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About this book

This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the second International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Beijing, China on September 20-21, 2014.

Examines how to improve productivity through the latest advanced technologiesCovering new systems and techniques in the broad field of mechatronics and automatic control systems

Table of Contents


Algorithm Design


1. Modeling and Simulation of the Emergency Diesel Generator Based on MATLAB

The loading calculation is one of the key technologies for the emergency diesel generator which plays an important role in nuclear power. For the purpose of analyzing the process of loading, this chapter has established a simulation model of the emergency diesel generator based on MATLAB/Simulink, which may accurately reflect the mechanical and electromagnetic coupling process and the nature of the strong coupling and nonlinearity. The author simulates the loading process of the emergency diesel generator with the simulation results showing that the model is correct and reasonable; in the meanwhile, a theoretical guidance for the capacity choices of the emergency diesel generator is provided.

Dongfu Zhang, Jianhua Cui

2. The Metal Oxide Arresters Online Monitoring System Based on WIA-PA

Metal oxide arresters (MOA) are widely used to protect the power facilities’ overvoltage in substation, but it is very hard to find the fault point due to its large amount of usage and wide distribution. Thus, a kind of wireless networks for industrial automation-process automation (WIA-PA) online monitoring system for MOA is developed. First, the monitoring device contacts the gateway via wireless; then, the software is designed to realize the real-time monitoring of MOA situation, and finally, the test and analysis are carried out.

Dan Li, Jie Tong, Mingyue Zhai, Yanhong Zhao

3. Two-Stage Optimal Scheduling Model of Hydrothermal Electricity Based on Generation Performance

Electric power industry is energy-intensive industry. The energy efficiency improvement, change of energy utilization mode, and reduction of carbon-based energy use of electric power industry play important roles in alleviating the contradiction between supply and demand of energy and improving the ecological environment. Theory and practice indicated that the priority use of clean and renewable energy and making cleaning power and thermal power combined operation are effective ways to make the power system economic operation, improve energy utilization efficiency, and save nonrenewable energy. At present, hydroelectric energy is in dominant among clean and renewable energies in China. Hydrothermal power system combined operation is an effective way to enhance the energy utilization efficiency of power systems and promote the adjustment of energy utilization mode. The rational coordination of hydrothermal power system operation mode which can make the best use of the complementary advantages of power systems can promote power system energy-saving operation. Tightly focusing on combined optimization dispatch problems for hydrothermal power system, this chapter has made deep research on power supply and demand as well as power output and replacements of hydrothermal units for the purpose of water resources reasonable utilization and coal and non-renewable energy conservation.

Jiayu Li, Ruochen Li, Chao Qin, Minfang Huang, Guan Wang, Zhongfu Tan

4. Fault Features Study of Doubly Fed Induction Generators on the Stator Windings Turn-to-Turn Short Circuit

Doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) are gradually used in wind power generation, and its capacity is becoming bigger and bigger. Turn-to-turn short circuit of winding is common fault in DFIG, and in order to study the steady electromagnetic characteristic of DFIG with the stator windings turn-to-turn short circuit, a simulation model is built based on the finite element method. In order to improve the accuracy, the excitation current in finite element is calculated by multicircuit equation. The proposed model is employed to simulate the magnetic field and current of stator and rotor windings when turn-to-turn short circuits occur on stator windings of DFIG. From the simulated result, we obtained the frequency spectrum of magnetic flux density of air gap, analyzed the difference of magnetic field and line current of stator and rotor windings between faulty and healthy generators, and concluded the feature of stator inter-turn fault in DFIG.

Junqing Li, Dong Wang, Ximei Wang, Lipeng Zhang

5. Estimation of the State of Charge of the Battery Based on Driving Cycles Discriminant

It is the key technical parameter for the battery management system in electric vehicles to estimate the state of charge (SOC) of batteries. It is difficult to establish an accurate mathematical model due to the influence of characteristic of monomer battery, consistency of batteries, and balance control technology. First, the driving cycles of the vehicle are classified by the Bayes classification method; secondly, the SOC prediction model of multi-scale support vector machine based on the driving cycle discrimination is constructed. According to the statistical characteristics of different driving cycles, the model parameters are optimized by Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm to improve the prediction accuracy of SOC. Finally, the rationality and practicability of the proposed method are verified through simulation and analysis.

Niaona Zhang, Zhe Zhang

6. Rotor Fault Slot Positioning of Doubly Fed Induction Generators Based on Wavelet Decomposition

Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is widely used in the field of wind power, and the rotor windings inter-turn short-circuit fault of DFIG is one of the focuses of the current domestic and international research. Taking into account the special characteristics of the structure and operational, it is difficult to make accurate positioning of inter-turn short-circuit fault of DFIG. In this chapter, the finite element theory and Ansoft are used to simulate and analyze the diffidence of flux density between the DFIG running in normal and rotor windings inter-turn fault, getting the variation characteristics. It is indicated the feasibility of locating a fault slot from the perspective of the magnetic properties. Then, the position of fault slots is located by the data, collecting by the combination of the detection coil and optoelectronic devices, and detecting by wavelet decomposition.

Junqing Li, Lipeng Zhang, Haibo Yu

7. A 3D-Coupled Field-Circuit Model for Analyzing the Internal Short-Circuit Faults of Power Transformer

To characterize the complex physical behavior of power transformer’s internal fault is very important for its protection and fault detection. Therefore, this chapter presents a complete three-dimensional-coupled field-circuit model to analyze the internal short-circuit faults of power transformer. The coupled mechanism and modeling which are used to evaluate the performance of transformer under internal short-circuit fault condition are introduced as well. A 500 kVA, three-phase, oil-immersed, core-type transformer is modeled by this field-circuit 3D-coupled method. Based on this, a deep analysis for turn-to-turn and internal phase-to-phase faults is made. The distribution of magnetic field and electrical characteristics which contribute to the development of reliable and sensitive fault detection methods are discussed in this study.

Guozhao Hu, Xixiu Wu, Fei Long, Shipu Wu

8. Position Detection and Error Compensation for Tubular PMLSM with Hall-effect Sensors

In this chapter, a new position detection method for tubular permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (TPMLSM) is proposed. Instead of using grating sensors, the linear hall-effect sensors are adopted, which reduce the cost largely. In some special PMLSM, the position of hall-effect sensor is restrained by the size of motors, leading to an extra error. So a predetermined lookup table for error compensation is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, the finite element analysis based on Ansoft also demonstrates the validity and reliability of the position detection and error compensation of the tubular PMLSM based on hall-effect sensors.

Yong Zhang, Fang Li, Peiqing Ye

9. Application of Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition on Stator Inter-turn Short-Circuit Fault in Doubly Fed Induction Generators

The stator winding inter-turn short-circuit fault is one of the common faults of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). In this paper, the multi-loop theory is used for the mathematical modeling, while different faults under different conditions are simulated by MATLAB. Due to the drawbacks in the EMD decomposition method, the results of decomposition cannot distinguish the inter-turn short-circuit fault from some non-fault conditions, while, by introducing the EEMD decomposition method, the problem can be solved. Using the new method, the voltage imbalance, variable rotor speed, and other factors on the interference in the process of inter-turn short-circuit fault diagnosis can be ruled out; therefore, the result of the current spectrum analysis is more reliable. EEMD method can provide a more reliable guarantee for stator inter-turn short-circuit fault detection.

Junqing Li, Haibo Yu, Lipeng Zhang

10. Chaotic Property Identification and Prediction of Performance Degradation Time Series for Hydropower Unit

The performance degradation time series of hydropower unit is reconstructed in phase space by using the chaos theory. Chaotic property of the series is found through analysis. The degradation time series is predicted based on the adding-weight one-rank local-region method. The condition monitoring data of hydropower unit are used to verify the proposed method. The results show that it is feasible to predict the performance degradation of hydropower unit by using the chaos prediction method. The proposed method has high accuracy. It is a new way to operate and maintain the hydropower unit.

Xueli An

11. Cosimulation Method for Asynchronous Motor Based on SaberRD–Simulink

Take the three-phase asynchronous motor as the controlled plant, a comparative study of the cosimulation method is carried out based on the platform which consists of MATLAB/Simulink and Saber. Firstly, build a control model in the Simulink environment, and then compile and set the portable control module by using the tool RTW; call the control module into the SaberRD sketch of the whole asynchronous motor space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) control system. Experimental results show that this cosimulation system has the characteristics of flexible application and expected output data, so this study offers a new practical method for research and development of the complex power electronic system.

Rui Li, Chaonan Tong

12. Research and Development of Prejudging Device for Open Circuit in Secondary Side of Current Transformer

The safe and reliable prejudging device for open circuit in the secondary side of current transformer has been developed. On the basis of explaining the process and defects of the traditional operation, the paper designs a schematic diagram of prejudging device. The suitable values of the shunt resistors have been obtained from lots of calculation and analysis with the safety precaution and approach designed at meanwhile including the components selection and the design optimization. The test results show that the device could well prejudge the circuit open in the in-mending section of the circuit at the secondary side of the current transformer.

Gaoxiang Lin, Bifu Qian, Rongtao Wang, Xijia Liu, Jiaxing Wang

13. The Application of Fuzzy Pattern Recognition on Electromotor Malfunction Diagnosis

Until now, the fault detection on running motor is deemed a complicated and uncertain problem. In this chapter, a method for motor fault diagnosis based on fuzzy pattern recognition is proposed. With the fuzzy method, the mathematics model and the membership function of diagnosis are presented to provide a way for motor fault diagnosis.

Tan Xia, Juan Wang

14. Low Speed Stability of Tracking Turntable for the Unmanned Air Vehicle Landing

In the unmanned air vehicle (UAV) landing test, the rate fluctuation of tracking turntable appears in using the grounding active laser guidance system. To improve its stability, the reasons for tracking turntable rate fluctuation at low speed are analyzed. It is verified that the motor cogging torque fluctuation is the main reason at low speed by modeling and experiment. A disturbance observer based compensation control on the basis of the traditional double closed loop PID correction is proposed. Through analyzing the dynamic structure of tracking turntable, the compensation equation of disturbance torque described by the angular acceleration and torque current is derivated and then the torque disturbance observer structure is designed based on the equation. The comparative test shows that the rate fluctuation is 2.12 % after compensation when the speed is 1(°)/s, lower over 3 times than by only the traditional double closed loop PID correction. This method proposed can improve low speed stability of tracking Turntable for the UAV landing.

Chengzhi Su, Yiping Ma, Yanjing Wang, Yuan Fang, Demin Wang

New Energy and Smart Grid


15. Development of a Multiple Stage Single-three-Phase Power Converter

The project studied and designed a set of multiple stage single-three-phase power converter by using modern power electronic technology and automatic control technology. The paper firstly introduced the design of the main circuit and control system and explained the working principle of them in detail and then introduced the design of driving circuit. The test results showed that the power converter realized the transformation from the single-phase voltage to three-phase voltage and the continuous adjustment of output voltage and frequency, which proved the correctness and feasibility of the design. The single-three-phase power converter has functions of transformer and converter. It has developmental prospects and considerable market value, and it can be used as a platform for experiment teaching and research in the field of power electronics technology and driving and controlling of motor.

Min Lei, Quanzhu Zhang, Mingyan Xu, Xiaolei Sun

16. Wind Farm Reactive Power Compensation Capacity Configuration

Reactive power compensation is an important technology to improve power quality of wind power. This paper analyzes various influence factors and reasonable arrangement for wind farm reactive power compensation capacity. Analysis and calculation are carried out for the inconsistent requirements in design regulations and influence factors for transmission line losses. At the same time, the configuration scheme for total compensation capacity, dynamic compensation device capacity, capacitor branches capacities, and their grouping modes are also given. The feasibility of compensation capacity configuration scheme is verified through multiple wind farm calculation cases. The purpose of flexible control of voltage and reactive power can be obtained with the reasonable capacity configuration for wind farm reactive power compensation devices.

Chaoying Yang, Jinhao Wang, Huijie Du, Si Liu, Hao Huang

17. External Evaluation of Power Supply Service Based on Zadeh Fuzzy Process

To improve the service quality of power enterprise, an index system for power supply service evaluation is constructed from the aspects of electricity customers’ perception and the service process of power supply enterprise. G1 method determines the weight of indexes Zadeh operator is used for synthesis process. This chapter combined Zadeh operator and the fuzzy synthesis, and a new evaluation method was proposed. Using this method to evaluate the power supply service at one of the regions of Guangdong Province in China, the result shows the disparity between the actual service performance and customer demands. Through the case, the method of improving power supply service is found out and the reasonableness of proposed method is demonstrated.

Wenbo Shi, Tianfu Shen, Jian Wang

18. Based on the Power Factors of DFIG Wind Farm for Power Flow Optimization

Double fed induction generators are able to operate on different power factors, and can be used to support power systems. On the basis of regulating the power factors of double fed induction generators, the wind power penetration conditions are taken into account; the hybrid artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed to calculate the optimal power flow, and the impact of different power factors on the power system is researched. In this chapter, the model of objective function is formulated to minimize the conventional generator cost under the consideration of various power factors of double fed induction generators. The simulation results show in high wind speed, double fed induction generators can regulate power factors to support power system operations and reduce the conventional generator cost, and the hybrid artificial bee colony algorithm is better for the converged speed of algorithm than the artificial bee colony algorithm. Thus, the model and new algorithm are proved effectively.

Xiaohong Hao, Chen Jiang, Li Wu, Lei Zhang

19. A Novel Method of On-line Measuring and Analyzing the Source Impedance

There are many different ways of measuring the source impedance; however, they vary in applicability and accuracy. The chapter presents a simple and cheap on-line measuring method. It not only applies in AC network but also makes a good result in DC network. The chapter takes emphasis on the common-mode source impedance measuring. Further, the compensation model is established and the calibration factor against frequency is simulated. The simulation results make clear that the measuring frequency range of the method is relatively wide and can reach a good accuracy in coupling analysis and EMI filter design.

Wenwu Song, Kai Zhang, Wei Zhang, Mengtao Qin, Bibo Ping

20. Power Flow Calculation for Weakly Meshed Distribution Network with Distributed Generations and Electric Vehicles

The conventional power flow algorithms are not applicable to the distribution network with distributed generations (DGs) and electric vehicles because of various node types of generations and weekly meshed network. Based on the analysis of the operation mode and the control characteristics of conventional DGs and electric vehicles, their mathematical models in power flow calculation can be established. Then, an improved power flow calculation method based on the Newton algorithm is presented to compute the power flow of weakly meshed distribution network with multitype DGs and electric vehicle. Finally, an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 33 bus system is used to validate the proposed algorithm with the results showing that this improved algorithm is feasible and effective.

Lingyun Wang, Xuanqing Zhou, Yuan Liu

21. Security Monitoring Technology of Smart Grids

In view of the frequent occurrence of current electric power theft accident in combination with existing domestic and foreign research status, a technology research of grid of intelligent security monitoring is proposed in this chapter. It describes the transmission line intelligent video surveillance system, analyzes the target detection algorithm, contrasts Kalman filter background modeling method and improves the target detection method, presents a case study with improved target detection algorithm, and is thus verified by the Halcon. This method has been successfully applied to the transmission line intelligent video surveillance system in Xinjiang Electric Power Company, 220 Kv. It provides a powerful guarantee for the power system security.

Wenjing Li

22. The Exterior Type Consistency Inspection System for Smart Meter

Based on computer vision technology, automatic control technology and laser ranging technology, the exterior type consistency inspection system for smart meters is designed and developed in this paper. The system realizes such exterior type consistency inspection items as liquid crystal display (LCD) screen, characters, bar codes, aperture size, appearance size and so on, which is designed to replace current manual detection mode. The four biaxial linkage control subsystem enables horizontal scanning, side scanning and even multi-angle scanning. The consistency inspection algorithm for exterior type based on fast template matching is used for fast and reliable character recognition and matching. The system automatically completes all the exterior type consistency detection items with fast detection speed and high accuracy and reliability.

Guiping Deng, Li Ding, Yue Guo

23. Novel Fault Isolation Method for Distributed Regional Longitudinal Protection in Smart Distribution Grid

Considering the unique fault detection requirements of smart distribution grid, a distributed regional protection system is proposed. The distributed generations (DGs), which are widely installed in smart distribution grid, are considered to impact the power system protection performance, especially the operation of overcurrent relays that are widely used in traditional distribution grid. This chapter revises the principle of overcurrent protection that can reflect the phase-to-phase fault of next line. Then, the smart distributed terminal unit (SDTU) can use the overcurrent information and direction information to judge the fault to be at upstream or downstream. With protection-associated areas known, SDTU can exchange information with forward associated area to complete the fault isolation function. The algorithm has high selectivity and reliability through simulation verification.

Fanxiu Fang, Wei Cong

24. The Effect of Hazheng Ultra High Voltage Direct Current Commutation Failure on Wind Power

In order to study the effect of transient overvoltage caused by DC commutation failure on the wind farms, a simplified AC-DC model of the Northwest China power grid is built based on PSCAD/EMTDC. The mechanism of AC overvoltage caused by commutation failure is studied in depth. The simulations of a single-phase grounding fault at the inverter side under different conditions are performed. The factors that influence the level of overvoltage are analyzed.

Can Yang, Haibo Zhang, Weiyong Jiang, Yanan Li

25. A Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Photovoltaic Systems

At present, as the use of renewable energy has attracted the people’s attention, the solar power generation technology has become one of the effective ways to solve the crisis of energy and environment. In order to improve the efficiency of solar power systems, it is important to track the maximal power point (MPP). Quadratic interpolation is a method of searching optimization of a function using the sampling points function value within a certain range by means of a low interpolation polynomial approximation to the original objective function, and the polynomial optimization has been worked out and adopted to estimate the optimization target function. Based on perturbation and observation algorithm as well as the quadratic interpolation method which is introduced to narrow the scope of MPP, an improved maximum power point tracking method for PV systems is proposed. On the basis of perturbation and observation algorithm, the principle of quadratic interpolation control method is analyzed. The improved system is simulated by MATLAB. The simulation results show that the proposed method can search the maximum power point effectively and state the steady performance of the PV power systems.

Rong Fan, XiuXia Zhang, ShunXian Bai

26. Motion State and Transient Analysis of the Hybrid Power Coupling Mechanism Based on Matlab and Solidworks

The hybrid vehicle is an important development of the automobile industry because of its capabilities in reducing pollution and saving energy. The key component of its power system is the power coupling mechanism which determines the power efficiency. Therefore, the planetary gear power coupling mechanism which is applied in heavy hybrid vehicles is studied. By using Matlab, an entire vehicle simulation model is established to obtain the output rotating speed and torques under different working conditions. And with the application of Solidworks, a simulation model of the coupling mechanism is set up to obtain its dangerous working period. Then, the simulation data are used to carry out the transient analysis of the coupling mechanism working during the dangerous period. The research results indicate that this method is simple and reliable and can provide technical support for strength-optimized design of the mechanism.

Sulan Han, Shufang Feng, Junlong Zhao

27. Robust Variance Control Algorithm for the Dish Solar Generation Tracking System

The problem of strong winds with sands is encountered in the application environment of the dish solar thermal power technology. This chapter presents the modeling robust variance control (RVC) of the dish solar generation tracker. The structure and the operation principle of the dish solar tracking system are discussed. On this basis, the state space model of tracking servo system with the random disturbances of wind load and system parameter uncertainties is built. In order to overcome the disturbances and uncertainty, the robust variance constraints algorithm is applied to the tracking system in the form of the state feedback matrix. This chapter also analyzes the influence of circle centre location which is the key design parameter of the robust variance control on the output angle variance. Compared with the existing results, the simulation results show that the robust variance control has better robustness and higher control accuracy.

Chen Chen, Pingkang Li, Xiandeng Ping

Power Automation


28. Internal AC Fault of a Converter Station Based on Modular Multilevel Converter High Voltage Direct Current

The chapter introduces the structure and operational mechanism of a modular multilevel converter based on high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC), analyzes the internal alternating current (AC) system fault with emphasis, and puts forward the corresponding protection and control strategy. The MMC-HVDC connected to a wind farm simulation model is set up in power system computer aided design/electromagnetic transient including direct current (PSCAD/EMTDC). The simulation results show that during the interphase, the short circuit fault in the AC bus could cause serious accidents and the fault could be passed through the DC line to the nonfault converter. So it often requires to shut down the converter station—even both. However, the AC voltage on the nonfault converter would not be impacted. When troubleshooting, the system could adjust by self-tuning the control system into a stable state again.

Tianfu Shen, Wenbo Shi

29. Harmonic Analyzing Based on Cubic Spline Interpolated Arithmetic Fourier Transform

The data sampling frequency of the signals in digital substation is generally fixed to 10 kHz. The fast Fourier transform may not be suitable for its harmonic analysis. The arithmetic Fourier transform (AFT) is more appropriate for analyzing discrete signals due to the advantages such as simpler computation, better parallelism, and no limitation on the number of sampling points. It requires nonuniform sampling points, so the uniform sampled signals should be interpolated when using AFT. The zero interpolation is the most widely used method of AFT. It produces a negative effect on the accuracy of the harmonic analysis, which cannot satisfy the requirements of the power system. This chapter proposes a new interpolation method of AFT after comparing the accuracy performance of four interpolation methods, i.e., the zero interpolation, the first-order linear interpolation, the piecewise cubic hermite interpolation, and the cubic spline interpolation. Finally, the cubic spline interpolation is selected to improve the accuracy due to its higher precision and better stability. The MATLAB simulation results show that the new interpolation can meet the requirements of power system harmonic analysis, make AFT better computational characteristics, and provide new ways for harmonic analysis.

Jie Wu, Kaipei Liu, Jian Le, Li Wang, Yihuang Chen

30. Distribution System Reliability Assessment Based on the Improved Monte Carlo Method

In order to assess the reliability of complicated distribution networks, the complicated network structure is simplified and stored in some serial numbers in the computer according to the network topology and the function of the components in the distribution system; at the same time, a new efficient assessment method for distribution network reliability is presented based on the Monte Carlo simulation method and the numbering method in this chapter. The application of the proposed method to the subsystem F4 of RBTS-Bus6 displays its efficiency.

Xiaofang Sun, Huijia Liu

31. A Computing Tool for Composite Power System Reliability Evaluation Based on Monte Carlo Simulation and Parallel Processing

This paper describes some of our efforts to reduce the execution time of a computing tool, namely


for composite power system reliability evaluation based on sequential Monte Carlo simulation, especially when alternating current (AC) load flow and optimal power flow techniques are used. The approach is an adaptation of the sequential computing algorithm to parallel and distributed environment based on a cluster of multithread and multicore personal computers (PCs) as hardware and Message Passing Application Programming Interface (MPAPI) as software framework. Test results obtained on several actual power systems showed the high performance of the new computing tool in terms of speedup and simulation time. It is also shown that each thread of PC should be responsible for one simulation year at a time and that the number of threads involved on each PC must be defined beforehand for optimized utilization of computing resources.

Tran Ky Phuc, Vu Toan Thang, Pham Hai Binh, Le Thi Thanh Ha

32. Review of Voltage Sag Disturbance Recognition

In this chapter, the characteristics of various types of voltage sag disturbances are analyzed. The domestic and foreign research on voltage sag disturbance recognition methods is reviewed both in process and results. The methods based on direct parameter classification, wavelet decomposition and neural networks, S-transform and similarity classification, support vector machine (SVM), and other classification methods are discussed in detail. Finally, the present problems of voltage sag disturbance recognition methods are analyzed, and future research is discussed.

Hao Yang, Jianwen Li, Yonggang Li

33. Automatic Generation of Power System Wiring Diagram Using XSL Based on SVG

The wiring diagram of a power system is an important guarantee of the system’s stable operation and efficient schedule. A novel approach in generating the wiring diagram of the power system in scalable vector graphs (SVG) format by using extensible stylesheet language (XSL) is studied in this chapter, which uses the substation configuration description language (SCL) as the source data. The features and advantages about SVG and XSL technologies are briefly introduced. Then, the necessity and method of constructing the system’s graphic element library is discussed. Combined with XSL, the programming process is emphatically expounded. The calculation method of graphic element coordinates and connection relations is eminently suggested. The result demonstrates that the method of using XSL technology to generate the wiring diagram of a power system in SVG format is reasonable and effective. The approach may facilitate the automatic generation of the wiring diagram of a power system and make transformation from SCL to SVG easier.

Chao Shi, Qianjin Liu, Huiming Xu

34. Robust Control for Electric Servo System Based on Sliding Mode Disturbance Observer

This chapter proposes a sliding mode disturbance observer (SMDOB) to deal with the uncertain factors, including modeling errors, parameter perturbations and external interferences faced by the electric servo system control. Then, a proportional integral derivative (PID) angular position tracker is designed to achieve the function of angular position-tracking performance of electric servo system. Thus, the SMDOB and PID tracker form the robust compound control framework of the electric servo system. The computer simulation results indicate that, compared with the traditional PID control scheme, the control scheme proposed in this chapter can ensure the electric servo system to have higher precision of position tracking and stronger robustness against the unknown and time-varying uncertain dynamics in system.

Jianguo Zheng, Xingquan Wang, Zhiqiang Ma, Tianpeng He

35. Simulation Analysis of Impacts of Flow Characteristics on Power Oscillation

In order to analyze the impact mechanism of the valve flow characteristic on power oscillation, flow characteristics deviation of the steam turbine control valve is firstly analyzed and a coefficient for the deviation assessment is proposed; then, the model of generating unit coupled with dynamic system and electrical system is established according to the characteristics of deviation coefficient, with which the valve flow characteristics deviation is considered. Effect of flow deviation on power oscillation is analyzed by time-domain simulation. The simulation results show that the poor partial flow characteristics of the turbine valves are likely to cause power fluctuations and both the amplitude and the speed of oscillations are positively related to the extent of flow characteristics deviation. The conclusion can provide reference to research on the causes of power oscillations.

Jin Tan

36. Design of Real-Time Tracking System on High-Voltage Direct Current Converter Station Control and Protection System

Diagnostic tool functions of the original fault diagnostic system in direct current (DC) converter stations are not concentrated, and it is unable to accurately diagnose the exceptions of different layers. In order to ensure rapid and accurate location of the host events and the server faults, the real-time diagnosis software for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) converter station control and protection system is designed. The NetDDE technology tracks the suspicious analogy and variables of the switch state using the software interface of MACH2 system, which has been implemented to analyze the exception of the state variable and locate the host fault by recalling the historical data. By calling the stored procedure of SQL server, exceptions can be tracked in a real-time manner by means of the returned data column information. The host and the server exceptions can be rapidly and effectively monitored, tracked, and located by the system. It can also reduce the time of dealing with complex defects and increase the reliability of the whole control and protection system. The system does not affect normal operation of the original system.

Wei Hao, Chengjiang Wang, Ming Li, Qingyun Liang

37. Grid Dispatching of Energy Saving and Environmental Protection Based on Thermodynamic System Model with Flow Dimension

In this chapter, a novel thermodynamic system model with flow dimension is proposed to solve the problem of grid energy saving and environmental protection dispatching (DESEP).The enthalpy entropy flow (EEF) model is used to represent the thermodynamic cycle of the power generator. By adjusting the environmental factors, comprehensive value of energy saving and environmental protection is calculated. It obtains the best output-scheduling scheme by the classical evolutionary programming. Subsequently, the experiments on power generator dispatching are conducted, following three steps: original data analysis, accuracy analysis and efficiency analysis; then, the results show that the values of main factors with coal consumption, boiler efficiency, turbine heat consumption, and auxiliary power ratio under DESEP are close to the best running state.

Xiao Liang, Jinhui Ma, Duanchao Li, Jianping Wang

38. Targeted Comprehensive Strategy for Lightning Protection and Its Application in the Anhui Power Grid

In order to instruct more scientific and effective lightning protection methods, a targeted comprehensive strategy for lightning protection from surface to line to point by synthesizing operating experience, lightning zones map, lightning risk assessment, and treatment technology is proposed based on the practical management demand and differentiation idea of lightning protection. The strategy is applied to the Anhui power grid. Firstly, the characteristics of historical lightning faults are summarized; secondly, the lightning zones maps in the overall province and along transmission lines are plotted to determine regions with strong lightning activities; thirdly, according to the lightning risk assessment and the treatment technology, the risk grades as well as its determination for typical transmission lines are evaluated, and several reform schemes are made with their technology and economy as definitely given. The related results have been applied to the lightning protection work in the Anhui power grid.

Xuefang Tong, Jiahong Chen, Shiling Zheng

39. Saturated Load Forecasting Based on Nonlinear System Dynamics

Saturated load of a power system is the key index for the local grid planning, which identifies the final scale of a power system. Due to the long time span and sensitivity to economic factors, the precision and reliability of the direct saturated load forecasting (SLF) are not satisfied. Therefore, this chapter mainly proposes a novel SLF model derived from the saturated economy forecasting (SEF), based on nonlinear system dynamics. A practical case was investigated according to the real economic and load data of Fujian province, China. The method proposed was proved reliable, with a consistent result but more flexibility and extension to the per capita electricity consumption (PCEC) method.

Haihong Bian, Xindi Wang

40. Multi-Scale Fault Frequency Extraction Method Based on EEMD for Slewing Bearing Fault Diagnosis

In view of the large low-speed slewing bearing, the vibration signals are always very weak and overwhelmed by other strong noise, which makes fault feature extraction from the signals very difficult. In order to solve this problem, a denoising method based on multi-scale principal component analysis (MSPCA) and the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is proposed with a new intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) selection strategy. After that, the vibration signal is reconstructed by the selected IMFs. Finally, a method of multi-scale fault frequency extraction of slewing bearing based on EEMD is applied to denoise the vibration signals. The application of this method is demonstrated with laboratory accelerated slewing bearing life test data. Results show that EEMD-MSPCA is more effective in multi-scale fault frequency extraction of low-speed slewing bearing.

Jie Yang, Jie Chen, Rongjing Hong, Hua Wang

Transmission and Distribution


41. Comparison of Form-Finding Methods for Transmission Lines Based on ANSYS

ANSYS is the most popular finite element analysis software all over the world. Although there are more than one kind of form-finding method for transmission lines, study on the comparison of these methods has not been carried out before. Firstly, this chapter will summarize the theory and the algorithm flow of three common form-finding methods for the initial state of transmission lines based on ANSYS, specifically, they are the “V”-shape method, the little elasticity modulus method and the direct iteration method; besides, this chapter believes that these three methods have distinct accuracies in different calculation conditions. With a series of ANSYS simulation examples, the errors between simulation results and theoretical values are expressed by scatter charts. Furthermore, this chapter discusses the simulation results by comparing the accuracy of these three form-finding methods.

Ying Jin, Changsheng Liu, Yunyun Xie, Linghao Zhang

42. Simulation Analyses and Realization of Lightning Current Monitoring System on Transmission Lines

Based on the production and operation situation of the State Grid Corporation of China in recent years, the lightning faults have taken of the majority of the transmission and distribution equipment faults. In order to prevent the lightning damages and control the lightning faults of the transmission lines, it is necessary to study the impacts of the lightning strike on transmission lines. In the course, the primary work is to accurately judge the location and form of the lightning strike. Upon simulation of the current waveform on transmission lines subject to different forms of lightning attacks, the features of lightning current on the insulators and grounding lines have been achieved; then, the judging methods of the polarity and the location of the lightning strike are studied. In order to monitor the waveform, amplitude, polarity and other parameters of lightning current in a real-time manner, a transmission line lightning monitoring system is developed. Based on the judging methods achieved by simulation and monitoring the waveform, the lightning fault location and the form of lightning can be confirmed. The monitoring result shows that this system can provide effective technical guarantee to take pertinent lightning protection measures.

Jian Wei, Lu Qu, Hailiang Lu, Yu Wang, Lei Lan, Xishan Wen

43. Analysis of Back-Flashover Lightning- Withstanding Level of 500-kV-Double-Circuit Transmission Lines

This chapter analyzes the lightning performance of 500-kV-double-circuit transmission lines by the Alternative Transient Performance-Electromagnetic Transient Program (ATP-EMTP). With towers using the multi-wave impedance model and eliminating voltage reflection on the lines by a matching resistor, a simulation method has been established to evaluate the factors that may influence the back-flashover voltage such as tower height, tower footing resistance, and conductor phase arrangements. A statistical method is presented to calculate the line trip-out rates due to back-flashover. The results show that the impact of phase arrangements on the back-flashover trip-out rate of a single-circuit line is little, but significant on the double-circuit lines.

Shihong Wu, Xishan Wen, Rui Li, Yang Xu

44. Fault Diagnosis for Power Transformer Mainly Based on Power-On State Variables

Nowadays, the synthetic diagnostic methods using both power-on and power-off state variables are widely studied and applied. The usage of multiple state variables can increase the accuracy of diagnosis, but it usually brings many problems into practical application at the same time. The main problem is that the more the power-off state variables, the longer the time without power, and the worse the reliability of transformers. Therefore, this chapter presents a diagnostic method mainly based on power-on state variables. It consists of primary diagnosis and precise diagnosis. Primary diagnosis uses only power-on state variables to acquire a part of the fault information. Then, in order to get the exact fault types and more position information, based on the results of primary diagnosis we select and use some useful and necessary power-off state variables in the precise diagnosis stage. And during this process, the rough set theory is used to predigest knowledge and reduce the complexity of diagnosis. Compared with other diagnosis methods, this method shortens the outage time and improves the efficiency of diagnosis. In the end, the diagnosis is proved to be practical and effective by a fault case.

Jinjiao Kong, Chunyu Yan, Feng Wang, Zhongyuan Zhang, Honggang Chen

45. The Ice Edge Detection of Transmission Line Based On Structured Forest Algorithm

Focusing on the existing problems of accuracy and latency in the current ice transmission line edge image detection, this chapter proposes a machine learning algorithm based on structured forest edge detection of ice transmission line. The ice transmission line image information’s model is automatically trained by the structured forest algorithm and the model is automatically applied for edge detection of the ice transmission line. Experimental results show that the method of ice transmission line edge detection is not only feasible and effective, but also can accurately detect ice line edge profile. What is more, it can meet the requirement of real time detection compared with other algorithms. Satisfactory results are obtained in the test.

Zhenyu Wang, Jianfeng Jia, Jing Teng

46. Lifetime Assessment and Optimized Maintenance System of Transformers Based on the HST Model

Currently, the maintenance mode of the power transformers is regular maintenance, which has been widely used. It is key to correctly evaluate the reliability level of the transformer in operation condition because it is directly related to the success of maintenance; on this basis, the lifetime evaluation and optimized maintenance model based on hot spot temperature (HST) in terms of the power transformer is developed in this chapter. In this model, the reaction speed theory of Arrhenius and Weibull distribution is considered as the fundamental theories, which are used to describe the aging process of the transformer and get the transformer failure rate

$$\lambda $$

; and then the equations with exponential form are adopted to compute HST, namely, to calculate the top oil temperature relative to the environmental temperature

$$\Delta {{\Theta }_{TO}}()$$

the increment of top oil temperature

$$\Delta {{\Theta }_{H}}$$

and the hysteretic temperature

$${{\Theta }_{Ae}}()$$

so as to get HST (equals to the sum of the aforementioned three variables). Meanwhile, based on the model, the software analysis system based on Java language and Mysql database has also been developed, in which the transformer maintenance process was optimized and the statistical analysis was made for the hot spot area. Finally, the diagnosis results were obtained correspondingly, indicating that the designed model and system can effectively reduce the maintenance frequency, improve the utilization coefficient of the transformer, and thus improve the equipment’s reliability.

Lefeng Cheng, Bin Zhou, Dehua Cai, Weiyu Chen, Liguo Wang, Tao Yu

47. Transmission Line Parameter Coupling Algorithm Based on Synchronous Sampling Signals

The existing online line parameter calculation methods are widely considered complicated, inaccurate, and incomplete. Thus, a coupling calculation method of transmission parameters which is based on synchronous sampling signals at two terminals is proposed in this chapter. This chapter adopts the π-type lumped parameter model of transmission line. Based on voltage and current information at the two terminals of the transmission line, the coupling algorithm is realized by solving the differential circuit equations describing the relationship of line parameters. This chapter uses single-circuit and double-circuit lines under asymmetry state as example and presents the calculating process. This method has simple principles and an easy realization, and obtains the transmission line parameters accurately and completely. Finally, power systems computer aided design (PSCAD) simulation results verify effectiveness and correctness.

Le Bao, Wei Cong

48. Analysis of Electromagnetic Interference Effects on Gas Pipelines Due to a Nearby Parallel UHV Transmission Line

The inductive coupling between ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission lines and nearby underground pipelines raises the potential of pipelines which threatens the pipeline security and reliability. In this chapter, a transmission line–pipeline model is established based on the commercial software CDEGS, and the electromagnetic interference is simulated and analyzed. The pipeline potentials at different parallel distances are calculated in consideration of the effect of the overhead grounding wire. The simulation results are in conformity with the theoretical analysis. On this basis, a real 750-kV transmission line, and the nearby gas line model are built and simulated. The results show that the long distance of parallel and oblique approach can lead the maximum pipeline grounding potential raise (GPR) to exceed 100 V, i.e., 10 times of the safety threshold of 10 V. The solution is proposed and simulated in this chapter, and the maximum GPR of a pipeline is reduced to less than 10 V.

Jingzhuo Zhang, Xishan Wen, Wei Li, Hailiang Lu, Yu Liu

49. Online Monitoring System of the Grounding Status of Transmission Line Towers

The grounding status of transmission line towers is very important to the security and stability of the transmission line. Nevertheless, it is unfeasible and hard to carry out periodical manual checking of the grounding status in field conditions of the transmission line tower so as to find the grounding fault in time. Aiming at the problems, an online monitoring system in terms of the grounding status of transmission line towers is established. The system is composed of the measure device and the server, in which the measure device is based on the clamp meter method to send the tower grounding status to the server automatically and periodically. The measurement principle is simulated and analyzed in this chapter. Moreover, the prototype is tested in the laboratory environment, and the monitoring system is practically tested on the transmission towers. The result shows that the accuracy of the measure device is no less than 93.96 % when grounding resistance is between 0.3 and 100Ω. Furthermore, the practical application shows that the system is effective and can be useful in the application of lightning protection.

Wei Li, Hailiang Lu, Zhiqiang He, Changcheng Zhu, Jiangtao Quan, Xishan Wen

50. Application of the Leader Progression Model in the Insulation Flashover Criterion for Lightning Performance Calculation

It is rather important to exactly evaluate the lightning withstanding level of the transmission line for the system service and the stable operation. In the course, the intersection method is usually adopted as the insulation flashover criterion in the practical project. But due to the difference of the nature lighting waveform and the standard lighting waveform (1.2/50 us), and the effect of the reflection and refraction in the lightning progression process, it may cause a large error by using the intersection method based on the volt-second characteristic curve, which is obtained from the standard lighting impulse in engineering. Several methods of estimating the insulation flashover are in use today. In general, these methods can be divided into those based on the conclusion of insulation breakdown and those derived from the breakdown process. The leader progression model used by CIGRE is one of those methods. In this chapter, several estimation methods of the insulation flashover are investigated and compared. A new insulation flashover criterion is proposed herein on the basis of the experimental results of the leader progression model and the CIGRE insulation flashover criterion. The application of this simulation model and the flashover time under standard lightning impulses are calculated to obtain the volt-second characteristic curve, which corresponds to the results obtained by the experiment.

Xiaoyue Chen, Xishan Wen, Lei Lan

51. The Risk Index System of Power Transformer Life Cycle Cost and Its Weight Determination

In order to evaluate the risk of transformer life cycle cost, we need a set of key indicators to reflect the cost risk of the transformer life cycle; thus, it is important to set up a scientific risk index system for the purpose of risk assessment. This chapter establishes a more comprehensive cost model in terms of the transformer life cycle and quantifies the uncertain factors of power transformer life cycle cost management; then we can obtain a risk assessment index system of the transformer life cycle cost. We apply an analytic hierarchy process to the cost risk indicators in respect of the transformer life cycle so as to construct the judgment matrix, get the weight coefficients of various risk indicators, and lay the foundation for risk assessment of transformer life cycle cost.

Yuqin Xu, Zheng Ren, Xiangling Zhan, Tong Li, Weitao Hu, Guohua Qiao, Qing Xie

52. Application of Differentiated Lightning Protection to Typical Transmission Lines in Mountainous Areas

The lightning protection transformation is strongly needed because the transmission lines in mountainous areas have been frequently subject to the lightning damage. This chapter carries out research studies on the lightning protection of transmission lines in mountainous areas by the technology of differentiated lightning protection; at the same time, the lightning risk assessment using differentiated lightning protection is conducted as to 110 kV transmission line with the most frequent flashovers. The factors of terrains and topographic features of towers, lightning activities, and insulation configuration have been considered in the course of risk assessment. The scheme of lightning protection transformation is thus proposed based on the assessment results technically and economically.

Yabing Zhou, Jianzhi Lin, Luo Ge, Qinhua Feng, Guobiao Ning

53. The Selection Strategy of Form-Finding Methods for Transmission Lines Based on ANSYS

The aim of this chapter is to obtain the selection strategy of form-finding methods for the initial state of transmission lines based on ANSYS. First, this chapter introduces the theory and the main characteristic of four kinds of form-finding methods for transmission lines, which are the “V”-shape method, the little elastic modulus method, the direct iteration method, and the across-the-lowest-point method. Second, in order to get the selection strategy of these four methods, design a group of calculation models. Then, this chapter organizes simulation results on the basis of different methods, and makes further analyses of these data. The selection strategy proposed in this chapter can provide a convenient way to choose the proper form-finding method for the initial state of transmission lines based on ANSYS.

Ying Jin, Changsheng Liu, Yunyun Xie, Linghao Zhang

Theory and New Technology


54. An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Guided by Lévy Flights Disturbance Strategy for Global Optimization

In order to solve the problems of the slow convergence speed, low precision and easy trapping in local optimal solutions in an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, a novel modified ABC algorithm based on the Lévy flights disturbance mechanism is proposed in this chapter. It attempts to increase the exploration efficiency of the solution space for global optimization. The modifications focus on the solution construction phase of the artificial bee colony algorithm. In addition, to further balance the search processes of exploration and exploitation, the modification forms of the onlookers and scouts search strategy is proposed in this chapter. It could avoid local optimum. And it also could greatly improve convergence speed and solution precision on the basis of keeping strong global optimization performance of the proposed algorithm. Simulation experiment results based on typical benchmark functions show that the proposed algorithm is more effective to avoid premature convergence and to improve solution precision than some other ABCs and several state-of-the-art algorithms.

Wei Ma, Zhengxing Sun, Junlou Li, Mofei Song, Xufeng Lang, Cheng Le

55. Improvement of the Positioning Accuracy in GNSS Positioning Based on Neural Network

Several common technologies in global positioning system (GPS) positioning are compared first, and then a model of dynamic fuzzy neural networks is used in this chapter. It is shown that the dynamic neural network can eliminate residuals and abnormal data in the postprocessing of GPS data effectively; at the same time, the dynamic neural network can also improve the reliability and stability in data processing and thus raise the degree of positioning accuracy.

Zhifei Yang, Yixuan Wang, Ouyang Xu

56. Fingerprint Indoor Localization Algorithm Based on Modified AdaBoost

Indoor localization based on fingerprints is becoming increasingly prevalent. In this chapter, a modified AdaBoost algorithm is proposed for localization with received signal strength (RSS). The accuracy of AdaBoost depends on the weak hypothesis from all the weak learning; if there is noise in the fingerprint map, the performance of traditional AdaBoost will decline, and the modified AdaBoost is proposed to remove the error points to enhance the localization accuracy. Experimental results indicate that the modified AdaBoost algorithm obtains high localization accuracy and stability.

Feng Yu, Minghua Jiang, Jing Liang, Xiao Qin, Ming Hu, Tao Peng, Xinrong Hu

57. Optimization Model of Multitype Generating Units Based on the Latin Hypercube Sampling Method and Mean Lower Semiabsolute Deviation Theory

The scheduling optimization of multiple-type generators is of great significance for the economic operation of the power system and the target achievement of energy-saving emission reduction. This chapter builds a two-stage fire and water turbine scheduling the optimization model based on the power performance. Firstly, this chapter simulated the output scenarios of wind power based on the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) method; then, we minimized the wind curtailment as the main objective, selected the minimization of the system generating energy costs and the generating pollutant emissions as objective functions for cogeneration performance scheduling, and constructed multiple types of generators scheduling the optimization model. The optimization model can guarantee the timely adjustment and output stability for thermal power units in different scenarios, and thus promote the wind power integration.

Haibo Liu, Kangting Chen, Chao Qin, Minfang Huang, Liwei Ju, Zhongfu Tan

58. Direction of Arrival Estimation of Two Wide-Band Sources with a Four-Element Planar Cross Array Based on Three Algorithms

The acoustic signal of a very low-flying armed helicopter is mainly characterized with a low-frequency and wide-band signal. In this chapter, the beam-space coherent signal-subspace method (BSCSM) is studied with a small size four-element planar cross array. This array is applied to the orientation of two wide-band sources, and its performance is analyzed. The BSCSM, incoherent signal-subspace method (ICSM), and coherent signal-subspace method (CSM) are employed to estimate sources’ directions of arrival (DOAs). Simulation results show that BSCSM shows best performance among the three algorithms, and the CSM shows performance which is better than the ICSM does in the acoustic passive direction estimate of two wide-band sources in the far-field environment with a small size four-element planar cross array.

Xiaojuan Bai, Yong Shen, Hui Yang, Yansheng Liu, Hongqiang Wang, Xiao Hu

59. Fast Segmentation Algorithm Based on Texture

The state-of-the-art image retrieval method pays more attention to the local region feature. This chapter proposes an algorithm to extract texture feature based on Laws’ filter. This algorithm performs texture transformation to an image and selects the region of interest. It convolves the input image with Laws’ filter mask. As to the filter mask, this chapter selects a five dimension vector and produces a 5 × 5 matrix as the filter kernel. The experiment shows that the algorithm has high speed and high accuracy in the segmentation process for image retrieval and confirms that it is effective for image retrieval based on the region of interest.

Yali Qi, Guoshan Zhang, Yeli Li

60. Optimal Test Selection of Complex Electronic Systems Based on Improved Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Optimal test selection is the important content of complex electronic system testability design. This chapter establishes the mathematical model of optimal test selection and then proposes an improved discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm to provide a solution. The algorithm designs a new fitness function according to the characteristics of test selection. In order to avoid the local optimum, an inertia weight adaptive adjustment strategy based on the group’s premature degree is proposed. The simulation results show that the algorithm proposed can achieve a global optimal solution fast and effectively. Optimization results meet all system requirements and can provide an effective guidance for optimal test selection of complex electronic systems.

Ling Ma, Haijun Li, Xiaofeng Lv

61. An Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm to Optimize the Parameters of PID

As to the nonlinear, time-varying, and large delay control system, the conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control effect is not ideal; thus, PID parameters based on shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA) are presented. Concerning the problems of the SFLA such as slow convergence rate and local optimality, we propose the improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA).This algorithm uses reverse selection mechanism in the evolutionary process so as to keep the diversity of population and improve the ability of evolution algorithm. Introducing the linear decreasing adaptive inertia weight to correct the poor frog update strategy can balance the global search and local search. The simulation results of experiments on the two classical control system show that the ISFLA, when compared with SFLA and particle swarm optimization (PSO), can balance the global search and local search with a smaller number of iterations and stronger optimization ability and is more suitable for the tuning of the PID parameters optimization.

Yueting Liu

62. A Simple and Fast Edge Finding Algorithm for Generating an RWG Function

The search pointer array data structure is presented according to the index characteristic of the edge node on the basis function; thus, a new edge finding algorithm is developed with reduced numerical complexity, of the order


, instead of the complexity


, for classical direct search, or

$$O(N\log (N))$$

for the Adelson-Velsky and Landis (AVL) tree. Numerical experiments show that the new algorithm features fast speed, simplicity, and less memory requirement, which meets the demand of large-scale computational electromagnetic problems as solved by a multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM).

Fengtao Wu, Chonghua Fang, Qifeng Liu

63. Test Point Selection Method Research Based on Genetic Algorithm and Binary Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Test point selection is the foundation of testability analysis and design. A minimal complete subset of genetic algorithm and binary particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed to meet testability index requirements. Firstly, the mathematical model is established based on analyzing the testability problems. Then, the heuristic function is constructed to measure the pros and cons of the test set. Experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively overcome the deficiency of a single algorithm going into a local optimum and premature convergence, and improve the searching efficiency to obtain a global optimal solution quickly.

Xiaofeng Lv, Ling Ma, Jing Sun, Wei Pang

64. Vehicle Weigh-in-motion Systems Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

In this chapter, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm based on the random global optimization is introduced into the network training in order to eliminate the problem in back-propagation (BP) neural networks of vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems which are sensitive to the initial weights, easy to fall into the local minimum, and have a slow convergence rate. We have established a PSO-BP neural network model to optimize the initial weighted threshold and structure of the neural network. Simulation results show that the PSO-BP neural network model has faster convergence rate and a higher precision.

Huijuan Ding, Quanhu Li, Ting Xu, Nengshao Li

65. An Improved Unscented Kalman Filter Algorithm Based on QR Decomposition

The principle of extended Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm, and unscented transformation (UT) is studied. To simply the process of obtaining sigma points in UKF, an improved UKF algorithm is mentioned in this chapter. The theory formulation and computer simulation have been done for the comparison of these three nonlinear Kalman filters. Results show that all of them can accomplish the estimation task, but the improved UKF has higher accuracy and less computation cost than the other two.

Dongmei Li, Chengdong Xu, Xi Cai

66. Comparison of UAV Target Tracking Techniques

Research on the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) target tracking system and the development of the UAV target tracking methods are discussed. A mean shift-auxiliary particle filter (M-APF) algorithm is proposed. It adopts APF as its main framework of the tracking algorithm; then, the mean shift is applied to calculate the offset of a few auxiliary particles and move them to the local optimum position of the observed values. Simulation results show that the calculation cost and robustness of M-APF are superior to mean shift algorithm and APF algorithm and satisfy the UAV target tracking requirements.

Dajian Li, Huixia Liu, Yangxia Dong, Qingbiao Xi, Ruofei He

67. Fuzzy Algorithm-Based Manufacturing Equipment Classification

In order to improve the efficiency of the algorithm for fast classification and retrieval of the manufacturing equipment, a concept of manufacturing feature vector (MFV)-based manufacturing equipment description is introduced. First, the type, size and precision are defined as three attributes of the MFV; and second, an extended fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm has been amended to fulfill the aim of manufacturing equipment classifying. The algorithm can efficiently and accurately calculate the range of the optimal grouping number; finally, a sample of 50 manufacturing equipment classifications is used to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the algorithm.

Yujie Shi, Dehui Zhai

Signal Detection and Image Processing


68. Vibration Test of a Dynamic Target Based on Stereo Machine Vision

The position and posture measurement problem for a dynamic target is widely studied by researching the testing and calibration model of the vertical optical axis binocular vision, deducing the lineup structure of the cameras and the positional relationship between the cameras and the target, then establishing the noncontact vibration test system of a dynamic target. The test system uses double area array charge coupled devices (CCDs) to capture vibration images of the target. The system extracts the pixel position information to calculate the spatial coordinates of the target point; then, according to the target pixel position changes in the whole process, it calculates the displacement variation in three dimensions. Experimental results show that the measurement accuracy is about 0.1 mm, the relative error is less than 5 %, meeting the engineering test requirements.

Yingjie Dai, Wei Wang, Shijie Deng, Xujun Su

69. Fast Image Fog Removal Based on Gray Image Guided Filtering

Under the condition of foggy weather, the videos and images obtained by the imaging devices which capture visible light will be severely degraded due to the low visibility of the scene, such as contrast reduction and color attenuation. The fog removal algorithm based on the dark channel prior now has yielded a great effect, but the algorithm has the characteristics of high time complexity and space complexity; thus, it does not have practicality. On the basis of the dark channel prior, we propose a fast method of image fog removal based on gray image guided filtering. Firstly, we estimate the atmospheric scattering model transmission through the dark channel information, and then adopt the gray image of the input mistily image to guide the transmission filtering to enable the optimization of rough transmission, namely, to maintain edges and smoothing regions; on this basis, the recovery image without fog can be obtained. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm in this chapter can effectively remove fog from a foggy image and increase the efficiency as a result.

Zhenyu Wang, Hang Li, Jing Teng, Xiaobo He

70. Parallel Acquisition Architecture for DS_FH Hybrid Spread Spectrum Signal in TT&C

Parallel acquisition architecture with feedback loop in the time-frequency domain is proposed. After obtaining the coarse estimation of the carrier frequency offset by exploiting the partial match filter–fast Fourier transform (PMF-FFT) algorithm, this architecture uses the Quinn frequency interpolation algorithm to improve the estimation accuracy of the frequency offset and modifies the local carrier by employing the estimated result and reacquiring. Compared to the PMF-FFT algorithm, the new method improves the acquisition accuracy of the carrier and reduces the average acquisition time under the conditions of the large frequency offset and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

Hailong Deng, Wei Zhan

71. Monitoring CE’3 Rover Movement Using Same-Beam Interferometry with China’s Deep Space Network

China’s Deep Space Network (DSN) was deployed in 2013, a high-accuracy interferometric tracking observable was successfully used for orbit determination in the CE’3 project. This chapter presents the results of the rover’s status monitoring by earth-based same-beam interferometry (SBI) measurement. Phase delay with a biased offset is induced to identify the rover’s movement status, which could be up to three orders of magnitude better than conventional group delay. Based on the tracking data within China’s DSN, the status of the rover including going ahead, turning over, and changing signal can be successfully identified with a higher resolution. Combined with baseline length within China’s DSN, the movement of the rover in the order of centimeters can be identified, which testifies the effectiveness of this technique and algorithm.

Songtao Han, Geishi Tang, Jianfeng Cao, Lue Chen, Tianpeng Ren

72. Color Image Segmentation Using Multilevel Thresholding—Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization

This chapter presents a novel multilevel threshold approach based on improved particle swarm optimization called as hybrid particle swarm optimization (HPSO), which can combine the advantages of the particle swarm optimization and the neighbor searching of artificial bee colony algorithm for color image segmentation. Experimental results show that the proposed approach adopts the multilevel threshold technique based on the improved HPSO algorithm to obtain a higher quality adequate segmentation; at the same time, it can also reduce the CPU processing time and eliminate the particles falling into local minima.

Yang Liu, Kunyuan Hu, Yunlong Zhu, Hanning Chen

73. Compiling Missile Environmental Spectrum and Accelerated Corrosion Test Method

Corrosion is an important factor in the missile reliability. The service environment of submarine-launched missiles may directly affect their life span. The corrosive environment study is of great significance to improve the reliability of the missile. Based on the specific characteristics of the local environment, it is proposed to accelerate the corrosion test on key parts with the help of environmental spectrum. Equivalent conversion method is used to establish the relationship between the corrosion equivalent acceleration and actual corrosion. KH-7700 three-dimensional digital video microscope is adopted to handle the corrosion surface of the objects.

Yuhao Shan, Jianli Shi, Wenhui Peng

74. Aerosols’ Statistical Fractal Characteristics Based on Their Shape Parameter in Optical Sensors

Based on the shape structure and the pulse signal’s characteristic parameters, aerosols’ statistical models are established in this chapter. The counting distributions of aerosols’ scattering pulse signals are measured by using a counting device with 2048 uniform voltage channels. The experimental results show that the counting distributions obey the lognormal distribution with the natural number as the independent variable. On this basis, the relations of counting distributions between the aerosols’ projection area characteristic parameters and the scattering pulse signals’ characteristic parameters are discussed. Then, the statistical fractal characteristic of the pulse signals’ different parameters is deduced; besides, the physical meaning and the calculation method of the fractal dimension are presented.

Juan Yang, Fang Gu

75. Image Retrieval of Poisonous Mushrooms Based on Relevance Feedback and Clustering Algorithm

Poisonous mushrooms have no significant difference with the edible fungus. In this paper, image retrieval technology based on color, shape and texture characteristic are applied to identify poisonous mushrooms With relevance feedback mechanism and clustering algorithm used to improve the retrieval efficiency. Clustering can divide similar images into a same class and greatly reduce the range of image retrieval. From the retrieved image, representative clustering images are selected to the users who can choose a satisfactory clustering from them and provide feedback to the system. Experimental results with this method show effectiveness of identifying unknown poisonous mushrooms.

Hongbo Luo, Sujuan Zhou

76. Development of an Elevator Energy Consumption Monitoring Device

The energy efficiency of elevators has received more and more attention. There are few elevator energy consumption-monitoring devices for evaluating the energy consumption and generating energy-saving measures. To close this gap, this chapter presents the development of an elevator energy consumption-monitoring device, which uses the current transformer and voltage divider networks to sense the electrical signal. The second-order Σ−Δ analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and specific digital signal processor (DSP)-based electrical measurement integrated circuit (IC) is selected to acquire electric parameters. The magnetic-coupled isolators are used to obtain fast digital communication and common mode rejection. ARM processing architecture-based electric parameters acquisition, debugging console, power calibration, fast nonvolatile storage, and remote communication are designed. The experiment shows that the accuracy of the device is better than 0.2 %, which meets the design requirements; and it works stably and has a high-application value.

Chuanglu Lin, Xinhua Wang, Xingjun Wu, Zhongxing Li

77. A Hierarchical Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Registration Method for Change Detection

The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images obtained at different times often have both the global rigid deformation and the local elastic deformation. As a result, SAR image registration only based on the global rigid transformation model will induce an error, and the error will produce largely spurious results of change detection. In order to solve this problem, a hierarchical registration method is proposed in this chapter. It is a rough-to-fine registration procedure. In the rough registration stage, speeded-up robust reature (SURF) algorithm is first employed to extract the matching feature points from the testing image and the reference image. After that, a rigid registration method, based on the global affine transformation model, is implemented to correct the global deformation. In the fine registration stage, a template-match-based method is first adopted to extract a uniform spacing control point from the globally registered images. And then, a local elastic registration, based on thin-plate spline (TPS) transformation model, is applied to remove the local deformation. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can achieve higher registration accuracy, which lead to a better change-detection performance.

Guangxue Wang, Yongchun Liu, Shirui Peng, Jiajun Zuo

78. Fast Beamforming Based on SPSA for Mobile Satellite Antenna

As to the phased array antenna in the mobile satellite reception, a novel fast beamforming algorithm is presented based on simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA). Compared to previous algorithms, the proposed approach estimates the gradient of the received power simply relative to the phase difference between two adjacent phase shifters because the difference remains the same in a uniform array. All phase shifters are updated simultaneously according to the gradient. As the digital phase shifters are assigned from a discrete set, there is an error between the theoretical and practical values. The error is regarded as a random perturbation when the gradient is estimated. A large number of simulation experiments verify that the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient in both the elevation beam scan and the two-dimensional beam scan and that it provides a good tracking performance to obtain the optimal signal.

Lanlan Zhang, Yingguang Hao

79. A Reference Architecture of Data Acquisition and Signal Processing of a Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensor System

Distributed fiber-optic sensors require fast data acquisition. Large amount of sensors on the network require enormous area and bandwidth of memory on the devices. Besides, the data transmission scheme of distributed fiber-optic sensors introduces more complexity in signal processing. The chapter contributes an embedded solution to the problems confronted by the digital system of distributed fiber-optic sensor systems. A reference architecture is introduced in this chapter, which provides a template to resolve the problems with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. A datapath with a finite-state machine is implemented to control the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and achieve specified algorithms; a soft-core processor is implemented to achieve functions of computation and human–machine interface. This architecture shrinks the size of memory and circuit board. The chapter also provides a detailed design to demonstrate customized instantiation of the architecture.

Qiwu Wang, Gangyang Nan, Jihua Sun, Jiangfeng Song, Rui Guo, Jian Ma

80. Soft-Sensing of Coal Ash Content Based on Dual-Energy Γ-Rays

To improve the measurement accuracy of coal ash content, this chapter proposes an intelligent soft-sensing method based on dual-energy γ-rays by using the functional link neural network. This method takes


Am and


Cs as the resources of low-energy and medium-energy γ-rays, respectively, and uses the γ count of the detector as auxiliary variable. The coal ash content is measured and verified after accomplishing the model of soft-sensing with the functional link neural network that is optimized by chaos algorithm. The result shows that the method of functional link neural network forecasting based on chaos optimization algorithm has higher accuracy and excellent extensive capability than conventional nuclear technology. The intelligent soft-sensing based on functional link neural network with optimized chaos algorithm forecasting model is of measurement accuracy, and the most error and mean error between the soft-sensing values and real values are 0.9  and 0.7 %.

Dong Cheng, Fengwen Shen, Zhaosheng Teng, Siyu Guo, He Wen

Electronics Technology


81. Analysis of the Magnetic Field Homogeneity of Two Different Geometric Configurations of the Helmholtz Coils by Simulation

In order to make a more direct and profound comparison of the magnetic fields generated in the central region of the circular Helmholtz coils and the square Helmholtz coils, simulation was conducted regarding the magnetic fields generated in these two situations respectively. The basic theory of magnetic fields generated by square and circular coils along their longitudinal axes is given in Sect. 1 of this chapter. Subsequently, the results of simulation adopting the finite element method (FEM) are compared with the theoretical value, which shows that the simulated result is well consistent with the theoretical data. A mean error of as low as 0.78 % in the range of |


| < 20 mm along the longitudinal axis of the circular Helmholtz coil is obtained while the corresponding result of square Helmholtz coil is merely under 1.03 %. Finally, it is concluded that the square Helmholtz coils can generate a larger uniform magnetic field.

Xiang Zhan, Guyin Rao, Jie Yuan, Yingying Li

82. A Multichannel High-Precision Pulse Counting System Based on FPGA

This chapter presents a multichannel and high-precision pulse counting system based on the time interval measurement on the Xilinx ZYNQ-7000 series device. The theoretical resolution of time interval measurement can reach 10-ps using the internal fast carry chain on the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and the wave union method. As a result, as limited by the hardware condition and the carry chain’s structure, the practical resolution of 40-ps is realized, which means that 2048 times subdivision for pulse signal running at 12M is available. It fully meets the requirement of pulse counting in the measurement system of the precise laser interferometer position.

Yuan Li, Yunfei Zhou, Yitao Li

83. High-Precision Ultrasonic Flow Measurement Based on GP22

With the extensive utilization of ultrasonic flow meters in industry and commerce, the demand of improving accuracy of measurement has become increasingly urgent. This chapter presents a new measuring tubing that is a combination of circular tube and square tube. According to the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and experiment, this proposed measuring tubing can produce a more even velocity distribution of liquid than the traditional circular tubing. Accompanied by the tubing, a novel high-precision ultrasonic flow-measuring circuit based on the time-digital converter (TDC) of GP22 is designed. This measuring circuit, which depends on the principle of time difference method, can not only obtain accurate measuring data of instantaneous flow after calibration but also reduce power consumption.

Ling Kang, Hui Lin, Tianyu Zhang, Zhao Deng

84. Diagnosis Expert System Design of a Certain Ordnance Launch Circuit

In order to solve the longtime problem of fault location and low efficiency of fault clearing for a certain ordnance launch circuit, a fault diagnosis expert system based on hybrid case-based reasoning (CBR) and rule-based reasoning (RBR) is designed. According to the structure of systematic fault tree and historical fault cases, fault repository is established. The inference mechanism based on hybrid CBR and RBR is adopted to the fault diagnosis. Practical application shows that the expert system can improve the efficiency of ordnance launch circuit fault diagnosis and reduce the fault-clearing strength of maintenance crew.

Xiaoyan Qu, Baogang Li, Chengzhu Yao, Wei Pang

85. Arcless Interruption Method of an Alternating Current Contactor

The arc available during opening and closing of alternating current (AC) contactors’ contacts is the main factor influencing a contactor’s life. In this chapter, the modular asynchronous contactors which can control each contact individually are proposed. When one of the three-phase AC currents reaches zero point, the contactor breaks the contacts. This can achieve the contactor break off without arc. It is a new idea in the field of structural design and control of contactors. This chapter analyzes the method that contactor achieves breaking without the arc; and according to the characteristics of the three-phase AC circuits, when the first phase of the three-phase AC contacts off, the detailed discussion and analysis are made to probe into the relationship of currents change between the other two phases of the three-phase AC circuits, deduce the formula about the time from the first phase of the three-phase AC contacts off to the other phases of the three-phase AC contacts off. And the accuracy of this formula is verified in matrix laboratory (MATLAB).

Ming Zong, Tianyu Dong, Zhengdi Cao

86. Analysis of 750-kV High-Resistance Operation

The controllable high resistance of the 750-kV transformer substation bus in D is the first controlled high resistance of the 750-kV voltage level, which is due to the lack of actual operating experience. The controllable high resistance in airdrop and capacity adjustment will produce harmonic voltage or current at different levels and of different frequencies, which may threaten the stability and safety of system operation and equipment seriously. In this chapter, the controllable high resistance during airdrop and run adjustment are studied by recording the electrical quantities and analyzing the harmonic. The effect of the second harmonic to the high-voltage direct current (HVDC) system and the hazards of the direct current (DC) component to the reactor are adjusted to obtain the harmonic characteristics of the controllable high resistance of the 750-kV transformer substation bus in D. Based on the above analysis, some recommendations are made to maintain the controllable high resistance of the 750-kV transformer substation bus in D so as to alleviate the frequent switch of reactive power compensation equipment as a result of high voltage and stochastic volatility.

Jingjing Zheng, Yong Yang, Guojin Yang

87. Influence of the Snubber Circuit on the Commutation Process of High-Power Five-Level Converter

The snubber circuit is used to suppress the internal overvoltage and overcurrent of the electronic devices and reduce the switching losses of the device. This chapter studies the commutation process of the high-power five-level bridge converter, especially the influence of the snubber circuit on the commutation process. Each parameter of the snubber circuit has been verified to have an influence on the changes of the integrated gate-commutated thyristors’ (IGCT) turn-on and turnoff voltage by simulation. This can provide an important theoretical basis and guidance for the design and control of the practical high-power multilevel system. And the parameters of the snubber circuit designed by this way have been successfully applied to the inverter system of 20 MW.

Shuai Dong, Chongjian Li, Chunyi Zhu, Chengsheng Wang

88. Design of a Low-Power Humidity and Temperature Collector Based on STM32

STM32 is a microcontroller based on CortexTM-M3 core; it plays an important role in the embedded control field. This chapter introduces a low-power humidity and temperature collector with SHT10 humidity and temperature sensors. This chapter introduces and implements the communication time sequence of SHT10. A calibration text proves that the system can measure temperature and humidity correctly. It is demonstrated by experiments that this low-power collector can collect data for 30 days and satisfy the design index; besides, the principle of low power can be used in other embedded control field.

Zhihao Liu, Jianli Shi, Wenhui Peng

89. Implementation Method for Class-J Power Amplifiers

This chapter presents an implementation method for Class-J power amplifiers. The requirement for the load impedances of Class-J power amplifiers is analyzed first. Then an output matching structure is proposed for low-optimum-load impedance condition. It uses a short-terminated transmission line to supply the collector voltage of the power amplifier and meet the requirement for the second harmonic impedance. To verify this method, a one-stage common emitter power amplifier using 2-µm gallium arsenide heterojunction bipolar transistor (GaAs HBT) process has been designed and a Class-J power amplifier is implemented with the component on printed circuit board (PCB) board. The implemented Class-J power amplifier exhibits a 55 % collector efficiency with the saturated output power of 34.2 dBm at the frequency of 2.14 GHz and 3.5 V supply voltage.

Tao Chen, Xiaohong Sun, Feng Wang, Jianhui Wu

90. Analysis of Circulating Currents in a Modular Multilevel Converter-Static Synchronous Compensator

A new modulation method named CPPS is proposed in this chapter; besides, in order to identify the basic components and analytical expressions of arm current in a modular multilevel converter-based static synchronous compensator (MMC-STATCOM), an analysis is made with a mathematical method based on instantaneous power conservation under the modulation mode of CPPS. It proves the existence of the second circulating current and gives its analytical expressions as well as the relevant submodule (SM) capacitor voltage ripple. The analysis implies that the second circulation current cannot be eliminated by controllers. A three-phase MMC-STATCOM model with nine voltage levels applied to a 10-kV system is realized to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modulation method and circulating current model under the capacitor voltage-balancing control method. In addition, the result also shows that the amplitude of the second circulating current is primarily associated with the arm inductance, and the circulating current will decrease as the arm inductance is increasing.

Weiwei An, Yukun Sun, Liang Zhang

91. A Line Structured Light Visual Sensor for Road Obstacle Detection

A new line structured light visual sensor is proposed. The line structured light for remote measurement is generated by high power semiconductor laser point source with miniature piezo fast steering mirror. The mathematical model of the line structured light sensor and calibration method is described. By analyzing the line profiles of structured light under different obstacles of road, the mathematical model of line structured light is obtained. Finally, the possibility of using the line structured light visual sensor to detect road obstacle is proposed.

Haiyan Shao, Zhenhai Zhang, Kejie Li, Jian Wang, Tao Xu, Shuai Hou, Liang Zhang

92. A Method to Eliminate the Effect of Sound Path Length Change of Ultrasonic Heat Meter

Ultrasonic heat meter (UHM) plays a key role in the heat consumption sensing in automatic metering and control system of district heat supply pipe network; however, the large temperature changes (below 10℃ to above 90℃) of water in the network generally cause sound path length (SPL) changes due to thermal expansion and contraction, which will greatly reduce the accuracy of UHM in practice. This paper proposes a method to eliminate the effect of SPL change for UHM. In the method, a novel model has been developed to calculate flow rate and then heat consumption from upstream and downstream transmit times and sound velocity, but not containing the SPL parameter commonly existing in traditional models. A sample learning method is proposed in addition to correct the effect of sound velocity changes under different temperatures. The method is validated on actual UHMs by flow rig experiments on simulating serious temperature variations.

Kai Mao, Yan Chai, Jiejie Shao, Liang Hu, Peng Ye, Xin Fu

93. A Novel Ultrasonic Transducer Module with an Own Reference Sound Channel for Flow Measurement

Zero error caused by transducer system asymmetry which drifts with the environment change is a severe limitation to the performance improvement of an ultrasonic flow meter. This chapter proposes a novel ultrasonic transducer module with an own reference sound channel for zero error calibration. Different from traditional transducers, the module consists of two energy conversion terminals which are connected by a reference sound channel. Part of the ultrasound generated by one terminal transfers into the flow media and finally into another terminal, which is used for flow measurements. The rest propagates through their own sound channel as reference signal for zero drift acquisition. According to the difference of the measuring signal and the reference signal, the zero drift error can be calibrated. We have illustrated the construction, zero elimination method, and design theory of the module with simulation employed for validation. A prototype has been developed and the preliminary results demonstrate an observable decrease of the zero drift error.

Jun He, Weilong Guo, Jiejie Shao, Kai Mao, Liang Hu, Peng Ye, Xin Fu

Control and Optimization


94. The Lateral Channel Active Disturbance Rejection Controller Design of Small Air-to-Ground Missile for Helicopter

This chapter deals with the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method to the lateral control of small air-to-ground missiles for helicopters. The main difficulties that arise in lateral control design of small missiles are related to the highly uncertain, nonlinear aerodynamic forces and force movements, thus it is difficult to obtain an accurate dynamic model. Besides, the huge variations of dynamic pressure make controller parameters, and are difficult to adapt to the whole flight envelope. To handle them, the design of the controller is based on ADRC, a nonlinear control design approach which is based on the extended state observer (ESO), and can estimate and compensate the uncertainty of the system, including structural errors, random, and other system errors. Six-degree freedom equations are established for the lateral channel, the equations are linearization with small disturbance theory, then the aerodynamic derivatives are obtained through wind tunnel test, the dynamic model is made and the aerodynamic features are analyzed. One-order ESO equations of lateral channel are deduced, the controller of the lateral channel which is based on the ESO is designed and parameters are adjusted, and finally, semi-physical simulations are made. Through the comparison with classical proportion integral differential (PID) controller, the controller based on ADRC has strong robustness and it could track control command rapidly and accurately.

Yanpeng Hu, Shu Li, Hengxuan Gao

95. The Design of a Smart Car Based on a Kind of Dynamic Threshold Algorithm and Speed Control Algorithm

Now smart cars have become one current researching hotspot in the field of intelligent control. This chapter designs and establishes a smart car system based on a kind of dynamic threshold algorithm and proportion integration differentiation (PID) control algorithm after researching the existing control algorithms. The core is to identify the black line on both sides of the track, the bimodal threshold, and make the servo response quickly. At last, the algorithm simulation, the system implementation, and algorithm performance evaluation of the smart car is completed. The results of the experiments reveal that the algorithm and the smart car system are effective.

Qiyan Ke, Dashun Que, Wei Lu

96. Control Strategy of a Hybrid Active Filter Based on Output Voltage Correction

A control strategy of a hybrid active filter based on output voltage correction is proposed. The active power filter (APF) is controlled as a voltage source. To improve the filtering performance, a sinusoidal signal is calculated as the APF output voltage correction signal on the basis of proportional control. The amplitude and phase of the correction signal are calculated based on those of system residual harmonic current. The sliding window discrete-fourier-transform (DFT) method is used to detect the amplitude and phase of the system residual harmonic current. A simple method is given to determine the parameters of the control strategy. The simulation results show that selection of the parameter is simple and effective, the APF responds fast to load harmonic current changes and performs well under background harmonic with the proposed method.

Yonghai Xu, Congxi Wen

97. Multiscale Relevance Vector Machine Fault Prediction Based on Genetic Algorithm Optimization

As the present fault prediction methods are not accurate enough, a multiscale relevance vector machine (MSRVM) based on genetic algorithm (GA) optimization is proposed. The kernel scales’ number and kernel parameters are optimized by GA to improve the performance of the MSRVM. Its feasibility and advantages are proved by the fault prediction of a Buck converter circuit

Yongliang Zhang, Guolin Li, Cuihua Lu

98. Automotive Light Control System Development Based on Kinetis KEA

In this chapter, an automotive light control system based on the Local Interconnect Network (LIN) network is developed. It consists of one master node and four slave nodes with a 32-bit microcontroller (MCU) Kinetis KEA64 adopted as the core microprocessor; besides, the hardware design mainly includes the discussion of the characteristics and advantages of Kinetis KEA64 as well as the hardware architecture of the system, and the software design introduces the software architecture and implements the LIN driver and software flow design. Finally, the system can realize basic light control functions. At the moment of testing the LIN network with the Emulin hardware tool, the system proves to be reliable, by which both the communication’s real timing and the dependability can be guaranteed.

Feng Luo, Yanwei Zhai

99. A Modified Design of an Active Magnetic Bearing Controller

This chapter mainly discusses electromagnetic bearing control theories and control algorithms. A modified design of a controller is presented to establish the closed-loop control system. By adopting the integrating element in a proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, the effects of variation of load on the position of the rotor can be compensated. By selecting the voltage control method instead of current control, the model of the system has better robustness. Finally, the simulation results are given to study the system responses of appropriate parameters to check the feasibility of the algorithm.

Long He, Xiaoqiao Shi, Xiaolong Chen

100. Construction of a One-Coincidence Frequency-Hopping Sequence Set with Optimal Performance

In multiple-access spread-spectrum communication systems and multiuser radar systems, it is important to construct an optimal frequency-hopping sequence set to improve the efficiency of communication. By the Cartesian product, one class of one-coincidence frequency-hopping sequence set is constructed for the first time. It shows that this set has optimal balance properties and optimal average periodic Hamming correlation according to the respective bounds in theory and experiment. This method is very simple, feasible, and has better applied foreground.

Hong Wang, Ping Huang

101. Universal Control of Second-Order Nonholonomic Systems

Three global universal controllers based on dynamic feedback techniques are proposed for a second-order nonholonomic system (NS). A Lyapunov function is defined for the closed-loop system to guarantee exponential convergence. If the initial state is limited, K-exponential stability is obtained; however, the error states and the control inputs will go to frequent oscillation with peaking phenomena. In order to avoid this problem, the control objective is loosened to practical stability. As the three global controllers need no persistent excitation condition (PEC), they can be simultaneously applied to the point stabilization and the trajectory tracking of NS. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

Xu Shen, Jian Zhang, Mingjun Li

102. Passivity and Biological Control of the Singular Mammal Body Complexity System

It is very difficult to use exact mathematical models to study complexity systems. As the units beside complex systems can interact to bring forth its complexity, it is completely true for the mammal body, a classic kind of biological complex system. As singular biological complexity systems, including the mammal body, are considered in a series of new research fields, a few passivity or biological control studies have been carried out up to now. In this research, the single-chamber model of the environmental hormone formaldehyde which is flowing in the mammal body has been set up according to the corresponding physiological rules with the model passivity described in detail. Under the strict passivity station, the feedback controller for this singular mammal body complexity system has been designed with a controller example also given as a model instantiation. Both passivity study and feedback controller design of the mammal body complex system can be applied to biological complexity systems and lay a useful foundation for singular system research.

Peiyong Liu, Li Yang, Chao Liu

103. H∞ Control for NRPCS Based on the Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Model

In this chapter, we use the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model to model the nuclear reactor power control system (NRPCS), which is nonlinear time-varying and not easy to control. First, we give the point-kinetic nonlinear time-varying model of the NRPCS; then we choose the reactor power as the premise variable, propose the membership, and present a T-S fuzzy model for the NRPCS. Finally, an H∞ controller is investigated. The numerical example illustrates the advantage of the proposed model.

Cheng Gong

104. Robust Optimization Design for the Cylindrical Helical Spring Based on the Improved Particle Swarm Algorithm

High reliability is one of the most important criterions for the design of the spring; however, due to complex and diverse factors, each type of spring requires a different design formulation. In order to make full use of the capability of materials and obtain higher reliability of the cylindrical helical spring, a multiobjective optimal model is established based on robust and reliability optimization design theory. The objective was to obtain a spring with minimum mass and maximum natural vibration frequency and minimum reliability sensitivity. Some parameters of the spring are taken as random variables in this model and the reliability target is taken as the constrained condition. This multiobjective optimal problem is transformed into a single-objective optimal problem by using the multiplication and division method. Further, an improved swarm algorithm which can reasonably deal with hybrid discrete variables is used to solve this problem. The proposed method is applied to a practical example. The results show that this method is practical, reliable, and effective for obtaining parameters of robust optimization design for reliability.

Yijing Liu, Ming Liu, Minrong Zhao

105. Meticulous Restricted Equivalent Transformation on Singular Systems

In this chapter, a meticulous restricted equivalent transformation on singular systems is proposed. It can simplify different variables in complex singular systems and turn the complex singular system to be more simple and clear. This method gives the complexity of the singular system equivalent to more singular systems so that we approach the new phenomenon of altering the traditional restricted equivalent transformation provided the future analysis foundation on the practical system.

Huanzhang Ling, Yuesheng Luo, Man Xu

106. Intelligent Control of a Servo-Motor-Driven Shock Absorber Performance Tester

This chapter describes a project on the driving and controlling system of an automotive shock absorber tester. The system structures and key parameters are designed followed by the analysis of function partitioning and collaboration of a host personal computer (PC) and the controller. The communication protocol between controller and host PC is developed. Then, the structure and the flow chart of the controller program are presented. Finally, the performance test result using the tester with the developed drive system is given and compared with a qualified tester, which shows the accuracy of the new system.

Yujian Wang, Yongchang Du, Pu Gao

107. Model Predictive Controller and Fractional- Order Proportional-Integral Controller Application in the Cascade System

The model predictive controller (MPC) can deal with the pure delay system directly and has a good tracking performance. It also has strong robustness when model mismatch happens. The fractional-order proportional-integral (FOPI) controller has a fast response and disturbance rejection. A new MPC-FOPI controller is proposed to deal with the delay and interference links in the cascade system. The new controller is designed to control the cascade system. The results show that the new controller has the advantages of the two mentioned controllers and can effectively achieve the cascade system control.

Dong Wu, Lei Dong

Computer Technology


108. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based on Large Data

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) has been widely used in the field of medicine and physiology, which realizes neuro imaging without damage. FMRI was initially applied to the analysis of FMRI images; however, its statistical analysis was limited to the elementary processes because of the complexities of the FMRI images and the difficulties to establish the neuromotor time–space model. In this chapter, we focus on the analysis of FMRI images based on large data. Firstly, we make the time-correlation analysis of the data to reduce the size of the data. Then, we further investigate the spatial characteristics of valid signals, and compare the predicted signal and the original signal in the time domain and frequency domain. We find that there is a strong relevance of FMRI data in both time and space area, which indicates that the stimulation signal of the brain radiates to the surroundings of the stimulated point, and the signal is continuous in time, not an impulse.

Weiyi Zeng, Sanyong Zou, Hao Zuo

109. The Routing Protocol Based on the Aggregation of Routing Table in Cognitive Ad Hoc Networks

In cognitive ad hoc network, how to effectively use the limited spectrum resources to improve the performance of wireless networks has become a hot topic in recent years. We present a new routing protocol based on AODV (ad hoc on-demand distance vector) routing protocol-ORT-AODV in cognitive ad hoc networks. Firstly, the routing table and the total delay calculations are introduced for the secondary user who needs to switch between bands frequently in cognitive ad hoc network. A particular emphasis is given to routing table pooling mechanism, which adds route information collected from different channel to the routing table. Moreover, intermediate nodes initiatively updating routing table mechanism is proposed to tell the source node that the route is available or not. Finally, the respective simulation results demonstrate that it could comply with the requirements of cognitive ad hoc networks, effectively improve the system throughput performance and decrease transmission delay simultaneously.

Tian Wang, Runhe Qiu

110. A High-Speed LVDS Driver Design in 0.35-μm CMOS Technology

With the development of new technologies, the operating frequencies on chip are increasing at a faster rate, such as computational methods, utilization of high-frequency clocks, digital circuits, etc. The process-technology-independent I/O standard, low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS), is basically developed for low-voltage, low-power, low-noise, and high-speed I/O interfaces. Low power is owing to the use of very small differential swing, while low noise is owing to essential nature of the differential circuits. Based upon ANSI TIA/EIA-644 LVDS standard, this paper presents a low-voltage and high-speed LVDS driver. A Common-mode feedback (CMFB) and a pull-up/down circuits were suggested as carried out by a standard 0.35-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with a die area of 0.115 mm


. The measured results present that the driver works well at 1.5 Gbps, and the static current is less than 11.5 mA under 3.3 V.

Zhongyan Wang, Ai Guo, Yan Pu

111. Face Recognition Based on Cross-Validation by Support Vector Machine

Support vector machine (SVM) is a kind of machine learning based on statistical learning theory. It shows unique advantages in the small-sample, nonlinear, and high-dimension pattern recognition. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a multivariate analysis technology for feature extraction. In this chapter, we propose a new method of face recognition based on PCA and SVM. It applies PCA to extract face feature and uses SVM combined with cross-validation (CV) to classify face images. CV is a good method of parameter optimization in SVM. We conduct the recognition experiment on the Cambridge ORL database. Compared with other methods, the accuracy rate of face recognition is up to 89.5 %. It is shown to be an effective method.

Jingfang Hu, Lin You

112. The Management and Monitor System of Tunnel Construction Based on Internet of Things

A management monitor system of tunnel construction based on internet of things (IOT) is proposed. The system is to solve the problem of electrical connections instability caused by wired communications, the great difficulty of wireless network connections and the high cost, etc. And it is composed of a remote central control center, the main control unit, multiple data acquisition units and ZigBee terminal nodes. When the system is initialized successfully, the main control unit and the data acquisition units are connected to the remote central control center via wireless network by manual mode or automatic mode and it can also obtain the various sensors information of monitor system by sending control and query commands. The wireless network of WiFi, GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and ZigBee are integrated together and ZigBee is arranged in a specific layout of tunnel in order to solve the above problem. The system that proposed in the paper has solved the above problems, reducing the probability of accidents and eliminating the security risks and it can also make a more rational scheduling and safety monitoring management of the on-site personal and the equipment.

Hong Cheng, Nan Wu, Jianwei Lian

113. Research and Design of Lossy Compression Algorithm in Embedded Real-Time Database

As the embedded real-time database (ERTDB) has high requirements on the compression algorithm in terms of compression time, compression ratio and compression precision, in this chapter, the dead zone algorithm, swing door tending algorithm (SDT), and the improved SDT algorithms are analyzed in depth, and a lossy compression algorithm is designed which can be applied to ERTDB. This algorithm is based on SDT with two improved methods, the elimination of wild value and the optimization of approximate line, combined in this algorithm. The test result shows that it can achieve good compression effect in ERTDB.

Xinli Li, Hongkai Qiu, Yaochun Zhu

114. Multiple Channel Assignment and Recycling Algorithm for MR-MC Network Architecture

In this paper, a channel assignment and recycling algorithm have been proposed, which assign wireless channels to the neighboring subnets to reduce the interference, meanwhile the network capacity has been improved by channel multiplexing between the far-away subnets and recycles channel when the subnet died out. The OPNET simulation results show that, it has a good performance in the aspects of network delay and throughput.

Ping Ren

115. A Social-Network-Based Intelligent Collaborative Decision Model with Larger Group Consensus Requirements for Collaborative B2B E-commerce

Collaborative decision technologies are crucial to support the growing complexity and diversity of the collaborative B2B e-commerce with larger group consensus requirements. The predefined group consensus is reached through several discussion rounds in a classic group decision-making by consensus models. However, the existing consensus models for the group decision with a low number of groups may not be the most appropriate approach to the collaborative decision with larger groups in collaborative B2B e-commerce context. In this paper, we present a social-network-based intelligent collaborative decision model with larger group consensus requirements for collaborative B2B e-commerce, which automates and supports the collaborative decision consensus-reaching processes. Finally, an example of the notebook on-line selling process is illustrated.

Xiang Liu

116. Toward the Association Rules of Meteorological Data Mining Based on Cloud Computing

Data mining based on association rules (AR) can find out the potential relationship among the meteorological data to forecast the weather conditions; however, it is difficult for traditional AR algorithms to meet the requirement of massive meteorological data mining. To address this issue, we propose a frequent pattern (FP)-tree algorithm based on MapReduce to forecast weather in a cloud computing system. We conduct extensive experiment with real meteorological data to evaluate the performance of our algorithm.

Limin Liu, Jie Lv, Zhiqiang Ma, Jianxiong Wan, Ma Jingjing

117. A Novel In-flight Alignment Algorithm for Airborne Strapdown INS with Assistant of Doppler Radar

In order to improve the precision of Doppler and Strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) integrated navigation system with moving base, an in-flight alignment method is proposed by making an uniform circular motion of the aircraft according to the phenomena avaliable in the Doppler/SINS navigation system tests. The platform error-angles of the SINS can be estimated quickly and the prediction precise can be improved by this method. Experiment verifies the feasibility and validity of this method. Theoretical analysis shows that the steady state limit of the estimation can be highly reduced by proposed method, and the method is valuable for practical application.

Shuang Pan, Xu Han, Nie Yongfang

118. Design of Router for Network on Chip Based on Network Coding

Network on Chip (NoC) has significantly solved the problem caused by the bus architecture of System on Chip (SoC). The multicast communication will become an increasingly important factor in future NoC-based system. Network coding (NC) can help to improve the performance of NoC. In this paper, we design a router architecture based on network coding. The design principle and working process of this new router, especially the coding and decoding modules are discussed in details. Finally, a simulation model of the router is established.

Xisong Fu, Huaxi Gu, Ke Chen, Rong Gao, Jian Zhu

119. An Improved Concurrent Programming Architectural Model Based on Cloud Computing

MapReduce, as one of the main concurrent programming models based on cloud computing, has become the research hot spot of information technology. Aiming at the development of MapReduce application program of high quality and efficiency, the working mechanism based on the Hadoop MapReduce model is analyzed in this chapter and MapReduce concurrent workflow is elaborated at the level of development class library, including task creation, job initialization, task initialization, communication between task and job. In addition, in order to solve the problem of Reduce input imbalance, a universal Map-Balance-Reduce improved model is proposed in this chapter. The balance layer embedded an adaptive splitting algorithm is added to the MapRduce model before reduce targeted at Reduce’s defect of input imbalance, and its function is to guarantee the balanced Reduce input with the semanteme unchanged. The simulation indicates that the unbalanced degree of the improved MBR is obviously lower than that of MR; finally, some improvement prospects of the open source MapReduce model are discussed.

Wuxue Jiang, Yuqiang Chen, Minxia Liu

120. An Improved Character Recognition Algorithm Based on Shape

Improvements have been proposed to overcome the shortage of existing algorithms based on the shape of the character. The background value assignment was adopted to describe the convex–concave characteristics, and the symmetry of convex–concave and the angle of concave region were proposed as supplement. The binary images of 25 uppercase characters and ten digits were identified correctly by the multilevel classifier. The new algorithm is immune to the size of character and tilt. Experimental results show that the improved algorithm effectively extends the range of identification, highlighting the advantages of shape-based algorithm.

Lili Song, Jianfeng Han

Information Technology


121. Fiber-Optic Extrinsic Fabry–Perot Interferometer Pressure Sensor Demodulation System with Three Quadrature Signals

A demodulation algorithm for fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer (EFPI) pressure sensor is proposed and demonstrated in this chapter. This method provides a wide range of pressure measurement and overcomes disadvantages of the traditional small sensing scale. The length of the sensing cavity could be recovered by using three quadrature phase-shifted signals. A theoretical description of the method is given here. An experimental sensing platform and calibrated behavior of the system were set up to prove the method. The results showed that the sensing accuracy is higher than 0.3 μm over a large range of 20 μm.

Ningfang Song, Yujie Yang, Ying Chen, Jingming Song

122. Capacity Improvement by Multi-User Virtual Multi-Input and Multi-Output System in a Measured Indoor Environment at 5 GHz

In this chapter, wideband indoor multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) channel measurement was used to study the performance of the virtual MIMO formed by two users whose channels were measured while standing. In this measurement, 19 datasets are available which result in 19 users. From those datasets, we formed 171 possible virtual MIMO pairs. To set up a virtual MIMO system, two spaced antennas from standard users are taken and brought together. The capacities are evaluated for the standard users and the virtual MIMO system, and the comparison is made between standard users and the virtual MIMO formed by those users. The results show that the use of the virtual MIMO improves capacity in a great proportion compared to standard users. The parameters such as


-factor, root mean square (rms


delay spread, and spatial correlation, which affect the capacity are also evaluated. The results show that the capacity improvement is mainly due to spatial correlation and rms delay spread reduction rather than the -factor reduction.

Balla Moussa Coulibaly, Xiongwen Zhao, Suiyan Geng, Yiwei Li, Jingchun Li

123. Selection of Test Points Based on Heuristic Graph Search

As to the problem of test point selection for the weapon system, the chapter firstly studies the correlation model and the information entropy theory to transfer the test point selection problem into the graph searching problem; then, the evaluation function is defined as the heuristic information, which deduces the graph expansion way and guides the map search; finally, the method is verified by experiment. Experiment results show that the method can improve the searching efficiency of test nodes and provide an effective guidance for optimal test point selection of the weapon system.

Xiaofeng Lv, Wen Ye, Xinghai Wang, Wei Pang

124. A Novel Method of Frequency-Selective Surface Transmission Characteristics Test

A novel method of frequency-selective surface (FSS) transmission characteristics test is presented on the basis of the absorbing materials window of metal backboard which is derived from the characteristics test of finite size FSSs in engineering technology. The design method is validated by the numerical simulation (the finite-element method) as well as the experimental results.

Jianwei Lian, Liang Chen, Haiyan Yan, Yanlong Li

125. A Novel Planar Elliptical Dipole Antenna for Ultra-Wideband Application

The printed dipole antenna has been investigated to be an effective radiator for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication and radar systems. In order to broaden the impedance bandwidth of the normal planar elliptical dipole antenna, a novel planar elliptical dipole antenna, designed by means of loading balun transformer and slotting on elliptical dipole elements, is proposed. The simulation results show that the return loss of the modified antenna has been almost less than − 10 dB in the frequency from 2.2 GHz to 13 GHz. Compared with the normal elliptical dipole antenna, the simulated results demonstrate that the modified elliptical dipole antenna has better directional characteristics and gain performance.

Manyuan Dai, Ge Gao, Qi Wu, Hu Yang

126. An Anticollision Protocol of Adaptive Tree Slot Without Tag Estimation

In order to improve the throughput of tags identification in the system of radio frequency identification (RFID), the anticollision protocol of adaptive tree slot is proposed, and that is a tag anticollision algorithm in view of the Q algorithm. In this protocol, the rest of the tags will be waiting until those that are in the first collision slot are decomposed with the method of the binary tree. Besides, the tags in the rest of the collision slots will be resolved by the tree slot. The advantage of the proposed protocol lies in the fact that it does not need the prior information about tags, which can reduce the complexity of the system; furthermore, the system with high identification efficiency can be kept, and the change of the tag quantity cannot influence it. It indicates in our simulations that the identification efficiency of the system does not fluctuate much when the number of tags is between 40 and 500; moreover, when the tag quantity does not approach to the original frame length, the identification efficiency of the system is higher than the tree slotted ALOHA (TSA) algorithm and fast k-slot selection (FKSS) protocol.

Qin Zhu, Haifeng Wu

127. Infrared Small Target Detection Using Two- Dimensional Least Mean Square Filter Based on Neighborhood Information

This chapter proposes an infrared small target detection algorithm using two-dimensional least mean square (TDLMS) filter based on neighborhood information. The structure of the TDLMS filter and prediction method is improved to make full use of neighborhood information of the predicted pixel, and the background is predicted using a nonlinear step adjustment method to improve the prediction accuracy. Experimental results show that the background can be effectively suppressed, and the detection rate of infrared small target is improved if the background is predicted by the TDLMS filter based on neighborhood information.

Lili Wan, Min Wang

128. Infrared Dim and Small Target Detection Based on the Human Visual Attention Mechanism

This article proposes an algorithm based on the human visual attention mechanism to solve the infrared target detection problem provided that the targets are submerged in the background. Firstly, the regions of interest (ROIs) of the image are obtained by the top-hat transform of mathematical morphology and the method of adaptive thresholding segmentation. Secondly, the image’s signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is enhanced by processing the ROIs using the difference of Gaussians (Dog) filter which has the characteristic of human vision in the scale space. Then, the points which have the local maximum SNR in the detected image can be regarded as the candidate targets. At last, considering the targets are easily submerged in the background and to prevent the targets not being detected, the algorithm proposes searching the missing targets again using the Retinex theory. Experimental results with real forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images show higher detection rate and lower false alarm rate than other methods, especially for the targets submerged in the background.

Yaping Deng, Min Wang

129. Reconnaissance Technology about Reflective Panoramic Vision for Unmanned Platform

The environment perception technology is most important key technology in the application of unmanned platform, and the panoramic vision imaging technology is one of most important methods in the environment perception; but the hyperbolic and parabolic single viewpoint reflective panoramic vision system used most widely have some defects, such as requiring expensive imaging lens or high precision installation, etc. On this basis, we propose the multi-viewpoint parabolic reflective panoramic vision system without expensive telecentric lens and high precision installation, present parametric model of imaging system, and analyze properties of the caustic surfaces. In the end, we design the multi-viewpoint parabolic reflective panoramic vision system to achieve the relational expression of the parameters about the maximum horizontal detection range and resolution, and analyze the affecting facts and then do experimental verification. The results indicate that the targets in farther position can be detected by using this multi-viewpoint parabolic reflective panoramic vision system.

Jian Wang, Zhenhai Zhang, Kejie Li, Haiyan Shao, Tao Xu

130. Platform Construction of Vegetable Safety Traceability

In recent years, the food safety problems emerge in an endless stream. We urgently need to solve the problem of food safety to ease public trust crisis. This chapter discusses some key techniques of vegetable safety that relates to the whole platform. The whole system adopts a three-layer architecture: the data access layer, business logic layer, and user interface. According to the survey, in authority, we adopt the three levels of the general user, enterprise, and government. On this basis, we complete the vegetables space back, vegetable information query, data statistics, the vegetable transportation route analysis, and other functions. This chapter shows all links of information of vegetables from planting to the last. The platform of the assistant decision function is very beneficial to some extent for the government and the relevant government departments to supervise the vegetable safety.

Haiting Diao, Chao Dong, Yimin Nie

131. A Mobile-Gateway-Assisted Transmission Scheme for Wireless Sensor Network

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been applied in many different areas. Data transmission quality of service (QoS) has become a hot research point for the WSN, especially for the emergency data. Many researchers focused on developing WSN access and routing algorithms for the transmission of QoS, but less research has been focused on the mobile user equipment (UE) acting as a gateway for WSN data transmission. In this chapter, we propose a UE-gateway-assisted adaptive transmission algorithm for the WSN, which designs a new signaling to select the UE-gateway as the access point. Simulation results show that the WSN system energy cost and data transmission delay can achieve a better system performance by using the adaptive scheme compared to the traditional scheme.

Lianhai Shan, Weidong Fang, Xiaoqing Mei, Yong Xiong, Weiwei Gao

132. Adaptive Mobile Gateway: QoS-Guaranteed Challenges for Wireless Sensor Networks

Quality of service (QoS) of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) communications has become one research hotspot, especially for the emergency data transmission. Many researchers focused on developing WSN routing algorithms to guarantee the transmission QoS, but less research has been concerned in the mobile user equipment (UE) acting as a gateway for WSN data transmission. In this paper, we first propose that the system application requirement for WSN, where UEs of mobile cellular network (MCN) act as sensor nodes and gateways for WSN. And then, we investigate QoS key technical challenges in the convergent networks of MCN and WSN. Finally, based on an analysis of technical challenges, we discuss the research points of QoS for WSNs.

Lianhai Shan, Weidong Fang, Wei Yao, Yong Xiong, Weiwei Gao

133. The Application and Experiment of High- Pressure Water Mist Fire Extinguishing System in the Tobacco Industry

The tobacco industry is an important industry in China’s economic construction. Tobacco warehouses and archives, such as high- and low-voltage rooms, have an urgent need of secure, reliable, and energy-saving fire safety systems, in order to prevent all kinds of unexpected fires. This chapter analyzes the tobacco warehouses and archives, such as high- and low-voltage power distribution rooms with fire risk, which are able to illuminate the mechanism of water mist fire suppression systems and its features. We conducted a fire test in a real tobacco warehouse and checked the validity of the high-pressure water mist system to assure the safety of the tobacco warehouse.

Tinade Luo, Jing Qiao, Beihua Cong
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