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About this book

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. It relates to the III Annual Conference hosted by the Russian Federal Ministry of Education and Science in December 2016. This event has summarized, analyzed and discussed the interim results, academic outputs and scientific achievements of the Russian Federal Targeted Programme for Research and Development in priority areas of development of the Russian Scientific and Technological Complex for 2014-2020. It contains 75 selected papers from 6 areas considered priority by the Federal programme: computer science, ecology & environment sciences; energy and energy efficiency; life sciences; nanoscience & nanotechnology; and transport & communications. The chapters report the results of the 3-years research projects supported by the Programme and finalized in 2016.

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Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Computer Science

Frontmatter

Open Access

Multimodal Control System of Active Lower Limb Exoskeleton with Feedback

Current paper describes multimodal control system of active lower limb exoskeleton with feedback, which provides switching between manual and semi-automatic modes of exoskeleton motion control in the process of movement. Channel of proportional control of exoskeleton actuators and visual feedback allow exoskeleton pilot to overcome different kinds of obstacles on the move.

S. A. Mineev

Open Access

Investigation and Development of Methods for Improving Robustness of Automatic Speech Recognition Algorithms in Complex Acoustic Environments

Aims and objectives of the study are described; state-of-the-art techniques in the study area are outlined. Several effective approaches proposed in the study and targeted at robustness improvement in complex acoustic environments are described. They are multichannel alignment algorithm, vector Taylor series-based features compensation with phase-term modeling, and environment adaptation method based on GMM-derived features. Experimental results analysis and comparison to state of the art are presented.

M. L. Korenevsky, Yu. N. Matveev, A. V. Yakovlev

Open Access

Smart Endoscope—Firmware Complex for Real-Time Analysis and Recognition of Endoscopic Videos

The method for analyzing endoscopic video images, obtained with high-resolution endoscopes, and featuring gastric and colon mucosa microstructures is proposed. The method was implemented in the form of a highly productive “Smart Endoscope” firmware complex used for real-time endoscopic video analysis supported with neural network. Complex was tested, and the accuracy analysis of neoplasm recognition was performed.

K. U. Erendgenova, E. D. Fedorov, R. M. Kadushnikov, O. A. Kulagina, V. V. Mizgulin, D. I. Starodubov, S. I. Studenok

Open Access

The Development of Constructive-Technological Decisions on Creation of a Family of Microelectronic Elements on the «Silicon on Insulator» (SOI) Structures to Provide the Ability to Create Sensors of External Influences of a Various Functional Purpose

On the example of the magnetic field sensor shown that the developed sensing element type thin-film SOI MISIM transistor with built-in channel provides the creation of sensors with substantially improved electrical characteristics (magnetic sensitivity, temperature range). The physical model of a sensor is considered and justified the choice of the optimal electrical regimes. It is shown that the operation temperature range of the magnetic sensing element is from LHT up to at least 330 °C. Theoretically predicted the possibility of increasing the temperature limit by 200–300 °C depending on the functional purpose of the sensor. Developed and implemented microelectronic operating voltage stabilizers of sensors and electronic keys operating at temperatures of 230 °C and not less than 300 °C, respectively. It is shown that the developed sensor and functional elements provide to create multifunctional multi-channel high-temperature sensor of magnetic field and temperature.

M. I. Kakoulin, A. V. Leonov, A. A. Malykh, V. N. Mordkovich, A. B. Odnolko, M. I. Pavlyuk

Open Access

Thermopile IR Sensor Arrays

Thermopile thermo-sensitive element for infrared (IR) sensor array and its optimization is considered. A concept of thermal infrared sensor array based on the micro (nano)-electromechanical system (MNEMS) with nonstationary Seebeck effect is discussed. Infrared absorption of non-stoichiometric silicon nitride thin films has been studied in the region of wavenumbers 500–7500 cm−1. The estimated absorption about 64% is found for 1300 nm layer thickness, which is good enough for thermal sensor.

V. A. Fedirko, E. A. Fetisov, R. Z. Khafizov, G. A. Rudakov, A. A. Sigarev

Open Access

Development Signal Processing Integrated Circuit for Position Sensors with High Resolution

The article deals with the problem of creating application-specific integrated circuits transducer signal for position sensors with high resolution. The results of the work on the development of such chips considered various solutions converters angle to code and justify the chosen architecture of the converter on the basis of a digital servo system with interpolation of the input signal. The results of modeling and experimental studies and comparison of developed angle to code converter with other known solutions are described.

G. V. Prokofiev, K. N. Bolshakov, V. G. Stakhin

Open Access

Brain-Controlled Biometric Signals Employed to Operate External Technical Devices

We present a solution to employ brain-controlled biometric signals to operate external technical devices. Such signals include multiple electrode electroencephalographic (EEG) signals, electromyography (EMG) signals reflecting muscle contraction pattern, geometrical pattern of body limb kinematics, and other modalities. Being collected, properly decoded and interpreted, the signals can be used as a control or navigation signals of artificial machines, e.g., technical devices. Our interface solution based on a combination of signals of different modalities is capable to provide composite command and proportional multisite control of different technical devices with theoretically unlimited computational power. The feedback to the operator by visual channel or in virtual reality permits to compensate control errors and provides adaptive control. The control system can be implemented with wearable electronics. Examples of technical devices under the control are presented.

Vasily I. Mironov, Sergey A. Lobov, Innokentiy A. Kastalskiy, Susanna Y. Gordleeva, Alexey S. Pimashkin, Nadezhda P. Krilova, Kseniya V. Volkova, Alexey E. Ossadtchi, Victor B. Kazantsev

Open Access

Improving Talent Management with Automated Competence Assessment: Research Summary

Improvement and automatization of Human Resource Management processes is an aspiring trend in modern business. In this paper, we summarize the results of the research we conducted in order to create a formal Text Mining-based competence assessment model and develop a decision support system for talent management (DSSTM) based on this model. We also conducted several experiments in order to improve the performance of the competence assessment model. The resulting prototype of DSSTM currently undergoes validation in a software development company and shows promising results.

N. S. Nikitinsky

Open Access

Educational Potential of Quantum Cryptography and Its Experimental Modular Realization

The fundamental principles of quantum mechanics are considered to be hard for understanding by unprepared listeners, many attempts of its popularization turned out to be either difficult to grasp or incorrect. We propose quantum cryptography as a very effective tool for quantum physics introduction as it has the desired property set to intrigue students and outline the basic quantum principles. A modular desktop quantum cryptography setup that can be used for both educational and research purposes is presented. The carried out laboratory and field tests demonstrated usability and reliability of the developed system.

A. K. Fedorov, A. A. Kanapin, V. L. Kurochkin, Yu. V. Kurochkin, A. V. Losev, A. V. Miller, I. O. Pashinskiy, V. E. Rodimin, A. S. Sokolov

Open Access

Interactive Visualization of Non-formalized Data Extracted from News Feeds: Approaches and Perspectives

In this article, we consider problems related to the task of interactive visualization of data extracted from news feeds, along with possible approaches to its solution. We describe the general concept of visualization taking into account the most recent developments in the field and provide a general description of our approach and the experimental implementation of a visualization system.

D. A. Kormalev, E. P. Kurshev, A. N. Vinogradov, S. A. Belov, S. V. Paramonov

Open Access

Development of Pulsed Solid-State Generators of Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths Based on Multilayer GaAs/AlGaAs Heterostructures

This paper presents the results of research of electrical characteristics features of multibarrier AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructures with tunnel-nontransparent potential barriers. Briefly described constructive-technological features fabricated using molecular beam epitaxy. We measured the quasi-static current–voltage characteristics of test items by electric pulses of duration 10−6 s and a duty cycle of 103. Characteristics observed with a strong section of the negative differential resistance in the current range of several tens of milliamperes. It is proposed to use this effect for the generation of terahertz electromagnetic radiation. The theoretical interpretation of the observed phenomena on the basis of quasi-hydrodynamic theory of electron drift is briefly stated .

V. A. Gergel, N. M. Gorshkova, R. A. Khabibullin, P. P. Maltsev, V. S. Minkin, S. A. Nikitov, A. Yu. Pavlov, V. V. Pavlovskiy, A. A. Trofimov

Open Access

Asymmetric Magnetoimpedance in Bimagnetic Multilayered Film Structures

The magnetoimpedance (MI) effect in bimagnetic multilayered film is studied theoretically. The multilayer consists of a repetition of the base three-layered film structure having the soft and hard magnetic layers separated by highly conductive non-magnetic spacer. It is shown that the magnetostatic coupling changes the magnetization distribution in the soft magnetic layers and leads to the asymmetry in the field dependence of the impedance. The influence of the number of layers on the asymmetric magnetoimpedance (AMI) is analyzed. The calculated field and frequency dependences of the impedance describe qualitatively the AMI effect observed in bimagnetic multilayers. The results obtained may be used in the development of sensors of the magnetic field.

A. S. Antonov, N. A. Buznikov

Open Access

The Model of the Cybernetic Network and Its Realization on the Cluster of Universal and Graphic Processors

The model of the cybernetic network consisting of information and management subnets is offered. For each subnets, its active structural elements and also a way of their association in the general heterogeneous multicoherent network are described. The main functions of active structural elements of such network are considered. For the creation of the model, the object-oriented approach is used. The description of functionalities of main classes intended for the work on clusters of universal and graphic processors is submitted. The approbation of the developed model is executed by a solution of neurobiological tasks.

A. E. Krasnov, A. A. Kalachev, E. N. Nadezhdin, D. N. Nikolskii, D. S. Repin

Open Access

Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Coastal Monitoring and Forecasting Marine Natural Disasters

The paper presents the steps of creating an experimental prototype of an autonomous mobile robot for coastal monitoring and forecasting marine natural disasters. These systems of continuous coastal monitoring are the necessary link in predicting possibilities of developing the resources of the Russian shelf (areas of the Arctic and the Far East). One of the most difficult issues, associated with the creation of the described product, is to ensure the necessary level of mobility in inaccessible areas of coastal zones. This problem is solved by development of the chassis of modular design with the possibility to be reequipped with different types of movers (wheeled, tracked, rotary-screw), depending on operating conditions and the physical and mechanical characteristics of the ground surfaces. The presented robotic complex is also equipped with a set of measuring instruments (circular scanning radar, weather station, navigation system, lidars, video cameras), which allows to carry out comprehensive studies of any coastal zone and evaluate the risks and hazards for providing data for engineering simulation of hydraulic systems and structures. The results of experimental investigations of the coastal zone in the south-east of Sakhalin Island, using the developed experimental prototype of the autonomous mobile robot, are given.

V. V. Belyakov, P. O. Beresnev, D. V. Zeziulin, A. A. Kurkin, O. E. Kurkina, V. D. Kuzin, V. S. Makarov, P. P. Pronin, D. Yu. Tyugin, V. I. Filatov

Open Access

On Creation of Highly Efficient Micro-Hydraulic Power Plants of Pontoon Modular Design in Conditions of Super-Low Flow Parameters

This paper considers raising efficiency problems and choosing the optimum designed parameters of prospective arrangements for construction of low-head micro-hydraulic power plants for plain relief water bodies, for example, of hydropower plants with a “Kaplan turbine—siphon penstock” power complex studying. The analysis results of the constructive configurations both in floating performance and in stationary placement of micro-hydraulic power plant are presented. This configuration solves the flood accident problems and provides power plants mobility. A criterion for comparison of micro-hydraulic power plant efficiency is developed. It is derived for the optimum solution searching in terms of energy useful utilization by micro-hydraulic power plants hydraulic equipment. The basic approaches are set out for raising efficiency of low-head hydraulic power plants, as well as ways to the optimum selection of parameters of their hydraulic turbines at early stages of design. This is particularly valuable for designers of blade hydraulic machines. The energy efficiency limit of a propeller hydraulic turbine located in a siphon penstock is demonstrated. It is a hydraulic analog (suggested for the first time) of the Betz–Joukowski limit widely used in aerodynamics and design of wind energy plants. New approaches to design flow-power hydraulic units are experimentally supported. Prospects of their application for raising overall efficiency of micro-hydropower plants are substantiated.

A. V. Volkov, A. A. Vikhlyantsev, A. A. Druzhinin, A. G. Parygin, A. V. Ryzhenkov

Open Access

Development of Scientific and Technical Solutions to Create Hybrid Power Source Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Power Storage System for Responsible Consumers

This article deals with hybrid power source (HPS) based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) developed by the authors. HPS includes generating, power storage, integration, and active-adaptive control systems. Generating system includes modular electrochemical generator based on SOFC and reformer. Power storage system consists of capacitive storage and accumulation batteries. Accumulation batteries are created of alkaline nickel–cadmium batteries with improved energy characteristics. The base of integration system is current distribution converter. For the active-adaptive control system realization, the algorithm of HPS functioning has been designed. The conducted research of HPS experimental prototype characteristics allowed to confirm the efficiency of scientific and technical solutions.

A. I. Chivenkov, E. V. Kryukov, A. B. Loskutov, E. N. Sosnina

Open Access

Automated Control Unit of Power Flow in Intellectual Electricity Distribution Network

Results of the development of scientific and technical decisions on creation automated control unit power flow in the intellectual electricity distribution network with microprocessor control system based on modern technologies of design of power electronics devices and digital control systems are presented. Goals and objectives of the study are indicated. Relevance, novelty and practical significance of the work are shown. Properties and opportunities created in the framework of the project equipment are listed.

M. G. Astashev, D. I. Panfilov, P. A. Rashitov, A. N. Rozhkov, D. A. Seregin

Open Access

The Partial Replacement of Diesel Fuel in Hot Water Boiler with Syngas Obtained by Thermal Conversion of Wood Waste

This paper presents experimental results on the use of syngas produced from waste wood by two-stage pyrolytic conversion method, in the implementation of heating system on a basis of hot water boiler. The method of two-stage pyrolytic biomass processing, combining the waste wood pyrolysis, and subsequent heterogeneous cracking of volatile pyrolysis products in charcoal bed, provides a high degree of energy conversion of raw material into syngas with a lower calorific value of 10–11 MJ/m3. The possibility of partial replacement of diesel fuel in hot water boiler with syngas was shown.

O. M. Larina, V. A. Lavrenov, V. M. Zaitchenko

Open Access

The Experimental Research on Independent Starting and Autonomous Operation of HDTB Considered as a Basic Block of AES Based on Supercritical Hydrothermal Destruction

This article deals with an independent starting system (ISS) of the hydrothermal destruction test bed (HDTB) as a part of the layout of the autonomous energy system (AES) based on environmentally friendly technology of supercritical hydrothermal destruction (SCHD) of organic waste and fuels to supply electric and heat energy to small-scale distributed energy facilities. Independent starting system and HDTB tests which may be considered as AES basic block while using liquefied hydrocarbon gas (LHG) as a fuel for AGP-30 gas-piston power plant (GPPP) included into ISS have been described in the paper. Formation of combustible gas as a result of hydrothermal destruction of aqueous mixtures of organic waste and fuels has been shown experimentally. The produced combustible gas may have rather high net calorific value (NCV), which could define its suitability to be used to provide autonomous operation of HDTB.

A. D. Vedenin, V. S. Grigoryev, Ya. P. Lobatchevskiy, A. I. Nikolaev, G. S. Savelyev, A. V. Strelets

Open Access

Development of a Multifunctional All-Terrain Vehicle Equipped with Intelligent Wheel-Drive System for Providing Increased Level of Energy Efficiency and Improved Fuel Economy

The use of hydrostatic transmission driveline as a part of multi-wheeled all-terrain vehicles on ultralow pressure tires allows achieving the efficient power distribution for driving wheels depending on the conditions of vehicle-terrain interaction. This provides a significant increase in average speeds of vehicle movement in difficult road conditions (the maximum possible traction force is implemented by automatic maintaining the required level of wheel slip). At the same time, the minimum energy losses of wheel-soil interaction (improved fuel economy) and environmental safety of wheels, when operating on soft soil and vegetation, are provided. Installing the hydrostatic transmission allows to optimize layout scheme at the expense of the free selection of placement of transmission units. Application of integrated combination of active drive wheels, tires ultralow pressure, independent suspension system, the ability to control all the wheels according to any given algorithm (ability to control turning by all wheels) when driving on soft soil allows to effectively carry out the transportation operation with preservation of the ecology of the soil cover.

V. V. Belyakov, P. O. Beresnev, D. V. Zeziulin, A. A. Kurkin, V. S. Makarov, V. I. Filatov

Open Access

Development and Implementation of an Integrated Approach to Improving the Operating Cycle and Design of an Energy-Efficient Forced Diesel Engine

The methods and means of improving the operating cycle and design of forced diesel, its fuel efficiency, and the limitation of the thermomechanical loading were considered.

K. V. Gavrilov, V. G. Kamaltdinov, N. A. Khozeniuk, E. A. Lazarev, Y. V. Rozhdestvensky

Open Access

The Development of the New Type Universal Collective Survival Craft with Unmanned Control Function for Evacuation of Personnel in Emergency Situations of Natural and Technogenic Character on the Arctic Shelf

The article presents the concept and the process of development of the new type universal collective survival craft. The article shows the arrangement and the interior of the vehicle and describes solutions for the main systems—chassis, life support systems, control systems, and auto piloting, showing decisions in the passenger compartment. In addition, authors describe the development process included in strength calculations of technical solutions. In conclusion, the article gives a conclusion on possible areas of use of the developed solutions.

I. A. Vasilyev, R. A. Dorofeev, J. V. Korushova, A. A. Koshurina, M. S. Krasheninnikov

Open Access

Development of Active Safety Software of Road Freight Transport, Aimed at Improving Inter-City Road Safety, Based on Stereo Vision Technologies and Road Scene Analysis

The article considers the active safety system of road freight transport. The stereoscopic computer vision is the core of the system. The article also describes the major algorithms of active safety and the accuracy characteristics of algorithms’ application.

V. E. Prun, V. V. Postnikov, R. N. Sadekov, D. L. Sholomov

Open Access

Analysis of the Stress State in Steel Components Using Portable X-Ray Diffraction

Comparative measurements have been performed on 20GL steel and grade 2 steel samples put under load in the elastic area in a three-point bending test to evaluate stress using stationary and new developed portable X-ray diffractometer. The results obtained showed that there was a good concurrence in the stress values measured by the stationary and portable diffractometers to within an accuracy of 10% (adjusted for calculation and measurement errors). The experimental results confirm the promising outlook for the practical application of developed portable X-ray diffractometer.

S. A. Nikulin, S. L. Shitkin, A. B. Rozhnov, S. O. Rogachev, T. A. Nechaykina

Open Access

The VLSI High-Level Synthesis for Building Onboard Spacecraft Control Systems

Using small spacecrafts for a wide range of research and applied purposes is one of the major trends in the aerospace field. Modular-network architectures implemented on the “system-on-chip” hardware platform provide required characteristics of onboard control systems. Selecting this system architecture significantly increases demands on very large-scale integration (VLSI) design efficiency and project solution quality. In this paper, we propose a new approach to VLSI high-level synthesis based on a functional-flow parallel computing model. The modified VLSI design flow uses a functional-flow parallel programming language Pythagoras, which allows describing a VLSI operation algorithm with the maximal degree of parallelism. An offered intermediate representation of VLSI architecture in the form of a control-flow graph and a data-flow graph provides an opportunity for synthesizing circuits and verifying projects on the stage of a formal description, without returning to previous hierarchical levels of the project. A set of software tools supporting new design process is developed. The proposed technology is successfully tested on the example of a digital signal processing function. Further, this technology is suggested for use in the synthesis of onboard control system components for small spacecrafts.

O. V. Nepomnyashchiy, I. V. Ryjenko, V. V. Shaydurov, N. Y. Sirotinina, A. I. Postnikov

Open Access

A Concept of Robotic System with Force-Controlled Manipulators for On-Orbit Servicing Spacecraft

To enhance longevity and safety of unmanned spacecraft, especially on high orbits including geostationary ones, it is thought suitable to exploit on-orbit servicing (OOS) spacecraft (servicers) equipped with manipulation system. The employment of the manipulator is by the requirement for fine manipulation in tasks such as refueling, equipment replacement, orbit correction and maintenance tasks. The key feature of a manipulator to fulfill this list is the force-torque feedback. This paper describes a general concept of the manipulator to carry out the on-orbit servicing tasks along with the common and kinematic description of a ground prototype. A brief look at graphical user interface designed for testing purposes is represented. A ground validation facility is described and the description of series of performed tests is included along with conclusions.

I. Dalyaev, V. Titov, I. Shardyko

Open Access

Development of Microlinear Piezo-Drives for Spacecraft Actuators

The article describes the development and experimental studies of microlinear piezo-drive for control reflective surface devices of large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. Research target—experimental investigation of the microlinear piezo-drive to determine stable oscillatory system operating modes which would include improved energy conversion parameters. The following characteristics are briefly presented: test stand construction-design description, identification of oscillatory system resonant and actual frequencies under inertia load. A series of experiments have been conducted for both different preliminary tensions and inertia mass values.

A. V. Azin, S. V. Rikkonen, S. V. Ponomarev, А. М. Khramtsov

Open Access

Design of Dynamic Scale Model of Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Dynamic scale model of aircraft is a model established in accordance with the laws of dynamic similitude and used in the research of flutter and other aeroelastic facts [1]. A result obtained under laboratory conditions was transferred to full-scale aircraft with conversion.

V. S. Fedotov, A. V. Gomzin, I. I. Salavatov

Open Access

Features of the Development of Regional Transport Models

Improvement of the Russian legislation in the field of strategic and territorial planning administrative units of the Russian Federation repeatedly increased the demand for specialists in the analysis and forecasting of social and economic development of the state authorities and local government entities, in the modern tools of transport modeling. The spectrum of regional facilities in their size and in their administrative status multivariable tasks for problem solving with traffic. In this condition, important thing is the development of building technology of transport models that have universal possibilities for different types of the researching area. Currently, the best developed methods are methods of transport models of cities and agglomerations. Meanwhile, also important thing is using transport modeling as a tool for the planning and development of federal and regional transport systems. In the development of regional transportation model should be taken into attention, the specificity of the transport system functioning in regional level, which does not allow to use the methodological apparatus intended for the development of urban models. The proposed methodological approaches can be used in the development and updating of the regional transport models, helping to reduce the cost of the process and being effectively applied in the researching areas on any administrative level.

P. V. Loginov, A. N. Zatsepin, V. A. Pavlov

NanoScience and NanoTechnology

Frontmatter

Open Access

The Influence of AlGaN Barrier-Layer Thickness on the GaN HEMT Parameters for Space Applications

The results of simulation of field-effect microwave high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on GaN/AlN/AlGaN heterostructures are presented. The research allowed to determine the optimal thickness of the AlGaN barrier layer for achieving high microwave capacity implementation.

A. G. Gudkov, V. D. Shashurin, V. N. Vyuginov, V. G. Tikhomirov, S. I. Vidyakin, S. V. Agasieva, E. N. Gorlacheva, S. V. Chizhikov

Open Access

Application of Volume-Surface Hardening by High-Speed Water Flow for Improving Static and Cyclic Strength of Large-Scale Castings from Low-Carbon Steel

The article reveals the possibility of application of volume-surface hardening (VSH) by high-speed water flow for increasing static and cyclic strength of solebars of freight bogies manufactured from low-carbon cast steel 20 GL type. Formation of gradient structures with variable strength and ductility after VSH to the depth of 5–8 mm from the surface provides improved strength by 1.6–2.1 times compared to its normalized state and increases fracture resistance of solebars under static and cyclic loadings.

S. A. Nikulin, A. B. Rozhnov, T. A. Nechaykina, V. I. Anikeenko, V. Yu. Turilina, S. O. Rogachev

Open Access

Thermotropic Gel-Forming and Sol-Forming Systems for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Technologies of Their Joint Application with Thermal Methods for Oil Production

The study of the kinetic, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of solutions, gels and sols for enhanced oil recovery, water shutoff, and stimulation of oil production resulted in the creation of thermotropic systems, based on inorganic and polymer solutions, which are capable to generate a gel or sol in situ, and sol-forming oil-displacing surfactant-based systems with controlled viscosity and alkalinity. The thermal reservoir energy or that of the injected heat carrier is a factor causing solation and gelation. The technologies using the created systems are proposed for complicated operating conditions, including high-viscosity oilfields being developed by thermal-steam stimulation, and a complex of injection options: gradient and component-wise injection, reagent cycling. The technologies were successfully tested in the Permian-Carboniferous reservoir of high-viscosity oil in the Usinsk oilfield, including joint thermal-steam stimulation of the reservoir. The results correspond to the world level.

L. K. Altunina, V. A. Kuvshinov

Open Access

The Mixture of Fatty Acids Conversion into Hydrocarbons Over Original Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst

Development of alternative approaches to fuel components and basic organic synthesis precursors producing based on biomass treatment products is important objective for ecology and chemistry. In this work, a number of original Pt–Sn containing catalysts were used for the mixture of fatty acids conversion. The peculiarities of used catalysts are usage of heterometallic precursors that possesses metal–metal bonds. Such kind of catalysts precursors allow obtaining more active and selective catalysts then ones based on a mixture of monometallic Pt and Sn precursors. Structural peculiarities of catalysts were characterized with TEM&EDS and XAS technique. Relations between Pt clusters structure and its catalytic properties were determined.

A. E. Gekhman, A. V. Chistyakov, M. V. Tsodikov, P. A. Zharova, S. S. Shapovalov, A. A. Pasynskii

Open Access

Beneficiation of Heat-Treated Crushed Brown Coal for Energy Production and Utilities

The article deals with the problems of increasing the efficiency of electric separators through developing new approached to their design for upgrading of heat-treated crushed brown coal. The rational use of natural resources and efficient energy consumption are two basic requirements of EU Directive 2008/1/EC. It is expected that the techniques for brown coal pre-drying will result in increased energy efficiency of enterprises of up to 5% and upgrading of heat-treated brown coal will increase energy efficiency by the same value. To upgrade heat-treated brown coal it is necessary to design new equipment including high-efficiency electric separators. It was earlier found that the maximum value of coal particle charge was provided in a corona-electrostatic separator, a lower level of coal particle charge was observed in a triboelectrostatic separator and the lowest level of coal particle charge was established in a plate-type electrostatic separator. The basic efficiency constraint for drum-type corona-electrostatic separators is the diameter of a collecting electrode and one operating area. To select the directions for increasing the productivity and efficiency in separating heat-treated crushed brown coal in drum-type corona-electrostatic separators the results of studies of changes in force vectors affecting its charged particles, nature of their motion in the electric field resulting in separated products—organic and mineral components of brown coal, taking this into consideration the factors of the heating temperature, voltage across a corona-producing electrode (drum), diameter of a corona-producing electrode and its rotation speed, have been analyzed. The increased efficiency of a drum-type CES with a slight increase in its weight is associated with removing a constraint from design parameters—the diameter of a collecting electrode (drum). It is realized through the change of orientation of a collecting electrode from horizontal to vertical.

V. A. Moiseev, V. G. Andrienko, V. G. Piletskii, V. A. Donchenko, A. I. Urvantsev

Open Access

NiMo/USY-Alumina Catalysts with Different Zeolite Content for Vacuum Gas Oil Hydrocracking Over Stacked Beds

The stacked beds comprising hydrotreating catalyst as the top layer, hydrocracking catalyst based on amorphous silica-alumina as the interlayer and hydrocracking catalyst based on USY zeolite as the bottom layer were tested in hydrocracking of mixed feed containing straight-run VGO, heavy coker gas oil, aromatic extract and petrolatum. It is shown that stacked beds with developed catalysts can be successfully used both in the once-through hydrocracking to provide VGO conversion of 70–80% with middle distillates yields up to 50 wt% and in the first stage operation of two stages hydrocracker to provide 35–65% VGO conversion and produce high-quality middle distillates and feed for the second stage. The commercial partner of this work is Gazprom Neft PJSC (Gazprom Neft Omsk Refinery).

P. P. Dik, V. P. Doronin, E. Yu. Gerasimov, M. O. Kazakov, O. V. Klimov, G. I. Koryakina, K. A. Nadeina, A. S. Noskov, T. P. Sorokina

Open Access

Comparative Mechanical Tests of Samples Obtained by the Domestic Experimental Unit Meltmaster3D-550

The current development of the domestic engineering industry is closely connected with the development of new production technologies and metal processing methods, which corresponds to the transition of the industry to the sixth technological order. One of the priorities and strategically important directions of this development is the introduction of additive technologies into existing production chains. Currently, in the developing Russian market of 3D printing, there is a shortage of qualitative domestic industrial equipment and consumables materials (metallic powders). The present development of additive technologies in Russian companies is carried out with costly imported equipment based on the use of expensive imported consumables. To reduce the share of imported equipment in the Russian market effectively, the development of the technology and prototype model of the experimental unit MeltMaster3D-550 for precision manufacturing of responsible, bulky products with a complex profile based on advanced technologies of additive manufacturing by selective laser melting method (SLM).

A. V. Dub, V. V. Beregovsky, E. V. Tretyakov, S. A. Schurenkova, A. V. Yudin

Open Access

Development of Lithium-Ion Battery of the “Doped Lithium Iron Phosphate–Doped Lithium Titanate” System for Power Applications

Lithium-ion battery based on a new electrochemical system with a positive electrode based on doped lithium iron phosphate and a negative electrode based on doped lithium titanate has been developed. The battery is intended for use in fixed energy storage units. The battery is characterized by the ability to operate at increased charging/discharging currents (up to 30 C ). The specific power of the battery was about 2 kW/kg.

A. A. Chekannikov, A. A. Kuz’mina, T. L. Kulova, S. A. Novikova, A. M. Skundin, I. A. Stenina, A. B. Yaroslavtsev

Open Access

Advanced Heat-Resistant TiAl (Nb,Cr,Zr)-Based Intermetallics with the Stabilized β(Ti)-Phase

The paper represents a brief review of authors’ research results and publications in the area of materials science and engineering of innovated lightweight heat-resistant TiAl-based intermetallic alloys. The system TiAl(Nb,Cr,Zr) under development is being considered as the advanced basis for the creation of TiAl-intermetallics of 3rd generation (TNM) TiAl(Nb,Mo)-like alloys, those being the most promising nowadays for an application in aviation jet engines design. This research is implemented within the frame of Federal Targeted Program for R&D in Priority Areas of Development of the Russian Scientific and Technological Complex for 2014–2020 (Russian FTP for R&D 2014–2020).

A. V. Kartavykh, M. V. Gorshenkov, A. V. Korotitskiy

Open Access

Structural and Magnetic Properties of As-Cast Fe–Nd Alloys

The effect of composition on the magnetic properties and microstructure of as-cast Nd–Fe alloys was investigated. The temperature dependence of the hysteresis loops was studied. The magnetic phases with ordering temperatures in the range from 7 to 50 K and from 420 to 580 K are detected from zero-field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) dependencies of magnetization. At temperatures below 100 K, the increase of the magnetizing field leads to a sharp increase of the magnetization, which does not saturate in the magnetization field 90 kOe. The correlations between the microstructure and coercivity of the as-cast Nd–Fe alloys are discussed.

V. P. Menushenkov, I. V. Shchetinin, M. V. Gorshenkov, A. G. Savchenko

Open Access

Laser Technology of Designing Nanocomposite Implants of the Knee Ligaments

We describe a laser method for constructing a biocompatible implant of the knee ligaments based on synthetic-braided fiber structure of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coated with a nanocomposite coating. A coating based on albumin aqueous dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was applied to the synthetic fibers using ultrasound and then formed by laser evaporation of the aqueous dispersion component. The structure of the nanocomposite implants was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. Composite implant based on single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) contains pores with a diameter of 10–20 nm, and based on multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs)—40–60 nm. We conducted in vitro studies of proliferative activity of human fibroblast cells (HFb) during their colonization on the surface of the implant and into the space between synthetic fibers. The highest value of the HFb proliferation was observed on the implant based on MWCNTs with a large pore size and amounted to 55.435 pcs., in contrast to the implant based on SWCNTs (54.931 pcs.) and control one (54.715 pcs.), as shown by fluorescence microscopy and MTT test. A histological study of the interaction of the nanocomposite implant implanted into rabbit knee joint with bone canal was carried out. The bone germination in the implantation area at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after surgery was shown.

A. Yu. Gerasimenko, U. E. Kurilova, M. V. Mezentseva, S. A. Oshkukov, V. M. Podgaetskii, I. A. Suetina, V. V. Zar, N. N. Zhurbina

Open Access

Properties of Structural Steels with Nanoscale Substructure

To increase the reliability of products, the structural integrity of structural steels are relevant scientific challenges for materials specialists all over the world. A new direction of dealing with these challenges, i.e., making steels with superdispersed, including nanosized, structures, was formed during the past decade. Methods for obtaining such materials define their structural features (grain sizes, grain boundary interface development) and strength characteristics under different types of loading

T. V. Lomaeva, L. L. Lukin, L. N. Maslov, O. I. Shavrin, A. N. Skvortsov

Open Access

Near-Net Shapes Al2O3–SiCw Ceramic Nanocomposites Produced by Hybrid Spark Plasma Sintering

This article describes the process and demonstrates the possibility to obtain a complex square-shaped nanostructured ceramic cutting composite by spark plasma sintering. Microstructure, mechanical, and wear properties of complex shape inserts were studied and compared with the properties of inserts which were cut from the SPS-sintered cylinder by diamond disk. Both types of inserts exhibited similar properties, meanwhile, fabrication of complex-shaped sample is less expensive and time-consuming process due to the absence of diamond disk cutting operation.

E Kuznetsova, P. Peretyagin, A. Smirnov, W. Solis, R. Torrecillas

Open Access

Development of Technical and Technological Solutions in the Field of Multilayer Graphene for Creating Electrode Nanomaterial Energy Storage Devices

The technologies of production of graphene nanoplatelets and nanocomposite materials (nano-, meso-porous carbon)/(graphene nanoplatelets, carbon nanotubes) were developed. The nanocomposite materials obtained possess specific surface area as high as 2000–3000 m2/g and more, and exceed the existing carbon materials by parameters of surface area, pore volume, and pore size. Supercapacitors based on the nanocomposite materials developed were made and tested.

N. R. Memetov, A. V. Schegolkov, G. V. Solomakho, A. G. Tkachev

Open Access

Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polyurethane Composites with Modified Carbon–Polymer Interface

Carbon fiber-reinforced polyurethane composites were received by means of technique, which includes modification of polyurethane–carbon fiber interface. The modification was done by carbon nanotube grafting onto a surface of the fiber. A sophisticated grafting technique allowed to avoid almost inevitable grafting-induced deterioration of the fiber properties. The technique implies the introduction of an intermediate protective aluminum oxide layer. The measurement of interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was used for estimation of polymer–fiber interface properties. It was shown that IFSS doubled due to nanotube grafting. The enhancement of both thermal conductivity and mechanical properties including delamination resistance was registered for composites with the modified interface, which allows to state that the resulting materials can be considered as novel flexible composites.

A. R. Karaeva, N. V. Kazennov, V. Z. Mordkovich, S. A. Urvanov, E. A. Zhukova

Open Access

Development and Research of Multifrequency X-ray Tube with a Field Nanocathode

The conceptual model of X-ray source, consisting of the field-emission cathode and transmission-type thin film target, which is combined with X-ray transparent window, has been proposed. By means of numerical simulation methods, it was shown that the proposed design makes it possible to generate X-rays under the influence of an electron beam of the field-emission cathode. It is possible to get a small focal spot on the target and, therefore, a high resolution. The experimental sample of X-ray source was made and its measurement tests were conducted. The following results of the experimental studies of the sample of X-ray source were obtained: the power supply voltage is 37 kV, the power consumption is 2.77 W, the cathode current is 74.80 mA, the sample dimensions are 65 × 22 mm, the focal spot size is 439 mm, and the cathode current is about 75.2 μA after exposure to high and low temperatures.

T. A. Gryazneva, G. D. Demin, M. A. Makhiboroda, N. A. Djuzhev, V. E. Skvorcov

Open Access

Quasicrystalline Powders as the Fillers for Polymer-Based Composites: Production, Introduction to Polymer Matrix, Properties

Powders of icosahedral Al65Cu23Fe12 and decagonal Al73Cu11Cr16 quasicrystalline intermetallics were synthesized by the mechanical alloying in combination with subsequent annealing. The conditions of mechanical alloying were purposely chosen to obtain the composite materials filled by dispersed (<3 μm) quasicrystalline particles. A number of silanes were tested for the surface treatment of quasicrystalline particles in order to provide the uniform distribution of quasicrystals over the polymer melt and chemical binding with the polymer matrix and the most efficient silane type was found. The composites based on ethylene-vinyl acetate EVA, polysulphone PSU, and polyphenylene sulfide PPS were produced by the filling with quasicrystalline powders. The study of rheological characteristics has shown that high fluidity of the melt is retained, while uniform distribution of quasicrystalline particles over the polymer is provided. The data of mechanical and physical properties are reported.

A. A. Stepashkin, D. I. Chukov, L. K. Olifirov, A. I. Salimon, V. V. Tcherdyntsev

Open Access

Selection of Aluminum Matrix for Boron–Aluminum Sheet Alloys

The problem of substantiating the aluminum matrix composition for obtaining the hardenable by heat-treatment boron–aluminum alloys in the form of ingots and sheet products. Alumanation materials alloyed by boron are promising radiation-resistant structural materials. Analysis of basic systems of the hardenable by heat-treatment aluminum alloys was carried out. With the use of the calculations (Thermo-Calc software) and experimental methods (including scanning electron microscopy and microprobe analysis), justified has been an unreasonableness of obtaining the boron–aluminum alloys based on magnesium-containing systems because of an active interaction of that element with boron. An experimental study has been focused on the boron–aluminum alloys based on Al–Zr–Sc (with magnesium, manganese and titanium additives) and Al–Cu systems. It was found that titanium introduction into the systems with zirconium and scandium does not assist in preventing their interaction with boron, which hampers the aluminum matrix hardening. The Al–Cu system meets the requirements best of all since copper doesn’t interact with boron and does not affect on composition of the boron-containing phases. It was determined that such system allows to obtain ingots and sheet products of aluminum boron-containing alloy possessing high mechanical properties. The maximum achievable hardness on ingots and sheet products amounts to ~130 HV, and the tensile strength (sheet) equals to 430 MPa.

N. A. Belov, K. Yu. Chervyakova, M. E. Samoshina

Open Access

Features of Carbide Precipitation During Tempering of 15H2NMFA and 26HN3M2FA Steels

Thermodynamic calculation of the equilibrium phase composition and evolution of the size and composition of carbide particles was carried out using Thermo-Calc and TC-Prisma 2.0 in order to identify the optimal modes of the final heat treatment for 15H2NMFA and 26HN3M2FA steels. The formation of structure and mechanical properties complex of the investigated steels was experimentally studied after tempering. The model describing the precipitation and growth of carbide particles was suggested based on the experimental results. This model will be used as part of the developed control complex of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions for the formation of micro grains and nano-sized hardening phases.

S. V. Belikov, V. A. Dub, P. A. Kozlov, A. A. Popov, A. O. Rodin, A. Yu. Churyumov, I. A. Shepkin

Open Access

Improvement of the Mechanical and Biomedical Properties of Implants via the Production of Nanocomposite Based on Nanostructured Titanium Matrix and Bioactive Nanocoating

The work describes the complex approach for production of the biomaterial that is able for the accelerated osteosynthesis (i.e., rate of the implants engraftment into the bone tissue). The combined approach is based on bulk nanostructuring of titanium matrix and surface nanostructuring based on bioactive porous coating. This approach leads to enhancement of both mechanical and biomedical properties of implants. We created bioactive coating on nano-Ti substrates using modeling the oxide layer structure on nano and micro level. The developed bioactive surfaces with two-level surfaces allow to control surface relief both on micro and nano level with high precision (1 nm). These surfaces do not lead to the degradation of the mechanical properties of nanotitanium. Biomedical studies showed that the composite coating demonstrates high surface adhesion properties for the osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 cell line. Along with adhesion, also initial differentiation of osteoblasts is observed. This indicates the ability of the surface to the accelerated osteosynthesis. The developed nano-Ti-based composite nanomaterial with bioactive nanocoating can be used for the production of the new generation implants for dentistry, reconstructive surgery and orthopedics.

E. G. Zemtsova, A. Yu. Arbenin, R. Z. Valiev, V. M. Smirnov

Open Access

Nanopowders Synthesis of Oxygen-Free Titanium Compounds—Nitride, Carbonitride, and Carbide in a Plasma Reactor

The synthesis of titanium nitride, carbonitride, and carbide nanopowders from titanium tetrachloride vapor in the stream of hydrogen or hydrogen–nitrogen plasma, generated by an electroarc torch, in a confined-jet flow reactor has been experimentally studied. Single-phase nanopowders with a NaCl-type cubic crystal lattice as assemblies of preferably cube-shaped nanoparticles of a 20–150 nm size and aggregates based on them have been obtained in the experiments. By varying the synthesis parameters, it has been possible to prepare titanium nitride nanopowders with a specific surface area in the range of 11–39 m2/g containing 18.8–22.5 wt% nitrogen, which corresponds to the empirical formula TiN0.79–TiN0.99. The titanium carbonitride nanopowders had a specific surface area of 13–23 m2/g, carbon and nitrogen contents of 7.5–13.6 and 13.5–5.1 wt%, respectively. The titanium carbide nanopowders had a specific surface area of 14–45 m2/g and carbon contents of 17–21 wt%. Most reached yield of main products was 94%.

N. V. Alexeev, D. E. Kirpichev, A. V. Samokhin, M. A. Sinayskiy, Yu. V. Tsvetkov

Open Access

The Technology and Setup for High-Throughput Synthesis of Endohedral Metal Fullerenes

The article presented the technology and setup for high-throughput synthesis of carbon nanostructures. It was shown that the plasma-chemical synthesis of fullerenes and endohedral metallofullerenes (EMF) in high-frequency arc discharge can be controlled by changing helium pressure in the chamber. The methods of extraction using Lewis acids and separation of individual EMF by HPLC were suggested as the most effective.

D. I. Chervyakova, G. N. Churilov, A. I. Dudnik, G. A. Glushenko, E. A. Kovaleva, A. A. Kuzubov, N. S. Nikolaev, I. V. Osipova, N. G. Vnukova

Open Access

On Some Features of Nanostructural Modification of Polymer-Inorganic Composite Materials for Light Industry and for Building Industry

The specifics and general patterns of change in physical and physico-chemical properties of polymer-inorganic systems and effective methods of composite materials nanoengineering for light industry and construction industry have been revealed. A quantitative assessment is given of the impact of mechanoacoustic processing of calcium chloride hydrosol on the change in nanoparticles size at the dispersed phase, in parameters of nanoporous structure of cement stone formed. A method has been proposed for obtaining composite gasket materials based on formation of specific comblike structure of interphase layer of reinforcing block copolymer with the introduction of side branches in the pore spaces of the fibrous component. The method allows creating on the basis of a small set of textile carriers a wide range of gasket materials with technologically necessary level of elastic-deformation properties of the duplicated materials and a high degree of discreteness of their regulation. The substantiation of multilayer composite materials structure for the design of special garments, that allow creating new functional energy reflecting and sealing materials, is given.

M. V. Akulova, S. A. Koksharov, O. V. Meteleva, S. V. Fedosov

Open Access

High-Speed Laser Direct Deposition Technology: Theoretical Aspects, Experimental Researches, Analysis of Structure, and Properties of Metallic Products

Additive technologies as an alternative to traditional methods arouse great interest in many industrial sectors. In recent years, many theoretical and experimental articles devoted to additive technologies and their applications have been published. In spite of it, now the area of outstanding issues is still remaining. The paper presents results of theoretical and experimental researches devoted to the stability of products formation from different metallic alloys with complex geometry form, which were manufactured using high-speed direct laser deposition technology. The prospect of application of the method for the manufacturing of various materials details and products for various areas of engineering has been shown.

K. D. Babkin, V. V. Cheverikin, O. G. Klimova-Korsmik, M. O. Sklyar, S. L. Stankevich, G. A. Turichin, A. Ya. Travyanov, E. A. Valdaytseva, E. V. Zemlyakov

Open Access

Synthesis and Properties of Energetics Metal Borides for Hybrid Solid-Propellant Rocket Engines

In this paper, the problems of production and characterization of microsized metal borides (including aluminum, titanium, magnesium) are discussed. The preferences of application for high-energy materials are presented. The problems of chemical stability and chemical compatibility are discussed. A technique for production of metal borides is also described which is known as self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and the subsequent mechanical treatment. The result is microsized borides which have an average size of around 5 microns with a sharp curve for distribution sizes. The purity is enough for use as fuel of high-energy materials hybrid solid-propellant rocket engines. The results of SEM, X-Ray, DSC, and TG analyses are also presented and discussed.

S. S. Bondarchuk, A. E. Matveev, V. V. Promakhov, A. B. Vorozhtsov, A. S. Zhukov, I. A. Zhukov, M. H. Ziatdinov

Open Access

Mechanical Treatment of ZrB2–SiC Powders and Sintered Ceramic Composites Properties

The effect of mechanical treatment by planetary ball milling on the properties of hot pressed ZrB2–SiC ceramics was studied. It has been shown that material densification after mechanical treatment is finished on initial stages of sintering process. Addition of SiC leads to essentially increasing of sample density up to 99% of a theoretical one for powder with 20% SiC, as compared with ZrB2 not higher when 76%. It has been shown that all defects which were accumulated during mechanical treatment are annealed during hot pressure process and there are no any changes of coherently diffracting domain (CDD) values in sintered ceramics. The model was suggested to describe of three-layered porous composite synthesis at the conditions of hot isostatic pressing and investigate the porosity evolution during synthesis. Model takes into account the conjugate heat exchange between sintered materials and walls of the reactor.

S. P. Buyakova, A. G. Knyazeva, A. G. Burlachenko, Yu. Mirovoi, S. N. Kulkov

Health and Ecology and Environment Sciences

Frontmatter

Open Access

The Influence of DCs Loaded with Tumor Antigens on the Cytotoxic Response of MNC Culture Patients with Oncology

Currently, one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of oncological patients is the selective activation of T-cell antitumor immunity using immune cells. The generation of functionally active DCs in vitro constitutes a promising approach in the development of DC-based anticancer vaccines to mobilize patient defense systems, because their activation by tumor-specific antigens to induce cytotoxic responses, and their increased efficiency of antigen presentation to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) via costimulatory molecules and cytokines can be controlled. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional characteristics of peripheral blood DC subsets in colorectal cancer (CRR), breast cancer (BC), and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and the development of an antitumor cytotoxic response by mononuclear cells (MNCs) from patients using in vitro generated antigen-primed DCs.

A. P. Cherkasov, J. N. Khantakova, S. A. Falaleeva, A. A. Khristin, N. A. Kiryishina, V. V. Kozlov, E. V. Kulikova, V. V. Kurilin, J. A. Lopatnikova, I. A. Obleukhova, S. V. Sennikov, J. A. Shevchenko, S. V. Sidorov, A. V. Sokolov, A. E. Vitsin

Open Access

Establishment of a Technological Platform for Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Biomedical Cellular Products in Russia

After joint legislative efforts of scientific community and Government resulted in the adoption of Federal Law #180 “On biomedical cellular products (BMCP)” onset of first pre-clinical trials of cell therapies in Russia got into scope. Testing of BMCPs to assess their safety and obtain primary efficacy results is a cornerstone of development and translation to clinical trials. Thus, a task force consisting of Lomonosov Moscow State University, leading research groups and experts from both—regulatory and industrial entities have been established under a project funded by Russian Ministry of Science and Education. As far as Federal Law #180 is enforced starting January 1, 2017, completion of the project in December 2016 is a timely step to ensure the development of cell therapies and regenerative medicine in Russia. The present article gives an overview of the project in 2014–2016 and summarizes main results of the collaborative effort.

P. I. Makarevich, Yu P. Rubtsov, D. V. Stambolsky, N. I. Kalinina, Zh A. Akopyan, Y. V. Parfyonova, V. A. Tkachuk

Open Access

Combination of Functional Electrical Stimulation and Noninvasive Spinal Cord Electrical Stimulation for Movement Rehabilitation of the Children with Cerebral Palsy

Movement and posture disability are appropriate to cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of the current study was to examine the hypothesis that the functional muscle electrical stimulation (FES) and transcutaneous spinal cord electrical stimulation (TSCS) combined with locomotor treadmill training improve posture and motor function in children with severe CP. Thirty-one children with CP (spastic diplegia) (7–13 years old; mainly levels III of GMFCS) participated in the study. The experimental group received muscle FES and TSCS at T11 and L1 spinal levels, combined with locomotor treadmill training, whereas the participants of the control group received locomotor treadmill training only. After treatment, the GMFM-88 score increased in 81% children of the experimental group and in 33% children of the control group. In the experimental group, there were a significant decrease of the stabilogram area in the eye opened condition and the significant decrease of forward shift of center of pressure projection in the sagittal plane in both eye opened and eye closed conditions, whereas in the control group any significant changes of stabilogram parameters did not observed. Knee torque and range of knee motion significantly increased in the experimental group. After electrical stimulation, the decrease of muscle co-activation in proximal and distal muscles occurred, whereas in the control group muscle co-activation decreased in proximal muscles only. Thus, improvement of motor functions and balance control system in children with severe CP in response to the combination of TSCS, FES and locomotor training revealed. Combination of these techniques can be used for the effective neurorehabilitation.

A. G. Baindurashvili, G. A. Ikoeva, Y. P. Gerasimenko, T. R. Moshonkina, I. E. Nikityuk, I. A. Solopova, I. A. Sukhotina, S. V. Vissarionov, D. S. Zhvansky

Open Access

Bifunctional Recombinant Protein Agent Based on Pseudomonas Exotoxin A Fragment for Targeted Therapy of HER2-Positive Tumors

Four variants of bifunctional HER2-specific recombinant proteins (anti-HER2-toxins) were created composed of HER2-specific scFv antibody (4D5scFv) or HER2-specific DARPin (D29) as targeting module and Pseudomonas exotoxin A fragment (PE40) as toxic module, and distinguished by the way of bacterial expression (cytoplasmic or periplasmic). Physicochemical, immunochemical, and functional properties of the created recombinant proteins as well as their expression yields were analyzed and compared with the option of the most promising one, D29-PE40, for further implementation as an agent for targeted therapy of HER2-overexpressing tumors.

S. M. Deyev, O. M. Kutova, E. N. Lebedenko, G. M. Proshkina, A. A. Schulga, E. A. Sokolova

Open Access

Development of Classification Rules for a Screening Diagnostics of Lung Cancer Patients Based on the Spectral Analysis of Metabolic Profiles in the Exhaled Air

The pattern recognition technique was used for the development of classification rules for a screening diagnostics of lung cancer (LC) patients, based on the spectral analysis of metabolic profiles in the exhaled air, measured by the IR laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS). The study involved LC, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia patients, and healthy volunteers. The analysis of the measured spectra of exhaled air samples was based first on reduction of the dimension of the feature space using principal component analysis (PCA); thereafter the dichotomous classification was carried out using the support vector machine (SVM). The approaches to differential diagnostics based on the set of SVM classifiers usage are presented.

A. V. Borisov, Yu. V. Kistenev, D. A. Kuzmin, V. V. Nikolaev, A. V. Shapovalov, D. A. Vrazhnov

Open Access

Antitumor Effect of Vaccinia Virus Double Recombinant Strains Expressing Genes of Cytokine GM-CSF and Oncotoxic Peptide Lactaptin

In this study, the double recombinant vaccinia viruses were generated those express exogenous proteins: human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the antitumor protein lactaptin in secreted and nonsecreted forms. We observed that recombinant VV-GMCSF-Lact with nonsecreted lactaptin exerted stronger cytotoxic activity than others in MDA-MB-231, BT-549 and BT-20 breast cancer cells with calculated CD50 of 0.005; 0.004 и 0.00083 PFU/cell correspondently. Strain VV-GMCSF-Lact also exhibited highest lytic activity in lung cancer cells H1299 and epidermoid carcinoma cells A-431. Normal MCF10A cells and diploid embryonic lung human cells LECH-240 were resistant to all recombinant vaccinia viruses. Strain VV-GMCSF-Lact showed the highest index of tumor selectivity in pairs normal/cancer cells: MCF10A/MDA-MB-231 (>2000) and LECH-240/H1299 (190). By flow cytometry, we demonstrated that all recombinants induced apoptosis in treated cancer cells but the rate of annexin V-positive cells was higher after treatment with VV-GMCSF-Lact than others. Thus nonsecreted lactaptin expression increased the toxicity of recombinant virus to cancer cells in the best way. It is likely that lactaptin expression inside the treated cells (without secretion outside) intensifies apoptosis and as a consequence promotes the progression of apoptotic cells to secondary necrotic cells. These results demonstrate that recombinant VV-GMCSF-Lact has good oncolytic potential and stimulate further investigation of its anticancer activity in human tumor models in vivo and to use it in the development of anticancer therapeutic agents.

G. V. Kochneva, O. A. Koval, E. V. Kuligina, A. V. Tkacheva, V. A. Richter

Open Access

Genome-Wide Association Studies for Milk Production Traits in Russian Population of Holstein and Black-and-White Cattle

We performed the genome-wide association study of estimated breeding values for milk production traits in Russian Holstein and black-and-white cattle population. The join dairy cows’ population of Moscow and Leningrad regions was used to create a common reference group of animals to obtain the genomic breeding values. We identified breeding and genetic parameters for milk yield for 305 days of lactation, milk fat and protein content, milk fat and protein yield. We found several high-significant conservative mutations associated with milk fat content (e.g., DGAT1, P = 6.8 × 10−22), as well as a 1.5 Mb locus on BTA14. Our results will be used to develop a genomic evaluation programs, aimed to improve economically important traits in dairy cattle in Russia.

А. А. Sermyagin, Е. А. Gladyr, K. V. Plemyashov, А. A. Kudinov, A. V. Dotsev, Т. Е. Deniskova, N. A. Zinovieva

Open Access

Overview of 17,856 Compound Screening for Translation Inhibition and DNA Damage in Bacteria

Screening for new antibacterial compounds is an urgent need of medicinal chemistry. Understanding new antibiotics mechanism of action is needed for progression in the drug development pipeline. In the frame of the project supported by the Ministry of Science, we developed a reporter system which allows an express, cost-effective and high-throughput screening for simultaneous detection of antibacterial activity, protein synthesis inhibition and induction of DNA damage SOS response. Automation of the screening process developed in the frame of this project allowed to screen up to 17,856 compound chemical library, supplied by the industrial partner of the project, Research Institute of Chemical Diversity. Among the tested compounds, DNA damaging agents appeared almost sixfold more frequently than those that inhibited protein synthesis. Several new families of antibacterial compounds were found among the tested set.

P. V. Sergiev, E. S. Komarova (Andreianova), I. A. Osterman, Ph. I. Pletnev, A. Ya. Golovina, I. G. Laptev, S. A. Evfratov, E. I. Marusich, M. S. Veselov, S. V. Leonov, Ya. A. Ivanenkov, A. A. Bogdanov, O. A. Dontsova

Open Access

Shape of the Voltage–Frequency Curve Depending on the Type of the Object Detached from the QCM Surface

Analysis of the shapes of voltage–frequency curves depending on the type of object detached from the surface of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is carried out. It is demonstrated that the shape of the curve depends not only on the size and shape of bio-object but also on the properties of the particle. For example, a detachment of hepatitis B virus is accompanied by the fragmentation of the bio-object, and signal shape is typical for this case. In addition to a voltage value which determines the bonding force, the signal shape is also characteristic for identification of bio-object.

F. N. Dultsev

Open Access

Complex Technology of Oil Sludge Processing

The technology of processing sludge includes electromagnetic activation of raw materials, catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, and oxidative desulfurization. Preliminary activation reduces electromagnetic temperature catalytic processes at 60–80 ℃, increasing the yield of light products, reduce sulfur content in liquid products at 13–19% by weight, coke formation, and reduces gassing.

A. V. Anisimov, V. I. Frolov, E. V. Ivanov, E. A. Karakhanov, S. V. Lesin, V. A. Vinokurov

Open Access

Comprehensive Ground-Space Monitoring of Anthropogenic Impact on Russian Black Sea Coastal Water Areas

In this paper, we describe the developed methods and technologies, as well as the created research prototype of a ground-space regional monitoring system that was used for comprehensive experimental research of anthropogenic impact on Russian Black sea coastal water areas. Changes in significant water environment parameters (generation of additional spectral components of surface waves; changes in marine surface roughness affecting normalized radar cross-section; turbidity field anomalies affecting spectral brightness variations in various bands of electromagnetic spectrum, etc.) registered in satellite imagery of water areas under anthropogenic impact were revealed. It has been established that these effects were predominantly caused by deep wastewater discharges. Zones of anthropogenic pollution propagations, as well as pipe breakages, have been revealed. The validation of the obtained satellite imagery processing results has been conducted based on sea truth data carried out using buoys, as well as from boats and hydrophysical platform.

V. G. Bondur, V. V. Zamshin

Open Access

Determination of the Optimal Technological Conditions of Processing of the Alkali Alumosilicate

The future development of mineral raw material base in alumina’s production is vary widely with resources development of low-grade alumina stock. It is actual for countries and regions with limit or stock out of traditional bauxite raw. Significant opportunities are presents the natural aluminosilicate as part of urtite, rischorrit, ijolite and the others alkali rocks and also the dump waste products of mine-mill consist of the alumosilicates incorporated overburden rocks and stocker’s middlings. At the same time essential to the efficient use such materials is considerations of their chemical and mineral composition, mole ratio in calciferous- aluminosilicate dry mix, sintering temperature and other parameters that determine the recovery of valuable raw material components. The future development of raw material base for the production of alumina in the central part of Siberia is strongly associated with the development Goryachegorsk deposits of nepheline ores.Experimental results is allow to clarify chemical and mineralogical composition of sample of nepheline concentrate’ obtained by Goryachegorsk field’s ore beneficiation and to determine the optimal conditions for its processing with the extraction in an alkaline aluminate solution alumina and alkaline components. The obtained results establish the possibility of achieving valuable components extraction rates of more than 90%, which exceeds or matches the existing level for the same raw materials, and combined with the implementation of other resource-saving solutions can rely on high efficiency of the process.

V. N. Brichkin, A. M. Gumenyuk, A. V. Panov, A. G. Suss

Open Access

New Highly Efficient Dry Separation Technologies of Fine Materials

During cleaning of high-ash coal mainly “wet” processes are used which require 5–10 tonnes water consumption per 1 tonne of coal. Arrangement of recycling water supply reduces demand in “fresh” water, but transportation of huge volumes of water slurry requires high-energy consumption. Dry cleaning of low-rank coal which has not been exposed to preliminary preparation is inefficient. It was suggested that to provide dry cleaning of high-ash coal it would be reasonable to expose it to chemical heat treatment first, and then to direct the treated coal mass for physical and mechanical cleaning to get the low-ash high-caloric product. It has been determined that in black coal exposed to medium temperature pyrolysis, as well as in brown coal, improvement of incombustible mineral fraction liberation is observed that facilitates further beneficiation with the use of a combination of high-intensity magnetic separation and triboelectrostatic separation. It has been determined that cleaned semicoke substantially exceeds both initial and cleaned coal by its qualities as a solid fuel, and tailings of semicoke dry cleaning can be utilised.

V. A. Arsentyev, A. M. Gerasimov, S. V. Dmitriev, A. O. Mezenin

Open Access

Hydrogenation Processing of Heavy Oil Wastes in the Presence of Highly Efficient Ultrafine Catalysts

The paper presents the results of studies aimed at obtaining experimental data for development of technological solutions to the production of marketable petrochemicals and petroleum products from heavy oil wastes using the process of hydroconversion and at designing engineering solutions in the area of preliminary treatment of heavy oil wastes for their further processing into marketable petrochemicals and petroleum products. The experiments have been conducted using a bench for heavy oil waste processing which combines pretreatment of oil wastes and subsequent hydroconversion processing in the presence of highly efficient ultrafine catalysts. Optimum conditions of oil sludge heavy residue hydroconversion (pressure, 7 MPa; temperature, 435 ℃; feedstock space velocity, 1 h−1; hydrogen: feedstock, 1000 nL/L; catalyst (Mo) content, 0.05 wt%; H2O, 2 wt% (based on the feedstock) make it possible to achieve conversion of the 520 ℃+ fraction of feedstock of up to 67 wt% (per pass) or 90 wt% (based on the recycle stock).

A. E. Batov, Kh. M. Kadiev, M. Kh. Kadieva, A. L. Maximov, N. V. Oknina

Open Access

Development of Unified Import-Substituting Energy-Saving Technology for Purification of Roily Oils, Oil-Slimes, and Chemical and Petrochemical Effluents

In the paper presented are the results of laboratory studies on roily oils purification from mechanical impurities and petroleum products using methods and devices designed at the JSC “SSC RF—IPPE.” These studies were carried out within the framework of the Agreement on granting. These studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of nanostructured membranes for removal of mechanical impurities from water-oil emulsions and jet-film generator of air bubbles for floatation purification of emulsions from petroleum products. Nanostructured membranes are capable of completely removing mechanical impurities over 0.5 μm in size from model roily oils solutions resulting in neither impurities biofouling, nor pores plugging. Mechanical impurities are accumulated on the surface of the nanostructured membrane, and upon reaching their max permissible amount, regeneration of the membrane is carried out. As a result of regeneration, filtering element capacity is recovered up to 95–97% of its initial value. The possibility of production of finely divided air bubbles (less than 100 μm in size) by the jet-film generator was demonstrated and their high concentration in water was reached. Studies were carried out on the possibility of transport of finely divided air bubbles in the low speed (less than 2 m/min) water flow. The effectiveness of floatation purification method was tested under laboratory conditions by increasing amount of the air bubbles and decreasing their size. Taking into account the roily oils properties, the proposed methods of their purification seem quite promising.

V. V. Grigorov, G. V. Grigoriev

Open Access

Development of Remote and Contact Techniques for Monitoring the Atmospheric Composition, Structure, and Dynamics

Prototypes of a typical automated station for monitoring the atmospheric composition and state, as well as lidars and sodars, have been designed and manufactured within the project, which are to be the components of monitoring stations. Experimental tests of the instruments confirmed their designed-in specifications and functions. For contact measurements of air parameters, a complex air monitoring station and an aerosol multiwave diffusion spectrometer have been also designed and manufactured in accordance with technical assignment requirements. The measurement results have shown a continuous increase in the concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, as well as a renewed increase in the methane concentration in the layer from 0 to 7 km.

B. D. Belan, Yu. S. Balin, V. A. Banakh, V. V. Belov, V. S. Kozlov, A. V. Nevzorov, S. L. Odintsov, M. V. Panchenko, O. A. Romanovskii

Open Access

Technology of Integrated Impact on the Low-Permeable Reservoirs of Bazhenov Formation

Nowadays, the huge amount of the information concerning development and exploitation of hard-to-recover oil has been accumulated. The rational (sustainable) development of the Bazhenov formation is the main target for many years to come. The work is based on the research and has been performed within the framework of the Federal target program with the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (the unique identifier RFMEFI60714X0080). The aim of the research is to choose the best possible method of oil extraction. During this research, geological aspects of the Bazhenov formation, methods of influence, and field tests results were studied; methods impact on the productive part of the oil deposits; and research based on the extraction of shale oil. As the result of this literature review and patent research, the list of the main methods of influence on Bazhenov formation was formed. Among them, there are hydraulic formation fracturing, thermal methods, gas, and water–gas injection methods. The authors of the research work proposed a new way of development of oil Bazhenov formation, based on the results of mathematical modeling and computational and experimental studies, has created a unique laboratory facility for the integrated modeling of petrophysical and hydrodynamic characteristics of the reservoir model Bazhenov Formation. The project of the technical specification for the installation for vibration stimulation of the formation in the depression mode has been developed.

V. S. Verbitskiy, V. V. Grachev, A. D. Dmitrievskiy

Open Access

Development of the First Russian Anammox-Based Technology for Nitrogen Removal from Wastewater

A pilot single-stage setup with the reactor volume of 20 m3 was constructed for ammonium removal from the filtrate of thermophilically digested sludge. The setup was operated at temperatures of 20–37 ℃, dissolved oxygen concentrations of 0.1–0.7 mg/L, pH of 5.7–8.5, hydraulic retention time of 12–36 h, and filtrate output of up to 30 m3/day. The efficiency of nitrogen removal was 75–90%, nitrogen load was 0.9–1.1 kg N/(m3·day), and the specific volumetric nitrogen removal capacity of the reactor reached 0.8–1.0 kg N/(m3·day). The sludge retained activity at low pH (5.7) and enhanced nitrite concentration (up to 250 mg/L). A correlation was established between conductivity reduction of the treated liquid and nitrogen removal efficiency, and the formula for calculation of ammonium concentration using the conductivity was proposed.

A. M. Agarev, A. G. Dorofeev, A. Yu. Kallistova, M. V. Kevbrina, M. N. Kozlov, Yu. A. Nikolaev, N. V. Pimenov

Open Access

Pulse-Detonation Hydrojet

Geometrical configuration and operational parameters of a valveless pulse-detonation hydrojet have been determined based on extensive numerical simulations using 2D two-phase flow equations. The theoretical propulsive performance of such a hydrojet in terms of the specific impulse was shown to be on the level of modern liquid propellant rocket engines and amount 350–400 s. Based on the results of numerical simulation a valveless pulse-detonation hydrojet operating on liquid hydrocarbon fuel (regular gasoline) and gaseous oxygen has been designed and fabricated. For firing the hydrojet, a special test rig with flowing water was designed and assembled. Experiments showed that the measured values of the specific impulse varied within the range from 255 to 370 s which overlaps the theoretical range, thus demonstrating the predictive capabilities of the numerical approach.

S. M. Frolov, K. A. Avdeev, V. S. Aksenov, F. S. Frolov, I. A. Sadykov, I. O. Shamshin, R. R. Tukhvatullina

Open Access

Development of Technological Process of Matrix Conversion of Natural and Associated Petroleum Gases into Syngas with Low Content of Nitrogen

There is an acute need in more wide use of huge world resources of natural gas as a petrochemical raw material. But solving of this global task is hardly possible without developing of more effective methods for conversion of natural gas into the most important gas–chemical intermediate—syngas. This paper describes recent results on a principally new type of reformers based on the non-catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons into syngas in volumetric (3D) matrix burners. The use of enriched air and oxygen results in production of syngas with low content of nitrogen for petrochemical applications, including production of methanol, syncrude oil, and others. The effective recuperation of heat of produced syngas inside the matrix cavity permits to operate at optimal values of oxygen excess coefficient α = 0.32–0.36, thus making it possible to obtain in such simple non-catalytic process very high yield of nitrogen-free syngas with concentration of H2 more than 50% and that of CO more than 30%.

V. S. Arutyunov, A. V. Nikitin, V. I. Savchenko, I. V. Sedov, O. V. Shapovalova, V. M. Shmelev
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