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2023 | Book

Proceedings of the International Conference on Aerospace System Science and Engineering 2021

Editors: Prof. Zhongliang Jing, Prof. Dmitry Strelets

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering

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About this book

The book collects selected papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Aerospace System Science and Engineering (ICASSE 2021), organized by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, hosted by Moscow Aviation Institute, Russia. It provides a forum for experts in aeronautics and astronautics to share new ideas and findings. ICASSE conference has been organized annually since 2017 and host in Shanghai, Moscow, and Toronto in turn, where the three regional editors of journal Aerospace Systems are located.

This book presents high-quality contributions in the subject area of Aerospace System Science and Engineering, including topics such as: Trans-space vehicle systems design and integration, Air vehicle systems, Space vehicle systems, Near-space vehicle systems, Opto-electronic system, Aerospace robotics and unmanned system, Aerospace robotics and unmanned system, Communication, navigation and surveillance, Dynamics and control, Intelligent sensing and Information fusion, Aerodynamics and aircraft design, Aerospace propulsion, Avionics system, Air traffic management, Earth observation, Deep space exploration, Bionic micro-aircraft/spacecraft.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Simulation Study on Civil Aviation Human Reliability Learning from Incidents Using System Dynamics

Flight safety is the foundation and guarantee of the sustainable development of the civil aviation industry. With the continuous development of the aircraft industry, fewer and fewer accidents are caused solely by mechanical failures. Human factors (HFs) have become the most important cause of aviation accidents, and the research on human reliability is more and more extensive and in depth worldwide. However, many severe aviation disasters still have occurred because of failing to recognize the importance of the implicit warnings or learning from the precursor incidents. Based on the qualitative framework of Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), this paper first identifies the HFs which influence the change of human reliability (HR) in the incident learning process. Then, by introducing the theory and method of System Dynamics (SD), an HFACS-SD model is proposed to dynamically and semi-quantitatively analyze the influence of HFs at different levels combined with scenario simulation. This model can effectively deal with the dynamic feedback of issues involving broad factors pervading in learning from incidents, and it provides some suggestions for further improving the human reliability of civil aviation.

Yuhe Mao, Yi Lu, Dan Huang, Shan Fu
Research on Pressure-Sensing Characteristic of Trailing-Cone

This paper provides an analytical method for estimating the pressure-sensing characteristic of a trailing-cone system. The proposed method is based on the mechanics of the cone subjected to the weight and drag of the trailing-cone. The obtained results are compared with wind-tunnel test results. The analysis of such data shows that the proposed methodology is acceptably accurate for estimating the angles of attack of the trailing-cone. And more data need to evaluate the pressure-sensing characteristic estimation agreement, and it could be a promising analysis tool which can be used in flight tests.

Yang Hui, Qu Feizhou, Fang Yang, Li Qiujie, Yang Xinyu
Spatial Interpolation Methods for Virtual Rotating Array Beamforming with Arbitrary Microphone Configurations

Virtual rotating array (VRA) beamforming is a robust technique in the identification of rotating sound sources in frequency-domain. Under normal circumstances, the configuration of microphone array is established in ring geometry centered around the rotating axis. Two interpolation methods for arbitrary microphone configurations are proposed by Jekosch and Sarradj (Acoustics 2020). One is to construct a mesh between all stationary microphones using Delaunay-triangulation, another one is a meshless technique based on radial basis function. However, whether other spatial interpolation methods are available in VRA beamforming with arbitrary microphone configurations is still unclear. This paper adds several new spatial interpolation methods in VRA beamforming and detailedly compares the performances of these interpolation methods in simulations. The simulating results demonstrated that all these interpolation methods are successfully applied in VRA beamforming with arbitrary microphone configurations. Inverse distance weighting interpolation method owns the best performance in rotating sound source localization. Additionally, all these interpolation methods have poor spectrum construction capability and sound source strength precision.

Jiacheng Yang, Ce Zhang, Wei Ma
TH-DS-CDMA-Based Robust Frequency-Domain Signal Processing for GNSS Pseudolite Correlators

In order to build a seamless national PNT infrastructure based on Beidou system, the absence of Beidou in indoor environments has to be dealt with. Although there are other sensors and approaches to indoor positioning, they cannot be merged into Beidou system smoothly. As a ground transmitter that broadcasts GNSS-like signals, pseudolite has a promising future. Despite these superiorities, pseudolite signals more often than not suffer from joint effects of radio frequency interference and near-far problems. Previous work suggests frequency-domain interference mitigation can suppress jamming effectively while Time-Hopped Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (TH-DS-CDMA) signaling is effective in near-far problem. However, there is little research considering both interference and near-far problem in pseudolite. For the purpose of solving these two problems simultaneously, a frequency-domain interference mitigation method based on TH-DS-CDMA within receiver correlators is proposed in this paper. An adaptive interference detection and mitigation method enabled by thresholding is used to separate the interference and signal in terms of signal power effectively. And the synchronization of TH sequence method called Time-Hopping Starting Index (THSI) is achieved according to the time interval of CDMA signals in different subframe. Simulation shows that the proposed interference mitigation method in frequency domain based on TH-DS-CDMA can effectively provide a stop gap for the combined influence of interference and near-far problem, and the receiver can complete signal acquisition and sequence synchronization successfully, which verifies the validity of the proposed algorithm.

Yingchao Xiao, Wei Wang, Xin Zhang, Xingqun Zhan
An Investigation on Rotating Stall in an Aeroengine Transonic Compressor with Inlet Distortion

The internal flow stability of the compressor in the aeroengine has always been the top priority for the development of the aviation industry. Rotating stall is one of the most common instability problems in compressors, and stall margin is also an important parameter to measure the aerodynamic performance of compressors. In an actual compressor, it is difficult to achieve an ideal uniform inlet air condition, and inlet distortion will affect the operating conditions of the compressor. In this paper, a three-dimensional simulation of rotor 37 is conducted to study the development process of circumferential distortion and the aerodynamic performance of the compressor. The research results show that as the backpressure increases in the channel corresponding to the circumferentially distorted area, the blockage will occur first, and it will develop in the whole channel, leading to a complete stall. From the perspective of aerodynamic performance, circumferential distortion has an impact on stall margin and adiabatic efficiency, and different types of circumferential distortion have different effects on aerodynamic performance.

Zhongyu Zhu, Xiaohua Liu
An Integrated Architecture Design Method for Multi-platform Avionics System

The mission environment presents the trend of systematization, informatization, and strong confrontation in the future, and the mission style also develops from ‘single’ to ‘cluster’. With the development of unmanned system, the unmanned unit will play an increasingly important role in the process of mission execution. The mission execution mode with the collaboration of different kinds of platforms can form an organic system through mutual support and complementary ability. Therefore, it is necessary to launch the research on the architecture design of multi-platform avionics systems for multi-platform collaboration so as to define the interface pattern among different platforms. Firstly, this paper proposes a multi-platform avionics integration method and architecture drawing lessons from the idea of system integration inside the single platform to support task integration for different missions, system function integration for different capabilities, and system resource integration for different aircraft platforms; Then, this paper proposes a collaborative simulation and verification method based on the scenario design tool and the system modeling tool. By constructing the consistency environment of scenario space–time domain and architecture logic domain, the rationality and accuracy of the simulation model are improved. Finally, the comparative analysis between the multi-platform architecture proposed in this paper and the traditional architecture is realized by analyzing the spatial and temporal data of the collaborative simulation model. The superiority of the proposed multi-platform avionics architecture is verified.

Xiang Ni, Miao Wang, Gang Xiao, Guoqing Wang
A Group Delay Measurement Method for GNSS Receiver Based on BOC Signal

Traditional group delay measurement methods include single carrier phase method and spectrum analysis method based on signal autocorrelation function, but these two methods have their own limitations in GNSS receiver group delay measurement. The single carrier phase method cannot measure the group delay of multi filters and downconverters stage connect channel directly, and the measurement accuracy of group delay of spectrum analysis method based on signal autocorrelation function will deteriorate greatly near the zero point of signal power spectrum. In order to solve the above problems, this paper proposes a BOC (bi-nary offset carrier) signal group delay measurement method, which can realize the simple and accurate measurement of GNSS receiver group delay. In this paper, a group delay measurement method is analyzed and simulated by software, and verifies the feasibility and accuracy of the method are verified by simulation.

Longlong Li, Xiaoliang Wang, Shufan Wu, Lang Bian
Analysis on the Second Ignition Phenomenon Induced by Shock Wave Focusing in a 90° Conical Reflector

The shock wave focusing is a promising detonation initiation method that can greatly shorten the deflagration to detonation transition distance. In this work, we conducted experiments under the constant operating pressure in a conical reflector to explore the shock focusing induced ignition in CH4/O2/Ar mixture. The second ignition is formed in the conical reflector under certain conditions. The introduction of the second ignition brings a higher pressure peak after ignition. By adjusting the incident shock intensity, three modes of ignition are found in the conical reflex. The pressure peak of combustion and the time to induce the second ignition are systematically investigated.

Yuanchang Li, Bo Zhang
Research on Attitude Control of Zero-Momentum Spinning Satellite

A thruster-based attitude control method for zero momentum spinning satellite is proposed in this paper. For the spinning satellite rotating synchronously with the long baseline rotating payload, if the satellite spin axis is required to point to the earth's center in real time, the gyroscopic moment generated by the angular momentum and precession angular velocity of the spinning satellite is difficult to overcome. Therefore, a zero-momentum spinning satellite scheme is proposed to make the large flywheel angular momentum offset the satellite spin angular momentum, making the whole satellite a zero-momentum system. The influence of the whole satellite dynamic unbalance disturbance torque on the attitude stability is analyzed. The attitude control of the spinning satellite is transformed into a three-axis stability control problem by defining the semi fixed reference coordinate system. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by mathematical simulation.

Ning Du, Shufan Wu, Chao Zhong, Wenhui Chen, Xiaoliang Wang
Control Parameter Optimization for a Longitudinal Automatic Landing System via a Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm

It is challenging for control design and parameter optimization of a civil aircraft automatic landing system due to the complex application environment and high tracking precision requirement. In this paper, a parameter optimization method based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is proposed to reduce the workload of control gain tuning and improve the performance of the autoland system. To facilitate the eventual engineering application, the flying quality indices are explicitly considered when defining the objective function for optimization. The proposed method is applied to design a longitudinal automatic landing system. It greatly simplifies the design process, and simulation results also demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

Cheng Chen, Jie Ke, Haonan Xu, Bei Lu, Qifu Li
Named Entity Approach for Structured Management of Aeronautical Product Requirements

Civil aircraft is a typical complex product system. It has the characteristics of high technology intensiveness, strong interdisciplinary, high system integration, long development cycle, large project investment, and complex project management. The development process of civil aircraft usually involves many stakeholders, and each stakeholder will put forward its own requirements for the aircraft development process. Therefore, the number of requirements documents and requirements items summarized in the hands of product suppliers will be very large. One way to solve the above problems is to adopt a structured expression of requirements, so that the subject, object, realization function, attribute parameter, and category involved in each requirement can be clearly expressed in the database. Aiming at the extraction of attributes such as subject and object in the demand, this topic uses the related algorithm of named entity recognition in natural language processing to identify the corresponding entity. I built a word segmentation and NER model based on the Hidden Markov Model, which has achieved good results on the test data set.

JianKai Lu, ChunKai Hu
Fault-Tolerant Attitude Control of Spacecraft via Explicit Model Prediction Method

In this paper, the problem of spacecraft attitude control with soft faults of actuators is investigated. A robust fault-tolerant controller is proposed in spacecraft with the explicit model predictive control. Firstly, Fault model of the actuator is established with the method based on explicit model prediction. Then, considering the model uncertainty and the system state disturbance, the control problem based on the spacecraft actuator failure state was transformed into the multi-parametric quadratic programs (MPQP) under the constraints. Finally, a recursive process of combining and replacing solutions is given to extract the required explicit control laws. By designing the terminal cost function and constraint set appropriately, it is proved that the MPC controller is robust to the constraints applied in the closed loop of the uncertain system and the input to the stability of the origin state.

Xin Cao, Deren Gong, Qiang Shen, Shufan Wu
Simulation Analysis of a Certain Civil Aircraft’s Negative Acceleration Flight

In this article, the dynamic simulation model of a civil aircraft is used to analyze the flight action of negative acceleration in detail. The simulation results show that the maneuverability of the aircraft is better when the aircraft is of small weight and rear center of gravity, which is helpful to extend the negative normal overload time of the aircraft. In order to make the aircraft enter the negative normal overload for a longer time, the aircraft can climb steadily for a period of time behind the pull sidestick, and the operation of push sidestick can be carried out at a larger pitch angle and speed. After the pilot pushes the sidestick quickly, the elevator will fluctuate, and the elevator deflection can be stabilized faster by pulling the sidestick in a small amplitude. For the longitudinal position of the sidestick, it is recommended to maintain between −10.8° and −9.8°, the value of the normal overload can be maintained between −0.15 and −0.25 g, and the time for the aircraft to enter the negative normal overload can also be maintained above 7.5 s.

YaJun Wen
Design of Aircraft Engine Inlet Radial Distortion Generator

The design of the inlet radial distortion generator is the key technology of the compressor component performance test and aerodynamic stability test. This paper designed several radial distortion generators composed of annular metal wires for high-pressure compressor and core engine inlet to simulate the actual total pressure profile of the incoming flow. The design of the radial distortion generator uses the principle of airflow flowing through different metal wires to produce different magnitudes of flow losses to generate the required radial total pressure distribution. Through numerical simulation of wire distortion generations with different diameters, quantities, and arrangements, and iteratively adjusted the generator’s parameters, the total pressure distribution at the target position of the distortion generator finally meets the target design requirements.

Boyang Fang, Xiaoqing Qiang
Hydraulic Servo System Fault Detection Based on Machine Learning

Servo systems are widely used in aerospace and other fields. To ensure the safety of the system operation, the fault detection of servo systems is very important. Servo system fault detection often uses comparative differential judgment method, which requires the establishment of a reliable model. On the one hand, servo system models are usually built using mathematical and physical methods by combining the transfer functions of the various components the actual servo system have into an algorithm that calculates the input–output relationship. On the other hand, machine learning algorithms can also be used to model the servo system. In this paper, we address this issue by developing a rocket data prediction model based on the LSTM algorithm using publicly available data provided by Shanghai Aerospace Control Technology Institute. After deriving the results, the results are evaluated by using R-squared metrics and some improvement outlooks are provided for the subsequent research.

Shengjie Zhou, Yue Wang, Rong Yang, Xingqun Zhan, Xiao Chen, Xiaoan Gao
Moving Vehicle Detection in Satellite Video via Background Subtraction and Global–Local Features Fusion Faster R-CNN

With the successful operation of the Jilin-1 constellation and other staring satellites in recent years, satellite videos have become new resources for real-time tasks such as surveillance. However, it is difficult to detect small objects in satellite videos due to the high resolution of the satellite video, and the low contrast between the objects and background. This paper develops a novel small moving vehicle detection scheme by exploiting the spatial–temporal information of satellite video. The proposed method consists of four stages: (i) pre-processing, to filter, adjust the contrast, and register the satellite video frame by frame; (ii) extracting the candidate moving vehicle region based on the improved ViBe method; (iii) detecting the vehicle both moving and stationary by the global–local features fusion Faster R-CNN; and (iv) merging the detected results from previous stages to propose the final results, accidental miss detection will be recalled by the inter frame compensation module. Experimental results show that the proposed method demonstrates better performance even when compared to some state-of-the-art methods.

Dong Wei, Zhongliang Jing, Han Pan
A Unified Framework for Joint Moving Object Detection and Tracking in the Sky and Underwater

The ability to detect and locate the moving object in a video is a fundamental procedure in applications of computer vision. However, these tracking methods still face some challenges, and are contradictory among different tasks. In this paper, a unified framework for joint moving object detection and tracking in the sky and underwater is proposed. This framework meets the requirements of two real applications: (i) tracking unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in the sky; and (ii) tracking unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) in water. It consists of three key steps: (i) moving object detection by pixel classification; (ii) data association by blob detection; and (iii) object tracking by efficient convolution operator. Finally, analysis on the accuracy of the proposed framework is provided. Experimental results on real-world datasets and object tracking benchmark (OTB) demonstrate the advantage of the tracking method compared with some state-of-the-art trackers, in terms of accuracy and robustness. In addition, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no previously published work for joint moving target detection and tracking in the sky and underwater.

Xia Wu, Han Pan, Meng Xu, Zhongliang Jing, Min Bao
Hyperspectral and Multispectral Image Fusion via Regularization on Non-local Structure Tensor Total Variation

Hyperspectral and multispectral image fusion plays an important role in the fields such as image restoration, space robotics, remote sensing, computer vision, etc. The fused images take advantages of the high spectral resolutions of hyperspectral images and the high spatial resolutions of multispectral images. So there has been a recent outgrowth of interests of research in this field. However, the local structural image regularity and non-local image self-similarity are not yet explored in existing fusion methods. This paper develops a novel method for fusing hyperspectral and multispectral images with non-local structure tensor total variation regularization. Specifically, the weight function to measure self-similarity in non-local domain is introduced on the basis of the definition of structure tensor. Therefore, the proposed method can exploit the regularity and self-similarity of spatial-spectral image’s non-local structures simultaneously. In addition to the general formulation of non-local structure tensor variation, this paper presents the discrete non-local structure tensor variation for hyperspectral and multispectral image fusion whose measurements are discrete. This method can provide an alternative way to measure the image variation of multi-band image. The resulting problem is solved by alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), a simple but powerful algorithm for convex optimization problems. The optimization problem is handled by a splitting variables strategy, which is implemented by introducing four auxiliary variables regarding to the required fused image. The iteration related to the proposed non-local structure tensor regularization term is solved by the proximal mapping method. The solutions of other iterations are given through fast Fourier transforms. Extensive computational experiments are performed on various datasets. The results of index evaluation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. These results also indicate non-local structure tensor total variation regularization has obvious advantages over the state-of-the-art fusion methods.

Meng Xu, Han Pan, Xia Wu, Zhongliang Jing
Using an Interpolation Model of the Gravitational Potential for High-Precision Ballistic Calculations

This article provides a study on the feasibility of applying gravitational potential interpolation for high-precision ballistic calculations.

A. A. Kuznetsov, I. I. Fukin, S. M. Bazov, N. A. Zavialova
Distributed Cooperative Guidance Law with Both Impact Time and Angle Control

Aiming at the problem of how to control the impact time and angle of missile simultaneously in multi-missile cooperation to achieve a saturated attack on a target, a distributed cooperative guidance law was proposed based on the leader–follower model. Firstly, the guidance geometry and the relative motion equations were established. Secondly, the cooperative guidance strategy of PNG and distributed cooperative guidance was adopted based on the consensus algorithm. The modified component of PNG and tangential acceleration were derived to control the impact time and angle of the missile cluster. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed method. The guidance law has the merits of no center node, applicable to missiles with unsteady velocity, concise analytical expression, and low communication cost.

Ye Chen, Shufan Wu, Hongxu Zhu, Xiaoliang Wang, Quan Li, Jun Jia
Effects of Non-uniform Inlet Flow on the Flow Stability of a Transonic Compressor Rotor

Progressing advance concerning acquiring higher pressure ratio in an aeroengine compressor has been achieved, which attracts much attention in recent years. Distortion at the flow entrance creates deterioration in the performance of aerodynamics and thermodynamics in transonic compressors, which usually leads to unsteady flow phenomena such as surge and rotating stall. This paper focuses on the investigation of the non-uniform inlet flow field in the tip and hub region of a compressor rotor blade, and radial pressure distortion is paid main attention in this work. The results show that non-uniform flow entrance condition causes deteriorator impacts on the stability of the axial flow compressor. Furthermore, hub radial pressure distortion alleviates the occurrence of unsteady phenomena presented by smaller surge flow rate than clean flow entrance condition.

Zetian Qiu, Yidan Li, Xiaohua Liu
Numerical Simulation of 3D Surfaces Icing Near the Moving Wall

The capabilities of the method of 3D surfaces icing numerical simulation near the moving ground using Ansys FENSAP ICE software are investigated. The finite-length cylinder and the WIG craft layout are accepted as surfaces of icing accretion. The icing simulation multi-stage method includes the automatic generation of fluid domain mesh taking into account the icing form on the surface before the next stage of simulation. The results of icing numerical simulation above the ground of unswept wing GLC305 and finite-length cylinder have a good agreement with the results of the experiment. The non-dimensional rate of the cylinder and the WIG vehicle icing versus the ground clearance are determinate: the dependences have the nonlinear type, and it is in the agreement with the typical nonlinear influence of the ground effect on the aerodynamics. The forms of cylinder icing for different ground clearance determinate by numerical simulation are presented. The results of numerical simulation show that the method used in Ansys FENSAP ICE software in conjunction with the automatic re-meshing is applicable for the ground effect icing problem.

Andrey Fevralskikh, Vladislav Kupchik
Modelling Causal Relationship Among Performance Shaping Factors Through Bayesian Network on Aviation Safety

Aviation safety is greatly influenced by pilot performance reliability. To assess the reliability, many human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are developed. Currently, in most HRA methods performance shaping factors (PSFs) are used to represent internal and external factors which contribute to human error. Up to now, the effects of PSFs are usually considered to be independent. However, more and more evidences show that causal relationships do exist among PSFs and neglecting that interrelationship will make the assessed human error rate to be too optimistic or too conservative. This paper builds a Bayesian network (BN) to represent interrelated relationships based on investigation of 50 human factor related aviation mishap reports of US Airforce from 2011 to 2019. The causal dependency of PSFs is derived from Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework. And an Expectation–Maximization algorithm is used to quantify the dependency, which reduces the heavy reliance on expert judgement. Through sensitivity analysis we find that 2 key factors influencing cognitive error are negative state of operator and deteriorating technical condition, implying these factors have greater influence on the cognitive process of operator such as interpreting task demand and information perception. The proposed BN model can be used to identify the primary PSFs influencing pilot performance, providing targeted risk mitigating suggestions.

Yifan He, Yi Lu, Dan Huang, Shan Fu
Adaptive Attitude Control of Uncertain Spacecraft with Attitude and Angular Velocity Constraints

In this paper, the rest-to-rest reorientation problem of the uncertain spacecraft with multiple attitude constrained zones and angular velocity limitations is studied. In order to deal with attitude and angular velocity constraints concurrently, two types of logarithmic potential functions are proposed, where the ineffective attitude constraints are excluded in the design of attitude potential function by introducing a warning angle. In addition, we also designed a projection operator-based adaptive law to estimate the upper bounds of the inertia uncertain parameters and the environmental disturbances, so that the estimation process conforms to the physical meaning of the parameters. Combining the two potential functions and the parameters adaptation law, an adaptive controller is constructed to asymptotically stabilize the attitude reorientation error while satisfying the attitude and the angular velocity constraints. Simulation example of an uncertain spacecraft with rest-to-rest attitude maneuver subject to constraints on attitude and angular velocity is carried out, and the obtained results verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive attitude controller.

Zeyu Kang, Shufan Wu, Xiaoliang Wang, Chao Zhong, Qiang Shen
SSS-2A: A 3U CubeSat Project for an In-Orbit Formation Flying Mission

The Student Small Satellite (SSS) project is an education and training program for university students to have hands-on experience on the satellite design, development, and implementation practice. It consists of 3 Micro/Nano satellites forming an in-orbit formation flying for technology demonstration and some in-orbit experiments. SSS-1 is a microsatellite of 30 kg mass, being developed by a consortium of 4 countries, with Beihang University as the lead, and being participated by teams from Pakistan, Iran, and Turkey. SSS-2A is a 3U CubeSat, being developed by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University. And the SSS-2B is another 3U CubeSat, being developed by a team from Turkey, together with support from Thailand. This paper mainly introduces the SSS project and further presents the detailed system design and development of the SSS-2A CubeSat, including its main system constitution, main payload selection, and the latest development status and schedule. Technical details of each subsystem will also be discussed and analysed. Some simulation results will be given to show the design performance. It is going to be launched before the end of 2021.

Yixin Huang, Zhongcheng Mu, Sunhao Chu, Shufan Wu
Scenario-Based Function Modeling Approach for Civil Aircraft Systems

As an important approach and tool in model-based system engineering, functional modeling can help engineers to clarify customer requirements, establish functional architecture and generate solution concepts, and it has a wide range of application prospects in the aviation field. However, most existing functional modeling methods do not fully consider how to formalize the generated functional architecture solutions and cannot effectively represent functional logic, especially involved in complex interactions among the system, the user, and the operation environment. Therefore, this paper proposes a scenario-based functional modeling approach for civil aircraft systems. This method combines the concept of scenario in software engineering, builds the aircraft operation scenario model, further establishes the requirement, structure, behavior, and parameter model, and elaborates the functional interaction logic among the aircraft systems. Taking the primary flight control system in the aircraft deceleration on the ground scenario as an example, the functional model of the control spoiler extending and retracting is established and simulated, which demonstrates that the functional modeling approach is applicable to the functional design of civil aircraft system.

Huang Xu, Chen Yong, Zhao Meng
Interfacial Properties of Stitched Three-Dimensional Woven Composite/Titanium Alloy Hybrid Board

The effects of stitching types (trajectory of stitching), stitch fiber materials, and the twist of stitches on interfacial shear, short-beam strength, and interlaminar fracture toughness of three-dimensional (3D) woven composite/titanium alloy hybrid broad were investigated experimentally. The results revealed that when considering interlaminar shear properties: stitching types have little effect on interlaminar shear properties of hybrid laminates; the difference of ultimate load and strength is great when different stitch fiber materials are used, and aramid fiber are the most; the ultimate load and strength can also be greatly increased by twisting the stitches, and the maximum load and ultimate strength of the stitches with twist of 30m $$^{-1} $$ - 1 are the highest, but excessive twisting will lead to the decrease of the ultimate load and strength of the structure. When considering the strength performance of the short beam: the maximum load and the strength of the short beam do not change significantly with the change of stitching types, stitch fiber materials, and the twist of stitches. When the interlaminar fracture toughness is considered: the interlaminar fracture toughness is increased by stitching, and the delamination resistance of the sample strengthened by carbon fiber stitch is stronger; over-twisting of stitches results in a decrease in the delamination resistance. The results revealed that the failure mode of the interlaminar shear test specimens is all shear failure of stitches. The failure mode of short-beam strength specimens is the interlaminar shear failure of 3D braided laminates. And there are three failure modes in the interlaminar fracture toughness test: the three-dimensional braided plate laminated fracture at the precrack tip; part of the stitches are tensile fracture, and the three-dimensional braided plate was layered fracture; all the stitches were tensile fracture, and the 3D braided laminates were peeled off from the titanium alloy plates. The formation of the three modes was mainly related to the stitch fiber materials and the degree of twist.

Chongjing Li
Economic Analysis of Continuous Climb Operation

Due to the limitations of ground facilities and ATC technology, the existing departure and arrival procedures usually adopt the procedures of step climbing and descent. The level flight process increases the operational cost for the aircraft, especially during the climbing phase where a maximum thrust is needed. Trajectory-based operation (TBO) provides a solution to improve the efficiency of flight procedures. The addition of four-dimensional trajectory with time dimension improves the predictability of aircraft operation. Before it is widely used, it is of great significance to evaluate economic benefits. In this research, a method of economic evaluation of continuous climb program (CCO) is proposed. The CCO model is built by using aircraft performance data, and then the fuel cost and time cost are calculated and analyzed based on the cost index (CI). Through the simulation analysis of specific paths, the result shows that CCO procedure has a significant improvement in economy compared with the traditional climb, which is helpful for the future implementation of new air traffic control service.

Donglei Xu, Gang Xiao, Dongjin Ding
Formation of Aircraft Control Based on a Combination of the Direct Method and the Inverse Problems Method of Dynamics

In this paper, the method for forming optimal program control based on combining dynamics inverse problems method and optimal control direct method is considered. The results of its application are given using the example of the problem of aircraft climb in the minimum time.

O. N. Korsun, A. V. Stulovsky, V. P. Kharkov, S. V. Nikolaev, Moung Htang Om
Identification of the Engine Thrust Force Using Flight Test Data

In this article, an algorithm for identifying the thrust force and the coefficients of the aerodynamic drag of the aircraft according to the data of the flight experiment is proposed. In order to ensure identifiability, a special flight maneuver is considered. To reduce the impact of measurement noise, the maximum likelihood estimation is used. The results of the study of the algorithm characteristics based on the flight simulation data are presented.

O. N. Korsun, B. K. Poplavsky, Moung Htang Om
Investigation of Plastic Kink-Band in Fiber-Reinforced Composites with Fiber Misalignment Defect

The mechanical behaviors of composites subjected to compressive loads are critical concerns in composite structure designs. Misalignment of fiber orientation is a common manufacturing defect and has significant impact on compressive properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) with misalignment defect is established with the consideration of Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBCs). A unidirectional lamina with misaligned carbon fibers is investigated based on Finite Element Method (FEM) with consideration of matrix plasticity. Drucker–Prager linear plastic model is utilized to describe elastic-to-plastic behavior of matrix. Parameters of Drucker–Prager model influence the formation and shape of kink-band. The mechanism of kink-band formation and propagation is discussed in this study.

Y. T. Zhang, Y. L. Hu, Y. Yu, Y. Y. Xu, H. Y. Zhao
Methodology for Formation of an Optimized Verification, Validation and Integration Program for an Aircraft Based on Models of Its Architecture

New types of aircrafts embody all the most advanced technical and technological solutions. Architecting commercial aircraft has been always challenging due to the complexity of the product (Li et al. in Architecting commercial aircraft with a Domain Specific Language extended from SysML, 2021). The introduction of new technologies is associated with risks in terms of reliability and resiliency. Using traditional design methods in the development of an aircraft, it is impossible to determine all possible scenarios for the aircraft functioning and its systems itself and, as a consequence, to analyze all possible risky states of the aircraft. Each aircraft must meet the requirements that were established to it. This work is devoted to the processes of establishing and verifying these requirements. The principles and methods of integration, verification and validation of technical systems are considered in detail, the importance of these criteria is assessed. This work aims to cr prerequisites for the development of an automatic algorithm for verification program and construction of a test certification basis for the aircraft as a whole and its subsystems in particular.

I. A. Konstantinov, V. A. Kaigorodova, D. S. Shavelkin
An Investigation on the Flow Mechanism of Complex Fractal Spoiler on Wing

As designers aim to increase the aerodynamic efficiency, fractal spoiler may be used on wings for its ability of altering turbulence. The study focuses on analyzing and verifying the feasibility of applying fractal spoilers. The flow mechanism of the flow-through fractal grids is simulated using CFD methods. Both the laminar and turbulent conditions are considered when simulating. The simulation of the wing airfoil provides the velocity distribution to the fractal spoiler. The laminar results help us understand the flow mechanism including wakes, jets, and their interaction behind the grids. In the turbulent results, the importance of the parameter wake interaction length is stated, and compared with former papers. The parameters of the fractal grids are related to a number of flow properties including the turbulence intensity, homogeneity, isotropy, and velocity distribution. These special characteristics suggest that it’s feasible to use fractal spoiler on wings as a control method.

Yanmin Guan, Frank Nicolleau
Compression Performance of Composite Honeycomb Sandwich Structures with Prefabricated Defects

The compression behavior of composite honeycomb sandwich structures with prefabricated defects was investigated via experiments and finite element analysis. An edgewise compression test was carried out on specimens with two types of prefabricated defects: panel layering and panel-core debonding. Maximum load and degree of maximum attenuation were compared. Test results demonstrate that the failure mode is core shear failure, buckling, facesheet compression failure, and end failure. The defect size has little influence on structural mechanical properties, while the type of prefabricated defect does. A 3D finite element model was constructed to investigate the compression behavior of honeycomb sandwich structures with prefabricated defects. Abaqus continuum damage model (ACDM) and cohesive zone model (CZM) methods were compared in panel modeling. This study provides a reliable method for defects repair tolerance assessment of composite honeycomb sandwich panels.

Zhouyu Zheng, Xiuhua Chen, Huayong Zheng
The Assessment of the Prospects of Composite Materials Manufactured by Vacuum Infusion (VaRTM)

This paper discusses the data of studies of the strength properties of sandwich panels manufactured by vacuum infusion (VaRTM) and contact molding (CM). In order to assess the prospects of composite products manufactured by vacuum infusion (VaRTM), in comparison with composites obtained by contact molding (CM), in terms of strength and production time, we carried out thermogravimetric studies, studies of the microstructure of the binder on a scanning electron microscope of samples made by the above methods, and study of the VaRTM sample using a high-energy X-ray computational tomograph (VT-600XA).

A. E. Protsenko, B. B. Safoklov, V. V. Petrov, O. S. Dolgov
Routing Optimization Study for LEO Satellite Networks Using the Hybrid GA-SA Algorithm

With the rapid development of the mega-constellation networks based on the low earth orbit satellites, the shortest path issues in complex networks have gained more and more attention. In this paper, a shortest route solving algorithm based on the hybrid genetic algorithm-simulated annealing algorithm (GA-SA) is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed hybrid GA-SA method is superior to the single traditional genetic algorithm or simulated annealing algorithm in the computation accuracy while discovering the shortest path between any satellite nodes of different types of topological networks. The new algorithm presents a faster convergence rate and higher accuracy in the simulation of large LEO satellite networks. The proposed algorithm has an advanced global search capability and universal applicability in mega LEO satellite networks.

Yuxiao Duan, Shufan Wu, Yixin Huang, Zhongcheng Mu
Siamese U-net with Attention Mechanism for Building Change Detection in High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

Building change detection in high-resolution remote sensing images is very important for illegal building management and urban supervision. Recently, with the development of neural network and the increase of RS data, there are more and more change detection methods based on deep learning. Most of the existing change detection algorithms based on deep differential feature analysis which detect all semantic changes in two-temporal images, not specifically designed for building change detection and unable to give an accurate mask for building changes area. In this paper, we propose a Siamese U-net with attention mechanism for building change detection in high-resolution bi-temporal remote sensing images. By introducing scene-level building segmentation, we improve the boundary integrity and internal compactness of the final changed building. Our method was applied to WHU dataset and have outstanding building change detection results.

Yiren Song, Zhongliang Jing, Minzhe Li
Analysis of Influencing Factors in Finite Element Simulation of High-Speed Impact of Micro-particles in Space Protection

The research on high-speed impact of microparticles has always been a hot topic in the fields of space protection, additive manufacturing, and medicine. It is the premise of the research to make clear the reliable analysis method of microparticle impact process and get the accurate results of interface response. In this paper, the finite element simulation model is established for the high-speed impact of copper particles on copper substrate, and the accuracy of the finite element model is verified by comparing the analysis results with the results in the literature. Furthermore, the time evolution curve of the response results influenced by factors such as meshing density, initial temperature setting, and particle size are studied under the condition of two-dimensional simulation. Based on this, the influence trend of the process of microparticles impacting the substrate is summarized. This study has a very important reference significance for the research and application of space protection, cold spraying additive manufacturing, medical percutaneous drug delivery, and other fields.

Wei Wang, Shufan Wu, Zhongcheng Mu, Jiyuan Yi
SatMVS: A Novel 3D Reconstruction Pipeline for Remote Sensing Satellite Imagery

Recently, 3D reconstruction based on satellite imagery has been a hot topic in the remote sensing community. Its output called the digital surface model (DSM) can be widely used in urban planning, military navigation, and so on. Nowadays, almost all satellite image 3D reconstruction pipelines are based on traditional stereo matching algorithms which have low accuracy and long runtime. In contrast, the neural networks based on multi-view stereo (MVS) have shown great reconstruction performance in the computer vision community. To transfer the advanced MVS neural networks to the remote sensing community, we propose a novel 3D reconstruction pipeline called SatMVS. First, the input satellite images and their rational polynomial camera parameters (RPC) are cropped into small tiles according to the designated output DSM region. Second, the RPC parameters are converted to the projection matrix for the homography transform which is the core step in MVS neural networks. Third, the advanced MVS neural network is applied to estimate height maps from satellite images. At last, all inferred height maps from small tiles are converted to 3D points in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinate system and fused to get the final complete DSM. In order to train and test SatMVS, we build a novel satellite imagery 3D reconstruction dataset called SatMVS3D dataset, which contains satellite images, RPC parameters, and height map ground truth that covers about 3km2. The experimental results on the SatMVS3D dataset demonstrate that our proposed pipeline can provide robust reconstruction performance.

Jiacheng Lu, Yuanxiang Li, Zongcheng Zuo
A Kinematics Analysis of Actuation System Based on DCM Method

The actuator system of gas turbine compressor is composed of several spatial linkages. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the deflection angle of Variable Stator Vane (VSV) and the stroke of hydraulic system using the Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM) method. The actuator system is divided into two parts, and the kinematic models are established respectively. In this work, a motion simulation is carried out to verify the theoretical model. The results show that the theoretical calculation results are completely consistent with the simulation results. This kinematic model can be applied to further optimization of actuation characteristics.

Yige Liu, Xiaohua Liu
Al-Mg-Sc (1570) Alloy Structure Formation Process

The way of metalworking of one Al-Mg-Sc aluminum alloy is presented. Steps for achieving required structural properties are shown. The results of plastic deformation modeling and microstructure experiments from preproduction stamping are given.

V. M. Greshnov, F. F. Safin, R. I. Shaikhutdinov, I. R. Yanova
Verifying Aluminum-Air Fuel Cell for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle During Operation in the Field

This work describes the effects of changes in water based electrolyte composition on the performance of the aluminum-air chemical current source. A study of the operation of a power source was carried out on the basis of various water samples from publicly available sources. The possibility of using a power plant with an aluminum-air chemical current source in the field has been confirmed.

Elizaveta S. Ryzhova, Konstantin V. Pushkin, Ejen Gurev
Design Methodology Based on the RFLA Approach

Throughout the entire existence of avionics, the role of software in aircraft systems was constantly increasing, and the aircraft systems themselves are becoming more and more complex, while the complexity increases not only in the implementation but also in the integration of systems.This has led to the conclusion that on-board software is to be developed by large teams, and the mutual influence of hardware and software, as well as various subsystems, must be taken into account. Inevitably, the projects began to face the following difficulties: Dependence on bench software, simulators, and physical prototypes; Communication both within the development team and between teams and businesses; Opacity of the relationship between the initial requirements and the result; Avalanche-like increase in the complexity of the source code; High costs for system verification and validation; Problems with the qualification of heterogeneous development tools. The solution to these difficulties is the use of model-based design, which is a modern approach to the development of large, complex, and highly reliable systems. The essence of the method is the systematic application of models at all stages of the product life cycle, from design to implementation. In the course of development, models of systems and subsystems are created at different levels of the hierarchy, including models of both the physical part and the algorithms themselves. Such models are used to evaluate the interaction of the algorithm, the physical part, and the external environment. This allows to validate and verification algorithms at the early stages of the project without the use of physical prototypes.With model-oriented design, the following results are achieved: There is a need to fully convey to the supplier the requirements for the developed aircraft system or component. Distribution of responsibility between the integrator and the supplier. As a result, the correct certification in accordance with P-4754A [1, 2]. Reduction of labor costs and time for algorithms implementation on the target microprocessor platform, due to automatic program code generation (for example, using MATLAB, Simulink). Validation of system requirements by creating a system model and performing tests on it. Debugging and testing algorithms at the system model level, which ensures that most development errors are found at the preliminary design stage, rather than at the product prototype testing stage. Traceability of requirements, model, program code, and test scenarios, which is one of the conditions for compliance with industry standards for embedded systems development.

Ezhen Gurev, Alexander Dolotovsky, Maria Voitishina, Dmitry Slezkin
Research on Technological Potential for Using Aluminum Alloy Wire in Airborne Smart Cables

A prerequisite for creating a competitive aircraft is to ensure low operating costs by reducing downtime and rational organization of aircraft maintenance and repair through continuous monitoring, diagnostics, and prediction of the aircraft health. For the monitoring, diagnosing, and predicting purposes of the aircraft health in recent decades, the list of parameters recorded aboard has been continuously expanding. Great prospects in this direction are associated with the creation and implementation of so-called smart materials that can control their health and even actively resist damage. The article presents the results of research aimed at establishing diagnostic features for wire made of aluminum alloy 1417M that can be easily measured during aircraft operation and are uniquely related to its health. This wire is promising for on-board cable network due to its 30% less weight than copper wire. The article investigates the effect of twisting on the mechanical properties characteristics (conventional yield stress, tensile strength, percentage elongation) and the values of the resistivity of the alloy wire 1417M. The dependences of mechanical characteristics and resistivity on the number of twists were obtained. It has been established that the nature of the dependences obtained is influenced by the diameter of the tested wire. Correlation between resistivity and stress-related properties of alloy is established. The obtained regression equation makes it possible to analyze the voltage change patterns as a function of the strain value by changing the value of the resistivity values during loading of the wire from aluminum alloy 1417M. Therefore, it can be the basis for monitoring, diagnostics, and prediction of the aircraft cable network health.

I. G. Roberov, V. S. Grama, M. A. Kiselev, V. V. Kosyanchuk, E. Yu Zybin
Study of the Features of the Flight and Technical Characteristics of a Hybrid Airship

It is well-known that the forces at work determine the dynamics of aircraft motion. When an airplane is flying, these forces include the total aerodynamic force, the thrust force of the propulsion system, and the force of gravity. Hybrid Airship (HA) differs from an airplane by the presence, in addition to the above, of aerostatic force, the value of which depends, among other things, on the altitude of the HA. The presence of aerostatic force affects the maneuverability of an HA. The proposed article analyzes the changes in the flight and technical characteristics of an HA due to the presence of aerostatic force.

S. F. Borodkin, M. A. Kiselev, M. V. Shkurin
Model-Based Automated Testing Method for Airborne System

This paper is about model-based testing (MBT) method for integration, verification, and validation process of the airborne system. In the context of model-based systems engineering (MBSE), in order to achieve the highly complex virtual integrated testing process, manual test procedure programming is gradually shifting to the MBT method, where test cases are automatically identified, allowing for automated test data analysis and test procedure generation. With a comprehensive exploration and customized development, COMAC has realized the MBT technical process, including modeling rules and requirements formalization, test goal generation methodology, especially implemented the model adapter code development for the communication between the test model and the system under test (SUT), and automated test execution and test result analysis in the two simulation network (RFM2G and high speed Ethernet). Finally, the aircraft ground deceleration scenario is taken as an example to illustrate the whole process, and the outlook on the future work of MBT is given.

Shaofan Zhu, Peipei Xing, Hao Wang
Design and Modeling of Remotely Piloted Operations (RPO) Mode for Commercial Aircraft

The unmanned piloted operations mode is the key development direction of the next generation of commercial aircraft. We propose the remotely piloted operations (RPO) mode of commercial aircraft which combines the autonomous piloting and remotely piloting technology, and describe its organization structure including ground station, airborne intelligent system, and air–ground data link in detail. Then, we take the cruising phase as an example to carry out model-based scenario design and verification. It is found that the RPO mode can basically cover the operations of dual pilots, and autonomous flight in authorized airspace can reduce the workload of the remote pilot and improve airspace utilization and flight safety.

Kelin Zhong, Yong Chen, Yue Luo, Miao Wang
The Influence of Wing Deformation on Energy Extraction During Dynamic Soaring

The wandering albatross’s wings have excellent aerodynamic performance, allowing it to travel thousands of miles over the ocean without flapping its wings. In order to explore the correlation between the deformation pattern of the albatross’s wings and the energy extraction of dynamic soaring, a single-cycle energy model for dynamic soaring of albatross was established based on the albatross-inspired wing design. After extracting the typical deformation patterns of albatross’s wings during dynamic soaring, the energy variation of different patterns in dynamic soaring were calculated based on the single-cycle energy model. Finally, we acquire the optimal wing deformation pattern for different phases of dynamic soaring, which obtains 5% more total energy extraction than the optimal single-cycle fixed deformation pattern. Comparing with the rectangular wing, the total energy extraction increases about 19%. The energy consumption of the low-altitude turn phase was reduced by about 8% compared with the single-cycle fixed deformation pattern and the rectangular wing.

Jiangwei Gao, Weigang An, Fuzhen Shi, Wei Wang, Jianmin Su
Acoustics Analysis and Experimental Study on Silencer for Commercial Airplane Air Conditioning System

Commercial airplane air conditioning system noise is one of the primary passenger cabin noise sources. Silencers are extensively used to quiet airplane air conditioning system noise. Silencer acoustics performance is influenced by the inner form and acoustic damping materials in silencer. The noise attenuation effect is verified by simulated analysis and laboratory experiment. Acoustics experiment results on airplane show that passenger cabin noise reduces more than 5 dB with silencer.

Xudong Yan, Xuede Sun, Dawei Wang
Approaches and Numerical Simulation of Cryogenic Environment in Large Space Environment Simulator

The nitrogen system is one of the important systems of space environment simulator. Its function is to provide liquid nitrogen with stable flow and temperature for the shroud during thermal test. To better determine and analyze the design parameters of nitrogen system, software FloMaster was employed to simulate the whole nitrogen system, and the model parameters of single equipment in nitrogen system were studied, so as to determine the key parameters affecting the operation of single-phase closed loop system. Finally, the simulation results were compared with the practical test results.

Weiwei Shan, Yang Liu, Ang Li
Development of Portable Friction Stir Welding Equipment for In-Space Manufacturing

Friction stir welding (FSW) technology is a solid-phase joining process with a non-melting pool in the connection area and insensitivity to gravity, so that it is suitable for construction of the structures in space. However, there is still a large gap between the process of FSW in space and on ground. Conventional on-ground FSW process needs large welding forces and power. Besides, the machines are also very bulky. By comparison, the FSW device in space bears the features of light weight, flexibility, portability, and quickly being in-site. To realize the application of space manufacture, the miniaturization and lowering of energy consumption of FSW equipment adapted to space environment are the key issues which need to be solved. Based on the principle of non-tool-tilt friction stir welding (NTTFSW), the realization of lightweight FSW equipment has been put forward, and the mechanical mechanism and the structures of portable FSW device have been designed. The key components of the force-amplifying bionic mechanism—the force-amplifying linkage rod (FALR) modeled on masticating jaw bones and the frame modeled on upper jaws or heads—have been designed and optimized with abundant strength and stiffness. The novel FSW device, with mass weight of 41.75 kg and less than 2.7Kw power, is newly patented, which effectively meets the limitations of design goals and ensures the friction stir additive manufacturing system.

Peng Li, Wei Zhong, Lijie Guo, Jialiang Zhang, Xiaosong Feng, Fei Li, Weigang Zhao
Metadata
Title
Proceedings of the International Conference on Aerospace System Science and Engineering 2021
Editors
Prof. Zhongliang Jing
Prof. Dmitry Strelets
Copyright Year
2023
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-16-8154-7
Print ISBN
978-981-16-8153-0
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-8154-7

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