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About this book

This book presents the Proceedings of ICON–2019, an international meeting exclusively dedicated to nanostructured materials in medicinal applications. The conference emphasized the recent advances in multidisciplinary research on processing, morphol¬ogy, structure and properties of nanostructured materials and their applications in vari¬ous medicinal fields. The papers encompass basic studies and applications and address topics of novel issues, difficulties, and breakthroughs in the field of nanomedicine in cancer, tuberculosis, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine etc.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Ledebouria Revoluta Bulb Extractand Its Biological Activity

Abstract
In this present examination explores the viability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) green synthesis from bulb extract of Ledebouria revoluta as an antitumor specialist utilizing human lung cancer cell line (A549). The AgNPs synthesis was determined by UV-Visible range and it was additionally described by field X-beam diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) investigation High Resolution Transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and EDS. The level of dictated by MTT examine. The outcomes demonstrated that green synthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited proliferation of human lung disease cell line A549 with an IC50 esteem 72.65 µg/ml. The antimicrobial exercises of silver nanoparticles were checked against gram positive and gram negative strains utilizing in well diffusion technique. The antibacterial chlorophenicol as the positive control was completed. The outcome demonstrated the silver nanoparticles indicated effective movement against bacterial pathogens and cancer growth action.
R. Aswini, S. Meimozhi, R. Tamilmozhi, M. Kowsalya, S. Murugesan

Precision Medicine: A Personalized Treatment from Your Gene

Abstract
Poor healthcare linked to 5 million annual death worldwide. Health is increasingly shaped by ageing populations, urbanization and globalization of unhealthy lifestyles, resulting in a transition in the burden of health care towards non communicable diseases, mental health and injuries. Many of these conditions are chronic, requiring long-term care, with patients commonly suffering from multi-morbidities, all of which adds to escalating health care costs. Precision medicine (PM) is a new approach to health care that matches individual patients with targeted treatments that work best for each them. PM is still in its infancy, but holds so much promise for the healthcare industry which considers genetic variations, environment and lifestyle. There would be global shift in the treatment modalities where people are moving towards pharmacogenomics which takes into consideration of the individual drug response to how body metabolize it helping in catering the patients with minimal Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR). Another field which is showing promise in the healthcare industry is wearable bio-services for better health and disease management. PM has roadblocks to clear before it hits the market clinician acceptability, pharma industry to cater drug to small population, developing diagnostic tests with sufficient sensitivity and specificity and having string regulatory mechanism to ensure clinical validity to the tests.
P. K. Balasubramani, K. Preetha, M. Aswanth Harish

Ultrasonic Studies on Molecular Interaction and Their Excess Properties of Ternary Liquid Mixtures of 2-Nitroanisole and 1-Propanol in n-Hexane at Different Temperatures 303, 308 and 313k

Abstract
The behavior of liquid mixture of 2-Nitroanisole, 1-Propanol and n-Hexane as a function of temperature and composition has been investigated by measuring ultrasonic velocity in conjunction with density and viscosity at 303, 308 and 318 K for frequency 2 MHz using ultrasonic interferro meter. With the help of the measured values ultrasonic velocity (u), viscosity (η) and density (ρ), the acoustical parameters like acoustic impedance, adiabatic compressibility, free length, free volume and internal pressure has been calculated, in order to know the molecular interaction between the component in the ternary liquid mixture and the nature and strength of molecular interaction in the component of the ternary mixture, the actual values of acoustical parameters were computed in to their excess properties. Excess ultrasonic velocity (UE), excess acoustic impedance (ZE), excess intermolecular free length (\( {\text{L}}_{\rm{f}}^{\text{E}} \)) excess adiabatic compressibility (βE), excess free volume (\( {\text{V}}_{\rm{f}}^{\text{E}} \)) and excess internal pressure have been calculated for the ternary liquid mixtures containing 2-Nitroanisole, 1-Propanol in n-Hexane at various temperatures 303, 308 & 313 K at fixed frequency 2 MHz, for different concentrations ranges from 0.001 M to 0.01 M and fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. The computed excess values were plotted against the concentration of ternary liquid of the mixture at different temperatures 303, 308 & 313 K at a fixed frequency of 2 MHz. A good agreement has been found between the experimental and calculated values of the ultrasonic velocity. The strength and the nature of the interactions between like and unlike molecules have been discussed in terms of dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, induced dipole-induced dipole interaction through hydrogen bonding.
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J. Edward Jeyakumar, S. Chidambara Vinayagam, J. Senthil Murugan

Thermal and Physical Properties of Some Deep Eutectic Solvents

Abstract
Deep eutectic solvent is abbreviated as DES. Deep Eutectic Solvents are types of environmentally green solvents. As a new type of solvents, DES has an extremely large number of applications. Even though the problems associated with conventional volatile organic solvents are well studied, the usage of green and bio-renewable solvents still remains a never-ending challenge. DES have been studied in a variety of applications, different process and metal-catalyzed organic reactions. In recent years, low melting mixtures consisting of carbohydrates, urea, and inorganic salts have been introduced as new alternative sustainable solvents for organic transformations. In the present work, amino acid Glycine was added to Citric acid and Malonic acid and Tartaric acid was added to Ethylene glycol to form binary deep eutectic solvents. The physical properties such as conductivity, density, viscosity and pH were measured and analyzed as function of temperature in the range of 300–350 K. The thermal properties such as thermal decomposition temperature, molar heat capacity and glass transition temperature were measured for these deep eutectic solvents. These DESs were characterized by FTIR spectra to evaluate the formation of hydrogen bond.
P. G. Ramesh, D. Ilangeswaran

Apoptotic Activity in Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Lines Treated with Chitosan Nanoconjugated Drug Doxorubicin – as Nanocarrier for Drug Delivery

Abstract
Nanocarriers play an indispensible role in drug delivery mechanisms thereby increasing the efficiency and overall activity of the specified drug in the given dosage. Chitosan is a well known biocompatible molecule that is exploited for various in vivo applications. In this current study, a biocompatible nanocarrier is developed as a conjugate using chitosan nanoparticles for the drug Doxorubicin. A nanoparticle is synthesized using the green extract of a medicinal plant. Upon successful synthesis, a chitosan conjugate is prepared along with the drug and synthesized nanoparticles. The synthesis of gold nanomaterials using Catharanthus roseus (Nithyakalyani) is successfully carried out. The initial confirmation of the nanoconjugate is from UV visible spectrophotometric analysis, which showed the characteristic peak for nanoparticles. SEM & HRSEM analysis revealed the size and shape of the nanocojugate. The Zeta potential is measured to check the stability of the nanoconjugate. The in vitro cytotoxicity is carried out in VERO cell lines and anti cancer study in cervical cancer HeLa cell lines. Further, the gene expression of one of the apoptotic molecule, Caspase was screened. The nanocarrier showed anti cancer activity in treated cervical cancer HeLa cell lines and as well as commendable non toxicity in treated normal vero cell lines. On this positive note, this nanocarrier study could be further expanded.
M. R. Kamala Priya, Priya R. Iyer

One Step Synthesis of Reduced and Moringa oleifera Treated Graphene Oxide: Characterization and Antibacterial Studies

Abstract
Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was synthesised by the direct one-step synthesis using modified Hummers method. Synthesized rGO was treated with Moringa oleifera plant extract (MO-rGO). The synthesized rGO and MO-rGO were characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) along with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopic analyses (EDS). The formation of rGO and MO-rGO were studied using XRD. The presence of functional groups and structural behaviour was studied using FTIR and Raman spectroscopic studies. It is observed that the functional groups are incorporated in the synthesized samples and found to be the formation of rGO. The morphology and elemental compositions of the synthesized rGO’s were studied using SEM, HRTEM and EDS, respectively. In order to understand the bacterial activity of synthesized rGO’s were tested against E. Coli and S. Aureus. The synthesized rGO’s shows the better efficiency than graphite.
R. Kanish Siddarth, M. Manopriya, G. Swathi, G. Vijayvenkataraman, K. R. Aranganayagam

Encapsulation of Amphotericin B into Quercetin Based Silver Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization and Preliminary Investigation of Antiparasitic Activity

Abstract
Terminalia catappa is a medicinal plant, belongs to the Combretaceae family, enriched with potential bioactive compounds and exhibits broad-spectrum of pharmacological activity. The leaves possess antihepatic, antibacterial, antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. It contains Quercertin, Punicalagin and Punicalin as major compounds having strong antioxidant activities and being traditionally used to treat many diseases. Amphotericin B (AmB) is a macrolide polyene antifungal drug used to treat the life threatening fungal and parasitic diseases. We prepared nanoformulated drug by using silver nanparticles (AgNPs) and (AmphotericinB) AmB. The prepared nanoformulations were characterized by UV and FTIR. Interactions between AmB with AgNPs are confirmed by their morphological characteristics obtained from SEM images. Antifungal activity of the prepared nanoformulation was tested against the plant fungal pathogen Verticillium dahlia, which has confirmed its potential antifungal property. Interestingly, anti-promastigote activity of the nanoformualtion (500-1.9 μg/ml) was identified against L. donovani parasites. Preliminary investigation on the results has suggested that these nanoformulation exhibits potent antifungal and antiparasitic activities compared with the standard AmB.
Anukragah Sundar, Sankarganesh Arunachalam, Sridhar Jayavel, Lakshmanan Muthulakshmi

Dual Delivery of Antibiotic and Antiresorptive Drugs by Hydroxyapatite-Chitosan Composite Nanocarrier for the Treatment of Osteomyelitis

Abstract
Development of new bone-filling materials using hydroxyapatite (HA)-polymer composites are of much interest due to their similarity with bone minerals, as well as their osteoconductive, mechanical properties. It has been extensively used as a carrier for delivery of small molecules, growth factors and for tissue engineering and orthopedic applications. An attempt has been made to develop hydroxyapatite (HA)-chitosan (CH) nanocarrier for dual and sustained delivery of sodium alendronate (SA) (antiresorptive) and gentamicin (GEN) (antibiotic) for the treatment of osteomyelitis. HA were synthesized by wet chemical method and loaded with SA. CH was coated onto the drug loaded nanoparticles (NPs) with coating efficiency of 15%. GEN was physically adsorbed onto the CH coated SA loaded HA NPs. The drug content of SA and GEN was found to be 84% and 75% respectively. In vitro drug release studies reveled that there was sustained release of both GEN (87%) and SA (70%) for a period of 10 days. Sustained release of both the molecules from drug loaded NPs showed potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in concentration dependent manner. Simultaneous delivery of antibiotic and antiresorptive drugs using bioresorbable nanocarrier will enhance the treatment efficiency of osteomyelitis by inhibiting the bacterial infection in addition to bone formation.
S. Ram Prasad, A. Jayakrishnan, T. S. Sampath Kumar

The Impact of Gold Nanoparticles with Low Energy Irradiation Treatment on Temperature Induction and Cell Viability of Breast Cancer Cell

Abstract
The photothermal therapy (PTT) has attracted the cancer treatment because it is non-invasive and relatively safe technique. The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been a great source of interest due to its novel characteristics which make them suitable for the promising applications such as the photothermal therapy, drug delivery, nanomedicine, photonics, biochemical sensors and imaging. AuNPs were prepared via a citrate reduction method. The characterization techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize AuNPs. The spherical shape of the AuNPs with the size of 35 ± 5 nm was identified under TEM. The Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) human breast cancer cells were used as a model cell for cell viability investigation after treatment. The AuNPs at concentrations 0.1 µg/ml and 0.5 µg/ml were applied into MCF-7 cells and then the cells were exposed to a light emitting diode (LED). It found that MCF-7 cells treated with 0.1 µg/ml AuNPs and then exposed to a LED for 5 min had a reduction of cell viability when compared with the control or cells treated with the same condition without LED exposure. But, when cells were treated with a higher concentration of AuNPs and then LED irradiation, the cell viability was dropped when compared with cells treated with AuNPs without LED irradiation. It is important to note here that when MCF-7 cells were treated with AuNPs alone without irradiation, the cell viability was slightly enhanced when compared with non-treated cells. Nevertheless, the future studies could be made on the treatment of the AuNPs with LED for extended time period which could possibly make them an effective agent to destroy cancer cell.
R. Sowmiya, Tanakorn Osotchan, Dakrong Pissuwan

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from De-oiled Rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. and Its Biomedical Potential

Abstract
The present study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using de-oiled rhizomes of Curcuma longa aqueous extracts and its biomedical potential. Tumeric is the rhizome of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) and Curcumin is extracted from it. Curcumin finds extensive use in the pharmaceutical industry. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from 1 mM silver nitrate solution using the extract of turmeric spent was done. The colour changed from pale yellow to dark brown indicating the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV visible spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR and Zeta potential. These green synthesised silver nanoparticles were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against seven human pathogenic strains such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E.coli and Candida albicans. The zone of inhibition increased with increase in the concentration of silver nanoparticles in well diffusion method. Anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles was tested on breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Cytotoxic effect was observed in tested sample concentrations after 48 h treatment. It also revealed that increase in concentration of drug showed increased cytotoxicity over the MCF-7 cell line. This efficient biomedical potential of the synthesized silver nanoparticles paves the way for its application in the area of nano-medicine.
Sinthia Ganesan, Palanichamy Mehalingam, Govindan Sadasivam Selvam

In-Vitro Wound Healing and Release Kinetics of β-Cyclodextrin Encapsulated Curcumin Loaded Carrageenan Hydrogel Film: An Efficient Wound Dressing Material

Abstract
Curcumin has the potential as a therapeutic drug having wider pharmacological application. But due to its lipophilicity, it exhibits a deprived serum level absorption rate, resulting in rapid systemic elimination. Conjugation of curcumin in a polymeric micelle increase the bioavailability of curcumin as a drug delivery system. β-Cyclodextrins, being circular oligosaccharides with an α (1–4) linked α-D-glucopyranose structure, along with a lipophilic center and hydrophilic outer surface, entraps the curcumin in the central cavity. In this present work, encapsulated curcumin was prepared and characterized using FTIR, PSA, Zeta potential, EDAX and TEM. Carrageenan based hydrogel films loaded with β-CD/Curcumin were synthesized as a wound dressing material. Further, to understand release kinetics of encapsulated curcumin in hydrogel film, release behaviour of curcumin was carried out and the data was fitted in different models. Free radical scavenging activity studies showed the potency of β-CD/Curcumin loaded carrageenan hydrogel as a wound dressing material.
Aswni Sundara Rajan, Kerensa Miriam Sheen, Balaji Sadhasivam, Nachimuthu Saraswathy

Phytosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Rhynchosia heynei Wight & Arn Leaf Extract: Characterization and in Vitro Assessment of Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities

Abstract
In the present investigation, here we first report the phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using shade dried aqueous leaf extract of Rhynchosia heynei Wight & Arn is a crop wild relatives (CWR) of pigeon peas (Cajanus), beans (Phaseolus) and grams (Vigna). R. heynei is a rare, an endemic and vulnerable category as an according to the IUCN Red list of threatened species (ver.2012.2), a global database of Plant species to track at risk species, it is herbaceous under shrub, an important, indigenous, threatened forestry species of traditional shrub of tribal medicinal plant species belonging to family Fabacaea and it is classified in Tribe phaceoleae and sub-tribe Cajaninae and subfamily papilionoideae and it is found in the forests of seshachalam biosphere reserve in Tirumala hills, Chittoor district, Rayalaseema region, Andhra Pradesh state, Eastern Ghats of India. The shade dried aqueous leaf extract of R. heynei acts as reducing and capping agent that mediates the synthesis and stabilization of RH-AgNPs (R. heynei leaf synthesized AgNPs). Phytosynthesized RH-AgNPs were 5–20 nm in size, face centered cubic crystalline in nature, spherical in shape, and possesses zeta potential value of −31.4 mV. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis demonstrated that polyhydroxy compounds and proteins respectively involved the bioreduction and capping processes of the particles that prevents agglomeration which in turn gives stability. The stability of RH-AgNPs will be further confirmed through zeta potential measurement by dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis technique. Both X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and SAED results emphasized that the phytosynthesized RH-AgNPs were crystal particles in nature. Particle size distribution showed that RH-AgNPs were 5–20 nm in size with hydrodynamic radius of 11.2 nm. In addition to silvernano particles energy -dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) analysis of the RH-AgNPs showed the elemental composition of colloidal solution of RH-AgNPs. The EDX spectrum of RH-AgNPs exhibit strong signal of silver (Ag) element. The elemental composition of the colloidal solution of RH-AgNPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs showed that the RH-AgNPs formed were polydispersed in nature without agglomeration. Phytosynthesized RH-AgNPs exhibited excellent bactericidal activity against different human pathogens including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli (Gram-ve), Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram +ve). RH-AgNPs exhibited effective antioxidant property by scavenging DPPH and H2O2 radicals with the IC50 values of 77.7 and 88.6 µg/mL respectively. Further RH-AgNPs exhibited dose-dependent anticancer activity with maximum inhibition of 85% and 72% respectively against different cancer cell lines of human colon carcinoma (COLO205) and lung adenocarcinoma (A549). Application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have revolutionized the medicinal industry. Due to their distinctive properties small size (1–100 nm), shape and electrical properties these nanoparticles are able to cross cell and nuclear membrane and induce cyto/genotoxicity. Phytosynthesized (plant based) AgNPs have targeting biological pathways has become tremendously prominent due to the higher efficiency and fewer side effects as compared to other commercial cancer drugs and have emerged as alternative antimicrobial agent to chemically synthesiszed nanoparticles assume their methods of synthesis is a simple, rapid and single-step bioreduction method which is environment friendly and non toxic and cost effective.
S. Soneya, N. Vasudeva Reddy, K. V. Saritha, Venkata Subbaiah Kotakadi, T. Vijaya

Acoustical and Excess Properties on Ternary Liquid Mixtures of Ortho Methoxy Phenol, 1 Butanol and n-Hexane at Different Temperatures

Abstract
The Ultrasonic velocity (U), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) have been measured experimentally for the ternary liquid mixtures of ortho methoxy phenol (omp), 1 butanol and n hexane at various temperatures viz., 303 K, 308 K and 313 K at constant frequency 2 MHz. for different concentrations ranges from 0.001 M to 0.01 M. The thermodynamic and acoustical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (β), Rao constant (R), absorption coefficient (α/f2), internal pressure (πi), cohesive energy (CE), free volume (Vf), free length (Lf), acoustic impedance (z), available volume (Va), viscous relaxation time and Lenard Jones potential were calculated from the experimental data. The various excess properties including excess Ultrasonic velocity, excess acoustic impedance, excess free length, excess adiabatic compressibility, excess free volume and excess internal pressure were also computed. These parameters in accordance with their ultrasonic velocities corresponding to different concentrations of the mixture have been discussed. The molecular interactions were predicted based on the results obtained for ultrasonic velocities of different concentrations of the ternary mixtures at different temperatures.
P. S. Syed Ibrahim, S. Chidambaravinayagam, J. Senthil Murugan, J. Edward Jeyeakumar

A Facile Route for the Fabrication of Nanocompositie by Effective Impregnation Through the Biopolymer Matrix and Its Characterisation

Abstract
Nanoscience and nanotechnology primarily deal with the synthesis characterization exploration and exploitation of nanostructural materials. Polymer nanocomposite materials have lately received great attention in both academia and industry. Small additions of inorganic usually surface-treated nanoparticles have a very positive effect on the electrical properties of insulating polymers. Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms in other words they are polymeric biopolymers. Cyclodextrins are a group of naturally occurring cyclic oligosaccharides, with six, seven, or eight glucose subunits linked by α-(1, 4) glycosidic bonds in a torus shaped structure and are denominated as α-, β-, and γ-CD respectively. In the present study, zincoxide/biopolymer nanocompositie was successfully fabricated by a simple and cost effective method. The possible nanomaterial zincoxide was successfully synthesized by simple precipitation technique and then effectivcly impregenated through the β-cyclodextrin matrix. The morphology of the synthesized nanocompositie was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The crystalline nature of the nanocomposite was studied using an X-ray diffractometer. XRD analysis revealed the spherical shape allignment of zincoxide with hexagonal wurtzite structure. UV-Vis, FTIR spectral analysis and AFM studies where also performed for the synthesized nano compositie.
T. Uma Rajalakshmi, G. Alagumuthu

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