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2024 | Book

Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Smart Cities (ICESC2022)

Editors: Bashar S. Mohammed, Teh Hee Min, Muslich Hartadi Sutanto, Tri Basuki Joewono, Sholihin As’ad

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering

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About this book

This book contains papers presented at the International Conference on Emerging Smart Cities (ICESC2022), previously known as the International Conference on Civil, Offshore and Environmental Engineering (ICCOEE). ICESC is held under the banner of World Engineering, Science and Technology Congress (ESTCON2022) from 1 to2 December 2022 at Borneo Convention Centre, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. This proceeding contains papers presented by academics and industrial practitioners showcasing the latest advancements and findings in civil engineering areas with an emphasis on emerging smart cities for the ultimate shape of urban living in the near future. The papers are categorized under the following tracks: (1) Climate Adaptive materials; (2) Environmental sustainability; (3) Infrastructure efficiency.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Climate Adaptive Materials

Frontmatter
Application of Pervious Concrete Principles on U-Ditch Covers in Overcoming Puddles

Based on data released by the Badan Metereologi dan Geofisika (BMKG), the average rainfall rate for Medan City in 2020 reached 9,907 mm in accumulation. The use of asphalt or concrete on most roads results in puddles and even floods often occur because concrete or asphalt has a smooth surface so that it is not able to infiltrate into the ground properly and results in larger surface runoff. For this reason, a research has been carried out on the application of Pervious Concrete principles on U-ditch covers with an experimental method that utilizes sidewalk’s paving block waste. This research was conducted by varying the addition of sidewalk’s paving block waste as much as 3 variations in composition, i.e.; 10, 20 and 30%. The results obtained that the optimum composition in the application of pervious concrete on u-ditch covers which was effective and capable of draining water was variation I (10% addition of paving block waste.). With a compressive strength of 8.862 MPa; split tensile strength of 1,556 MPa; flexure strength of 2.453 Mpa and infiltration rate of 1.93 × 10–4 mm/h. And u-ditch covers in this research had a good infiltration value so that rainwater runoff could be passed to the drainage.

M. A. P. Handana, Syahrizal, R. Karolina, M. W. A. Srg, B. Banjai
Study on Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Mortar Based on Fly Ash and GGBFS with Various Molar Variations

The high production and demand for portland cement in the world can trigger even greater emissions produced by the cement industry which are expected to continue to increase. This can happen because the cement production process produces CO2 gas emissions into the air which are equivalent to the amount of portland cement produced, thus triggering the greenhouse effect. Therefore, the application of geopolymers into cement and concrete contributes greatly to reducing CO2 emissions and the greenhouse effect. This research examines the mechanical properties and morphological characteristics of geopolymer mortar based on fly ash and GGBFS with various variations of NaOH molarity which was cured at room temperature (25 °C) for 28 days. In addition to mortar, the fly ash used was also tested for microstructural characteristics. In this research, 165 samples were made in the form of geopolymer mortar with composition variations between fly ash and GGBFS at various NaOH molarity. Mechanical test that carried out was in the form of mortar compressive strength test. In addition, microstructural characteristics was also tested on fly ash and mortar with the highest compressive strength. The results of the mechanical mortar test showed that the highest compressive strength was 92 MPa that was obtained from FG19 mortar (fly ash 10%, GGBFS 90%) with NaOH molarity of 10 and 12 M. The results of the characteristic research of fly ash showed that fly ash was classified as class C and had a crystalline structure. The microstructural characteristics test results of the FG19 mortar with 12 M variation showed that the mortar had cracks and voids. However, the Al, Si, Na, and K elements were evenly distributed so that the mortar mixed homogeneously.

Rahmi Karolina, Johannes Tarigan, Harianto Hardjasaputra, Kenrick Hermanto
Influence of Fly Ash, Volcanic Ash and Rice Husk Ash as Filler Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course Based on Marshall Characteristics

Filler serves as a filling for the voids between coarse aggregate and fine aggregate in the AC-WC mixture. The filler has a significant effect on the marshall characteristics of the AC-WC mixture even though it is only as a filler. This study aims to investigate the effect of fly ash, volcanic ash, rice husk ash on marshall characteristics. The research data obtained from secondary data based on previous researchers, (Pratama 2021) for fly ash filler, (Rezi 2021) for volcanic ash filler, (Malacca 2021) for rice husk ash filler. The data is in the form of variations in the percentage of filler (fly ash, rice husk and volcano ash) with the same asphalt content. The sample was processed for statistical testing using SPSS version 26 software to determine the effect of asphalt content and filler percentage on marshall characteristics. Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC) test results obtained 6.1% fly ash, 6.2% volcanic ash, 6.7% rice husk ash. The test results on Marshall showed the most influential filler in the 2% rice husk ash filler with density, stability, Marshall Quontient (MQ) and VMA values, while the Flow value obtained the highest value in 1% volcanic ash filler. For the VFB of fly ash and rice husk ash, there was a decrease in the value of the filler content of 2% and 2.5% and an increase in the filler content of 3%. The results of statistical tests using SPSS show that those that have a significant positive linear influence on the asphalt content and filler percentage are Stability and Marshall Quotient (MQ). Research has contributed to research in the field of materials for AC-WC mixtures.

Alfia Magfirona, Riza Syaiful Billad, Gurawan Djati Wibowo, Tsulis Iq’bal Khairul Amar
Mechanical Performance Improvement by Carbon Dioxide Curing of Cement Concrete Incorporating Oil Shale Residue

The influence of carbon dioxide (CO2) curing on the compressive strength of oil shale ash (OSA) concrete as partial cement replacement was investigated. 15 cm cubes with a 30% replacement percentage were tested after seven days of conventional curing and carbonation curing at 4 bar CO2 pressure. Research results demonstrate that CO2 curing influences the compressive strength of concrete significantly. There is a linear relationship between CO2 pressure and the duration of curing, as well as the compressive strength of OSA-based concrete. A sample of ordinary Portland cement was used as the control sample. The replacement of 30% cement by OSA increased the 7-day compressive strength from 48.5 to 55.5 MPa for plain cement samples and from 36.5 to 42.3 MPa for ash-based samples. From a technical standpoint, OSA-based concrete carbonation curing is still too immature for widespread application. Nonetheless, it is continuously developing in response to greenhouse gas reduction and paving the path for a more sustainable construction materials business.

Syahidus Syuhada, Marsail Al Salaheen, Wesam Salah Alaloul, Khalid Mhmoud Alzubi
Flood Susceptibility Mapping Using GIS-AHP of Kuala Krai

Flood is frequently occurring natural disaster and is among the most expensive in terms of individual lives and environmental impact. Identifying flood-prone locations is critical for formulating good flood control policies. The current study aims to provide an integrated framework for assessing flood susceptibility utilizing the GIS-AHP method for the Kuala Krai district in Kelantan state, Malaysia. Ten flood causative factors are considered for this study, such as (a) rainfall, (b) slope, (c) aspect, (d) curvature, (e) drainage density, (f) distance from the river, (g) land used and land covered (LULC), (h) soil map, (i) topographical wetness index (TWI), and (j) stream power index (SPI). A pairwise comparison matrix is built by Saaty's scale. In the Kuala Krai region, the rainfall and the slope cause more floods than others. The natural break Jackson method is used to classify the flood susceptible map into five classes: very high, high, moderate, low, and very low. The northern and southern regions of Kuala Krai are very high and highly susceptible to flooding.

Zafarullah Nizamani, Riaz Ahmed Soomro, Akihiko Nakayama, Montasir Osman Ahmed Ali
Utilization of Zeolite Material with Chemical and Physical Activation as SCC Concrete (Self Compacting Concrete)

Concrete is a combination of coarse aggregate, sand, cement, and water. In construction technology that is increasingly developing, it is required to make the answer to the problem of providing constructive materials one of the innovations is that SCC concrete has a fairly high workability value. In previous studies that used zeolite as a substitute for cement for SCC concrete, what was different in this study was that the zeolite material was moderated first by chemical and physical activation. This study aims to determine the effect of zeolite activation on the compressive strength and workability of SCC fresh concrete. In chemical activation using 1 M NaOH and physical activation using a temperature of 250 °C. Activated zeolite was used as a substitute for cement with variations of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% for each variation of 3 samples. The use of SP is 1.2% by weight of cement. This research provides knowledge about the use of zeolite by being activated first. In the manufacture of SCC concrete using 55% fine aggregate and 45% coarse aggregate and the design quality in this study is 40 MPa with reference to the procedure for making concrete SNI 03-2843-2000 with a sample of 12 cylinders with a diameter of 150 mm and a height of 300 mm. The compressive strength test of concrete was carried out at the age of 28 days of concrete. The results and research indicate that the optimum compressive strength with the use of zeolite in chemical activation is found in the 10% compressive strength variation and on physical activation there is a 20% compressive strength variation.

Ahmad Yudi, Axcel Joshua, Yeremi Alexander, Syahidus Syuhada, W Rindu Trisna
Comparative Study of Vacuum Bagging and Hand Lay Up Methods for Coconut Coir Fiber Composite Materials as an Alternative to Wood Boards

The concept of green material has begun to be developed to make environmentally eco-engineering materials. The abundant availability of coco fiber can be used as reinforcement in composite materials. This experimental research was conducted to see the effect of making coconut fiber composite material using the vacuum bagging method and the hand lay-up method on the occurrence of voids in it. Then it will be used as an alternative material to replace wooden boards. From the tensile test, the vacuum bagging method obtained a tensile strength value of 53.16 Mpa, an increase of 47.17% compared to the other method. From this value, this material cannot be used as a substitute for wooden boards, but can be used for waterproof and termite-resistant board materials. The use of the vacuum bagging method is also good enough to reduce the possibility of hole defects that arise in the other method.

Juriah Mulyanti, Sukamto, Bayu Megaprastio, Muhammad Arief Saputro, Andi Prayoga
Improved Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Columns in Fire Exposure by Strengthening Stirrup Reinforcement

Fire exposure is very dangerous to the column. The strength of the column will be reduced due to exposure to fire. Stirrups can be used to confine concrete from spalling and minimize buckling of reinforcing steel. Based on these reasons, it is necessary to conduct research on the improved resistance of reinforced concrete columns in fire exposure by strengthening stirrup reinforcement. Six concrete columns with a cross section of 150 × 150 mm2 with a length of 1000 mm were used in this study. Four reinforcement bars with a diameter of 10 mm and stirrups with a diameter of 6 mm were used with stirrup spacing variations of 60, 90, and 120 mm. Three specimens were exposed to fire and the other three were not. From the results of the study, it was found that the variation of stirrup spacing below the maximum space based on the code did not significantly affect the strength of the column. Maximum stirrup spacing in code was enough for fire exposure.

Prasetya Adi, Arusmalem Ginting, Bing Santosa

Environmental Sustainability

Frontmatter
Reducing Bod and TSS Levels in Batik Wastewater Using Moringa Seeds Coagulant (Moringa Oleifera)

Batik wastewater contains suspended particles and high organic matter originating from the process of pelodorant and cloth washing, so that batik wastewater has BOD and TSS characteristics that exceed the quality standards of Per Men LHK No. 16 of 2019 concerning Textile Industry Wastewater Quality Standards. To overcome this problem, there is a need for wastewater treatment, such as coagulation. Moringa seeds powder is one of natural coagulant that has potentioal to be used in coagulation. This study was conducted to analyze the characteristics of Moringa seeds as a natural coagulant and its optimum dose in reducing TSS and BOD concentration in batik wastewater. FTIR was carried out to determine the Moringa seeds substances characteristics. Variations of dose natural coagulant Moringa seeds used were 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, dan 22 gr/L. The test was carried out using jar test with a stirring speed of coagulation and flocculation were100 rpm for 3 min and 40 rpm for 12 min, respectively settling time was set for 45 min. Based on the results, TSS concentration was decreased significantly for about 84.47% at 18 gr/L. While for BOD, the concentration was reduced about 37.84% at 22 gr/L. From correlation analysis through the SPSS software program, it was found that decrease in TSS concentration has weak correlation with BOD.

Gustiana Zaskya Sinaga, Andika Munandar, Rahma Yanda
Characterization of Fly Ash: Effect on Compressive Strength and Thickening Time of Alkaline-Activated Fly Ash Cement at Downhole Condition

The construction industry is currently switching to geopolymer cement, a greener product from power plant waste. While the utilization of geopolymer cement in the construction industry is well-known, its application as well cement is still being researched. Current study analyzes fly ash composition from two power plants, Tanjung Bin and Manjung Power Plant, on compressive strength and thickening time under downhole conditions per API RP 10B-2. Findings on compressive strength reveal that silica to alumina ratios of 2.0 to 2.5 resulted in higher compressive strength than ratios of less than 2.0. In addition, compressive strength increases as iron oxide and calcium oxide concentrations increase from 7.79% to 15.9% and 6.73% to 22.2%, respectively. Fly ash composition had almost no effect on geopolymer cement thickening time at 60 °C and 2000psi. The thickening time is more likely to be influenced by extrinsic factors, including temperature, pressure, and the presence of a retarder or accelerator.

Nurul Nazmin Zulkarnain, Yon Azwa Sazali, Afif Izwan A. Hamid, Noraini Kamizan, Siti Humairah A. Rahman, Ahmad Amirhilmi A. Razak, MFirdaus Habarudin
Lithium and Boron Recovery From Oil Field Produced Water: A Mini Review

Produced water (PW) from oil and gas industries contains strategically important elements such as Lithium (Li) and Boron (B). The multiple application of Li and B apart from the production of heavy-duty batteries and ceramic industry give boom to the economic growth worldwide. Various effort have been poured in to investigate the cost-effective, sustainable and high recovery of Li and B. In this review paper, technologies for Li and B recovery from brine and PW is discussed emphasizing on the utilization of the PW for the recovery of these elements. Future outlook should tap into the need for the characterization of produced water to extract valuable elements and the use of hybrid technologies would be beneficial for the treatment and extraction of rare metals from the oil field produced water.

Rabia Khatoon, Yeek-Chia Ho, Shamsul Rahman B. Mohamed Kutty, Khairulazhar Jumbri, Maung Maung Myo Thant, Dong Suk Han
Pyrolysis Behavior of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Plastic Waste Under the Presence of Activated Montmorillonite Catalyst: TGA and EGA-MS Studies

Production of PET-based plastics, which are mainly used for food and beverage packaging, continuously increases in amount annually, which has been widely reported to cause various severe environmental issues. Pyrolysis is one of the possible methods to convert PET plastic wastes into valuable products such as benzene-rich oil. Unfortunately, its larger-scale development is still hindered and challenging to pursue since it produces acidic compounds as the main product, such as terephthalic acid, which is undesirable because it can cause blockage of the reactor pipeline and corrosion. In this work, catalytic pyrolysis of PET has been investigated over a thermally activated montmorillonite (AMMT) catalyst to increase the feasibility of PET recycling for energy production. The thermal and catalytic pyrolysis behavior of PET under AMMT was comprehensively investigated by TGA and EGA-MS analyses. TGA analysis results indicated that the presence of AMMT reduced the onset and maximum decomposition temperature of PET pyrolysis. Moreover, the isothermal TGA result exhibited that the presence of AMMT could significantly reduce the amount of the produced carbonaceous residue. From EGA-MS analysis, it can be obtained that the presence of AMMT indeed changed the amount and distribution of evolved gaseous products, as indicated by the difference in the extracted ion thermogram intensities.

Tarmizi Taher, Andika Munandar, Nurul Mawaddah, Raden Putra, Neza Rahayu Palapa, Aldes Lesbani
Evaluation of Land Subsidence Prevention to Minimize the Flood Risk in a Port City

The study aims to evaluate the indirect benefit of artificial groundwater recharge in reducing the flood risk in a port city. A flood inundation model and flood damage costs model are conducted to obtain the spatial hazard map and flood damage costs. The study used three scenarios of groundwater recharge, which are indicated by the groundwater table increase. They are groundwater table increase by 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 m. Based on the results, each scenario produces a distinct reduction in flood risk. Increasing the groundwater level by 1-m could avoid the severer future flood risk by 24.2%. In comparison, the increasing 0.1-m groundwater could decrease the future flood risk by 3.8%. Our findings could give insight to the policymakers about the importance of slowing down the land subsidence rate.

Nurul Fajar Januriyadi, So Kazama, Idham R. Moe, Shuichi Kure
Removal of Naphthalene from Produced Water Using Oil Palm Leaves Waste Activated Carbon

The dissolved fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wastewater have many adverse effects on humans, animals, and water species. The objective of this study is to study the removal of PAHs in produced water (PW) using oil palm leaves activated carbon (OPLAC). The OPLAC was applied for the degradation of naphthalene (NAP), one of the commonly found PAH, in aquatic solution and PW at various pH (3–9), dosage (100–3000 mg/L) and contact time (5–90 min). The parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum parameters were as follows: pH of 3, dosage of 2197 mg/L and contact time of 72 min giving removal efficiency of 92.48% in aquatic solution. The results were verified in the laboratory. The removal efficiency of NAP from PW sample was 70.5% at optimized parameters. It was closer to the experimental results with 19% difference.

Muhammad Raza Ul Mustafa, Hifsa Khurshid, Yeek-Chia Ho, Mohamed Hasnain Isa
Characterization and Potential Analysis of Paper Waste as Raw Material for Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) Pellet Substitution

The city of West Jakarta, in the capital of Indonesia, produces paper waste in large quantities per year, approximately 60.74 tons of paper waste per day. Paper waste may have a high potential for energy recovery based on its characteristics and quantity. This study aims to compare the potential utilization of various types of paper waste as raw material for refuse-derived fuel (RDF) based on proximate analysis and their calorific value. Samples of paper waste of different types, including HVS paper, calendars, paperboard, baking paper, and newsprint, were collected from a temporary waste disposal site in West Jakarta. Samples were analyzed in a laboratory for proximate analysis, including the determination of water content, ash content, volatile matter content, fixed carbon content, and calorific value. Multiple linear regression is performed to determine variables that have a statistically significant correlation with the calorific value, then Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) Method was used to determine the best type of paper waste. Results showed a regression model for determining the calorific value of paper waste based on its proximate variables with an F-test result of Sig. <0.05. Based on TOPSIS, newsprint waste was selected as highest potential among other types of paper waste, with a calorific value of 4,366.942 kcal/kg, water content of 7.87%, volatile content of 73.66%, fixed carbon of 16.85, and ash content of 2.75%.

Nurulbaiti Listyendah Zahra, Intan Rahmalia, Fatimah Dinan Qonitan, I Wayan Koko Suryawan, Ariyanti Sarwono
The Perception of Vertical Holiness in Development of Multilevel Infrastructure As an Effort for Environmental Conservation and Preventing Transfer of Land Conversion

The increase in population requires the availability of residential locations that are increasing as well. Horizontal development results in land- use change, while the concept of Bali vertical development has been rejected by some due to discomfort when passing through the lower floors of high- rise infrastructure. This feeling arises because there are activities of people on the top floor so that they feel stepped on. The cause of feeling cemer/leteh is because the vertical limit of purity has not been understood as a limit that causes you to no longer feel cemer/leteh. This study aims to demonstrate the link between vertical sanctity and multilevel infrastructure design to curb land conversion and protect the environment. The method used is interviews and filling out questionnaires by stakeholders in order to obtain a relationship between vertical sanctity and multilevel infrastructure design. The results of this study are interrelated and indicate that communities embrace the sacred vertical distance of sanctity that must be applied when designing multilevel infrastructure. This concept is expected to be accepted by the global and in- ternational community.

I Made Sastra Wibawa, Shinta Enggar Maharani, Krisna Kurniari, I. Kadek Ardi Putra
The Effects of Changes in Socializing Trips, Discretionary Trips & Activities, During COVID-19 Pandemic on Affective Well-Being

The outbreak of COVID-19 in 2019 affected various countries worldwide, forcing national, provincial, and local governments to impose widespread travel restrictions in the interest of public health. Men, women, and children have been mostly confined to their homes for several months due to the imposed travel restrictions. As a result, people had to adapt to alternative living/working in restricted situations. A prolonged period of confinement to one's home seemed to impact people's behaviour and affective well-being. Hence, this study is particularly interested in analysing changes in socialising trips and discretionary trips during the COVID-19 pandemic on affective well-being. An online survey was conducted in Malaysia (N = 438) to seek the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on travel behaviour activity and as well as to affective well-being. By using the Malaysia 2021 dataset, this study analyses the effects of changes in socialising, discretionary trips, and activities on affective well-being. The bivariate and multivariate analysis has been used to determine the relationship between variables. From the findings, the trip that has the most significant impact on affective well-being is the trip to dining on the weekdays during the PKPP phase while for other trips the result is varied. It is crucial to understand the relationship between these variables as it could help with predicting future human travel behaviour.

M. Ridwan, Anas Zahkiah Hanum Azmera, Dimas B. E. Dharmowijoyo, Liza Evianti Tanjung
Design of E-Waste Management System for Flood- Prone Area (Case Study: Jakarta, Indonesia)

Pesanggrahan District is one of the flooded areas which results in high generation of electronic waste (e-waste). electronic equipment that was exposed to floodwaters becomes damaged and becomes e-waste. Pesanggrahan Subdistrict has a pick-up system of at least 5 kg of e- waste using an application from the DKI Jakarta Provincial Environmental Service. Residents were reluctant to dispose of their e-waste and choose to store it because they do not understand how to use the application and the minimum pick-up is 5 kg. If e-waste is stored for too long and is not disposed of immediately it can endanger health and the environment. Pesanggrahan District has an e-waste temporary storage building (TSB). However, the TSB has not met the design criteria according to government role No. 101 of 2014. Design of e-waste management system was carried out so that the e-waste generated in the Pesanggrahan sub-district was managed appropriately based on regulations and easier for citizens to dispose of their e-waste. There are two alternative solutions, namely scenario 1 using an indirect communal collection pattern and scenario 2 using an indirect individual pattern. Based on the analysis of economic and environmental aspects, scenario 1 is the selected scenario because it has a lower potential environmental impact than scenario 2. This project can make a significant contribution to the filed of e- waste management in Indonesia in particular and the world community in general because of limited data of e-waste research.

Nova Ulhasanah, Sinthia Apriani, Mega Mutiara Sari
Review of Rubber-Based Waste in Compressed Bricks

The management of the production and post-use waste disposal from rubber-based materials production or rubber waste has been a concern as it might negatively impact the environment, e.g. water and soil pollution. Henceforth, this study investigates the feasibility of utilizing rubber waste in compressed rubberized bricks. This study discusses the source of rubber waste and the design parameters for the mix ratio of compressed bricks and rubber waste. Compressive strength and water absorption were observed to examine the behaviour of the compressed bricks.

Ai Shyn Tan, Jee Cheat Tan, Lee Woen Ean, Cheng Yee Ng, Bashar S. Mohammed, Shuhairy Norhisham
Zero Runoff Drainage System for Bintaro Jaya Xchange Mall Project in South Tangerang, Indonesia

Population growth in Indonesia is increasing day by day, especially in South Tangerang. Infrastructure development in the housing and recreation sector has begun to be intensified. One of the areas being developed is Bintaro Xchange Mall Phase II, South Tangerang. In its development, special attention is needed to hydrological problems that can occur such as puddles and even floods. In this study, a drainage system will be planned using the zero runoff concept so as not to provide water runoff into city drains using infiltration wells and rainwater harvesting (RWH). Based on the result of drainage calculations the peak discharge was 0.116 m3/s, therefor to fulfill the zero runoff concept, 106 infiltration wells were built in the area, and used 3 rainwater harvesting to collect water that falls from the roof of the building.

Luhur Budi Nanda, Teddy W. Sudinda
Development of Rainfall-Runoff Model Using Mock Formula with the Calibration of Stream Discharge in Cisadane Watershed - Indonesia

Rainfall-runoff model is one way to model the amount of rainfall that will become runoff and baseflow. Many models have been developed such as the Mock model which is quite simple but has a fairly good level of accuracy. This study aims to model rainfall runoff with the Mock formula and calibrate the model with measured discharge at one discharge station. This study uses the Cisadane watershed in West Java Indonesia for the location study and Serpong station as the discharge station. The modeling will be carried out with 2 scenarios, a monthly rainfall-runoff model in 1 year and the average monthly rainfall-runoff model for several years. The calibration parameter used is Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). From the model results, it is obtained that the model calibration results with a fairly good measured discharge with a satisfactory NSE value and R2 is close to 1.

Dina P. A. Hidayat, W. D. Sri Legowo, Mohammad Farid
Performance Analysis of Green Company in State Electricity Company Indonesia

A green firm is a notion where businesses minimize or eliminate harmful effects on the environment while achieving their objectives. This study evaluates the effectiveness of State Electricity Company as a green business. The research employs the green company analysis method, which is carried out by compiling KPIs and then looking for the weights on each KPI with a questionnaire of the AHP. The performance of the green company, State Electricity Company, improved by 60% as a result of this study, putting it in the marginal or average range. However, there is still room for improvement, including more research on reasonably priced renewable energy sources, providing transportation to the company from a specific location, enhancing the system from waste accumulation, and optimizing efforts to reduce waste. The findings of this study can be used to assess how well green businesses are performing and to suggest ways to make improvements.

Arinda Soraya Putri, Hafidh Munawir, Dyah Widayanti, Nadiea Aurealnisa Syazili
Case-Based Reasoning Method Implementation for Well Water Feasibility Recommendation System with Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

Water is the most important natural resource used by humans to meet the needs of life. And water is one of the media that can be used by pathogenic microorganisms as a place to breed and also as a temporary residence before moving to humans so tolluted water can cause health problems. The community must be able to know the requirements for drinking water, especially the use of well water that will be used suitable for consumption by the body. In addition, the quality of water in clean water supply facilities, namely well water that does not meet the requirements is also a problem that needs attention and is often found in the community. The aim of this research is to apply the case based reasoning method in the recommendation system for the feasibility of well water using the nearest neighbor algorithm. Measurement of the feasibility of well water uses physical parameters consisting of 6 attributes, namely (1) turbidity, (2) color, (3) dissolved solids, (4) temperature, (5) taste and (6) smell. In testing the system on 5 aspects of usability testing based on the results of questionnaires to 20 respondents, namely the auxiliary aspect gave a value of 71%, the interface aspect gave a value of 80%, the navigation aspect was 84%, the pedagogical aspect was 78% and the robustness aspect was 78%. With a total average of 78% overall test results which identify the well water recommendation system suitable for use by users.

Jemmy Edwin Bororing, MZ Yumarlin, Sri Rahayu, Agustin Setyorini, Fatsyahrina Fitriastuti, Jeffry Andhika Saputra
Most Prioritised Points in GREENSHIP New Building Certification

The GREENSHIP New Building issued by the Green Building Council Indonesia (GBCI) is currently the most widely used assessment tool by buildings to assess performance in terms of environmental friendliness, where the goal is to gain recognition as a green building through the GREENSHIP certification system. This research was conducted to identify points from the criteria in the GREENSHIP New Building, which are priority points for building owners to take in achieving a rank in the GREENSHIP certification system. Based on the data in the GBCI, it can be sorted, selected and then statistically to identify and illustrate the priorities of the building owner in achieving the GREENSHIP certification rating. The results of this study is to identify the behavior of building owners in achieving GREENSHIP certification ratings so that obstacles in the implementation of green building certification can be identified.

Muhammad Rizky Waskito Aribowo, Bambang E. Yuwono
The Impacts of Revitalization on the Saribu Rumah Gadang Cultural Area Sustainability

The Saribu Rumah Gadang (SRG) area in South Solok Regency has been around for hundreds of years. In its development, Rumah Gadang which is located in this area has decreased in quality due to unfriendly weather. Between 2019–2020 the Ministry of PUPR (Dinas Pekerjaan Umum dan Tata Ruang/Department of Public Works and Spatial Planning) carried out revitalization efforts for the cultural area. The revitalization process causes changes to the Saribu Rumah Gadang area. The purpose of this study was to determine the diversity of changes after the revitalization process in the SRG area and the impacts they caused. This study uses a survey method, with the process of searching for direct observation data and interviews from traditional advice, homestay managers and local communities. The results showed that the revitalization activities in the SRG area had a positive impact in the form of an increase in the fields of tourism, economy, social and culture and proved to increase the value of regional cultural tourism in the area. Besides the positive influence of conservation activities, there are also negative effects, namely the local community feels disturbed by the arrival of tourists to the SRG area, but overall that this revitalization program has a major impact on the sustainability of the Saribu Rumah Gadang cultural area.

Dhani Mutiari, Marwah Dwi Ramadhanti, Fadilla Tri Nugraheni
Effect of Polypropylene Fibre on High Volume Fly Ash Self-compacting Concrete in Terms of Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength, and Concrete Abrasion

Concrete is the most widely used material in building construction because of its various advantages. Although it has many advantages, concrete in water faces problems of abrasion due to water flow. Therefore, the use of High volume fly ash (HVFA) in conjunction with polypropylene fibres is expected to be an alternative solution to the problem of concrete abrasion. This paper presents the study on the effect of high-volume fly ash concrete reinforced with polypropylene fibres in increasing the resistance of concrete to water flow abrasion. The testing program includes testing of fresh concrete (slump flow and T50 tests) and testing of hardened concrete (compressive strength of concrete, tensile strength of concrete and concrete abrasion). The Concrete abrasion test was conducted based on the standard of concrete abrasion in water. This study reveals that the use of polypropylene fibre had a positive impact in reducing the percentage of weight loss up to 24% for the abrasion test of HVFA. Furthermore, 0.6 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibre utilization can increase the tensile strength and compressive strength in comparison to High-volume fly ash concrete without fibre.

Mochamad Solikin, Fauzi Mubarak
The Effectiveness of COD Removal from Industrial Effluent Using Treatment Train System

In some cases, the steel industrial effluents may be treated and not be treated before it discharged into water bodies. The purposes of conducting this study are to characterize the steel industrial effluent from past research as a pollutant source benchmark and evaluate the effectiveness of COD removal for industrial effluent in a treatment train system. Three (3) sets of treatment trains (Set A, Set B & Set C) were set up as cascaded (stepped) system with various plant species planted in the engineered soil media. The best performance between the three (3) different configurations was Set C (Soil with Cordyline Fruiticosa plant). Set C obtained the highest removal rate than the other two (2) sets which was 98.9%. To conclude, the bioretention treatment train was very effective to treat steel industrial effluent and it is suggested that further study involve monitoring the performance of the treatment train system for a longer period of time to observe if the quality of effluent degrades over time.

Muhammad Faris Mohd Ramli, Husna Takaijudin, Manal Osman Mohamed Ali, Wafaa Ali Nsaif Alhamzah, Nor Amirah Ahmad Zubairi
Life Cycle Assessment of Utilization of Shredded Tire for Sustainable Road Embankment

This paper provides a life cycle assessment on the use of scrap tire used in subgrade for road embankment construction. The objective of this study is to compare energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission for two methods of constructing the fill embankment, a traditional method involving the filling with sand/soil materials and an alternative method utilizing the shredded tires. The replacement of shredded tires to soil by volume ranged from 10 to 50%. The life cycle assessment of scrapped tired is assessed. The result shows that the use of used car tire in embankment for soil is unlikely to offer environmental benefits due to the use of energy intensive tire recycling processes.

Vera H. Loo, Wahidul K. Biswas, Nicholas Z. S. Chin
Effect of Fire on High-Strength Fly-Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

Fire resistance of geopolymer concrete is superior to that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC)-based concrete. However, vulnerability of geopolymer concrete when exposed to real fire events is an issue. In view of the issue, a comparative evaluation of the fire resistances of OPC-based and geopolymer concrete was performed. OPC-based and fly-ash (FA)-based geopolymer concrete specimens were prepared with a standard strength grade of 60 MPa. A laboratory-scale simulation of real fire events was conducted by exposing the specimens to fire at 200, 500 and 1000 °C for 2 h. Fire resistances of the specimens were evaluated by performing tests to determine mass loss and residual compressive strength and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) before and after exposure to fire. Due to water evaporation, the OPC- based concrete incurred mass losses of 2.41, 4.45, and 7.7% when exposed to fire at 200, 500, and 1000 °C, respectively. Similarly, when exposed to fire at 200, 500, and 1000 °C, the FA-based concrete had minor mass losses of 1.4, 1.96, and 2.59%, respectively. According to the TGA analysis, the weight loss of geopolymer concrete was slightly higher than that of OPC up to 400 °C due to evaporation of water from the sample. At higher temperatures, the total weight loss of OPC is 6.1% whereas geopolymer is 4.5%, indicating that geopolymer concrete was more chemically stable than OPC following exposure to high temperature fire.

Siti Nooriza Abd Razak, Nasir Shafiq, Laurent Guillaumat, Vicky Kumar Lohana, Syed Ahmad Farhan, Farah Amira Ahmad Shafee
Study on Correlation Among Roof Area, Reservoir Volume and Domestic Water Availability from Rainwater Harvesting in East Part of Surabaya

This research investigates the application of rainwater harvesting system as clean water source alternative in East Surabaya. The rainwater harvesting system performance is simulated to obtain the water availability for typical residential lot size in the study area. The water demand in this study is assumed as three scenarios. Reservoir volume is calculated based on available area for typical lot types in Indonesia. Daily and monthly rainfall data is used to simulate the rainwater harvesting system performance and to obtain the correlation between roof area, reservoir volume and water availability. Simulation results show that 90% water availability is achieved by the system for lower water demand of 20 l/person/day. The reservoir volume needed to hold water in annual, monthly, and daily simulations, respectively, is 15, 12 and 10.5 m3. The correlation between roof area and reservoir volume with water availability is also developed. The ratio between the volume of the reservoir used to hold water and the total water demand for one year is 34–51%. Even though the rainwater harvesting system could give a 90% water availability, there will be a deficit of water in dry season. Therefore, a large reservoir is needed to fulfil the water requirement in the dry season.

Umboro Lasminto, Satria Damarnegara, Bernadeta Elie, Rayhan Airlangga, Dina Permatasari, Javier Aqilla
Criteria of Low Embodied Energy Material Selection for Sustainable Building Design

The high use of construction materials that have a massive value of Embodied Energy (EE) is one of the causes of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and they are still widely used in construction projects in Indonesia. This study was conducted to investigate the criteria of materials selection that have low embodied energy in supporting the realisation of sustainable building design. An extensive literature review was done to conclude the essential decision criteria for suitable construction materials, followed by a survey to confirm the criteria and identify possible alternatives for materials. Triangulation methodology was applied through qualitative and quantitative approaches. Safety and durability, maintainability, cost, life cycle, availability, and the process of installation/construction are found to be the criteria in the material selection.

Yani Rahmawati, Rissa Syafutri, Ariessa K. Pratami, Jatmika Adi Suryabrata, Christiono Utomo, Aqsha
Improving the Quality of Agricultural Wastes for Solid Fuels Employing Torrefaction: A Case Study in Indonesia

Using biomass as a fuel has some limitations, including high moisture and volatile contents, low energy density, and easily degraded. Furthermore, torrefaction can be used as a pretreatment to reduce the weakness. The process is pyrolysis at low temperatures. Therefore, the aim of this study is to improve the quality of biomass using torrefaction. Three biomass samples were used: rice husk, cocoa pod shell, and sawdust. The results showed that rice husk has the lowest bulk density, while the highest is the cocoa pod shell. Sawdust possesses the highest mass yield, while the energy yield of cocoa husk is the highest. The torrefaction reduced the moisture and volatile contents, thereby increasing the fixed carbon and heating value. The results also showed that rice husk has the highest ash content before and after torrefaction. Furthermore, the samples changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic with reduced reactivity. Also, the raw and torrefied rice husks had the highest residue after combustion, while the lowest was found in sawdust. Finally, the cocoa pod shell had the lowest combustion temperature, while the highest was found in the torrefied sawdust.

Untoro Budi Surono, Mochamad Syamsiro, Nugroho Agung Pambudi
Forecasting Longshore Sediment Transport on a Wave-Dominated Coast Using Various Wave Data Sources

Wave data is critical for calculating sediment transport, especially longshore sediment transport. However, wave measurement data is not always available in most areas of the Indonesian ocean, particularly on the Glagah-Congot Coast, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Because of the breakwater construction, this coast is expected to experience unbalanced longshore sediment transport. Therefore, severe accretion and erosion occurred at certain locations on this coast. This study aims to look at how well ECMWF and ERDDAP wave data can be used to predict the transport of longshore sediment. Furthermore, the CERC equation is applied to calculate longshore sediment transport. These results compare to those of a previous computation utilizing Indian Ocean (JICA) wave data. The study’s findings show that all wave data sources show the same trend of longshore sediment transport even though the values differ. Because the significant wave height is mostly from the south, sediment transport on this coast is primarily to the west.

Tania Edna Bhakty, Khusnul Setia Wardani, Nizar Achmad, Titiek Widyasari, Gregorius Ranggawuni
Literature Review on Covid-19 Pandemic Emergency Response

Covid-19 is a worldwide epidemic that has affected a number of countries. The purpose of this article is to disseminate information on the COVID-19 Pandemic Emergency Response. A Literature Review on the Emergency Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic was done to attain this purpose. Data from the CDC, Bioscience, Lancet, Nature, Oxford, NEJM, Cell, Science, Wiley, JAMA, BMJ, Elsevier, MedRxiv, MDPI, and Science Direct were obtained through a search process using the Google Scholar search engine with databases from CDC, Bioscience, Lancet, Nature, Oxford, NEJM, Cell, Science, Wiley, JAMA, BMJ, Elsevier, MedRxiv, MDPI, and According to the studies conducted, each government's emergency response to the COVID-19 Pandemic differs. Contact tracking, monitoring asymptomatic contacts, coordination, isolation, quarantine, limiting access in and out of the region, and arranging funds to aid the economy are among the measures adopted. The advantages of the COVID-19 Emergency Response Abroad should help improve the COVID-19 Emergency Response in Indonesia.

Afiqoh Akmalia Fahmi, Gustisia Rahmi Nastiti, Eko Setiawan, Arinda Soraya Putri
Investigation on the Properties of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Rejuvenated with Rubber Seed Oil

Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) lacks the volatility and became very hard over time due to aging effects. Rejuvenation is one of the methods used in the recycling of aged asphalt pavement to recover its original properties. The study aims to investigate the optimum RSO content to rejuvenate aged 60/70 grade binder and study their compatibility as well as microstructural properties of the binders. The conventional tests showed that the more RSO added, the softer the binder becomes. However, referring to the criteria limitations for both softening point and penetration tests for the 60/70 binder, an optimum percentage of RSO which is 3.25% has been determined. The storage stability test on the 0% and 3% RSO-rejuvenated samples show that the properties enhancement by RSO proves the compatibility of the binder. FTIR and GC–MS chemical characterization has shown important functional groups and chemical compounds that improve the volatility and soften the binder to its original properties. The responsible compounds recognized are palmitic acid, aromatics, oleic acid, oleamide, phthalic acid, disulfides, secondary amine, and aliphatic iodo-compound. Rejuvenation of RAP with RSO has had the bee structures, white spots, and peri-phase decreased while the perpetua phase increased through AFM surface analysis. AFM study concluded that the morphological properties of RAP has been altered by RSO rejuvenation.

Nur Izzah Batrisyia Binti Mohd Yusof, Abdul Muhaimin Memon, Muslich Hartadi Sutanto
Environmental Impact Analysis on Dyes in Handwritten Batik

Batik Jambe Kusuma produces written and stamped batik using two types of synthetic dyes, namely indigosol and reactive dyes. The high level of batik demand using synthetic dyes materials has an impact on the environment. This study aims to calculate, analyze and compare the environmental impact of the use of synthetic dyes in batik production. Data processing uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method to compare the environmental impact due to the use of the two types of dyes. It was found that the indigosol material has a higher total impact than the reactive material, which is 78.8933 Pt, while the impact reactive material is 78.55291 Pt. This result shows that the production with indigosol dyes has more impact to the environment than reactive dyes. Recommendations for improvements to increase batik production by using reactive dyes because they are more environmental friendly.

Etika Muslimah, Maharani Reynara, Ratnanto Fitriadi
Effects of Change of Discretionary Trips & Activities, During COVID-19 Pandemic Towards Social & Mental Health

In order to analyse the complexity of travel behaviour, activity pattern study which is one of the human activity approaches which includes social science perspective has been implemented in this study to alleviate the limitations in traditional concept. Based on the multivariate analysis, only dining trips is significant towards social health. In addition, online shopping is found to impact both social and mental health model, while online grocery shopping is affecting mental health model only. In a nutshell, COVID-19 pandemic caused an activity-travel behavior changes specifically in out-of-home travel participations and in-home activities converging on socialising and discretionary purposes. For future work, it is suggested to incorporate individuals time-use diary over a time period in the dataset and evaluate health as three factor structure which are physical, social and mental health.

Rahayu Sulistyorini, Nur Shalin Abdi, Dimas B. E. Dharmowijoyo, Liza EviantiTanjung
Performance Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) on VLAN Network for Development Smart Hospitals

This research to analysis performace impelementation Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) for support infrastructure smart hospitals. BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) is a routing protocol used to exchange routing information between computers network. The performance of BGP is to map IP network table that points to the network reached between Autonomous Systems (AS). This study resulted in network optimization with a smaller response time of 39 ms when retrieving patient data. The method used is the analysis of quality of service. Testing using winbox as a simulation tool.

Ryan Ari Setyawan, Fatsyahrina Fitriastuti, Agus Wari Yulianto
Optimum Content of Matos as an Additive in the Application of Cement Soil Stabilization as a Cement Composite Soil Base Layer

The challenge of applying soil–cement stabilization as a soil–cement composite foundation layer (LFSKT) in Indonesia is to find quarry soil with a grain content of less than 35% passing filter no. (additive) to achieve the required strength. This paper presents a laboratory study's results on adding Matos soil stabilizer additives to cement-free soil compressive strength. A series of laboratory tests based on the Indonesian National Standard was carried out on the soil–cement and soil–cement-mats mixture composition to determine the optimal Matos content. The cement content used was 6%, 8% and 10% of the dry weight of the soil grains, while the Matos content was 1%, 1.5% and 2% of the cement weight. The study's results showed that the optimum Matos content of 1.5% occurred for all cement content in A-7-6 soil and 6% cement content in A-7-5 and A-4 soils.

Teguh Widodo, Nur Ayu Diana, Arusmalem Ginting
IoT İmplementation to Minimize the Vehicle Queue at the Traffic Lights Intersection

This study aims to minimize traffic jams that often occur at crossroads. Not all roads are congested with vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust the time duration for the traffic light according to the density of vehicles on a lane at the intersection. This system is based on IoT (Internet of Things) which refers to a network that connects various physical devices with different protocols. The Raspberry Pi 4 Model B functions as a controller to run the traffic light program. Infrared sensors are placed at several points to detect the queue length of vehicles and then become input to the system, then processed and converted into time duration. If the queue of vehicles is getting longer, then the duration of time for the green light will be even greater. Thus, vehicle users will be more comfortable driving because the time required at traffic lights becomes more efficient.

Fatsyahrina Fitriastuti, Ryan Ari Setyawan, Muhammad Arif Ma’ruf Setiawan, Jemmy Edwin Bororing
Organic Matter Removal from Sanitary Landfill Leachate Through Chemical Oxidation

Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have been widely used for wastewater treatment. Persulfate (PS) activation through different pathways has attracted a lot of attention; due to the generation of sulfate radicals which have high oxidation potential. In this study, a series of laboratory-scale experiments were conducted on landfill leachate, using PS/Fe2+/H2O2 and PS/Fe2+/SO32− systems. A statistical design of experiments was adopted using Design Expert 11 software. COD removal efficiency for both systems was evaluated and the optimum operating conditions were determined using Response Surface Methodology. The effects of the independent variables (pH, chemical doses, and reaction) on the removal of COD were studied. The optimised COD removal was 68% at pH 5 for PS/Fe2+/H2O2 system. Fe2+, H2O2, and PS doses were 1.95 mM, 0.05 mM, and 0.50 mM, respectively, with 10 min reaction time. 90% COD removal was obtained at pH 3.67, Fe2+ dose of 0.5 mM, SO32− dose of 0.5 µM, and PS dose of 1.5 mM with 17 min reaction time for PS/Fe2+/SO32− system.

Nurfarizah Didi Binti Abdullah, Mohamed Hasnain Isa, Rozeana Hj Md Juani, Asmaal Muizz Sallehhin Bin Hj Mohammad Sultan, Zuliana Binti Hj Nayan, Muhammad Raza Ul Mustafa

Infrastructure Efficiency

Frontmatter
Construction Players’ Awareness on the Use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Industrialized Building System (IBS) in Malaysian Construction Industry

The Public Work Department's (JKR) strategic plan for 2020–2025 aims to implement BIM in 50% of projects, increasing by 10% annually. BIM promotes collaboration, while IBS represents prefabrication in Malaysia. Construction companies invest in BIM and IBS to meet client demands, gradually incorporating them into projects. Challenges arise due to the lack of standardized guidance and resistance to change. Businesses establish BIM units and training programs to address these issues. BIM facilitates technology adoption and changes in management practices. The government encourages BIM and IBS for sustainable construction. IBS provides cost and time savings, increased productivity, and higher quality output. A questionnaire survey examines awareness of BIM and IBS in Malaysia's construction industry. Most industry players are aware of IBS adoption (90.2%) and BIM use (80.4%), with positive responses on their benefits and challenges.

Mohamad Zain Hashim, Idris Othman, Nur Syahirah M. Khalid, Siti Hafizan Hassan, Muriatul Khusmah Musa
Experimental, Numerical and Field Investigations on the Hydraulics Performance of Stormwater Curb-Opening Inlets

Roadway drainage is designed to collect the stormwater and channel it to a proper drainge system such as the stormwater inlets to avoid flooding on the road. A common type of stormwater inlet is the curb-opening inlet. The efficiency of the curb-opening inlets remains as one of the major challenges that causes surface ponding on the pavements and disturb the traffic movement. This paper aims to assess the efficiency of a typical depressed curb-opening inlets used in Malaysia through experimental, numerical, and field investigations. The experiments were conducted for various flows in a fabricated full-scale halfway road model. Later, a three-dimensional (3D) numerical modelling was developed using FLOW-3D software to validate outcomes from the experiments. Furthermore, a field investigation was also conducted at a selected area within the university to further compare the results. Outcomes from these three approaches showed similar trend, whereby the efficiency of depressed curb-opening inlet decreases as the approaching flow increases. On the other hand, some difference was observed between the experimental and field results. This could have caused by the surface roughness of the actual road, which would have infiltrated into the ground, leaving less flows to be intercepted by the inlet.

Zahiraniza Mustaffa, Ebrahim Hamid Hussein Al-Qadami, Aifaa Balqis Kamarul Zaman, Syed Muzzamil Hussain Shah
Nonlinear Modeling and Analysis of Cold-Formed Steel Beam-Column Connection

In the moment resisting frame system, the cold-formed steel beam is designed to be able to deform inelastically and produce sufficient ductility. Therefore, it is necessary to design the detailing of the beam-column connection elements that can accommodate the ductility requirements of the structure. Previous studies have shown that the use of stiffeners can increase the ductility and energy dissipation of beams. In addition, there are studies showing that gusset plate elements can increase the initial stiffness of CFS connections and frames resulting in good ductility and energy dissipation. Therefore, this study will propose a connection design by evaluating the effect of several variations of beam stiffener configuration on the behaviour of the connection. This research is analytical in nature using finite element based Sub-Assemblage numerical modeling using Abaqus software. The analysed behaviour of the connection includes the rotational moment curve, moment capacity, and ductility, energy dissipation. The results of the analysis show that the stiffener configuration with the shape of X, which is represented by S8 specimen, produces optimal connection behavior from other configurations. The S8 specimen has the largest moment capacity of the other models, which is 37.10 kNm and increase 14.47% over the benchmark specimen, S1. The S8 specimen also has the greatest ductility compared to the other specimens, which is 4.04 and increase of 108.63% over the S1 specimen. Furthermore, the S8 specimen has the largest energy dissipation, which is 6.54 kNm-rad and increase of 37.69% over the S1 specimen.

Data Iranata, Djoko Irawan, Muhammad Fauzan Akbari
Instrumented Pile Load Test Using Distributed Fibre Optic Sensor: Automation in Data Processing

Distributed Optical Fibre Strain Sensing (DOFSS) instrumented pile load test yields a continuous strain profile along the pile shafts by Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (BOTDA) technique, then further analyse to infer load transfer function (p-y curve) and shaft friction (t-z curve). The process of converting the raw DOFSS strain data to the meaningful pile load test report is however not that straightforward. It requires the process of trimming, positioning, flipping, averaging, curve fitting and other computations; often done manually and can result in inconsistency and interpretation errors of pile load performance. This paper aims to propose a standardised way of processing DOFSS data through an automated program incorporating the Finite Element Method (FEM). The developed algorithm was tested against several instrumented pile load tests with computational processing time in a matter of seconds. The interpretation of pile load-bearing capacity is compared between DOFSS and numerical analysis.

Aizat Akmal A. Mohamad Beddelee, Hisham Mohamad, Bun Pin Tee, Rini Asnida Abdullah
Diagonal Shear Test on Indonesian Masonry Walls

Unreinforced or confined masonry is a common traditional method for housing construction, particularly in developing countries, thanks to its easy and low cost construction. However, it is well known that masonry performance against earthquake is poor, due to the low tensile and shear strength. The literatures on the shear properties of typical Indonesian masonry is limited. Therefore in this study, a diagonal shear test on Indonesian masonry wall was performed to investigate the shear strength. Brick units with dimension of 200 × 100 × 50 mm and mortar with cement to sand ratio of 1:4 were used in this study. Such design is common in case of low rise Indonesian masonry housing. In addition, retrofitting method using bamboo is also proposed.

Farisal Akbar Rofiussan, Ahmad Basshofi Habieb, Djoko Irawan, Budi Suswanto
Analysis of the Effect of Asbuton on Porous Asphalt Mixtures for Heavy Load Traffic

The main problem of porous asphalt was clog up the pores that caused by the deformation of pavement under vehicular loading [19–21], and the creep of asphalt [22, 23], that is difficult to solve the pore blockage caused by vehicle loads and asphalt creep [24]. Porous asphalt requirements for heavy load traffic have not been determined, especially for Marshall stability values, permanent deformation (rutting) and void volume. For this reason, a certain gradation of a mixture of aggregate and high quality asphalt is required. Modification of asphalt with several types of additives to produce high quality asphalt will be carried out in this research. 60–70 penetration asphalt and PG-76 shell asphalt were used, with several additional materials, namely: cellulose fiber (Viatop), glass fiber and asbuton B-5/20. The best results were obtained from a combination of 60–70 penetration asphalt (3.5%) with B-5/20 asphalt (5%), which resulted in a Marshal stability value of 3200–4550 kg, flow = 5–7 mm, cavity volume = 9–10%, seepage (k) = 0.4–0.7 mm/s, AFD = 0.0% and contabro loss 8.43%. so that the influence of minerals and asphalt (asbuton) on the porous asphalt mixture will be analyzed.

Sutoyo, Mochtar, Prastyanto
Assessment of an Eight-Story Hospital Building with Nonlinear Static Analysis

The assessment of an existing eight-story reinforced concrete (RC) hospital building, built in 2011, was measured using Non-linear Static Analysis Procedures (NSAP). The research examines the performance of the building and its respond to the earthquake’s magnitude increment, in accordance with SNI 1726:2019 [1]. The NSAP has been performed and tested using ETABS software, which uses incremental lateral forces, positioned at the performance points, to determine the level of performance during failure conditions under 3 distinct conditions, such as yield conditions, local failure conditions and global failure conditions. Performance-based seismic design regulates the RC performance, to prevent potential hazards and actual building response according to the applicable regulations. The NSAP analysis phase begins with specifying the performance objectives, identification of the existing design, and conduct assessment appropriately and finally resume the RC’s performance accordingly. The analysis reveals the performance level condition at the RC’s performance point, when it reaches the performance level both in X direction and Y direction the structure experiences local collapse which is considered as Collapse Prevention (CP) condition. The response of the structure indicates that the plastic hinges mechanism occurs both in the beam and the column as well at the 1st floor up to the roof floor. The structure is more ductile in the Y-direction compared to the X direction. The research has stated that the reinforced concrete structure possesses appropriate ductility, the failure condition is elastic in the collapse prevention category and meets the performance-based design criteria.

Fahmy Hermawan, Nicolas Kanisius Sianturi
Consolidation Analysis Using Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD) and Preloading in the Phase I Belawan Reclamation Project with PLAXIS 2D and 3D

Geotechnical experts play an important role in an infrastructure development plan in soil investigations and also in determining the condition of the soil in the phase I Belawan reclamation project along with analyzing soil mechanics, knowing the soil condition and the strength of the soil pavement layer at the port is essential for minimizing the occurrence of failures in the implementation of stockpiling in the Belawan reclamation project. This paper aims to analyze and compare the amount of consolidation settlement analytically using the Terzaghi 1 Dimension method, with the finite element method with modeling in PLAXIS 2D and 3D using coarse, very coarse, medium, fine, and very fine types with data settlement plate (S47) in the field and Analyze and compare the amount of consolidation settlement with the PLAXIS 2D and 3D finite element method with several types of fineness of the mesh with data settlement plate (S47) in the field. The amount of consolidation settlement using the analytical method using the 1-dimensional Terzaghi consolidation formula obtained a decrease of 7,012 m. The consolidation settlement with each mesh type using PLAXIS 2D obtained the following settlement data: very coarse = 7,114 m, coarse = 7,114 m, medium = 6,994 m, fine = 6,976 m, and very fine = 6,892 m. for PLAXIS 3D, very coarse = 5,682 m, coarse = 7,769 m, medium = 6,456 m, fine = 6,659 m, very fine = 6,938 m. The magnitude of the decrease that occurred in the field using the Settlement plate (S47) was 6,942 m.

Gina Cynthia Raphita Hasibuan, Yunike Wulandari Br Tarigan, Roesyanto, Rudianto Surbakti
Numerical Modeling of One-Way Reinforced Concrete Wall Panels with Openings Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)

The research reported in this paper is based on a comparative numerical analysis between the FE analysis conducted on RC walls by Lima et al. [1] and the physical experiment by Mohammed et al. [2]. Seventeen one-way RC walls with eccentric (e  =  t/6) were modeled. Several opening sizes were used (5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of the concrete body total area). The results of the nonlinear analysis revealed that all walls with all possible CFRP configurations exhibited reduced deformation under load. The reduction percentage increases with opening size. On the other hand, the configuration of the CFRP affects the stress value and distribution, where CFRP sheets with 0° and 90° layout enhanced the maximum stress value by 5%. The strain value increased in areas far from the CFRP sheets and vice versa. The maximum strain occurred on the bottom corners of the openings, which explains the appearance of cracks in the concrete walls without CFRP.

M. J. Qaddura, L. W. Ean, B. S. Mohammed, Cheng Yee Ng
The Effect of Transfer Function on Fatigue Life Determination in Spectral Fatigue Analysis

Fatigue life estimation is essential in the design phase and reassessment of structural strength. One fatigue analysis method is the spectral analysis which uses a wave spectrum in the frequency domain. This study conducted a spectral analysis on a three legs jacket structure with different transfer functions in determining fatigue life. API RP-2A recommends performing frequency selection from the wave data transfer function. The result of this study is that the fatigue life value from selecting the API RP-2A frequency is more conservative than the wave data transfer function. In the analysis process, the API RP-2A method is more efficient in terms of time and data storage.

Arianta, Frengki Pardede, Muhammad Sholeh
The Impact of Way Sekampung Dam Development on the Economy of the Community in Bumi Ratu, Indonesia

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the construction and development of a dam in Bumi Ratu Village, Pringsewu Regency, Lampung Province, Indonesia. Based on the theory, there are four variables used to measure the economic impact that occurs, namely Job Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Job changes, and Community Income. Based on the results of the analysis using inferential statistical analysis and descriptive analysis, it was found that the construction of the Way Sekampung dam has an impact on the economy in Bumi Ratu Village from four measurement variables. The construction of dams spurs economic growth by opening up job opportunities and increasing business opportunities, and another impact is a change in people’s jobs and improving people’s income. This research can eventually become a reference for the further development of the Way Sekampung Dam in Pringsewu Regency, Lampung Province, Indonesia.

Ragil Arswindo, I. B. Ilham Malik, Yudha Rahman
Gas Pipeline Stress Analysis Affected by Landslide Induced Soil Deformation

The integrity of underground pipelines is critical in the gas transmission and distribution process. The effect of landslide-induced soil deformation on the stress development of an underground gas pipeline is discussed in this study. The finite element method is used to simulate soil deformation and determine its impact on pipeline stress. To represent a landslide condition on the field, soil strength parameters are reduced until the failure plane of the slope is formed. The results show that lowering the strength parameter to 15.7 kPa causes the stress in the pipe to exceed the allowable limit. To keep the stress on the pipe within the allowable stress limit, a recommendation for slope reinforcement using gabion walls at the slope’s toe is made.

Kadek W. Ghaneswari, Rangga A. Sudisman, Andri Mulia
Testing Using Bi-directional Method for Bored Pile on Clay Soil in Indonesia

Sei Alalak Curved Cable Stayed Bridge located at Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan is a replacement bridge located next to the previous bridge. Bored pile was chosen as its foundation with 1.8 m diameter and 70 m length design for 1350-ton ultimate capacity. The soil consists of medium to stiff clay along the pile length. Bi-directional load test was chosen over conventional load test considering the potentially damage in pile structure when using reaction system and cost when using the kentledge system. Vibrating wire strain gauge as its instrumentation installed at various level to get load transfer, skin friction distribution as well as t-z and q-z along the shaft. Result showed most of capacity borne by its shaft resistance under small displacement while the end bearing needs more displacement to fully mobilized.

Aksan Kawanda
Traditional Practices and Potential of Industrial Revolution 4.0 in the Construction Projects

The concept of Industrial Revolution (IR) 4.0 refers to the trend of digitization, automation, and use of information technology. Due to the unique environment of construction sites, the con-struction sector is currently lagging behind other industries when it comes to IR 4.0. Several research studies have made significant contributions to the use of IR 4.0 in construction projects. However, no scientometric research has been attempted to assess the holistic understanding of the current status of IR 4.0 applications. The purpose of this study is to conduct a bibliometric analysis of the present literature on IR 4.0 and its application in the construction sector. Automation, Blockchain, Digital Transformation, Digital Twin, Lean Construction, and Sustainability were found using keyword co-occurrence analysis to be the most IR 4.0 related topics implemented in the construction industry. In addition to that, it is recommended to develop more frameworks and strategies for enhancing the adoption of IR 4.0 in construction to enhance productivity and attain sustainable develop-ment. It is also found that adopting multiple emerging IR 4.0 technologies such as BIM, IoT, Blockchain, and Digital Twin in the construction industry will increase the advantages of IR 4.0. This study contributes to the field of the construction sector and IR 4.0 by assisting construction stackholders and researchers to explore the current and future trends of IR 4.0.

I Gusti Agung Ayu Istri Lestari, I Gede Angga Diputera, Abdullah O. Baarimah, Wesam Salah Alaloul, Muhammad Ali Musarat, Aawag Mohsen Alawag, Khalid Mhmoud Alzubi
Image Processing Applications in Construction Projects: Challenges and Opportunities

Image processing can be valuable in many aspects of the construction sector, including progress monitoring, material classification, resource tracking, and recognition. Massive images and videos are captured on construction sites regularly due to the growth of capturing devices, the accessibility of the Internet, and the increasing volume of storage databases, which has encouraged scholars to visually capture the different aspects and actual state of construction sites using image processing. Many researchers have conducted valuable attempts and developed a wide range of complicated methodologies for construction monitoring. Few studies, however, completely describe existing methodologies and introduce the challenges and opportunities for the implementation of image processing in the construction industry. As a result, this study focuses on the general technological path of many applied image processing techniques and tools employed in the construction sector to help researchers select research methodologies and approaches. This is followed by a discussion of potential research directions.

Tjokorda Istri Praganingrum, Ni Luh Made Ayu Mirayani Pradnyadari, Khalid Mhmoud Alzubi, Wesam Salah Alaloul, Marsail Al Salaheen, Muhammad Ali Musarat, Aawag Mohsen Alawag
Comparative Analysis of Vehicle Operating Cost Methods
(Cases Study: Medan-Binjai Toll Road)

In the life cycle cost analysis, retrenching the vehicle operational cost is estimated as a benefit due to an increase of road capacity and optimizing the life-cycle cost (LCC) is one strategic approach to achieve the sustainable infrastructure system. Vehicle operating cost is the cost related with ownership, operation, and ownership, and the cost of accumulation and vehicle insurance. With several types of VOC developing in the world, the purpose of this research is to analyse comparison of VOC between HDM 4, TRRL and other methods developed by the Indonesian Government. The results of this analysis indicates a significant difference towards the three model of estimation developed by the Indonesian Government or the one developed by the World Bank.

Ridwan Anas, David Barry Hariganta, Derry W. Nasution
Underwater Sill Layout for Efficient Sediment Deflection

In ports with jetty-style berths, where the basins and navigation channel are placed in the surfzone, sedimentation problems are common. Installing an underwater sill (UWS) prevents the sedimentation of navigational channels and basins. The objective of this research is to investigate the influence of the UWS layout on the structure’s capacity to redirect flow to the side. The three evaluated models (rectangular, trapezoidal, and curve) demonstrated that the UWS with a curve layout has a better capacity for deflecting flow away from the structure. This was indicated by the closeness of the exponent to the theoretical value, $${{\varvec{n}}}^{\boldsymbol{^{\prime}}}\approx 1$$ n ′ ≈ 1 .

Tania Edna Bhakty, Nur Yuwono, Bambang Triatmodjo, Ahmad Faramarz Ghalizhan
Efficiency of Infrastructure Planning of Retaining Wall as Flood Control in Bangin River Pecatu Badung Bali

A problem often caused by floods is the destructive power of water. Retaining wall construction is one of the flood prevention efforts. The purpose of this study is to identify the problem of flooding in Bangin River in Pecatu Badung Bali in order to take appropriate measures against flooding. B. Ability to plan retaining walls. When planning a retaining wall structure, some analysis of hydrology, hydraulics, and building safety in consideration of economic aspects. The methods used in this study are quantitative methods, namely direct observation and field measurements. Then, recalculations are made based on the design flood discharges at different times for the planning of flood barriers. The design flood discharge results are 15.47 m3/s in Q1, 49.74 m3/s in Q2 and 65.89 m3/s in Q5. The results of the HEC-RAS modeling, the critical depth value at the discharge of the 2- year return period is 1.54 m, the 5-year return period is 1.80 m, the 10-year return period is 1.93 m, the 25-year return period is 2.06 m. and the 50-year return period is 2.04 m. The design height of the retaining wall is 2,91 m above the riverbed. Safety analysis of retaining wall structures calculated based on normal and seismic building stability, bearing capacity it was determined that the design met the requirements due to soil, reinforcement, and foundation correspondences.

Anak Agung Ratu Ritaka Wangsa, IMade Nada, Ida Bagus Suryatmaja
Impact of Changes in SNI 1726 and SNI 2847 on Reinforcing Steel Weight of High-Rise Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Jakarta

Updates to the Indonesian seismic design code (SNI 1726) and the reinforced concrete design code (SNI 2847) have been implemented in practice simultaneously. Under these new codes, seismic loads increase significantly, especially for high-rise buildings in many areas of Indonesia, and the design requirements for concrete reinforcement become much more stringent. Therefore, it is predicted by the construction industry that there will be a significant increase in the need for reinforcing steel. By using a 32-story reinforced concrete case study building with a special moment resisting frame system as its lateral force resisting system, this paper presents a comparison of the design reinforcing steel weight when the building is designed based on a combination of SNI 1726:2012 and SNI 2847:2013, and when it is designed using a combination of SNI 1726:2019 and SNI 2847:2019. This study shows that although the increase in seismic load is significant, the increase in reinforcing steel is much lower, and the result can then be a reference of the increase in design reinforcement based on the latest codes.

Suradjin Sutjipto, Indrawati Sumeru, Sherrica Augustin Sucipto
Effective Mixing Lag Time of Two Phase Lime-Cement Stabilization on High Plasticity Clay

The use of soil–cement as pavement base material is one solution to the limitations of split rock in an area. The challenge of soil–cement use in Indonesia is how to increase the soil–cement strength to achieve requirements as a pavement material, especially in high-plasticity clay soils. One method of increasing soil–cement strength is to mix the soil with lime before it is mixed with cement and compacted. The mixing lag time must be sufficient so that the soil–lime chemical reaction runs well at once, but short enough to speed up the process of application. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study of the effect of mixing lag time on the UCS values of soil- cement-lime material. A series of physical properties, compaction and unconfined compression test according to SNI were performed on the untreated soil, and soil–lime-cement sample that prepared in mixing lag time 0, 2, 4 and 24 h. Lime content used is 2%, 6% and 10%, while the cement content is 10% of the soil dry weight. Grain size analysis and atterberg limit test performed to describe flocculation process and soil lime chemical reaction. The results of the study showed that the UCS value of sample prepared at 2 h and 4 h time-lag are 1/3 – 2/5 times UCS value of sample prepared at 24 h. The effective mixing lag time to provide sufficient soil–lime chemical reaction process is 24 h.

Teguh Widodo, Nur Ayu Diana
The Thermal Comfort of Sangkring Art Space Yogyakarta

Thermal comfort is one factor that affects the level of human comfort when carrying out activities and interacting. Human needs comfortable thermal conditions for carrying out activities indoors. Sangkring Art Space one of the galleries in Yogyakarta makes efforts to maximize natural airflow mechanism building. This study aims to determine the condition of thermal comfort and analyze the effect of natural airflow on the thermal comfort of Sangkring Art Space buildings. The method used in this study is a quantitative method by observing and measuring temperature, humidity and wind speed. Based on observation and measurement data, PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) and PPD (Pre-dicted Percentage Dissatisfied) calculations were carried out using the CBE Thermal Comfort Tool ASHRAE-55 to obtain a value scale that describes the thermal comfort conditions of visitors or users of the Sangkring Art Room. The results showed that Sangkring Art Space did not meet the standards for natural airflow and thermal comfort. Factors that cause it namely the speed of motion of air in space, location and shape of the ve building conditions and surrounding environment.

Rini Hidayati, Martha Karerinna Anugerah, Fadhilla Tri Nugrahaini
Challenges and Recommendations for Offshore Monopod Platform Installation

The design of a monopod structure is to suit shallow water depth with minimal platform facilities. This is for the platform to be less than 600MT, either the jacket or the topside portion. To reduce the cost of offshore installation, the design of the jacket or the topside may also require less tonnage derrick crane barge capacity. Hence, there are many optimized designs currently in the market. However, the risk during offshore installation can be very high, which can cause many challenges. This paper explains some of the challenges of installing a monopod, including the recommendations for the future design of monopods.

Khairan Syuhada Binti Kassim
Infill-Walls Interaction on Steel Moment Resisting Frame Due to Lateral Forces

Infill-walls are often used as partition for most low-rise buildings building structure and are usually considered as non-structural components. However, infill-walls can interact and affect its frame structure behavior due to lateral loads. Studies that had been done mostly using reinforced concrete as structure frame. Regarding to this matter, analysis is performed by creating ten models of three and five-stories steel moment resisting frame which contain infill-walls considered as loads only (M3Open & M5Open) , infill-walls with stiffened openings in centric position (M3Hole-strut, M3Hole-shell, M5Hole-strut, & M5Hole-shell), and full infill-walls (M3Full-strut, M3Full-shell, M5Full-strut, & M5Full-shell). Infill-walls that its stiffness is considered on are modeled as diagonal strut and shell elements. Each structure models then are analyzed to obtain elastic story displacement and inter-story drift. Results show that story displacements plot of strut-modeled cross section area of infill-walls with hole need to be reduced by 0.4 to approach shell-modeled plot. Meanwhile, no need to modify strut for full infill-walls.

I Ketut Diartama Kubon Tubuh, I Gede Gegiranang Wiryadi, I Putu Agus Putra Wirawan, I Kadek Aditya Setyawan, I Made Laksana Wira Saputra
Making the Strategic Disaster Mitigation in Building Foundations: A Case Study Pandak II Public Health Center

The soil conditions are mostly sandy and the groundwater level is shallow in Bantul Regency. Work of excavation construction is easy to landslides makes a hazard to workers. For this reason, comprehensive efforts are needed to reduce the risk of landslides that can endanger workers by carrying out mitigation activities. The case study was taken at Pandak II Public Health Center. This research aims to analyze the disaster mitigation of foundation work which previously had a design plan but different in the real conditions. Data analysis was carried out by reviewing real conditions and redesigning planning drawings that had previously been reviewed in the literature study and implementation methods that were in accordance with shallow groundwater levels so that the implementation of foundation work could be carried out safely and avoided landslides. Building foundation disaster mitigation is carried out with structural mitigation in the form of making a redesign of infrastructure drawings (redesign) as a driver of minimizing the impact of damage to building construction. Furthermore, non- structural mitigation with emergency planning if the building that has been built nearby will collapse due to the foundation in which the soil has been dug up beside the foundation.

Widya Kartika, Buddewi Sukindrawati, Sarju
Analysis of Runoff Discharge on Kaliurang Road Drainage Channels KM 6.5 – 7 Using SWMM 5.2 Model

Overflow in the highway drainage channel is a malfunction of the drainage function on Kaliurang road KM 6.5 - 7. A good drainage system is very necessary, so it is necessary to evaluate the drainage function on Kaliurang road KM 6.5 – 7 using the SWMM 5.2 model so that it can function optimally. The goal of the study was figure out the runoff discharge so that the drainage capacity could be evaluated and the highway could work as well as possible. SWMM model analysis to determine runoff discharge in each of the sub catchment area (DTA). The total runoff is an accumulation of draft rains with 2, 5 and 10-year re-periods. The largest runoff discharge in J7 is 0.728 m3/s at 2-year re-period, 0.729 m3/s at 5-year re-period, 0.73 m3/s at 10-year re-period. The simulation results obtained the largest runoff discharge in J7 because it is an accumulation of J6 and the catch from DTA 7 is the most extensive, which is 2.1 ha. SWMM 5.2 simulation results for link capacity analysis for existing channels, can be seen on channels SAL 6 and SAL 9 cannot receive runoff discharge from rain in 2, 5 and 10-years re-period. SAL 4 almost overflowed to receive rainwater runoff in a 10-year re-period. It is necessary to redesign the drainage channel to obtain the ideal channel size for SAL 4, SAL 6 and SAL 9.

Titiek Widyasari, Nizar Achmad, Tania Edna Bhakty, Ardha Candra Perdana
The Comparison of the Effect of Activity Space on Health Performance (Physical and Mental Health) Between Malaysia City and Indonesia City

As the human population getting higher, people demand for more facilities to satisfy their daily needs. In order to fulfil their needs, people need to travel. More facilities will result in more mobility requirement by people and at the same time more travels will be done. The travel pattern of people can be best illustrated by using the space–time prism as it takes into account the distance and time of the travels performed to the required location. Increasing travels might affect the health performances of people in various condition. Several health variables such as general health, physical functioning, social functioning, etc. need to be considered while studying the effect of activity space towards health performances. The results of the study might differ or remain the same if it is conducted in two or more different places. Therefore, this paper aims to compare the effect of activity space (measured by using Euclidian distance method) on health performances (physical health and mental health) between Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is found that there is no difference in the comparison of the effect of activity space on the health performances between Malaysia and Indonesia. By conducting this study, it is expected that the outcome of the study can provide engineers and planners the information and guidance to design optimized built environment based on human travel behavior by prioritizing their health performance in each location.

Tjokorda, Joan Rona Justtin, Dimas B. E. Dharmowijoyo, Nindyo Cahyo Kresnanto, Liza Evianti Tanjung
Metadata
Title
Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Smart Cities (ICESC2022)
Editors
Bashar S. Mohammed
Teh Hee Min
Muslich Hartadi Sutanto
Tri Basuki Joewono
Sholihin As’ad
Copyright Year
2024
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-9911-11-0
Print ISBN
978-981-9911-10-3
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1111-0