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About this book

This book includes high-quality research papers presenting the latest advances in aerospace and related engineering fields. The papers are organized according to six broad areas (i) Aerospace Propulsion, (ii) Space Research, Avionics and Instrumentation, (iii) Aerodynamics Wind Tunnel and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), (iv) Structural Analysis and Finite Element Method (FEM), (v) Materials, Manufacturing and Air Safety and (vi) Aircraft Environmental and Control System and Stability, making it easy for readers to find the information they require.

Offering insights into the state of the art in aerospace engineering, the original research presented is valuable to academics, researchers, undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as professionals in industry and R&D.

The clearly written book can be used for the validation of data, and the development of experimental and simulation techniques as well as other mathematical approaches.

Table of Contents


Thermal Decomposition and Stabilization Studies of ADN with AN Impurities in the Presence of Catalysts

In the present study, Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) was synthesized by the nitration of Potassium Sulfamate (PS) salt with mixed acids of nitric/sulfuric acid in the ratio of 4:1 at −40 °C. The synthesized ADN was then characterized by using various analytical instruments. The preliminary result obtained has confirmed that the obtained ADN has AN impurities in its crystals. The next attempt was to stabilize synthesized ADN by adding 2% of catalysts by weight. Catalysts used in the present work are Cupric (II) Oxide (CuO), Ammonium Metavandate (NH4VO3), and Copper Chromite (Cu2Cr2O5). Evaporative crystallization method was used to prepare ADN + Catalysts samples. Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (STA) was used to study the thermal characteristics of prepared samples by using DSC/TG-DTG techniques. All the three catalysts were found to be effective in stabilization of ADN, however NH4VO3 was found to be most effective.

Pratim Kumar, Rajiv Kumar, Puran Chandra Joshi

Experimental Investigation of Flame Speed of Fuel–Air Mixture for Varying Air/Fuel Ratio

The present investigation aims to study the flame dynamics of LPG (fuel) and air mixture. An experimental setup of P.A. Hilton’s Flame Propagation and Stability Unit is used to determine the flame speed of LPG and air mixture at varying A/F ratio using flame tube method. Flame tubes of four different diameters are used to study the effect of tube diameter on flame speed at various Air/fuel(A/F) ratio. It was observed that flame speed tends to increase with increase in tube diameter for varying A/F ratio and vice versa. Flame speed increases with increasing A/F ratio till stoichiometric ratio is reached, after which it starts decreasing again.

Ankur Vats, Vivek Kumar, Saquib Reza

Medium Scale Jet Engine Design and Design Validation Through Simulation

This paper investigates the development of preliminary design methodology for the core components of medium scale jet engine viz. Diffuser, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and nozzle and the validation of the conceptual design. The preliminary design process begins with aerodynamic analysis and its reliance on empirical relations, limiting the dimensional constraints and performance demands. The engine has been designed to operate with mass flow rate of 1 kg/s, compression ratio 6, on fuel methane having a calorific value of 42,800 kJ/K, with turbine inlet temperature of 1800 K which drives the compressor at 17,000–22,000 RPM and nozzle which generates thrust mass flow rates greater than 500 N. An overall pressure ratio of 0.75 is selected to make the engine self-sustainable at operating regimes with the overall efficiency of about 38%. The parametric results were compared with simulated results using different approaches to optimize the component design by adopting different techniques and validation of the design.

Vamsikrishna Undavalli, Anmol Kumar, Yash Gupta, S. Ramanan, Md. Saquib Reza

Eco-Friendly Propellant for Hybrid Rocket Motor

Conventional propulsion systems mostly based on the propellants which are highly toxic in nature. In a single rocket, the amount of such propellant is generally hundreds of tons. When this huge amount of propellant burnt, it develops a large amount of unburnt particles as well as gases which damage the ecosystem. This paper is based on the project in which Hybrid Rocket was developed and Paraffin wax was tested as propellant. Paraffin was selected because its regression rate is higher when we compare it with other conventional Hybrid Rocket fuels. It is also safe to handle and better for the environment. As oxidizer Nitrous Oxide was used due to its low toxicity and self-pressurizing property which eliminates the requirement of additional gas pressurizing system. The by-product of Paraffin wax is water vapour and carbon dioxide. If a rocket fuel is eco-friendly, then it can be used frequently and in a large amount.

Aaditya Shrivastava

Fluidic Thrust Vectoring of Engine Nozzle

Fluidic thrust vectoring is an ability of air vehicles to manipulate the nozzle flow which helps in deflecting their longitudinal axis. This type of vectoring overcomes the use of mechanical actuators for controlling the nozzle, thereby giving an efficient performance and reduction in weight. Single axis limits the nozzle thrust only in the vertical direction capable of complimenting the horizontal control surface giving pitching motion, whereas multiple axes give rise to horizontal and vertical direction giving pitch and roll/yaw motion. The source for the secondary injection is taken from the compressor and acts as a barrier to deflect the main flow to the desired direction. The primary objective of this project is to design a nozzle in ANSYS 15.0 with pressure inlets at three junctions after the throat section and with the boundary conditions applied to the front and back end of the nozzle; the thrust produced is found out at an angle to which the main fluid flow is deflected with a secondary fluid flow of pressure inlets at the exhaust of the nozzle.

R. B. Rakesh, Sijo Varghese

2D-PIV Measurements in a Novel Swirl Burner Under Isothermal Conditions

2D-PIV measurements were performed in a novel non-premixed model GT burner designed to promote intense mixing of the fresh fuel/air with the product gases. The axial and tangential flow field measurements reveal three distinct zones, viz. bluffbody-stabilized, swirl-stabilized and an intermediate zone. The high vorticity fields generated by the converging–diverging flow field will promote intense mixing of the reactants and thereby favour a reduction in the thermal NO$$_{\text {x}}$$x emissions. The measurements show the presence of fine-scale turbulent eddies in the intermediate zone. This, along the relatively low extensive strain fields, will aid in the flame stabilization at these locations.

Mourya Voleti, Naga Venkata Sai Aditya Burle, Raghu Jarpala, Rajesh Sadanandan

Design of 3D Guidance Law for Tactical Missiles

In this work, design of three-dimensional (3D) proportional navigation guidance law based on input-output linearization (IOL) for tactical missiles is proposed. For the three-dimensional nonlinear missile-target engagement dynamics, the line-of-sight (LOS) rates in pitch and yaw planes are taken as outputs and the IOL theory is used to derive the guidance laws without ignoring the cross-coupling terms. Simulations are carried out by considering maneuvering target, and the results are presented to showcase the efficacy of the proposed design. Further, comparison of the performance of the proposed guidance law with augmented proportional navigation guidance(APNG) laws is carried out and the related results are presented. Lastly, implementation issues of the proposed guidance law are discussed.

Sikander Kumar Pandit, Bhavnesh Panchal, S. E. Talole

MATLAB-Based Graphical User Interface Development of RADAR with the Implementation of Noise Under Various Bands

Our aim for this research is to initiate a code of RADAR which can locate the position of target even under noise under the various classified bandwidths to provide us with RADAR range and plot a graph between range and SNR using MATLAB. We have developed an application based on a GUI for Windows that creates the procedure of estimating the RADAR range equation quicker and further fitting. With the GUI, we can enter the constraints as an input required to calculate the range and noise of the RADAR as a function of frequency and show the results accordingly on the graphs. Using this GUI, we can generate a RADAR model as per our convenience for testing using parameters and construct the model that is with optimum performance.

Gouresh Sood, Ayush Shah, Aashish Choudhary, Hitesh Arora, Shagun Bishnoi, Sudhir Kumar Chaturvedi, Anirudh Katyal

Control of UAV Using GSM Technology

This paper presents a technique to control unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) using the well-known GSM technology. In this technique, the user will give command to the UAV from an Android mobile phone through an Android application. The application will access the GSM technology of the mobile phone. There will be a GSM modem installed at the UAV, and it will be connected to the flight controller. The user will send attention commands (AT commands) to the modem at the receiving end through the Android application. The modem will further communicate with the flight controller and thus, the UAV can be controlled from an Android mobile phone using GSM technology.

Shubhrasmita Mandal, Krishna Maheta, Vivek Kumar, M. S. Prasad

Orbital Magnetic Interplanetary Launch System (OMILS)

This paper discusses the way electromagnetic force can be used to increase the speed of a spacecraft. When a spacecraft requires to be sent on an interplanetary mission, it requires a very high Δv which cannot be achieved except with very heavy launch vehicles. Usually, a medium lift launch vehicle cannot achieve a Δv of greater than 12 km/s and thus the probes launched from these launch vehicles are restricted to earth orbit. So, it is suggested that such probes launched by these medium lift launch vehicles can be boosted to a high velocity using this electromagnetic bridge in order to perform an interplanetary mission. This bridge can also be used to boost the speed of hyperbolic escape orbits. Also, this module can be used to save a good amount of rocket propellant. There are two modes in which this bridge can be used. They are Rendezvous mode and Anchoring mode. Both the modes will use the Oberth effect to boost the velocity of the spacecraft.

Samuel Luis, Mukit Azad Khan

Design and Analysis of Two-Axis Seeker Stabilization System

The inertial stabilization system is to stabilize the sensor’s line-of-sight (LOS) toward the target by isolating the sensor from body disturbances. Modeling of the electromechanical system intended to achieve the optimized control parameters of two-axis inertially stabilized platform system (ISP) by retaining high efficiency and reliability of the system. In this paper, a cross-coupled inertial block is designed to enhance the effect of mutual coupling and unbalanced mass as well as frictional model. Simulation results correlate with physical modeling specified by its CAD model. The comparative simulation results in different body rate conditions are analyzed. This shows that the proposed approach offers a better performance than the classical one.

Dommeti Rajesh, A. V. Praveen, Mallikarjuna Rao Pasumarthi

UAV Advancement: From Increasing Endurance, Route Re-Plan and Collision Avoidance, to Safe Landing in Critical Conditions

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), one of the fastest growing and the most emerging future technologies, is in demand everywhere, from using it as goods carrier to structural monitoring, from surveillance application to using it in the battle field, and in the battle field too, it varies from an attacker to an ambulance, depending on the circumstances. Also, according to the applications and operations, fixed wing and multicopter aircrafts are used. The ideas related to designing, materials, manufacturing, assembling, application, controlling, etc., keep on changing this technology, and for this reason, we have come so far from the start-up basic model. In spite of these sort of upgradation, there are still challenging problems which does not affect only one particular function, but it degrades the whole functionality of an overall, expected to perform well in its operation, UAVs. Some important drawbacks can be solved with the help of different technologies which in turn will be the possible solutions for our challenges.

Kalpesh Garvit Pandya, Kevin Nesamani

High Angle of Attack Analysis of Cascade Fin in Subsonic Flow

Grid fins are unconventional lifting and control surfaces consisting of an outer frame supporting an inner grid of intersecting small chord planar surfaces. Cascade fins are a new category of grid fins. Unlike grid fins, cascade fins do not have cross members. In the present work, a sequence of simulation results obtained for comparative analysis of cascade fins versus flat plate (FP) for different angles of attack ($$\alpha $$α) is presented. The results indicate an overall increase in lift force compared to flat plates at all angles. The results are in agreement with the experimental data and indicate that cascading effect leads to a delay in flow separation and thus delayed stall.

Manish Tripathi, M. S. Mahesh, Ajay Misra

CFD Investigation of Supersonic Free Jet from a CD Nozzle

The rate at which supersonic jet mixes with the surrounding ambient fluid includes turbulent mixing and compressibility effects such as isentropic expansion and shock. Numerical simulations are performed using commercially available software FLUENT 12.1 v to investigate supersonic jet flow field mixing with surrounding medium. CFD investigations consider unheated, supersonic free jets on generic CD nozzle operating at M = 1.4, from NASA/TM—2004–212391. Based on the results, 1.5D height of refinement grid in the normal direction shows good agreement with test data such as velocity, density and temperature measurement along jet centre line. Secondly, from turbulence models, it is understood that both SA and KE models with default turbulent settings captured velocity decay and potential core along the centre line and found good agreement with test data.

S. Sathish Kumar, C. Muthuraj

Study and Design of Golf Ball Like Dimpled Aircraft 2-D Wing and Effects on Aerodynamic Efficiency

This investigation initially focuses on the study of dimple effects on an airfoil. Application of the golf ball dimples on airfoils is predicted to be a good alternative for drag reduction as per the concept of flow separation for a golf ball. A NACA series airfoil is selected, and a comparative study of the boundary layer thickness is made between a dimpled and a smooth design. The mesh discretization is carried out holding the “Law of wall” true, for an accurate simulation of the boundary layer. The results are compared with the available experimental data. Calculations were performed to predict the optimized location and curvature of the dimple to achieve a change in the aerodynamic efficiency. A rumored application of a similar concept is possibly being applied on the Boeing 787-9 in the form of a hybrid laminar flow control. However, there are no reliable sources to confirm it.

Awadh Kapoor, R. Jaykrishnan

Computational Investigation of the Effect of Various Spike Geometries Mounted on Supersonic Vehicles

Numerical analysis has been performed on an axisymmetric model with a spike at its tip. Steady simulation has been performed at supersonic speed of Mach 2. At high Mach regimes, aeroheating and high values of drag have always been a major concern for the aerospace industry. These two parameters have been subjected to decades of research, and as an outcome, design optimization has proven to be one of the most effective methods in reducing drag and heating levels. Revolving around the same issue, this paper analyzes various spike geometries on a blunt body and the drag coefficient values have shown the reduction of about 40–50% in the aerodynamic drag.

Aishwarya Kushary, Anjali Chopra, Jayanta Sinha, Vamsikrishna Undavalli

Effect of Leading-Edge Tubercle on Aerodynamic Performance of NACA 0021 Airfoil

In the present study, a numerical study has been performed over unmodified NACA 0021 and modified (A2W7.5) NACA 0021 operating at low Reynolds number using Spalart–Allmaras (SA) and k-kl-ω RANS models. The unsteady three-dimensional (3D) simulations are performed over unmodified NACA 0021 and modified (A2W7.5) NACA 0021 at Re 120,000 for a range of angle of attacks. The performances of airfoils are evaluated through aerodynamic lift, drag, and pressure coefficients. It has been observed that there exist some advantages due to the tubercles. The maximum lift value is less for modified airfoil as compared to unmodified one. But the stall nature of this airfoil is gradual. The simulation results depict that there is significant downstream shift in the separation location particularly at high angles like 20°. The result shows that for the same amount of lift at higher angles, drag reduces for modified airfoil.

Alok Mishra, Saravana Kumar Lakshmanan, Ashoke De

Estimation of Aerodynamic Coefficient for a Variable Span Wing and a C-Wing for Application in Personal Air Vehicles (PAV)

In last decade, most of the researchers have an interest in making the automobiles into flying objects and make them fly. In this paper, novel conceptual design is put forward for personal air vehicle (PAV) which can use the existing infrastructure created for automobiles and planes. This conceptual design has been made by combining C-wing and telescopic wing. This design overcomes the issue of aspect ratio and drag of personal air vehicle. The telescopic wing configuration useful for span-based mission and C-wing provides less induced drag. Also the components of the C-wing can be used for vertical and horizontal stabilizers as like conventional airplanes. Theoretical and numerical simulation techniques are proceeded toward to identify the aerodynamic performance for various span length of the wing. The outcome recognizes the aerodynamic performance of the proposed wing design and without C-wing that gives more desirable performance

R. Naveen, B. Abinaya, D. Abinaya, K. Kalayarasi

Evaluation of the Structural Integrity of Full-Scale Wing of Aerial Vehicle

This paper describes the details of an experimental investigation focusing on the structural integrity and evaluates the structural characteristics like strain and deformation of the full-scale composite wing of aerial vehicle. The structural testing of composite wing is greatly influenced by the size of the structure, nature of loads, and boundary conditions at the supports. It is conventional to assume span-wise aerodynamic load distribution for aerial structure of typical aspect ratio, i.e., between 10 and 15. Apart from the span-wise load distribution on the wing, the other important parameters like chord-wise distribution of load, angle of attack at which the primary composite structure to be tested, the landing gear loads at the wing, and engine interfaces need to be simulated during the test. Generally, wing structures are tested for the worst case in terms of combined lift and drag which simulates the worst bending and twisting loads of the flight envelope. Care should be taken for distributing the lumped loads at desired locations; else it could lead to local stress concentration and local failure of the structure. In most of the structural tests, shear and bending will be captured, but twisting needs special attention in distributing the loads at spar/rib locations without altering the center of pressure of the aerodynamic load distribution. Adequacy of the test rigs and proper simulation of all attachments are addressed. The design and implementation of the structural integrity test along with experimental results are presented.

D. Venkata Sivakumar, M. Varadanam, K. Kishore Kumar, P. S. R. Anjaneyulu

Finite Element Analysis of Hyperbolic Paraboloid Composite Shells for Static Analysis Under Uniform Pressure

The present study reports finite element analysis of hyperbolic paraboloid composite shells for static analysis under uniform pressure to examine the maximum stresses and deflections. The matrix used in the present study is Epoxy resin reinforced with E-glass fiber. Parameter used for the analysis is rise-to-span-ratio (c/a). The ratio used for the study varies from 0 to 0.5 with linear increment of 0.05. Thickness of composite layer is kept equal in the shell. Eight-nodded iso-parametric shell element with five degrees of freedom on each node is used for the present study. Boundary conditions with all sides clamped, all sides simply supported and alternate sides simply supported and clamped are applied with cross-ply and angle-ply laminations.

Anil Garhwal, Yogesh Kaushik, Sabita Madhvi Singh, Divya

Behavior of Rectangular Laminated Composite Plate with Central Hole Under Transverse Loading

The present paper reports behavior of rectangular laminated composite plates with central circular hole and without hole under transverse loading. The plates used in the present study are laminated composite plates of epoxy resin reinforced with E-glass fiber. The laminates of symmetric and antisymmetric have been used in the study. Parameter used for the analysis is hole diameter to width of the plate ratio (D/H). The ratio used for the study varies from 0.1 to 0.5 with an increment of 0.1. The thickness of the composite plate is kept equal in all loading cases. Stresses and deflections in the plate are considered using boundary conditions of clamped edges. The results were discussed critically on the basis of variation of D/H versus stresses and D/H versus deflection.

Sumit Rathi, Yogesh Kaushik, Sabita Madhvi Singh

Effect of Aspect Ratio Change on Nonlinear Resonance of Rectangular Aircraft Panel

Structural integrity of aircraft panels is an important design problem in high-performance aircraft and supersonic vehicle design. Aircraft panel vibration is the most studied problem in designing an aircraft. This can lead to excessive cabin noise, stability problems and structural failure. In this paper, the effects of aspect ratio change on nonlinear resonance of a thin rectangular aircraft panel clamped on all edges with forcing frequency near to the frequency of the first linear mode of the plate are investigated. The partial differential equation governing the motion of the aircraft panel is taken from Von Karman nonlinear plate theory. Increasing aspect ratio of the aircraft panel generally acts to excite higher modes of vibration and has the overall effect of increasing the frequency of the plate vibration.

Nisar Ali, M. S. Mahesh

Experimental Validation of the Structural Integrity of a CFRP Aircraft Fuselage

Fuselage is the main structure of any aerial vehicle—manned or unmanned. Design of aircraft fuselage is a well-established area in the field of aerospace. A composite fuselage has been successfully designed and realized for an aircraft, mainly made of carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP). The design and manufacturing process of the fuselage demands evaluation by experimental testing. Structural testing of the composite fuselage was carried out simulating the bending moment profile encountered at various conditions of the manoeuvring envelope (V-n diagram). Unlike testing of metallic fuselage, certain specific precautions were considered and implemented during the testing of the composite fuselage. Strains and deflections were measured during all the critical load cases, and the variations of these parameters with the applied loads dictate the evaluation of structural integrity of the composite fuselage.

R. Gopikrishna, R. S. Rawat, R. Girish, K. Kishore Kumar, P. S. R. Anjaneyulu

Effect of Natural Frequency of Slender Structure on VIV at Higher Reynolds Numbers

Vortices are formed when a structural element placed in fluid’s flow path. These vortices shed are alternatively, and consequently the structure undergoes vortex-induced vibration in cross-direction. This present study is based on two-dimensional simulation of the vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinder in an unsteady fluid flow. Aim of the study is to find out the effect of natural frequency of cylinder on its vortex-induced vibration. Smooth circular cylinder is simulated in cross-flow condition using k-ε model of RANS equations in Ansys Fluent. The simulations are carried out for higher Reynolds numbers ranging from 5 × 104 to 50 × 104. The drag and lift force coefficients are found for the cylinder by varying natural frequencies of structure for each Reynolds number in upper subcritical regime. Wake pattern is carefully studied when cylinder is going under cross-flow oscillation, and its dependency on natural frequency of structure is observed.

Rahul Jadhav, P. R. Maiti, Sabita Madhvi Singh

Evaluation of Vibration of a Crankshaft and a Driveshaft Using FEM

The present paper is based on comparative studies of modal analysis of a four-cylinder crankshaft and a driveshaft of different materials which includes metals, alloys as well as composites. The five materials chosen for this investigation are steel, gray cast iron, titanium alloy, E-glass/epoxy unidirectional composite and carbon/epoxy unidirectional composite. Modal analysis was carried out on the crankshaft and the driveshaft using commercially available software ANSYS, which solves problems based on linear and nonlinear behavior for obtaining natural frequency and deformation at different modes with different materials. In order to achieve accurate results, the loading and boundary conditions were taken as in the case of real-life situations. Maximum total deformation was achieved by the composites, followed by alloys and finally the metals, with the minimum deformation. The results were then compared by conducting a parametric study, and an alternative material has been proposed from the investigation.

Apoorv Rathi, Joy Banerjee, Anurag Dixit, R. K. Misra, H. S. Mali

Magnetic Analysis of an Electromagnetic Band Brake (EMBB)

The aim of this paper is to study and analyze the electromagnetic band brake (EMBB) which is an electromagnetic braking system of an old and vintage Russian weapon system. EMBB is designed to lift 12 kgf weights and hold 30 kgf weights, but it is unable to do so after longer working duration. Analysis of this problem, study, and magnetic analysis of the electromagnetic band brakes which is similar to a solenoid actuator has been performed. By doing so, its magnetic flux density, magnetic flux intensity, magnetic field, and its direction are found. Also, this paper suggests some of the ways by which the performance of electromagnetic band brake can be improved for future applications.

Anupam Tiwari, Jayanta Sinha, Vishakha Baghel, Gouresh Sood, Aayushi Agrawal

Experimental Evaluation of Circular Cylindrical Shells with Cutouts Under the Combined Effect of Structural and Thermal Loads

The present work deals with the design, development, and testing of circular cylindrical shells with cutouts under the effect of both structural and thermal loads. Such shells are widely used in missile and aircraft structures. The main aim behind this experimentation is (i) to validate the design of the circular cylindrical shell against the proof loads, (ii) to monitor the deflections and temperatures at critical locations, and (iii) to evaluate the structural integrity of the shells under the given structural and thermal loads. In the present experiment, the cylindrical shell (width ∅1000 mm and length of 1350 mm) will be subjected to a bending moment of 15.5 kN-m along with two mutually perpendicular thrust loads of 30 kN each at cutouts and a time-varying temperature profile with a maximum temperature of 635 K. Here a closed-loop control strategy is established for the simulating the time-varying thermal loads on the shell structure. The cylindrical shell was successfully qualified for the above-said loading conditions, and the test results are analyzed and presented in this manuscript.

S. Narendar, R. Gopikrishna, T. Srinivasa Kumar, M. Varadanam

Weight Reduction of Structural Members for Ground Vehicles by the Introduction of FRP Composite and Its Implications

The dependency of human beings on the automotive industries has risen to large extent and so is the fuel consumption. Vehicular lightweighting is featured in the present paper as an appropriate strategy to address growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption by passenger ground vehicles. For every 10% reduction in vehicle weight, the fuel consumption is reduced by about 4–7%. The current demand these days is the vehicles must not only become lighter, but should have power improvements. Vehicular lightweighting can be achieved by substituting some of the iron and steel alloys used in vehicles with other substitutional materials such as aluminum and fiber composites. The composite materials have exceptional properties such as lightweight, high-strength-to-weight ratio, low thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, considering which the main emphasis has being given to carbon fiber composite materials (FRP) as the prime alternative material for fuel pipes of automobiles. A comparative analysis has been performed among steel 4340, aluminum 6061 alloy, and CFRP fuel pipe. It is observed that the use of aluminum 6061 and CFRP fuel pipe can lead to about 65 and 83% weight reduction of the fuel pipe. The cost associated with the manufacturing and the substitution of alternative materials is also discussed. The cost of substitution with composite materials is, however, the highest, but its implications on fuel saving are extremely beneficial.

Medhavi Sinha, R. K. Tyagi, P. K. Bajpai

Optimization of Surface Grinding Process Parameters Through RSM

Surface grinding is one of the most important conventional machining processes, which is being used in the finishing operations in manufacturing sector. Surface roughness (SR) and material removal rate (MRR) are the two important output factors to be considered during the surface grinding process. Response surface methodology (RSM) is used to investigate the effects of three controllable input variables, namely grit size of grinding wheel, feed rate, and depth of cut on SR & MRR. Horizontal spindle surface grinding machine was used in order to conduct the experiment on die tool steel (AISI D3) work piece. Central composite design (CCD) is used to perform L 20 experimental design. Second-order polynomials equations are developed to predict the SR and MRR within the experimental values and also check the adequacy of these models. Correlation coefficients (R2) were observed 93.06 and 98.19% for MRR and SR, respectively. The response was predicted as 0.0231 g/min (MRR) and 1.4291 microns (SR), respectively, using critical values of significant variables through RSM.

Harshita Khangarot, Shubham Sharma, Umesh Kumar Vates, Gyanendra Kumar Singh, Vivek Kumar

Evaluating Significance of Green Manufacturing Enablers Using MOORA Method for Indian Manufacturing Sector

Severe environmental impact of manufacturing has led to highly unsustainable condition by consuming natural resources at faster pace, Green House Gases (GHG) emissions, massive landfills, etc. It is the right time to wake up and adopt green manufacturing (GM) so that resources can be consumed at minimum possible rate and climate change issue can be addressed optimally. GM requires huge efforts in terms of financial and human resources. The facilitation of the industry for GM implementation by investigating the enablers would prove to be helpful for faster implementation. In this paper, 15 enablers are identified through a survey of literature and discussion with experts in industry, academia and research. An application of MOORA method is utilized to assess the most important and high-impact enablers. This study concluded that the most important six enablers are: energy and resource crisis, competitiveness, financial and human resources, strategic management commitment, green supplier management, and information technology management. This research is expected to throw light on understanding of GM implementation in manufacturing industry such as aerospace, nuclear, and power plants more smoothly and gradually.

Varinder Kumar Mittal, Rahul Sindhwani, Punj Lata Singh, Vivek Kalsariya, Faizan Salroo

Military Airworthiness and Certification Procedures: Global Scenario

Military aircraft being state aircraft is not under the purview of ICAO. Therefore, each government self-certifies their military aircraft as per their own standard and compliant to controlled airspace performance requirement. As military aircraft does not satisfy ICAO norms, it may be denied access to national/international airspace. Further, there is no unified procedure across the globe for military aircraft certification and operation. This paper discusses the differences in civil and military certification concepts and the airworthiness and certification processes being followed for military aircraft in some of the advanced countries and India.

Kanchan Biswas

Improving Assembly Line Efficiency and Output Using Assembly Line Balancing and Reducing Non-Value-Added Activities

Assembly line balancing (line balancing) is a very important tool in today’s competitive environment, as companies need to increase their output without compromising with the quality. Line balancing helps in getting desirable output by equally distributing the work contents at the work stations of an assembly line. Also, removing some non-value-added activities can help in saving time, thus indirectly contributing to efficiency. This paper presents the case study of Wire Harness Company (Delphi Automotive Systems) where the efficiency and output of the assembly line have been improved using assembly line balancing techniques. Here the cycle time at various stations has been balanced so as to get the desired results. Also, some non-value-added activities have been removed to contribute to efficiency.

Prateek Sharma, Meeta Sharma

Mechanical Behavior of Laminated Composite Curved Tubes

The stress analysis on thick laminated composite curved tubes subjected to pure bending moment is performed by proposing a high-order displacement-based method. The most general displacement field of elasticity for thick laminated composite curved tubes is developed by employing a displacement approach of toroidal elasticity and a layerwise method. The accuracy of the proposed method is verified by comparing the numerical results obtained using the proposed method with finite element method (FEM).

Hamidreza Yazdani Sarvestani, Mehdi Hojjati

Cruise Missile Mission Planning Using Genetic Algorithm

Mission planning is a critical stage in launching a cruise missile against highly defended targets. It is required to generate an optimal trajectory during combat scenario (real time) just before launch. Typically, this type of engagement is carried by cruise missiles flying at low altitudes below 100 m. In addition to air defense, terrain features also need to be avoided by following certain way-points. This study investigates use of genetic algorithms (GA) as an optimization procedure in the flight trajectory planner to be used in the real-time environment.

G. Naresh Kumar, Shweta Dadarya, Akshay Verandani, A. K. Sarkar, S. E. Talole

Design of Power Efficient SRAM on FPGA

Low power based-Static RAM is designed using LVTTL and Mobile-DDR IO Standards on 28 nm Artix-7 FPGA. And at different range of operating frequency power dissipation has been calculated and amount of power dissipation by using LVTTL and Mobile-DDR IO buffer has been compared with each other, Mobile-DDR is more power efficient. At operating frequency of 1 GHz, 2 GHz, and 3 GHz, Mobile-DDR is used in place of LVTTL then 31.26%, 43.14%, and 47.45% total power can be saved, respectively.

Tarun Agrawal
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