perspectives, theoretical and practical perspectives of countries around the world; (ii) Practice of developing new urban areas in Ho Chi Minh City and main challenges; (iii) Discuss proposed solutions towards a carbon neutral model for new urban areas in Ho Chi Minh City. Data collected from documents, field surveys and expert interviews were analyzed, compared and discussed to find solutions to the topic. The research results can be used for strategic research and finding urban planning & design solutions for new urban areas in Ho Chi Minh City towards carbon neutrality.

Pham Ngoc Tuan, Tran Thi Viet Ha, Le Thi Bich Ngoc
Discover the Cultural Language of the Lower Kon River, Ha Thanh River - Binh Dinh Province – Vietnam

River cultural landscape space can be understood as the traditional knowledge in using and responding to the river environment in the process of urban development. Behavioral cultural values are passed down through generations, through tangible and intangible cultural elements that are transformed in space and time, in order to provide solutions for the cultural landscape of the river. The authors use visual language to explore cultural values in the downstream areas of Kon River, Ha Thanh River - Binh Dinh Province, through the selection of three regional communities (An Nhon, Phuoc Hoa, Nhon Binh) in the downstream of Kon and Ha Thanh rivers. Pictures of local people's experiences with the water environment where they live, most of their concerns revolve around issues such as: regional river potential, water resource depletion, local environment and love of place. The significance of the above methodology is to determine the traditional experiences and knowledge of dealing with rivers and water of Binh Dinh people today, contributing to improving the cultural landscape space in the construction planning process.

Pham Viet Quang, Pham Anh Dung, Cù Thi Anh Tuyet, Hoàng Anh
Exploring the Challenges and Opportunities of Incorporating Traditional Ethnic Minority Design into Contemporary Resort Architecture in Vietnam

Exploiting traditional architecture combined with modern architecture is a topic promoted by many countries around the world over the past decades. Vietnam has 54 ethnic groups living in different natural and climatic conditions, creating a diverse cultural identity. Resort is a group of projects with great potential in integrating traditional ethnic minority design into contemporary solutions. The goal of the article is to synthesize opportunities and challenges in integrating traditional ethnic minority design into contemporary resort architecture in Vietnam along with design recommendations to improve exploitation efficiency. Exploiting the above values for new projects in a more sustainable way. Research methods focus on collecting, analyzing and synthesizing documents to cover many elements of resort design according to an integrated design orientation. The results of the article meet the research objectives with recommendations from general to detailed. Draw conclusions for the architecture of resorts in Vietnam with many regions with architectural values of ethnic minorities.

Hong Loan Nguyen
From Eco to Technological City and Back - An Eco-Smart Urban Spatial Structure for Phan Rang-Thap Cham City, Ninh Thuan Province, Vietnam

The increasing urbanization since the Second Industrial Revolution has partly resulted in Climate Change (CC). The CC makes weather events more extreme. Extreme Drought and Flood Coexistence (DFC) are costly and lasting in Ninh Thuan, the coastal Province in the centre of Vietnam. Theoretically, the two emerging concepts relevant to the interrelationships between cities and CC are ‘Adaptive City’ and ‘Smart City’. The first applies ecological science to making a city ecologically adaptive; the second uses technological methods in making a city technologically adaptive, which have been called ‘smart city’. This study aims to bridge the two conceptual strengths to structure Phan Rang-Thap Cham City adaptive, so-called ‘Eco-Smart’. The methodology focuses on accessing raw data from Geological Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS), extracting the geospatial facts, figures and numbers of natural conditions and urban spatial transformations to examine their interrelationships over time. The key findings are that the transformations at the provincial level are ecologically adaptive to DFC, while the transformations at the city level of Phan Rang-Thap Cham must use technologies to be adaptive. An eco-smart solution for Phan Rang-Thap Cham’s urban space in Ninh Thuan Province, Vietnam, is structured based on the current state.

Nguyen Quoc Vinh, Tran Mai Anh, Nguyen Thi Huong Trung
History of Vietnamese Book Cover Design

The history of Vietnamese book cover design holds a significant place in the country’s cultural and artistic heritage. This study explores the evolution and development of book cover design in Vietnam from its early beginnings to the present day. By examining various historical periods, artistic movements, and influences, the research aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the stylistic trends, cultural influences, and societal changes that have shaped Vietnamese book cover design over time. The article was written according to the literature review method. The findings of this research shed light on the rich visual heritage of Vietnamese book cover design and its connection to broader historical, cultural, and artistic contexts. By examining the evolution of design elements, typographic styles, and visual narratives, this study contributes to a deeper appreciation and understanding of the cultural significance of book cover design in Vietnam. It also serves as a valuable resource for designers, scholars, and enthusiasts interested in Vietnamese graphic design and visual culture. Overall, this research expands our knowledge of the history of Vietnamese book cover design and highlights its role as a visual representation of the country’s cultural identity, artistic expressions, and socio-political changes throughout history.

Bui Quang Tien
Lefebvrian Analysis of Stone-Pavement Space in Hanoi, Vietnam

The impact of pavement on the environment is significant, especially in tropical cities such as Hanoi, Vietnam. Urbanization and rapid development in the transportation industry have led to the loss of natural habitat, increased use of artificial materials, and negative consequences such as temperature rise, heat islands, urban flooding, greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change. Certain paving materials, including natural stone commonly used for sidewalks in Vietnamese cities, contribute to these negative impacts. Despite existing research illuminating the unsustainable nature of natural stone, its widespread adoption continues. Drawing upon Lefebvre’s theory of space production, this study delves into the origins of this prevailing circumstance and conducts a critical analysis of the power dynamics among various actors and interest groups that mold the urban space in Hanoi.

Dinh-Phuoc Le, Minh-Huyen Do
Light Industrial Building Design Towards Sustainable Development in the Southern Key Economic Region of Vietnam

Designing buildings towards sustainable development is currently a trend in architecture, and it applies to industrial building design as well. While the Southern key economic region of Vietnam has the highest number and growth rate of light industrial buildings in the country, the idea of designing these industrial works in the direction of sustainable development is not yet widely known. The objective of the study is to evaluate the design quality of light industrial buildings in the region and to analyze the conditions affecting the design. From there, solutions can be proposed to improve the quality of factory space. The research methods include conducting field surveys, sociological surveys of workers, and meta-analysis of issues related to light industrial building design. The outcomes of the research will serve as a point of reference for industrial building investors and architects to encourage the implementation of sustainable development-oriented solutions in the field of industrial building design in the future. Establishing factories in the direction of sustainable development not only enhances worker productivity, but also enables businesses to improve their brand value, reduce energy consumption, and contribute to environmental conservation.

Quyen Hoang Dang, Thuong Van Le
Making Meaning in Architecture

Architecture, as a logical object of human needs and relations, concretized basic situations of his existence and surroundings. Architecture exists as an abstract object that assembles relationships of form, space, and context. Its existence on site conveys human, natural, and social values through construction activities. Architecture usually is studied through geometrical form, structural layout, and utilitarian function. The research shows architectural objects as the result of a narrative/storytelling process. Its structure includes tangible and intangible factors of designers (key role) and the audiences. The both associations give architecture a formal nuance via a story as meaning. The significant architecture possesses high artistic meaning that evokes the spectator's emotion and opens their mind in many dimensions by way of senses.

Duc Minh Tran
Monitoring Urban Growth Patterns and Associated Environmental Risks in Ho Chi Minh City from 2010–2020

Due to the multi hazard and escalating effects of climate change and rapid urbanization, there has been growing concern in Ho Chi Minh City about the consequences of climate change. Both the state and local governments have expressed concern that the city would suffer increased intensity and frequency of pluvial and river floods, increase urban heat island formation, as well as sea level rise and coastal storm surges, while already handling environmental pressures such as land subsidence. The persistent growth of the city heightens its flood dangers by increasing into low-lying floodplains and diminishing flood detention and retention capacity through urban rehabilitation, condensation and surface sealing. In the face of rising hazards, authorities have failed to design effective adaptation solutions that allow for basic risk reduction while still supporting robust urban growth pathways. This contribution employs an urban structure type method to examine ten years of current urban growth (2010–2020), highlighting changes to the city's urban morphology and its socioeconomic fabric. Resilience is contingent on the decisions of how to make use of land and the choices that are made about which structures to build and their placements. The exposure and sensitivity of each development consequently, decides the eventual risk to climatic hazards for the whole city. Our results aid the unification of people-centered and place specific decentralized adaptation options into formal urban planning frameworks, permitting the re-evaluation of development processes and pathways.

Nigel K. Downes, Pham Quoc Viet, Nguyen Kieu Diem, Vo Dao Chi, Thanh Hung Dang, Harry Storch
Of Enviro-Organic Form Composition

Enviro-organic form contains archetypes influencing architectural shape and structure inflected by “the richest possible stratification” of human experiences over time. It is based on a structural and symbolic interpretation of nature that is in turn used to establish methods, laws, and principles. These come into being through human perception, language, and thought in relation to each other and with nature. Human cognition of the whole, proportion, arrangement, order, and integration of physical and psychical life is formed from organic archetypes. They serve as the underlying psychological force which calls upon geometry and composition for purposes of expression in physical form. Architectural composition was born by the increased complexity of functional programs and the desire to order the parts of a building relative to the whole. Enviro-organic composition of architecture is derived from the combination of modern compositional principles, fractal geometry, and principles of growth.

Duc Minh Tran
Orientation to Organize the Landscape Architectural Space of Hanoi Pedestrian Streets Towards the Goals of Sustainable Development

The orientation of developing and expanding Hanoi’s walking streets promotes not only public spaces, open spaces but also dynamic spaces to connect people and communities. Furthermore, these walking streets also contribute to local economic development, introducing the breathtaking natural beauty of the city. As a result, the walking streets are replaced in many cities, towns quickly and massively. However, not at all these cites hit their targets as initially expected such as economy, culture, and society. With the uncontrolled development, lack of classification of walking streets had led to stereotype, unsuitability for different purposes. Thus, there aren't amazing things to attract residents and tourists. The walking streets concentrate on the centre of the city, especially the historical inner-city area, so the article will show analysis about this area. Based on the theoretical basics and method to determine the characteristics of landscape architecture spaces, then I support a set of criteria to classify walking streets in each area. The classification of walking streets will help to give appropriate solutions towards sustainable development goals.

Lien Thi Ngoc Pham
Parametric Wood Architecture

This article presents a study on Parametric Wood Architecture. Parametric Wood Architecture (PWA) is built on the foundation of parametric architecture, wood technology, digital technology and architectural design thinking. The approach to PWA is based on using wood as a technical material, combined with computer science and Topological geometry to create complex shapes on the digital platform of wood. This architectural trend integrates with nature, creating a diverse ecosystem that is environment friendly. The design process becomes simplified with the application of scientific and technical knowledge. The study also presents processes for the realization of PWA constructions. The frame and module systems are mass-produced in factories and even assembled on-site. PWA is a new development trend in the world's architecture, which combines contemporary mathematics and achievements in science and technology with wood technology.

Thi-Nguyen Chau, Minh-Le Tran, Xuan-Ban Nguyen, Cong-Minh Nguyen, Ngoc-Tu Hoang, Nhu-Nguyen-Anh Le, Thi-Xuan-Nhi Ho
Participatory Landscape Design in the Restoration of Natural and Cultural Heritage. A Case Study of Vernacular Bath Renewal

The therapeutic use of the mineral waters has been prevalent in Europe from ancient times to the present day. For centuries, the medicinal properties of the mineral waters of Szeklerland (Transylvania, Romania) have been regularly used by the local residents, as a part of the relaxation and cleansing. Over the centuries, it has become part of daily routine as a natural remedy that stimulates circulation and metabolism, regenerates muscles and reduces arthritic pain, and its curative effects have contributed to the development of respect for nature and the need to preserve and maintain the natural environment over generations. Small and larger vernacular baths were built in the settlements with medicinal springs, and their regular use led during the 19th and 20th centuries to the development of a traditional, local cold-water bathing culture. However, the baths were destroyed in the world wars, and their use was abolished. After the political and social changes from the 1990’s, as part of nature and landscape conservation initiatives, the reinterpretation and restoration of the intangible and practical values of vernacular baths in Transylvania also began: dozens of vernacular baths have been renovated with public participation initiated and led by professionals. In the course of the renovations, baths have been rebuilt using nature- and environment-friendly techniques, materials in a way that they are also related to the physical environment and the mythology of the region. The project has become a successful and exemplary movement in sustainable water preservation and landscape heritage renewal.

Albert Fekete, Ágnes Herczeg
Philosophical Folklore in Vietnamese Traditional Architecture

Although there are not many countries in worldwide that own the orthodox philosophy, all of them possess the unwritten traditional beliefs, legends, sayings, customs, etc. - known as philosophical folklore. In Vietnam, folklore is hidden behind every corner of life and governs a variety of specific fields such as language, literature and even architecture. The Vietnamese philosophical folklore did not orient traditional architecture based on the principle of ideal beauty or harmony like Western aesthetics and philosophy but mainly influenced and interpreted the creative behavior of artisans, who were directly dealing with the social reality at that time. Vietnamese traditional architecture shows an existence of the organic and harmonious relationship between folkloric notions and architectural forms. This kind of wisdom supported traditional architecture reaching the notable values in both tangible and intangible cultural aspects. To comprehend the formation and form of Vietnamese traditional architecture, the approach from the perspective of philosophical folklore is an appropriate method.

Diem Thanh Tran
Place Attachment-The Management of Urban Parks and Public Gardens in the Historical Inner City of Hanoi Towards Sustainable Development

The place values is a multidimensional concept including spatial characteristics, natural features, cultural and historical conditions. “Place” related to the feeling, experience, continuous interaction, and emotional impact of one place that people are attracted to it by emotional and cultural bonds. These are the factors that determine the character and spirit of the place. UPPGs always play important roles and are an indispensable part of the green space/green infrastructure and modern urban space structure. They contributed to renovating the urban environment and improving the quality of citizen life. Recently, UPPGs infrastructure in the historic inner city of Hanoi have received considerable attention from the government, experts, and the community, and offer policies and solutions for renovation and management. However, the reality of UPPGs still has many difficulties and challenges . They have not fully promoted their function values as well as have not become an attractive destination, or connected with the community. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the values and “place” characteristics of UPPGs in the historic inner of Hanoi so that they become valuable places and also create “place attachment”. Based on what is mentioned above, the principles and solutions in the management of UPPGs infrastructure of Hanoi toward sustainable development will be discussed.

Thi Dieu Huong Nguyen
Public Pocket Parks in the Ho Chi Minh City Center – A Site Inventory and Revitalization Design Approach

According to the Project on Development of Public Parks and Trees in Ho Chi Minh City from 2020 to 2030, Ho Chi Minh City currently has a high urbanization rate and population growth rate, while the investment in building new parks and greenery recently is still quite limited. The total planning area for the urban greenery is more than 11.400 ha, corresponding to the target of 7 m2 per person. Meanwhile, the total current park and greenery area is only about 500 ha, with the corresponding rate of 0.55 m2 per city resident. In the context of limited and expensive land like in Ho Chi Minh City, the pocket parks, which are named for ranges of small-scale public spaces, in the existing city core are still valuable and well-contributed to public life. Though this type of green space has represented the Ho Chi Minh City public facet for a prolonged period but is still not yet considered as an official compulsory setting in the current urban green strategy. This study conducts a site inventory to assess the physical status of existing pocket parks in the Ho Chi Minh City center, specifically: Opera House Plaza, Chi Lang Place, Bach Tung Diep Garden, Turtle Point, and Me Linh Circus. The research methods include mapping and physical and historical analysis. Based on the existing situation, it would propose adaptive improvement solutions for these parks to rediscover and promote lively activities for the community in the city.

Viet Anh Vu, Thi Ai Thuy Pham, Minh Trang Khong, Thi Thanh Hien Phan, Ngoc Thang Pham
Research on Sa Pa Urban Planning and Architecture Adapted to Indigenous Factors: Perspectives and Principles

Since its establishment, Sa Pa, Vietnam’s famous mountain resort city, has witnessed significant changes. The increasing number of tourists can be attributed to well-developed infrastructure, a heritage system recognized by UNESCO, contributions from the French landscape architecture fund and the rich cultural heritage of many ethnic groups minority. The development of tourism has changed urban areas, leading to the formation of new architectural works and affecting economic, social and cultural aspects. However, the increase in investment, especially real estate development, has caused Sa Pa to lose many of its inherent values, causing significant impacts on Sa Pa’s urban planning and architecture, leads to new projects lacking adaptability to local elements. This study aims to delve into Sa Pa urban planning and architecture to identify cultural elements, whether tangible or intangible, that have historical or contemporary value and need to be recognized and conserve. These elements will serve as the foundation for a continuous, indigenous approach to urban development. Therefore, this study will provide perspectives and research principles on Sa Pa urban planning and architecture in harmony with indigenous elements, as a basis for proposing practical solutions.

Nguyen Viet Huy, Vu Thi Huong Lan, Nguyen Quoc Thong
Research on the Effect of Natural Landscape on the Architecture of High-Rise Buildings in Nha Trang City, Viet Nam

In some cities, the natural landscape has a well-defined geomorphological structure. The architecture of high-rise buildings is often inspected and assessed in association with the natural landscape through these questions: How has the natural landscape affected the architecture of high-rise buildings? How are natural landscape elements exploited in the design of high-rise buildings? What are the limitations in exploitation of the above factors? Moreover, these limitations are analyzed and inspected to improve and enhance the quality of high-rise buildings architecture. In this article, Nha Trang, a tourist city in the central of Vietnam, is chosen as a typical example. Through the visual approach, the morphological features of high-rise buildings in Nha Trang city are identified and evaluated. By applying scientific observation method to the architectural form of high-rise buildings, the authors evaluate the influence of the natural landscape on the architecture of high-rise buildings from the overall form to the details of the spatial structure inside the building. The obtained results show that the architectural form of high-rise buildings in the coastal area of Nha Trang city has a connection with the natural landscape in the development progress; however, when designing some buildings, the architects have not paid proper attention to the affects of natural landscape to their structure. From the outcomes, the authors propose that to enhance the quality of high-rise buildings architecture of Nha Trang city, there should be design directions by matching designs and natural landscape as well as by inspecting the affects of it to the buildings.

Hai-Binh Nguyen, Le-Minh Ngo
Roof Slope and Vertical FACADE Ratios in Traditional Vietnamese Architect. Case Study: Traditional Wooden House in the Central of Vietnam

This study aims to investigate investigates the role of wooden joint and tenon in traditional Vietnamese architecture, focusing on their impact on high vertical facade ratios and steep roof slopes. Through literature review, fieldwork, and numerical simulations, the research explores their significance in sustainable and climate-responsive design. Finite element analysis confirms their effectiveness in ensuring structural stability and durability. Emphasizing cultural and historical importance, the study advocates for preserving and integrating these elements in modern design for sustainable and climate-responsive architecture. The findings offer insights for contemporary Vietnamese house design and contribute to the preservation of traditional architecture.

Tran Trung Hieu
Ho Chi Minh City and Water-Based Spatial Morphological Transformation - Opportunities and Challenges

Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) is a city undergoing global transformations, influenced not only by local but also global economic, political and knowledge powers (Vu, 2010, 2013, 2021). The city's transformations, at different speeds and certain extents, applied to its different morphological layers (Bentley 2013). The sequences of changes are depending on their own life cycles, concurrent temporalities as years, decades, centuries, and millennia. Morphological analyses have helped understand how physical aspects of a city transformed by which mechanisms. This also enables the projections of foreseeable changes depending on certain scenarios. Urban spatial morphologies, as understood today, include three components or spatial dimensions: the physical (form), the activities (functions) and the meanings (intangible, meanings, memories, experiences). Using the urban morphological framework for analysis, the paper investigates the social, political, environmental and professional cultures of making spaces and places of Saigon HCMC: the opportunities and challenging contexts and morphological transformations in city's timeline of development, the analyses are supported by selections of some typical spatial examples. The paper concludes with some responses and recommendations for more contextual sustainable transformations of the city's distinctive morphological characteristics.

Vu Thi Hong Hanh, Truong Thanh Hai
Smart Development for New Urban Area, Focus on the Case of Ecopark, Hanoi

Smart development is a growing trend globally. In Hanoi, many new urban areas have selected this trend as their goal. In this article, we gather views and ideas on smart cities. This will include a study on smart city development of Ecopark urban area in Hanoi, a proposal, and recommendations to develop a model of a smart city in accordance with the context of Vietnam.

Tran Duc Binh, Ta Thi Thu Huong, Tran Van Tan
Some Thoughts on Rural Housing Design in the Red River Delta Through Heritage Housing Experiences and Contemporary Challenges

From ancient to present, the house in the Vietnamese concept is not only a shelter from the sun and rain, but also a home to preserve traditional culture, a family’s beauty, and a place to nurture the soul of Vietnamese people. When revisiting rural housing architecture through historical periods, from the feudal period to the French colonial period, the period of the subsidized economy and the post-renovation period, along with the quick speed of urbanization, the construction of rural architectural houses in Vietnam faces many challenges such as changing production methods, habits and lifestyles, design, economic and technical perspectives. Since then, rural architecture, especially rural architecture in the Red River Delta, has changed rapidly. More and more multi-storey houses with reinforced concrete materials have been built to replace houses with traditional architecture. The area of ponds and lakes is increasingly narrowed or gradually filled. The modern urban space is gradually overtaking the traditional space of the countryside. At present, the entire rural infrastructure system in the Red River Delta has almost been “transformed” by many localities. Rural house architecture is transformed in the trend of integration, following the trend of building new countryside with the influence of urbanization and industrialization. Through the research of some practical experiences on several housing design theories, which have become heritage, we thereby present the views and principles of new rural construction, making the Vietnamese countryside more civilized, rich, and beautiful, but not hybrid, while maintaining the characteristics of the traditional village culture. It is essential to evaluate the architectural changes of the countryside so that planners and experts can make appropriate policies, recommendations, and development principles for rural area architecture in the following years, contributing to the process of rural renovation according to the current policy of the Vietnamese Communist Party and State.

Nguyen Viet Huy, Vu Thi Huong Lan, Do Dinh Trong
Spatial Urban-Agriculture Planning and Management in Metropolitan Areas of Vietnam: Community-Based Solutions for Sustainable Development

Over the past twenty years, Vietnam’s cities have experienced unprecedented rapid urban development. When the speed of urbanization is taking place rapidly, comes a series of new challenges: the area of agricultural land decreases on a large scale, a part of the labor force in agriculture loses productive land and becomes unemployed; a part of laborers moves from rural areas to urban areas; increasing pressure on resources such as land, food and water. In the world as well as in Vietnam, spatial urban-agriculture planning and management has been and is being interested by many governments at all levels. Many agricultural spatial models and topics related to spatial urban agriculture especially in the field of urban planning are increasingly being paid attention in many researches, and that issue has become an official agenda in several international forums. Urban agriculture not only ensures the requirements of solving labor and income issues for a large population of urban and suburban populations but it also plays an even more important role in creating landscapes and protecting the ecological environment. This paper develops another understanding of spatial urban-agriculture planning and management in metropolitan areas of Vietnam with the case of Hanoi by providing ideas of using community-based solutions as a proposal solution for sustainable development.

Hau Do, Hung Viet Ngo
Strengthening Circular Urbanization Based on Regional Material Cadastres

Urbanization, coupled with prosperity, is a major driver of building material consumption. As urbanization and prosperity grow, dynamically expanding societies will worsen the carrying capacity problem. Shifting from linear to circular urbanization models is key, aiming to close, slow, and narrow material flows. Understanding the materiality and dynamics of existing structures is crucial for designing these strategies, and regional material cadastres offer valuable support. This paper introduces the concept of regional material cadastres and provides examples of circularity strategy simulations based on German examples. Challenges, opportunities, and specific considerations for applying this method in areas with intense urbanization dynamics are discussed in an outlook, accompanied by a suggested research agenda. The urban city region of Hanoi is used as an example, considering previous research activities in the region.

Georg Schiller, Karin Gruhler
The Adaptive Reuse Potential of the Old Residential Buildings in Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) is the largest city in Vietnam, with a population of nearly 10 million. During its development history, HCMC has had types of old residential buildings, such as villas, apartments, and tube houses, mainly distributed in central districts. Because the lack of housing is a severe problem for HCMC, reusing this old housing source is an inevitable trend. This study aims to discuss the adaptive reuse potential of the aging houses in HCMC, which includes (1) advantages, (2) disadvantages, and (3) policy and implementation. The methods used are documenting, science observing, surveying reused old buildings in the research area, and then discussing these buildings’ adaptation potentials. This study can serve as a premise for further studies on the renovation and reuse of old buildings and opens up the potential to promote the future architectural reuse trend in Vietnam.

Le Ngoc Ha Mai
The Correlation Between Building Archetypes, Thermal Comfort and Energy Use in Residential Buildings in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Shophouses were originally planned and built to provide scope for the use of natural daylight and ventilation. Since the 1980s, pressures on urban spaces due to the fast growth of urbanisation and population in Ho Chi Minh City have reduced natural light and ventilation options. This, combined with urban heat island (UHI) effects, now causes significant difficulties for environments inside shophouses. Energy availability/cost means conditions in shophouses can reach or exceed the upper limits of acceptability and choices must be made between energy use and comfort. This paper introduces the classification of dwelling typologies in HCMC, particularly shophouse buildings along with their key characteristics. The study investigated thermal environments, comfort perception, and energy use in them during the summer of 2017. Summaries of the extensive data present the neutral temperature of 28.5 ℃ and the upper comfort limit of 31.5 ℃ over warm months. A household consumed a total average monthly energy of between 349 kWh and 505 kWh. Air movement is likely an important factor in finding and extending thermal acceptability in the tropics; however, it was mostly weak indoors. Discomfort as warm summer temperatures caused higher energy consumption for cooling spaces to restore comfort. In the three types of shophouses found, the physical condition in traditional dwellings was the most vulnerable, so the most electrical use was reported. Understanding the contextual, building, and environmental features of different residential types means suggesting proper design guidelines for optimising comfort and reducing energy use.

Hung Thanh Dang, Nigel K. Downes
The Role of Public Art in Forming and Expanding Cultural Spaces from Saigon, Giadinh, to Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City is one of the economic, scientific and cultural centers of Vietnam. It has been still in the advancing impetus of development and construction. The city appears in many structures in contemporary styles along with existing architecture in the French colonial period and in the Republic of Vietnam. It also displays itself as a multi-manners and multi-cultural city in architecture, planning and fine arts. The city complex atmosphere needs public arts in making urban aesthetics and the cultural spaces. Public arts contribute to creating a city brand, tourist attraction, and local economic development. To find out the invaluable role of public arts in the city’s progress and to propose solutions for connecting urban art areas to architectural design, urban planning, and urban design is an emerging issue today.

Nam Tran Thanh
Urban ‘Toad’ Market as a Third Place

This paper explores the concept of toad markets as third places, using Oldenburg’s eight characteristics as a framework. These markets provide a lively and convivial space for urban residents in Hanoi, Vietnam, filling a void left by contemporary cities. However, their role within the city’s urban planning and design framework remains unclear. Understanding the potential of toad markets as third places is crucial. While the concept originates from Western societies, it may be applicable in other Global South cities only with proper justifications. The paper evaluates the position of toad markets within an alternative framework and offers recommendations for integrating them into urban planning and design.

Dinh-Phuoc Le, Minh-Huyen Do
Urban Acupuncture and Its Application in Quy Nhon City

Urban acupuncture is an innovative approach to urban planning and design that has gained popularity in recent years. The concept involves in small-scale interventions in urban spaces, community-based services such as the creation of public parks, installation of public art projects, or development of community gardens, to improve the overall well-being of urban communities. This paper examines the application of urban acupuncture by Scene Plus Architects in Quy Nhon, a coastal city in the central of Vietnam. Quy Nhon, which holds considerable historical and cultural significance, is facing challenges due to rapid urbanization and a lack of community engagement. To address these challenges, Scene Plus has persuade the city to embark on a series of urban acupuncture projects in collaboration with various stakeholders: government, academy, enterprises and community, through on-site workshops.Through the case studies, this paper analyzes the effectiveness of urban acupuncture practices in Quy Nhon: the creation of pedestrian-friendly areas, public and semi-public projects… The case studies presented in this paper demonstrate the potential of urban acupuncture to address the complex urban challenges faced by Quy Nhon. The paper highlights the importance of community engagement and collaboration between stakeholders in the successful implementation of urban acupuncture practices. The results of this study may be useful for policymakers and urban planners seeking to improve the livability and sustainability of urban spaces in Vietnam.

Thuc Trang Dang, Nguyen Hoang Nguyen Phan, Minh Thuan Huynh, Thanh Phat Bui
Urban Grading Planning Method for a More Resilient Lowlands in Ho Chi Minh City and Mekong Delta

Land grading planning is a compulsory step in any urban planning project in Vietnam. Presently, the approach involves determining controlled ground elevations that consider a specific flood frequency related to the urban type, with an additional 0.3 m for residential areas and 0.5 m for industrial zones. However, this method has significant drawbacks, as it necessitates a large volume of fill material and lacks resilience to climate change and rising sea levels. The main issue with the current method lies in the fixed controlled elevation values, attempting to address both surface water drainage and flood prevention simultaneously. In response, this paper suggests a new approach to urban land grading planning, emphasizing the separation of water drainage and flood avoidance tasks. The proposed strategy involves surrounding dams, flap valves, water pump stations, and other elements in conjunction with regularly required controlled elevations to safeguard the area from flooding. The elevations within the dams are selected based on factors such as land conditions, landscape design, and the implementation of a sustainable drainage system (SuDS), incorporating features like vegetated surfaces, pervious pavements, water reservoirs (ponds), and wetland areas. Collected water within the dams can be pumped over the dams to the river or waterfront outside. Importantly, the elevations inside the dams can be much lower than the established controlled elevation values, reducing the need for fill material and enhancing the area's resilience to climate change and rising sea levels.

Nen Nguyendinh, Tran Thi Sen, Truong Doan Van Anh
Urban Regeneration in Dran Town Application of Ecological Principles for Sustainable Spatial Development

Dran valley was one of the most illustrative Da Nhim River basins. Dran town was originally the village of indigenous people, experienced through several historical events that consequently resulted in the cultivated agricultural lands and forestry. In the 20th century, Da Nhim electric power station was built, industrializing the land with more urban and industrial functions, yet, its strong highland biodiversity supported by the terrain, water streams and forests are still strong.The research looks at Dran today with constrained water resources, pollution, landslide and flood caused by unscheduled water release from the electric power reservoir. The proposal aims to prevent the echoing problems in the area by emphasizing the presence of water in the daily and productive lives of people, allowing them to embrace the notion of living with water for future resilience.The research develops a conceptual framework that takes the ‘risk by hazard and vulnerability over coping capacity’ of this project into regenerative capacity to add social and cultural values for the community. This ‘regenerative capacity utilizes landscape infrastructure’ in terms of nature-based flood defense, circular water management, and place-based conservation.

Bach Minh Don, Vu Thi Hong Hanh, Le Tran Uyen Vy
Water-Based Development for the Expansion of Urban Area in Ho Chi Minh City

Being located at a strategic point of the sea mouth, Ho Chi Minh city is vulnerable to the impacts brought by climate change, which is inherent in the raising of overall water level and a decrease in drainage capacity due to the alarmingly encroachment into the water by the urbanization process. Despite its rich history as a settlement formed by rivers and a network of canals, this system is gradually interrupted and becoming the backside of residential areas. More extremely it seems that within the last decades of urban development starting booming, the attention in urban planning for water infrastructure and water systems has faded out. The expansion city incorporated many projects which are dealing very locality and small scale fixing for water tissue within the project site, there are no plans for dealing water systematically and connectedly. The research paper aims to propose a new water network as an urban frame and development, and simultaneously discussing morphology of integrating water space into new urban development.

Trang Khong Minh

Transportation, Infrastructure, Management, Investment

A Dual Control Mode of Major Risks and Its Practice

In order to explore a new path for major risk control of rail transit engineering under the EPC management mode in China, a “dual control mode” of centralized control by EPC project teams and inspection control by third party was introduced. This “dual control mode” was aimed at the unique needs of major risk identification, process control, and post-evaluation in rail transit engineering. Firstly, the major risks of rail transit projects were identified, and a risk list was output by taking a certain rail transit project as an example. Secondly, a graded management and control of major risks under the PEC mode was proposed, and a risk management structure involving the employer, EPC project team, construction subcontractor, third-party risk management agency and engineering insurance institution was constructed. Then, the process of risk management was designed, including risk assessment, risk grading, risk management plan, response plan, process control, risk identification, risk tracking, and post evaluation. Finally, taking a certain rail transit project as an example, a specific application of the “dual control mode” was introduced. Effective control of safety risks of large bridge and tunnels in rail transit projects was achieved by introducing risk survey of market-oriented third-party professional agency. The results show that the “dual control mode” of centralized control by EPC project teams and inspection control by third party can effectively control major risks of rail transit project under EPC management mode, and has reference significance for major risk management and control of rail transit engineering and other projects under EPC management mode.

Zhihao Yang, Jizheng Huang, Shunkuo Qiu, Binjuan Yang, Weiyi Diao
A Hybrid Hazard Avoidance Training Program for Young Novice Motorcycle Riders in Vietnam: Findings from the Video-Based Tests

Every year, many young novice riders using small-displacement motorcycles are involved in road crashes in Vietnam. Therefore, acquiring hazard avoidance abilities is crucial in rider education and training in Vietnam. Previous studies showed that hazard avoidance training programs, including theoretical (i.e., an explicit learning method) or practical (i.e., the 3M training method: mistakes, mitigation, and mastery) components, would improve hazard avoidance abilities of young novice road users. However, the effectiveness of a hybrid program, combining theoretical and practical hazard avoidance training components, has yet to be researched less in young novices riding motorcycles, especially in Vietnam. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a hazard avoidance training guideline based on the hybrid training method for young novice motorcycle riders. The procedure of this study involves pre/post-randomized experimental design with full training and placebo training groups. After the training, both groups participated in video-based and simulation-based tests to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid training program. The video-based test results reveal that participants who received the full training program are more successful in searching for and reacting to different hazard forms than participants who received the placebo training program. Based on these results, practical recommendations and potential updates for the current motorcycle rider’s training programs are discussed.

Dinh Vinh Man Nguyen, Anh Tuan Vu, Kris Brijs, Tom Brijs, Geert Wets, Veerle Ross
Assessment of Railroad Residual Settlement Zone Based on D-InSAR and Field Measurements

Several sections of concrete tracks for high-speed rails in Rep. of Korea are being treated using various techniques to control residual settlement. The cause of residual settlement is due to not only soft ground condition, but also inadequate compaction quality control of substructure. In this study, field tests using standard penetration test (SPT) and dynamic cone penetration test (DCPT) along the sections exceeding allowable settlement requirement were conducted to evaluate bearing capacity of substructure. The results of field penetration tests were used to establish input data of a numerical analysis to predict residual settlement of the tested section, which was then compared to the measured settlement along the test period. In addition, an attempt was made to employ D-InSAR techniques to estimate residual settlement of the corresponding sections over a two-year period. The results of the penetration test exhibited reduced load bearing capacity of substructure, and the predictions of numerical analysis were compatible with field settlement measurement. The application of D-InSAR technique has shown to be promising in estimating ground settlement along the concrete track over time, and the estimation of D-InSAR could be enhanced through image data processing.

Hyeon woo Yu, Jeongho Oh, Youngmin Kim
Barriers to the Adoption of Integrating Electric Mobility Toward Commercial Transport in Vietnam

Road transport accounts for nearly 92.9% of the total cargo volume and 26.5% of the ton-kilometers of freight in Vietnam. As a result, road-based freight transport contributes nearly 7.2% of the country's emissions. Meanwhile, the entire transportation sector accounts for around 9% of Vietnam's emissions [1, 2]. In order to mitigate the impact of climate change on road transport, the adoption of environmentally sustainable practices is essential. However, research on environmentally sustainable commercial transport is still limited. This paper addresses this gap by introducing a quantitative model to examine the factors affecting the adoption of electric mobility in freight transport. The model takes into account drivers’ safety, economic, and subsidy concerns, which can help to bring the price-parity tipping point closer, thereby expediting the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in freight transport. The findings indicate that factors such as access to charging infrastructure, policy incentives, and drivers’ awareness of the environmental advantages are essential for achieving a widespread adoption of electric cargo vehicles.

Thi Nhu Nguyen, Sy Sua Tu, Thi Hong Mai Nguyen
Completing Norm System in Construction Cost Management in Vietnam Toward International Integration

System of construction norms is a tool to implement management function of the government in the market mechanism. Also, this system is an important basis for agencies, organizations, and individuals to apply and refer to in the implementation and management of construction investment costs. Over the years, this system has regularly been updated and supplemented, but there are still a number of shortcomings. Various norms are outdated, while composing, issuing and applying do not keep up with changes in newer standards, regulations, and technologies. Such inadequacies inhibit to the progress in establishing and controlling construction investment costs. This article presents the literature review on construction norms in with a number of developed economies; then analyzes, evaluates, points out inadequacies, and proposes solutions to complete the norm system in Vietnam in the period of international integration.

Nguyen Thi Tuyet Dung
Contribute to Knowledge About Barriers in Implementing Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in Developing Countries: A Case of Vietnam

Public-private partnership (PPP) projects are crucial for the economic growth of any country, especially in a country like Vietnam that is still developing. This paper examines the challenges commonly faced by PPP projects in Vietnam by surveying 218 experts. The results highlight the top five obstacles: “Political interference in the procurement process,” “Lack of government guidelines and procedures on PPP project implementation,” “Corruption,” “Lack of transparency,” and “High transaction and participation costs.” Additionally, the study used ANOVA to explore differences in how barriers are perceived between participants in the public and private sectors. The findings show variations in how barriers are perceived based on participants’ experiences and sectors. This paper presents a practical study that identifies and evaluates the barriers faced by PPP projects in Vietnam. It provides valuable insights into the construction industry and helps authorities develop measures to promote the development of PPP projects.

Hung D. Nguyen, Tuan A. Nguyen, Vi V. Doan
Data-Centric Model for Multiclass Lane Change Maneuver Prediction Using a Naturalistic Driving Dataset

Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) are rapidly becoming a reality. It is easy to hypothesize they will someday become the dominant vehicle on the highway system. However, before this occurs, CAVs and human-driven vehicles (HDVs) will experience numerous conditions that generate traffic conflicts in the mixed flow context during the transition time. Therefore, it is important to identify and predict the driving intentions of HDV in order to mitigate or eliminate traffic conflicts and vehicle collisions. The current highway maneuver prediction models do not do well at multiclass lane change maneuver (LCM) detection and prediction near ramp areas. In this paper, an LSTM neural network for predicting LCM, using data from the ExiD datasets is developed and proposed. The ExiD dataset is a trajectory-based dataset collected on German highway ramps using unmanned aerial vehicles. The proposed model will use a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network to detect the LCM and trained for different values of prediction horizon time ranging from 0.5 s to five seconds. As will be shown the proposed approach, the LCM detection problem is converted into an anomaly “sawtooth” pattern detection. The results of the proposed model show the accuracy rate of the proposed LCM algorithms is 98% when predicting 0.5 s ahead. The false alarm rate is relatively small at 5.4%. The LCM detector, which uses the “sawtooth” pattern of the lateral shift distance variable, can be used to predict double LCMs. It is hypothesized this would benefit in detection and prediction of overtaking and risky cut-in and cut-out driving behaviors. Ultimately this would enhance highway safety in the vicinity of the on and off ramp sections.

Huong Pham, Rilett Laurence
Development of a Building Repair Time Component for the Disaster Losses Estimate in the Mamuju Earthquake

Looking at Indonesian disaster records, we see that earthquakes cause severe economic losses through both building damage and loss of life. In dealing with losses, estimating economic losses is very important as this forms the basis for post-disaster financial preparedness and is a country resilience level criterion. One widely used loss estimation model is the Hazus model from the USA. The Hazus model provides an operational loss estimation (Relocation Expense, [RELi] and Loss of Income [YLOSi]) based on the analysis of several potential areas of loss, providing a broad disaster loss estimation. In its application in different countries, Hazus's variable should be adjusted. The building repair time component, CRTds, and building repair and recovery time, RTds, is one of the Hazus variables that need to be adjusted. The repair time variable has specific characteristics for each country that are related to labor productivity, material supply chain, etc. This study aims to develop the Hazus model building repair time component, CRTds and RTds, based on a case study of buildings affected by the 2021 Mamuju, Indonesia earthquake. The research case study was conducted across 98 buildings with various functions (government offices, clinics, and schools) and with varying levels of damage (slight, moderate, and collapse). The results show CRTds and RTds based on the Mamuju earthquake almost always have a larger value than the Hazus model in each damage state. From the sensitivity analysis, the CRTds and RTds difference is 48.42% deviation on RELi and 53.19% deviation on YLOSi.

Roi Milyardi, Aden Firdaus, Krishna S. Pribadi, Muhamad Abduh, Irwan Meilano, Erwin Lim, Reini D. Wirahadikusumah, Patria Kusumaningrum, Eliza R. Puri, Husain Hs
Effects of Bottom Ash Content on Compression Characteristic of Stabilized Dredged Soil

The recycling of dredged soils for use as filling material has an important means of achieving sustainable construction. This issue has been garnered significant attention in recent years in Vietnam due to the reduction of natural sand resources. This study proposes a composite geomaterial (CGM) consisting of dredged clayey soil, bottom ash and waste fishing net (WFN). The series of consolidation experimental test are conducted to investigate the compression behavior of CGM. Composite geomaterial specimens with varying bottom ash contents are prepared by mixing in mass ratios of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%, while the waste fishing net content is remained fixed at a mixing mass ratio of 0% and 0.05%. The e-logσ′v compression curves indicated that higher bottom ash content results in a lower void ratio. The compressibility index obtained from consolidation test decreases with increasing the bottom ash contents in CGM. Consolidation coefficient can be correlated with the bottom ash content, showing a linear decrease with higher bottom ash content, and equations for this relationship are proposed. Furthermore, it is worth noting that the consolidation coefficient of samples with 0.05% waste fishing net content is larger than in cases without waste fishing net (0%).

Phuong Linh T. Nguyen, Nam Van Nguyen, Thanh Danh Tran, Ba-Phu Nguyen
Estimating Service Life of Reinforced Concrete Bridges in Mekong Delta Region Under Chloride Corrosion Risk – A Case Study of Ganh Hao Bridge Project

Mekong delta region is located in the South of Vietnam where is considered as the most vulnerable area due to climate change. During the next decades, sea level in this region is estimated to rise dramatically with three main scenarios including RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. This change will facilitate saltwater intrusion which greatly impacts reinforced concrete structures. As chloride concentration increases, it poses a high potential risk of corrosion causing the degradation of reinforced concrete structures, especially bridge works. To bring up suitable solutions dealing with chloride intrusion corrosion, it is necessary to analyze the influence of this risk on bridge constructions. This article will estimate service life of reinforced concrete bridges with a case study of the Ganh Hao project located in Delta Mekong region. The results of this study will clarify the influence of chloride corrosion risk, comparing serviced life of Ganh hao bridge with consideration of three scenarios of sea level rising.

Tran Quang Phu, Nguyen Minh Duc, Nguyen Ba Hoang
Finding Pareto Solution Based on Hybrid Slime Mold Algorithm with Tournament Selection for Solving Multiple-Objectives Optimization in Construction Projects

Artificial intelligence (AI) is being utilized in the construction industry to address optimization challenges and to promote the industrial sector's development and commercialization. The Adaptive Selection Slime Mold Algorithm (ASSMA) was developed in recent years to tackle the problem of optimizing the three aspects of time, cost, and quality in construction projects by combining the slime mold algorithm (SMA) with Tournament Selection (TS). With ASSMA's help, the transition from random selection to selecting the greatest candidate to decide the best outcome will be hastened. Furthermore, to improve its superiority and efficiency, the ASSMA model will be compared to other common algorithms such as Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO), Opposition-based Multi-Objective Differential Evolution (OMODE), Multi-Objective Differential Evolution (MODE), and non-dominant sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). According to the overall findings, the ASSMA model displays diversity and gives a powerful and persuasive optimum solution enabling readers to see the future potential of the proposed approach.

Pham Vu Hong Son, Luu Ngoc Quynh Khoi
Freight Transport Challenges in Vietnam’s Southeast Region

The Southeast area of Vietnam is regarded as the country’s economic locomotive since it has critical logistical infrastructure, handling the majority of the country’s goods and container traffic. Thus, there are stronger concerns than ever in freight transportation in this region, especially in the context of rising freight transport demand, as a good freight transport system plays an important role in improving economic efficiency while also maintaining urban sustainability. Yet, freight transport is still limited, not clearly understood or optimized on a large scale there. This paper adopts a qualitative, grounded theory methodology to explore urban freight transport challenges and evaluate the correlation of those issues in Vietnam’s Southeast region. To achieve the goal, an in-depth interview with authorities and specialists in transportation, logistics, and other stakeholders was undertaken, as well as a review of the literature. The findings reveal that infrastructure is the biggest challenge for freight transport in Vietnam’s Southeast area. Other obstacles are also pointed and analyzed. Several policy implications for sustainable transport planning will also be discussed based on this research.

Le Thi Minh Huyen, Nguyen Thuy Linh, Nguyen Thanh Len, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen
Hazard Conceptual Framework for Motorcyclists in Vietnam and Countermeasures: Findings from a Focus Group and In-Depth Interview Study

Over the past three decades, training and testing programs for motorcyclists in Vietnam have undergone many positive changes. However, some critical content, such as the hazard avoidance training content for motorcyclists, has yet to be considered for inclusion in these programs due to objective and subjective factors. This training is critical, especially for young novice motorcycle riders, which could help them acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to promptly identify and handle on-road hazards. In this study, a hazard conceptual framework is developed to explore potential hazards for motorcyclists; then, stakeholders can develop the most suitable hazard avoidance training program for motorcycle users. To achieve this goal, this study applied the focus group study and in-depth interview method to thoroughly understand common hazards related to motorcycle riders. These interviews apply the semi-structured format to allow the conversation to naturally flow beyond the given questions and for emerging additional topics from participants. The inductive approach is used in this study to explore the common on-road hazard related to motorcyclists from a different perspective of inexperienced, experienced motorcycle riders and road safety experts. The results of these interviews have given a hazard conceptual framework for motorcyclists and solutions to help ensure their safety. The findings of this study provided valuable insights into the factors that contributed to motorcycle crashes and helped identify practical interventions. Based on these results, practical recommendations and potential updates for the current motorcycle rider’s training and testing programs in Vietnam are discussed.

Dinh Vinh Man Nguyen, Anh Tuan Vu, Kris Brijs, Thi Huong Le, Tom Brijs, Geert Wets, Veerle Ross
Integrating On-Demand Transport into an Existing Transport Network: A Data-Driven Simulation Approach

Powered by recent technological advancements in intelligent communication technology (ICT) and digital platform, on-demand transport (ODT) has played different roles in moving people, ranging from feeding passengers to mass transit (e.g., heavy rail, metro/subway, bus rapid transit) to providing point-to-point or point-to-hub services, to replacing traditional fixed route bus services in areas where demand is patchy. Consequently, ODT has become the focus of many transport authorities in their effort of improving existing transport networks. Various trials of ODT services have been conducted in both urban and rural setting but the results are mixed. This paper investigates the impact of ODT operational models and fleet size on the demand for bus service and service standards using a data-driven simulation method and a set of key performance indicators used in the bus contract industry. The results verify the potential of ODT for replacing existing fixed bus routes to improve the effectiveness of an existing transport network in moving people, providing accessibility/connectivity and improving social equity.

Chinh Ho
Landscape Infrastructure - An Original Implementation Approach of Green Infrastructure in Hue, Vietnam

Regardless of the high percentage of trees, diversity, and distinctiveness, Hue’s landscape is still fragmented, lacks a connection to urban infrastructure, and has not yet contributed to urban flood control. In addition, the Green Infrastructure (GI) approach - which is gaining worldwide attention - is a sustainable solution that delivers the benefits of ecosystem services and adapts to floods and other climate change impacts. Based on researching GI application experience and analyzing urban landscape identity and the urban infrastructure limitation, this paper aimed at identifying landscape infrastructure (LI) due to GI techniques to appropriately enhance GI application in Hue, Vietnam. The article presents the current context of Hue’s urban landscape, the possible GI and LI assets for site application, and the specific measures to synchronize the urban LI as GI tools. As a result, the urban LI creates an interconnected network of green space to effectively support flood regulation and inspire the adoption of GI on the urban level.

Quoc Thang Nguyen, Thu Trang Dam, Anh Tuan Pham
Natural Language Processing for Infrastructure Resilience to Natural Disasters: A Scientometric Review

New solutions are needed to enhance infrastructure resilience in response to global warming and increasing natural disasters. Recent studies demonstrate the potential of natural language processing (NLP) for mining unstructured human language during a natural disaster to assist with emergency decision-making, such as identifying infrastructure damages. NLP-based social sensing offers a way to detect disruptions and gain insights into situational awareness about critical infrastructure. Nonetheless, few studies have attempted to map the global research on applying NLP for infrastructure resilience. This paper aims to fill this gap by presenting a scientometric review of current knowledge using networks derived from the bibliographic records of the Scopus and Web of Science core collection. Specifically, this review highlights the top trends, temporal variations, significant developments, challenges, and future opportunities in NLP-based infrastructure resilience research. This study intends to improve the understanding of using NLP for infrastructure resilience against natural disasters.

Muhammad Ali Moriyani, Lemlem Asaye, Chau Le, Tuyen Le, Trung Le
Parking Policies Towards Sustainable Urban Mobility in Developing Countries, a Case Study in Vietnam

Parking is an important element of urban transport, especially vital for sustainable urban development. Parking facilities provide parking services and contribute to the success of urban planning in general by regulating transport demand and increasing accessibility to services in urban areas. Contrary to its importance, the parking development is not receiving sufficient attention compared to other elements of the urban transport system, which recently led to several issues, such as illegal parking, traffic congestion, traffic accidents, and illegal space consumption. These problems are serious in developing countries and populous cities where relying much on private motorized transport and public parking is not developed properly and is inefficient. In Vietnamese cities, parking-related problems occur frequently and keep getting worse mainly because of the rapid increase in the number of private motorized vehicles and travel demands.This study aims to develop parking policies supporting sustainable urban mobility in Vietnamese cities. The parking policies are grouped into four main groups: parking provision policies, user management policies, and fee policies. The study proposes multiple policies that have positive impacts not only on parking development but also on the transport system in general. Besides the change in parking development strategies is the major propulsory for sustainable movements, the most prioritized policies are (1) diversifying the parking supply and parking type in urban centers and (2) applying market and demand-driven pricing mechanisms.

Vo Minh Phuc, Le Thi Huong
Regulatory Framework and Policy Challenges for Connected and Automated Vehicles Adoption in Vietnam

This study explores the regulatory framework and policy challenges associated with the adoption of Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) in Vietnam. The research provides an overview of CAVs, including their operation principles, key technologies, potential benefits, and the global regulatory framework with a focus on four countries that lead in developing CAV technology: Germany, the United States, China and South Korea. The current state of CAVs in Vietnam is then examined with a specific emphasis on the existing legislative and regulatory landscape and providing an analysis of key stakeholders. A detailed analysis of Vietnam’s regulatory framework is conducted, considering facets such as legal regulations, the implications for infrastructure development and CAVs logistics. This paper also identifies significant policy challenges facing Vietnam including data privacy and cybersecurity. Drawing on these insights, recommendations are made to enhance Vietnam’s regulatory framework and policy environment for CAVs, including the establishment of a dedicated regulatory framework, infrastructure investment, comprehensive data protection laws, and promotion of research collaboration. This paper provides valuable direction for policymakers, regulators, and other stakeholders in Vietnam’s transportation sector with the goal of helping spur the effective integration of CAVs into the multimodal transportation system.

Huong Pham, Rilett Laurence
Research Method and Evaluation of Factors Affecting Quality of Design Documents at 59 Defense Ministry Company (59 Company)

The paper studied and evaluated factors affecting the quality of design documents at 59 Defense Ministry Company (59 Company) through literature surveys and expert interviews to identify 13 potential factors. The research group designed a questionnaire and interviewed 100 experts using SPSS software. The results showed that workforce skills, data collection and required expertise need improvement. Meanwhile, survey scope, project complexity and internal coordination were the most influential factors. To enhance quality, the study recommended strengthening training, upgrading systems, quality standards and monitoring. Implementing solutions could optimize human resources, better information management, and better meet construction needs through improved documentation.

Van Giang Nguyen, Chuc Nguyen Dinh
Simulation of Electric Vehicle Battery System

The battery system serves as the most crucial and costly component powering electric vehicles (EVs). Effective design of such systems heavily relies on computational simulation tools rather than physical test platforms. This paper outlines a process for simulating Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) battery systems utilizing Siemens Simcenter software. This procedure encompasses the modeling and simulation of battery cells, packs, and systems through the use of Reduced Order Models (ROMs), EV battery management systems, and Digital Twins. Implementation of this process enhances the battery system’s efficiency, performance, stability, and safety on a BEV, allowing a comprehensive evaluation of the system. By connecting a fully developed battery system to a vehicle dynamics model, the performance of the vehicle can be assessed under specific operational conditions. This methodology empowers designers to achieve optimal outcomes and seamlessly incorporate the battery system into the BEV’s overall design.

XuanMai Pham, VanNam Tran, HungTruyen Luong, HungManh Nguyen, LeHoangPhu Pham
Social Housing Models in Ho Chi Minh City - Inadequacies and Solutions

Currently, the rapid economic development of Ho Chi Minh City demands a significant increase in the labor force, resulting in a growing demand for affordable housing, particularly for those with low incomes, while the social housing fund provided by the government is inadequate. The shortage of social housing projects has led to higher home prices, making it increasingly difficult for low-income individuals to own a social housing unit. The provision of social housing is still limited due to various factors, such as land shortages, insufficient financial resources from the budget, and unattractive investment policies. Therefore, finding a solution to meet the current and future demand for affordable housing for low-income workers is an urgent matter. This article discusses the possibility of investing in the development of social housing models to meet the housing needs of low-income workers. Data collected from documents, surveys, and other sources will be analyzed and discussed to identify appropriate models for this topic. The research results can be used for managing and investing in the social housing market in Ho Chi Minh City.

Ha Tran Thi Viet, Pham Ngoc Tuan, Le Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Hong Thu
Transport-Related Health Impacts: A Case Study in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Transport is a fundamental component of every community. Besides enormous benefits for the development of the economy, society, culture, and human civilization, it also has notable impacts on human health, both positively and negatively. The impacts of transport on health have become a global issue, particularly the adverse effects arising from traffic exposure to accidents, air pollution, noise pollution, stress, and climate change. While numerous studies have investigated the health impacts of transport in developed cities, such research is limited in developing cities where the magnitude of the problem is expected to be much greater. This study aims to investigate the health impacts of transport in Ho Chi Minh City, a developing city in the Asian region, to add further information to the limited knowledge of the health impacts of transport in developing countries. This research shows that the magnitude of the transport-related health impacts in HCMC is expected to be high. However, accurately estimating the magnitude of its impacts remains challenging due to the lack of relevant data and resources. Improving the data quality and enhancing air and noise quality monitoring systems are urgently needed to understand the problems better and develop appropriate mitigating measures to improve the situation in HCMC.

Le Thi Huong, Nguyen Minh Thong, Nguyen Dinh Vinh Man, Vu Anh Tuan
Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Geotechnics, Civil Engineering and Structures, CIGOS 2024, 4-5 April, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Cuong Ha-Minh
Cao Hung Pham
Hanh T. H. Vu
Dat Vu Khoa Huynh
Copyright Year
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN