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2021 | Book

Proceedings of the XIII International Scientific Conference on Architecture and Construction 2020

Commemorating the 90th anniversary of Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering

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About this book

The book contains the latest studies on digitalization of transport and logistics, improving vehicle fuel efficiency, information technology and digital security, land management and cadastres, building structures, structural analysis, and energy conservation in construction. This book consists of papers presented during the XIII International Scientific Conference on Architecture and Construction 2020, which is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, held on September 22–24, 2020. The book caters to researchers, scientists and industrial practitioners in the field of transportation engineering, logistics, intelligent transport systems, sustainable construction for housing and industrial buildings.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Developing Competitiveness of the Enterprises in the Innovative Economy

In the article, the authors propose an institutional approach to evaluating and ensuring enterprise competitiveness based on the formation and implementation of an innovative development model. This article suggests a theoretical research of an enterprise. The authors consider theoretical and methodological significance of the competitiveness of an enterprise by means of distinguishing four kinds of the enterprise competitiveness. The article presents an analysis of the modern condition of competitiveness, described by various economic indices, points out that the region has certain prospects of competitive advantage growth of the regional economy. The author’s vision of the main tendencies of the development of competitiveness, stability and strategic development of enterprises is determined. Meso- and macro indicators of competitiveness as an economic category in the institutional conditions according to stable and competitive development are represented. Recommendations for stable and competitive development are suggested. The article can be interesting for scientific workers, specialists in the sphere of economics, teachers, postgraduates, master students and students of economic faculties.

Galina Dovlatova, Natalia Vasilyuk, Olga Bondarenko, Irina Tishechenko, Anatoliy Chistyakov, Araksi Dovlatova
Modernization of Regional Processes Based on the Definition of the Human Potential

The article presents the tools identified by the authors that contribute to improving the population life level and quality through an assessment of the human potential index. According to the authors of the study, the Russian economy requires large-scale innovative transformations at all levels of the hierarchy. The authors conducted a rating score of fifteen countries of the world for 2017–2018 year on three key indicators affecting the human development index: education level, level and quality of life, gross national income level. The countries were divided into three groups: countries with a high development rating (1–20), countries with an average development rating (25–70 place), countries with a low development rating (100–140 place). Foreign experience has been studied and the index for five large Russian regions has been calculated based on the international methodology of K. Schwab. Key factors and their interrelation with the parameters of regional development have been identified. Practical recommendations for the Russian regions to reach a sustainable innovative development through increasing the business activity of the population have been given. The developed tools will allow the traditional model of socio-economic development of the Russian economy to be changed into an innovative one. The calculations of a geo-information study based on the natural logarithm of the human potential index conducted in the Russian regions have been highlighted and presented. The article is of interest to specialists in the field of regional and municipal management, for researchers, lecturers, graduate students, undergraduates and students economic and managerial universities.

Galina Dovlatova, Natalia Vasilyuk, Olga Tkachova, Anton Agafonov, Victoria Karashchenko, Olga Bondarenko, Inna Yakunina
Development of the Hotel Business as a Component of the Regional Tourism Industry

This study is aimed at analyzing the hotel industry in the Rostov region, identifying its structure and condition, as well as its impact on the development of regional tourism. The paper substantiates the relevance and expediency of the development of accommodation facilities as a component of the regional tourism infrastructure of the Rostov region. The study summarized the experience of studying the development of the hospitality industry and analyzed scientific works on this topic. The hotel industry of the Rostov region and its structure in the studied region by categories and cost of living are also analyzed. The segmentation of the market of hotel services in urban districts of the Rostov region by categories has been studied, and the quantitative distribution of hotels in its cities and districts has been indicated. The paper analyzes the performance indicators of collective accommodation facilities in the city of Rostov-on-Don and the factors of uneven placement of hotel enterprises across the territory of the Rostov region. The dynamics of the hotel services market in the region for 5 year was also studied, on the basis of which the development trends of the regional market of hotel services were studied. The areas for events are designated as priority areas for the development of the hotel sector in the region. The paper presents an analysis of such events in various municipal entities and, on its basis, outlines the ways of balancing the territorial development of the hospitality industry. The thesis on the relationship between the hotel business and the tourism sector in the development of the regional economy has been substantiated.

Valeria Provotorina, Lyudmila Kazmina, Antonina Petrenko, Vadim Makarenko
The Problem of a Rational Relationship of the General Transport Infrastructure

The study analyzes the existing problem of a rational relationship of modes of transport, their interrelated development and use. This problem is especially acute at the “junctions” of interaction between modes of transport, where there are large economic losses, enterprises do not have the freedom to choose the most rational schemes for transporting goods and passengers. The market situation causes a constant change in the addressing of transport links (some of them cease to exist, others reappear, forming new traffic flows to replace the lost ones). All this takes place within the framework of a single transport system of the state. Systems analysis, logical and mathematical modeling, systems theory, economic-visual modeling, research methods of operations, as well as methods of operations research and economic and mathematical methods are used in the paper. The previously developed scientific and methodological foundations and practical recommendations for mobilization training and increasing the survivability of transport communications as a single transport system for the national security of the state do not sufficiently take into account the new realities of the market economy and require certain adjustments. The study was carried out in relation to the unified transport system of the country and transport subsystems of the regions of the Russian Federation. Models and methods for assessing the economic and military-economic efficiency of using the country’s unified transport system in the interests of ensuring the national security of the state have been substantiated.

Ruben Kazaryan
Development of Methods for Maneuvering Trials of Autonomous Ships in Test Water Area

Unmanned and autonomous navigation is a promising area for the development of water transport. In the past few years, unmanned and autonomous ships have been actively operating, performing various industrial tasks, for example, hydrographic surveying. However, for this type of equipment, it is necessary to conduct tests to determine that the safety of such water transport will remain at a given level during operation. Maneuvering and sea trials of ships with a crew on board are performed by giving commands by the captain or another person conducting the trials, but this is not possible for unmanned and autonomous ships. Thus, the purpose of the work is to develop a method for conducting a series of sea trials of unmanned ships to determine the limiting technical capabilities of the ship during its movement and maneuvering. The method is based on the normalization of a set of ship movement parameters measured by an independent method and independent equipment at test ranges, where it is possible to carry out all the necessary types of trials for unmanned ships. The ship moves along a predetermined route that has straight and radius sections with a gradual complication, which consists in a gradual reduction in the length of straight sections and a decrease in radius sections of the turn. Thus, the control of the movement of unmanned or autonomous ships differs significantly from the traditional control of a ship, and new methods are required for conducting sea and maneuvering trials of unmanned or autonomous ships, one of which is proposed in this work. This method is designed for use at test water areas, where it is possible to carry out all the necessary types of trials on unmanned ships.

Vladimir Karetnikov, Evgeniy Ol’khovik, Artem Butsanets, Aleksandra Ivanova
IoT Security: Threats, Risks, Attacks

When the number of items connected to the network exceeded the number of people, a new technology appeared - the Internet of Things. Sometimes, we do not even think about the fact that everyday things that we use - in everyday life, at work, on the street - can cause great harm. The most vulnerable side of the Internet of Things is security. Unfortunately, very few manufacturers and developers of smart devices take into account the principle of Information Security. Recently, in the consumer sphere, IoT technology has been a platform with an extremely poor reputation. It is worth noting that most businesses and organizations have at least one person with a device that can be attacked by criminals. And if all the risks are ignored, attackers can be smarter than IoT devices. Which poses a huge cybersecurity challenge. What vulnerable devices can disrupt an entire enterprise? What threats can the new IoT technology pose? And, most importantly, how to protect yourself? This paper examines the most common security threats to IoT devices, as well as the top challenges to addressing security in smart devices.

Sergei Sokolov, Vagiz Gaskarov, Tatiana Knysh, Albina Sagitova
Use of Social Engineering Methods in Transport: Methods, Protection, Facts, Consequences

The human factor has a great influence on the security of information, in particular computer information, in almost any organization. Quite often people encounter attacks based on social engineering methods, but usually they do not even realize that, for example, an e-mail from a stranger contains a link that could cause personal data leakage. Social networks are developing both quantitatively and qualitatively. The security of user data in these networks is being improved. At the same time, users who actively maintain their social networks, post photos with their children, show themselves to everyone, leave their phone number in the public domain, and after a while they begin to receive calls from unfamiliar numbers in order to offer all sorts of intrusive services or attempts withdraw all funds from the user’s card. These examples relate to the personal life of a person, his money, but nothing prevents criminals from performing exactly the same attacks in order to steal from some huge company, for example, a seaport, whose money is many times greater than the money of an individual, and the withdrawal failure of the seaport information system can lead to a collapse. To increase the efficiency of protection of the information systems of the seaport, this work examines modern methods of social engineering, methods of countering attacks, principles of building information systems, and suggests improved methods of countering attacks.

Sergei Sokolov, Anatoly Nyrkov, Sergei Chernyi, Nikita Nazarov
Cybernetic Attacks as a Component of Information Operations During the Hybrid Warfare

This paper is devoted to disclosing the meaning of the term ‘cyber attacks’, which, in turn, are part of the broader concept of ‘hybrid warfare’ and are used during information operations both in peacetime and during martial law. The paper examines the types and examples of individual threats that have been used recently or are still being used today, even in the absence of direct military conflicts. It also provides a summary of how such attacks interact with other elements of information warfare, and why they deserve special attention in our time, along with other manifestations of information aggression. Cyber attacks, their types and methods of implementation are considered together with methods of countering them, based on examples from recent events that have actually taken place. Methods of their identification and methods of analysis of the schemes are considered, using which the special services of different countries detect these threats, eliminate or completely prevent them, depending on the goals pursued. The result of the studies is the logical conclusion that despite the fact that there are no direct clashes and large-scale human losses during information operations, they are militaristic in relation to the one at whom they are directed, and most often their purpose is to violate the civil infrastructure of the state, which leads to the moral and informational decay of society, and, accordingly, to a weakening of the political influence of the losing side on the world arena. This paper reveals modern methods of information warfare, which are used at the interstate level, and the impact they exert on society.

Sergei Sokolov, Anatoly Nyrkov, Tatiana Knysh, Yaroslav Demakov
Countering Cyberattacks During Information Operations

This paper is devoted to the disclosure of the term ‘information operations’, which are components of a broader concept - hybrid warfare. The paper examines the main thing of this modern term and reveals the logical and semantic content by studying its historical origin and analyzing information sources containing information on this topic. The material also provides a semantic description of the concept of ‘information warfare’, which is similar to information operations, but is a separate war, which can then develop into a hybrid warfare. Also, the elements of information operations, such as psychological impact, electronic warfare and computer security, are considered. In the paper, the main focus is on the description of methods of protection against computer threats. Also, in addition to the very definition of the meaning of hybrid warfare, attention is paid to the economic, social and political elements that are part of this concept. In parallel, methods of identifying elements of information operations - cyberattacks, analysis of schemes and methods of their implementation, using which such attacks are detected and eliminated are considered. Methods of protection against cyberattacks and methods of ensuring computer security are also described. The topic under consideration will be of interest to specialists in the field of information security and IT technologies. The study of this material will expand knowledge in the field of information security in the modern world and will provide a basis for further study of the topic in this area.

Sergei Sokolov, Anatoly Nyrkov, Tatiana Knysh, Artem Shvets
Features of Assessing the Quality of Functioning of Telecommunication Systems in Transport

The purpose of the paper is to show the need for assessing the quality of functioning of telecommunication systems in transport. Show that the problem of the quality of functioning of complex systems, which include telecommunications, is closely related to the reliability of both its individual elements and the system as a whole. From the set of existing parameters for assessing reliability, identify those that have a significant impact on the quality of functioning of transport telecommunication systems. Propose a methodology for assessing such parameters. Parameters for assessing the reliability of complex technical systems in relation to telecommunications were analyzed. The main indicators of the quality of the functioning of telecommunication systems are revealed. It is shown that the functioning of the system can be characterized by an indicator of technical efficiency, reflecting the reliability and recoverability, as well as the correctness of information processing, and quantified by the product of the probabilities of the corresponding private events, which can be considered independent. The calculations of the probability that the execution of the task will not be disrupted due to the unreliability of the system, the probability of the task being completed by the system with the failure-free operation of the equipment for a given time, as well as the probability that the system, being serviceable in the initial state with a given probability, will then work without failure for the specified time and will ensure the correct solution (or execution) of the task are presented. An integral indicator of the quality of functioning for transport telecommunication systems has been developed. The classification of the quality indicators of functioning of telecommunication systems from the position of a set of complex technical systems and man-machine complexes is given.

Konstantin Goloskokov, Vitaly Korotkov, Andrey Vasin, Tatiana Knysh
Model of Technical and Organizational Measures to Maintain Functionality of Handling Equipment

Container transport is becoming the core of logistics processes for the producer-to-user delivery of goods. The entire process of multimodal transport is bound to the logistics network. Container terminal, as an individual link of this chain, runs its own internal systems that define the terminal’s functionality and competitiveness. Breakdown of handling equipment freezes the loading-and-unloading process until the time the equipment is repaired. In this case, the transport and logistics network fails, terminal profitability decreases as well as its competitiveness in a recurring situation of handling equipment-down. In order to keep the functionality of a container terminal, a logistics operator develops a system of technical maintenance and repair, which is done by the maintenance service of the terminal or an outsourcing provider. The system of technical maintenance and repair tackles not only equipment-related issues, but also organizational ones.

Igor Zub, Yuri Ezhov, Viktor Shchemelev
Study the Effect of Bottom Erosion from Ships at Thin Berths

The analysis of the current state of issues related to the erosion of the bottom and construction of foundations of port hydraulic structures under the influence of hydraulic jets from ship engines is presented. The most common structures made of sheet piles and methods of fixing the soil on the bottom in front of berths and the causes of erosion are considered. Standard construction solutions and problems associated with their implementation are analyzed. The possibility of using an alternative approach to ensuring safety in the operation of thin mooring walls by sinking the sheet pile to a greater depth with the creation of a reserve for possible erosion is revealed. A container ship with dimensions corresponding to the Arctic shuttles that are used in ports and waters of the Northern Sea Route has been accepted as a settlement ship. Methods for calculating the erosion flow rate for soils composing the bottom of the water area and methods for determining the depth of erosion from the action of ship engines with different power are proposed. As part of the study, two options were developed and compared: the first is a standard one with the bottom fixed by building structures, the second option involves a deeper immersion of sheet piles to the depth of possible erosion. The recommended sequence of calculations of the area of bottom erosion at the berth and the depth of erosion from the action of ship engines is proposed. A container ship with a DWT 35000 is accepted as the settlement ship. The cost-effectiveness of the thin sheet pile wall option with the proposed erosion protection in the form of deeper pile immersion exceeds traditional methods by at least 30%.

Vladimir Shabanov, Pavel Garibin, Nikolay Belyaev, Evgeniy Ol’khovik
Estimation of the Fleet Renewal Desirability Under the Conditions of a Life Cycle Contract

Currently, the life cycle contract (LCC) is one of the most modern forms of public-private partnership. This form of contract between the owner of the property and the organization operating the facility has proven itself well both abroad and in the Russian economic space. This paper presents the results of calculations of economic results for three main options for financing the acquisition of a vessel: credit, leasing and life cycle contract. The calculations were performed for the representative vessel for the entire period of its useful life. As the planning horizon for all 3 financing options, the useful life of the vessel is taken equal to 24 years. The calculation step is 1 years. The purpose of this study is to study the issue of financing the fleet renewal on the terms of a life cycle contract using the example of a cargo vessel of mixed navigation of RSD44 project of the “✠M-PR 2.5 (ice 20) A” Russian River Register class. It is concluded that the fleet renewal on the basis of a life cycle contract is a competitive alternative to leasing. The advantages of the LCC are lower monthly (or annual) payments in comparison with a lease agreement, as well as a higher profitability in the first 10–15 years of vessel operation due to a faster exit from the loss zone to the profit zone. The inclusion of the costs of all types of repair and maintenance in the LCC can improve the quality of repair and maintenance due to stricter control of these processes by the lessor. The profitability level of a shipping company when using LCC can be higher for newly built vessels, compared to vessels of traditional designs.

Alla Krasyuk, Artem Butsanets
Liner Conferences (Chartering Agreements): Origins and Prerequisites, Organizational Problems

The research topic is relevant due to a number of problems that are not only significant for overcoming the theoretical gaps existing in the science of maritime navigation. These problems are as well important for ensuring the operational activities of industry enterprises, as well as departments related to international maritime transport. The purpose of study is to determine the definition of liner conferences, as well as their origins and prerequisites. The methods of expert assessment were implemented in the research, as well as comparative legal analysis and a number of economic methods. The research results and their discussion should be extensively tested through scientific and practical discussion at all-Russian and international conferences on the activities of liner conferences. Testing should be performed not only in the context of national legal system, but also from the perspective of international norms, standards and practices of the world countries. What are the true origins of liner conferences (chartering agreements)? What is the role of “gentlemen’s” and joint service agreements for line shipping? Answers to these and other questions are presented. Prerequisites for the emergence of liner conferences (chartering agreements) are analyzed, the issue of organizing liner conferences and the features of conference agreements are studied.

Igor Rusinov, Irina Gavrilova, Andrey Nelogov
Simulation of Maneuvering Trials of an Unmanned or Autonomous Surface Ship on a Navigation Simulator

Unmanned and autonomous ships are beginning to be actively introduced and operated in various countries, but such ships can only be used for specific tasks. A full-scale transition to autonomous navigation may occur in the near future. Currently, there are a number of factors hindering this transition, such as the lack of technical norms and standards, special educational training, and new business processes. To ensure the safety of navigation, the measures preceding the operation of unmanned and autonomous ships consist in conducting trials, which allow confirming the effectiveness of the adopted technical solutions in a variety of conditions and situations. In this work, the authors conducted a simulation of the full-scale testing process in the waters of Lake Ladoga of an autonomous/unmanned dry cargo vessel using the navigation simulator. As a result, the navigation and maneuverability characteristics of the ship for autonomous mode were determined. In the future, the method is intended to be used for conducting definitive full-scale experiments to determine the characteristics of unmanned or autonomous surface ships.

Vladimir Karetnikov, Evgeniy Ol’Khovik, Artem Butsanets, Aleksandra Ivanova
Technical Automation Tools for High-Precision Navigating of Sea and River Ships

The paper describes an approach to automating the process of navigating sea and river ships using a set of technical tools for high-precision navigating. The set is built on the basis of two reference points technology and allows controlling the position of the ship’s hull with the accuracy necessary for navigating the ship in cramped conditions and with limited visibility. Technology of two reference points - is a technology for high-precision definition of navigation elements - fore and aft vectors of the ship speed, the pivot point of the ship, distances and speeds of convergence of the ship’s hull to navigation hazards, traffic lanes of the ship. The technology consists of three segments: sea, coastal and ship. The sea segment is an automatic water area hydrometeorological monitoring system, coastal segment – is a monitoring system of mooring operations, ship segment - is a set of technical means of high-precision navigating. The set includes a wearable pilot tablet with software for displaying electronic navigation maps and two transponders (two reference points). The set processes data from the global navigation satellite system and the inertial navigation system, as well as from two sets of three-axis microelectromechanical sensors (accelerometer, magnetometer, fiber-optic gyrocompass and altimeter) that are part of the transponders. The set provides data for displaying the current navigation situation on approaches, in the immediate vicinity of the cargo terminal, on certain sections of traffic in port waters and river basins when performing pilotage and mooring tasks.

Victor Senchenko, Veronika Lopatina, Dmitry Studenikin, Artem Butsanets
The Influence of Equipment Accuracy on the Quality of Filling Sorting Tracks

The goal of the research is to study the impact of the release speed accuracy of set of cars from the yard retarder position on the filling quality of the hump yards. The developed simulation model for filling the sorting tracks, which is based on the calculating the speed of the zcars, was implemented for the study. The object of research is the accuracy of the devices for setting the release speed of set of cars to the railway. The subject is the error impact on the quality of filling the tracks of the hump yards. The normative profile was chosen. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the average collision speed of cars does not depend on the error of the devices. An error increase affects the sizes of gaps. An error increase leads to a decrease in the use factor of the useful railway length in the sorting yard, as well as to an increase in the number of backings necessary for the accumulation of one train. The obtained results can be used to justify the need for improving the operation accuracy of devices for controlling the release speed of sets of cars.

Konstantin Kornienko, Ivan Olgeyzer, Alexander Sevostyanov, Iuliia Tanaino, Aleksey Dmitrenko
Determining the Magnitude of Rock Pressure on the Underground Mine Working Support

This paper considers a method for determining rock pressure using standard strength characteristics determined during engineering surveys – uniaxial compression strength Rc for rocky soils and strength parameters of the ideal elastic-plastic Coulomb-Mohr model (angle of internal friction of the soil φ and specific soil adhesion c) for dispersed soils. Within the framework of the proposed methodology, the existence of critical heading spans was established that determined the need for its fastening or transformation of the form of loss of stability of the rock mass from the collapse arch to the collapse column. In addition, a static solution of the theory of limiting equilibrium of soils as applied to dispersed soils was obtained in the paper. A hypothesis is formulated about the fundamental correspondence between the behavior of soils that exert active pressure on the enclosing structures and the behavior of soils that create rock pressure on the supports of underground workings. Therefore, the static solution on rock pressure is based on the well-known solution used to determine the magnitude of the active pressure on the structures of underground and buried facilities: the enclosing structures of pits, retaining walls, etc. A numerical example was calculated, a field of limiting stresses was constructed, characteristic lines were determined, and the value of limiting pressure was calculated. Previously, the authors of this work carried out theoretical studies to determine the rock pressure [1, 2].

Alexander Karaulov, Konstantin Korolev, Yaroslav Stakhnev
Investigation of Low Temperature Deformation Measurement Problem by the Contact Holographic Interferometers

The materials currently used in modern structures do dramatically change their mechanical properties under the influence of low operating temperatures. One of the factors affecting the breakdown of various structural elements at low temperatures, is the placement of the stress concentrations. The existing analytical design schemes cannot always correctly take into account the material mechanical properties changes caused by the temperature decrease. In the present work we consider the method of contact holographic interferometry, which made it possible to efficiently determine surface displacements and strains at the temperature of –50 °C. The contact holographic interferometer is presented as an assembly of the object surface section and holographic plate in an immediate vicinity to the object. This technique is used to determine in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of tested object. If a hologram is recorded at metallized grating surface it restores information peculiar to some optical methods: holographic interferometry, speckle photography, holographic moire and mirror-optical method. For the interpretation of interference patterns new simple analytical equations are obtained. Contact holographic interferometers are used effectively to solve some elasto-plastic deformation measurement problems of isotropic and polycristalline materials. It is specially designed to permit the accurate measurement of the in-plane component of strain in the immediate vicinity of stress concentrators in plates.

Sergey Gerasimov, Victor Tikhomirov
Result Assessment of the Quality Railway Track Padding

An important direction of development of digital technologies for track repairs is to control the parameters of the operation of track machines when performing track repairs. At the moment, all types of technological machines are actively implementing various monitoring systems that transmit data about the operation of machines in real time. In world practice, various sensors are widely used to automate control functions, but their use requires criteria for evaluating the transmitted data. In accordance with the requirements of JSC “Russian Railways”, when carrying out track repairs at railway infrastructure facilities, it is necessary to perform operational quality control of technological operations, during reconstruction and repairs of the railway track to ensure that there are no hidden defects that affect the long-term stable condition of the track. The approach proposed in the paper to assess the quality of ballast compaction makes it possible to control the parameters of working equipment functioning that affect the quality of work, and thus will reduce the number of unscheduled track repairs carried out due to improper operation of equipment.

Aleksey Manakov, Andrey Abramov, Andrey Ilinykh, Aleksey Igumnov, Sergey Kolarzh
Research of the Suburban Passenger Transport Market in the Territory

The operating conditions of commuter passenger companies that provide commuter rail transport services reflect the trend that has been observed in recent years to reduce the size of traffic, which is associated with increasing competition in the commuter transport market and increasing passenger demands for the quality of services provided. Reduced demand for suburban rail transport, in turn, leads to territorial isolation of regions, alienation of suburban areas from the largest megacities. The purpose of the article is to study the market of suburban passenger transport in the territory of the Novosibirsk region. During the research, methods and tools of system analysis, statistical data processing, economic analysis, and economic and mathematical modeling were used. The article analyzes the historical dynamics of the suburban passenger transport market by rail, identifies promising trends in the distribution of passenger flows and interspecific competition, and predicts the volume and capacity of the industry.

Yana Nikonova, Lyudmila Arshba, Valeriya Galter
Organization of Production Processes for Operation of Rail and Road Infrastructure

Creation and development of intelligent transport systems, infrastructure management centers require modern methods of digitalization of technological processes. To increase the timeliness and quality of decisions made by participants in the implementation of production processes, it is proposed to use their graphical modeling. Given the stochasticity of information flows, it is proposed to evaluate technological and organizational reliability of operations described by operograms, which represent graphical models of relations of production processes, represented by technological operations, their executors and duration associated with the sequence of execution. The algorithm for conducting the examination during the development of operograms consists in ranking the operations of technological process, expert assessment of the need for each operation and sequence of their implementation. Operograms allow one to regulate information flows, minimize the duration of operations and improve the quality of managerial decisions. Definitions of a stream element, elementary stream, information stream are given. It is shown that construction of a graph model of information flows is determined by the set of technological operations, the executors of various organizational and industrial structures, the logic, sequence and duration of their implementation. When constructing them, method of expert assessments is used. An example of constructing a graph model of information flows of the current uncoupling repair of wagons and an assessment of technological and organizational reliability are presented. To evaluate it, it is advisable to use the probability that the technical system described by the operogram is in an operable state at an arbitrary moment in time (readiness function).

Valery Vorobyov, Irina Yanshina, Alexey Konkin, Konstantin Gromenko, Elena Shepilova
Optimization of Costs for Freight Transportation Across the River

On February 17, 2020, the results of the competition for the determination of a private concessionaire for the design, construction and operation of a bridge over the Lena River in the region of Yakutsk were summed. The winner of the competition was the consortium of Rostec State Corporation and the VIS Group. The commissioning of the bridge is scheduled for 2025. The new bridge should connect Eastern Siberia with the ports of the Sea of Okhotsk through the transport corridor from Irkutsk to Magadan, which will allow the organization of the Northern Economic Belt. Russia will be able to get access to the Sea of Okhotsk and to the shores of its eastern seas not only through the southern borders, the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Baikal-Amur Mainline in the Vladivostok and Khabarovsk regions, but much to the north. The construction of the bridge will allow the year-round connection of Yakutsk with the left-bank territory of the republic, with the Russian railway network, will connect federal highways, which will provide year-round communication between Yakutia and other regions of the country, as well as reduce transport and logistics costs when delivering goods to Northeastern region of the Russian Federation. The paper has developed recommendations for transport companies to reduce costs for freight transportation by road using the bridge in order to reduce the cost of goods delivered.

Alexey Shvetsov, Leonid Afanasyev, Galia Kokieva
Current Issues of Metro Safety Technical Regulations

In the article, contradictions and gaps in the set of norms regulating public relations arising in connection with and in the process of ensuring the safety of metro are identified based on the results of linguistic-semiotic, system-legal and formal-dogmatic analysis of transport legislation, security legislation, anti-terrorist legislation and legislation on technical regulation. The authors conclude that it is necessary to develop and introduce technical regulations that establish the goals and objectives of metro safety by the Federal law, to develop methodological approaches to the development of conceptual and categorical apparatus in the interests of harmonization and bringing legal terms in line with the needs of metro safety, to eliminate conflicts and gaps in legal regulation. The particular guidelines for improvement of work targeted on elaboration of technical regulation that will determine directions, goals, tasks of metro security provision, principal criteria, basics for classification of objects, rules and methods of assessment, types and procedures of expertise necessary to implement the adopted technical regulation and to carry out procedural activity to ensure compliance with established requirements which will contribute to efficiency of working out of such document.

Alexander Zemlin, Ivan Kholikov, Irada Mamedova
Choosing the Optimal Control Option for an Intelligent Transport System

This paper discusses a new approach to road management, which is based on a unified intelligent transport system (ITS). The ITS methodology is based on modern technical means, innovative developments in the modeling of transport systems and the regulation of transport and information flows, providing end users with greater information content and safety, as well as qualitatively increasing the level of interaction between traffic participants. It is aimed at reducing operating costs, increasing the level of control over the quality of work on inter-municipal and territorial highways of the regions. At the same time, scientific research does not pay enough attention to operational management, the choice of organizational structures in the road complex and the optimal option for managing an intelligent transport system. It is shown that in the presence of various methods for choosing the optimal control options, methods for solving some problems of mathematical programming are often used. As the characteristics of control systems, defined as constraints, the time of solving a complex of control problems (the criterion of the operator’s efficiency), the labor intensity of operation, the labor intensity of design and implementation, the cost of design and implementation (the criterion of the designer’s efficiency), reliability, efficiency, upgradability, completeness of decisions (the criterion of efficiency of the consumer of information), the reliability of the decisions made, and some others are used. An integrated approach is proposed, the essence of which lies in the simultaneous consideration of the requirements of the designer, operator and information consumer on the basis of a single efficiency criterion.

Marina Barsuk, Valery Vorobyov, Konstantin Gromenko, Alexey Konkin, Elena Shepilova
Development of Methodology Assessing Occupational Risks of Employees of Carriage Facility Production Areas

The article is devoted to the development of a methodology for identifying and evaluating professional risks in the framework of a rapid response system for emerging hazard factors in the production activities of employees of car maintenance points in operational car depots. The methodology is based on a comprehensive assessment of professional risk using statistical and expert methods, taking into account the assessment of working conditions, the impact of threats of natural and man-made nature and industrial violations based on the requirements of the technological process. The initial data for determining the probable number of injuries are questionnaires consisting of 28 questions divided into three blocks. The questions in each block are ranked according to the significance of the factor and its potential role in the occurrence of an accident at work. The result of risk assessment is a risk matrix, which is a table with a combination of the frequency of occurrence of the event and the severity of the consequences of this event and allows you to visually inform decision-makers about the risk levels for the event under consideration. The developed methodology makes it possible to increase the efficiency and validity of decision-making by middle managers to ensure safe working conditions and identify priority areas of activity in the field of industrial process safety.

Vitalii Kosyakin, Vladimir Aksenov, Anton Zavyalov
Neural Network Model for Predicting the Performance of a Transport Task

The paper considers the issue of obtaining a neural network model designed to predict the execution time of a transportation problem. The initial information for training the model is the carrier's data on the expected average time to complete the task and the date of the trip. Using the Monte Carlo method, the initial data were obtained, according to which the neural network was trained. The analysis of the results obtained has been carried out. The results show that the use of the developed neural network model for predicting the execution time of a transportation problem can significantly reduce the forecast error in comparison with the average estimate of this parameter. In the work on training the neural network to predict the time required to complete the transport task the network has three levels. When changing the parameter values, we used the Levenberg-Marquart algorithm and, as a result, we obtained the root-mean-square error of estimating the task execution time for the training and control sample.

Dmitriy Shevchuk, Oleksandr Yakushenko, Liubov Pomytkina, Denys Medynskyi, Yuliya Shevchenko
Energy-Efficient Renewable Energy Techniques for Architectural Installations

The article is devoted to the actual development of energy-efficient methods to improve the energy efficiency of buildings using alternative types of renewable energy sources and new efficient clean technologies. The aim of this study is to identify the use of non-traditional and renewable energy sources in the creation of architectural objects to increase their energy efficiency and eco-sustainability. The leading approach to the study of this problem is basely on the study of scientific and design developments formed on the strategy of renewable energy sources. In a result of the study, innovative methods of forming eco-sustainable objects and directions of search for their new types of the transformation of solar and wind energy, hydro and geothermal energy and low-potential heat of biogas have was identified. The precedents of autonomous energy supply of transformable mobile facilities with kinematic systems of increasing energy activity of buildings are considered. It is been established that the introduction of environmental principles opens up great prospects for use in the architecture of scientific and technical developments, generating new ideas, which allows revealing the potential of architecture and most fully meeting the needs of society. The materials of the article can be useful for the theory and practice of the formation of the habitat space, as it opens up completely new possibilities in architectural activity.

Natalia Saprykina
Improving the Efficiency of Recycling Used Tires

The issues of ecology and non-waste production, the rational use of raw materials and energy with the further development of civilization are becoming increasingly relevant and important. The harm that unused tires bring brings is quite comparable with the benefits that can be derived from their recycling and disposal. Along with global environmental problems is the problem of recycling and disposal of worn-out tires. Out of service and not disposed of car tires are a source of long-term environmental pollution, since they are not biodegradable, in nature there are no conditions for their quick and harmless decay. Therefore, they must be recycled using the methods outlined in the article. Car tires are flammable and in case of fire, it is quite difficult to extinguish them; in addition, ignition leads to the release of a large number of toxic substances. Natural dumps of tires, their uncontrolled storage, dumping on the side of the road, etc. leads to environmental pollution, disrupts sanitation, creates great difficulties when cleaning territories, spoils their appearance and harmony. The data obtained in the study of this problem are relevant.

Yuri Petrov, Mikhail Khadikov, Spartak Kibizov, Andrey Sokolov
Design Parameters of Double Layers Steel Fiber Concrete Beams

In the calculation and design of multi-layer steel fiber concrete beams will depend on different design parameters and will affect the stress-strain state, displacement in the beams. With multi-layer beams subjected to concentrated loads, the lower region of beam will be tensile, while the upper region will be compressed (at the middle of the beam span), leading to cracks in the tensile zone formed earlier than other regions of the beam. In addition, the changes in design parameters such as steel fiber content in concrete, shear steel spacing at the ends of the beam, number of tensile steel bars, diameter of tensile steel bars, thickness of steel fiber concrete layer, considering the nonlinear element of the materials etc. will also affect to bearing capacity and crack development in beams. In the experimental method, to survey many design parameters, it is necessary to manufacture and test beam samples, so it takes a lot of time, effort and money. Therefore, in this paper, the authors used the ANSYS numerical simulation method to simulate the formation of cracks, the development of cracks as the load increases, thereby constructing the load and stress relationship diagram, load and vertical displacement relationship diagram in double-layer steel fiber concrete beams, with steel fiber concrete layer below the normal concrete layer when the design parameters are changed.

Thi My Dung Do, Thanh Quang Khai Lam
Architecture of 18th Century Rural Churches in the Middle Volga Region

The subject of this paper seems to be important due to the ever-increasing interest in architectural traditions of Russia’s regions. The goal of the study is to reveal features of the architecture of Orthodox churches of the 18th century in the Middle Volga region. The key approach I chose for this study was historical architectural analysis and integration of data from archives and field surveys. Descriptions and analyses of the region’s lesser-known little known specimen of religious architecture are introduced for the scientific use based on the author’s own in situ investigations. The article attempts to analyze a wide range of issues related to the formation of the architecture of rural Orthodox churches in the Middle Volga region in the 18th century. The layout, composition and stylistic features of the architecture of the Orthodox churches of the region are considered. The features of the regional cult architecture of the Middle Volga region have been revealed. Many archival materials from Russia’s central and regional repositories are considered and published at for the first time. The presented study results the can be used as a basis for further research in the field of religious architecture of the Middle Volga.

Elena Ponomarenko, Ludmila Ivanova
Alliances are an Effective Way to Effectively Develop the Transport Market

The challenges facing transport companies in the era of global competition for customers form the conditions for creating various forms of cooperation with varying degrees of integration, both within one mode of transport and between different modes of transport. The article discusses the foreign experience of creating various alliances both within one mode of transport and between different modes of transport. The world experience in implementing various methods of cooperation, which allows adapting the route network to modern realities, increasing the mobility of the population and reducing the cost of the trip, deserves attention and study for its use in the 1520 space. Creating such an alliance (“1520Team”), subject to the maximum integration of carriers with unified service classes, a route network with developed interchange services, integration with other modes of transport, will form the foundation for building new relationships, allowing to bring the transport services market to a new qualitative level.

Ekaterina Kulikova, Elizaveta Dmitrieva
Research of Electrical Conductivity of Printed Electronics in Building Constructions

The paper investigates the patterns of changes in the electrical resistance of flexible elements of printed electronics under conditions of cyclic multiaxial stretching of smart building structures. The paper consists of several part: the first one (Literature review) provides a overview on how deep the topic is covered in different sources, the second one gives a description of materials that have undergone experiments as well as method of these experiments, the final parts present experiment results and further direction of this study. It has been shown experimentally that a change in the deformation of an electrically conductive coating leads to a change in the electrical conductivity of flexible elements of printed electronics. The dynamics of changes in the electrical resistance of samples is different and depends on the parameters of cyclic tension, structure and geometric properties of objects. The paper outlines that the method of cyclic multiaxial stretching allows to predict the behavior of flexible elements of printed electronics during the operation of smart building structures.

Liubov Lisienkova, Irina Rekus
Investigation of Vehicle Rollover Accidents

Investigation of road traffic accidents is aimed at identifying all the causes that caused an accident on the road. Particular attention must be paid to the circumstances of the incident, on the correctness of which the entire course of the investigation depends. Errors or insufficient study of the circumstances of the road traffic accident will lead to a false conclusion about the causes and factors of the accident. Therefore, the relevance of the study in an objective study of all the circumstances of the accident. The object of the research is road traffic accidents, namely overturning of vehicles. The subject of the research is the objective circumstances that contributed to the rollover of the vehicle. The aim of the work is to conduct a study of road traffic accidents with rollover vehicles. To achieve this goal, you must complete the following tasks: - to study the method of research of overturning vehicles; - to conduct a study of the circumstances of each road traffic accident separately; - to analyze the damage on vehicles involved in the road accident; - calculate the parameters of the movement of each vehicle separately; - to determine whether the participants in the accident had the technical ability to avoid the road traffic accident.

Tatyana Konovalova, Artem Litvinov, Sofia Nadiryan, Ivan Senin
Synergetics as a Tool for Architectural Shaping of Multifunctional Complexes of Complex Structure

The article contains sections of scientific research related to synergetic approaches in the field of architecture and urban planning. These studies are carried out as a part of diploma design under the guidance Kolodin K.I. The research results were used in the project “ISLAND OF KNOWLEDGE – “POVEGLIA” (Venice, Italy 2018). The authors of the project introduced research directions related to the use of modern trends in synergetic approaches. They were used to develop methods for shaping objects of multifunctional complexes of complex structure. These approaches have revealed the general patterns of structural construction and architectural-spatial organization of complexes as self-organizing and self-sufficient objects. In the competitive project, they were seen as an idea for the evolutionary transformation of Poveglia Island into a modern student campus. In the project, its evolutionary transformation was organized through three time periods: assimilation, formation and development. The cycle of each period has duration from three to five years. The idea of the project is to create a symbolic image of an upscale campus of avant-garde center of culture, science and art. The structure of the projected campus includes university buildings, congress halls, service buildings and rooms, a canteen and a restaurant, administration buildings with exhibition spaces, etc. The center will be designed to create prestigious places for scientific and educational activities, to provide training for thousands of specialists who will come to Venice to study. The campus is being created as an ecological island, included in a single system “SCIENCE + NATURE + ARTIFICIAL ENVIRONMENT”.

Konstantin Kolodin
Dependence of the Deformation Modulus of Soil-Crushed-Stone Layer from the Content of Crushed Stone

The purpose of the article is to study the dependence of the modulus of deformation of the soil-crushed-stone layer of the road pavement on the content of crushed stone in the soil-crushed-stone mixture and soil moisture in it. This goal was achieved by performing stamp tests of models of road pavements and subgrade. Based on the test results, the modulus of deformation of the subgrade soil and the general modulus of deformation on the surface of the soil-crushed-stone layer were determined, with different content of crushed stone by the volume of the mixture. The smallest value of deformation modulus corresponds to the minimum content of crushed stone in the mixture, which is 40% by volume of the mixture. The greatest value of the modulus of deformation was obtained at the maximum content of crushed stone in the mixture, which is 60% by volume of the mixture. Using the general deformation modulus of different road pavements and deformation modulus of the subgrade soil, the calculation of the deformation modulus of the soil-crushed-stone layer with different crushed stone content in it has been performed. To take into account the influence of the moisture content of the cohesive soil used in the mixture, correction factors are given, the values of which are established by laboratory tests. These coefficients allow calculating the modulus of deformation of the soil-crushed-stone layer depending on the content of crushed stone and the moisture content of the soil used in it.

Anatoliy Aleksandrov, Vasiliy Chusov, Aleksandr Prolygin
Taring the Unloading of Grain Material from the Loading Hopper

The harvest of winter rye may contain poisonous ergot sclerotia. Existing grain cleaning machines do not provide the separation of ergot sclerotia from grain in one technological process. Ergot sclerotia are less dense than that of rye grain. To isolate ergot sclerotia from rye grain by density, aqueous solutions of salts can be used. For this, an experimental machine MVS-1.0 has been developed, consisting of a loading hopper with a feeder, a bath, unloading devices for rye seeds and waste. Research on calibrating the unloading of grain material from a loading hopper with a width of 0.1 m was carried out on an experimental installation. For this, grain of winter rye of the Falenskaya 4 variety was used. To calibrate the unloading of grain material from the loading hopper of the experimental installation, the grain load was determined for the MVS-1.0 machine. The prototype machine MVS-1.0 has a loading hopper width of 0.415 m. It has been found that with an increase in the gap in the outlet of the loading hopper from 10.0 to 30.0 10–3 m, the total grain load increases from 1006.6 to 10788.4 kg/h. It is assumed that in the MVS -1.0 machine with grain loads of 1006.6…2195.6 kg/h, corresponding to the size of the set gap in the outlet window of the loading hopper 10.0…15.0 10–3 m, the allocation of ergot sclerotia will be ensured in one technological process.

Aleksey Saitov, Rustam Kurbanov, Viktor Saitov
Mathematical Modeling of Incompressible Fluid Flow in Turbulent Boundary Layers

This paper considers, in the framework of the model of the developed turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid over a plate in a boundary layer. The problem investigated the formulation of amplitudes in a single-mode approximation through a weakly nonlinear version of the wave model. The dispersion characteristics of the least damping wave mode are deduced by the Chebyshev collocation method, and then exploited to derive the curve of three-wave resonance. Equation for the coherent part is obtained by using the multi-scale method. The conditions for multiple 3-wave resonance of Tollmien-Schlichting modes are analyzed, to deduce the dynamical system of the model. In the state of multiple 3-wave resonance, this system is examined for solutions corresponding to real positive weight factors. It is observed that, in a discrete representation of the coherent structure, the sum squares of modules, wave amplitudes, is an invariant of the original dynamical system. This invariant is normalized to unity, in order to use the Birkhoff - Khinchin theorem. The result of averaging squares of harmonic, and sub harmonic amplitudes by time, and over a representative set of initial data are investigated.

Vladimir Zharov, Igor Lipatov, Ramy Selim
System of Settlement of Forest-Industrial Territories of the Arkhangelsk Region

The current system of placement and interconnection of settlements whose population is involved in the timber industry does not meet the new facts and data that have changed the idea of the features and specifics of technological processes of harvesting, processing of wood, reforestation and the sequence of their implementation. To eliminate the discrepancy between the new facts and data on the impact of technological processes of logging on the life of settlements located on the territory of the timber industry, a system of their planning based on the assessment of the characteristics of urban areas is proposed. Such areas include taking into account the potential of the raw material base of forest areas in the Arkhangelsk region; features of the timber industry enterprises in the settlement system in accordance with functional processes, functions, and planning factors. Planning of reasonable measures for the territorial and spatial organization and placement of settlements in accordance with socio-economic conditions and requirements will be provided in accordance with the established boundaries of urban areas and characteristics of the timber industry in the Arkhangelsk region.

Marina Perekopskaya, Yuri Alekseev
Job Search Inspired Optimization of Space Steel Frames with Overall Stability Constraints

A methodology for discrete parametric optimization of space steel frames based on a metaheuristic job search inspired strategy has been developed. The paper considers minimizing the weight of frame structures made of bars with closed cross-sections, taking into account active constraints on overall stability, including the stability of individual bars, stresses and displacements. The search is carried out on the sets of admissible options for the cross-sections of the bars. Job search inspired strategy does not require the introduction of penalty functions when taking into account task constraints. Previously completed developments on the use of this strategy in the optimization of flat frames envisaged the introduction of small fictitious forces and the implementation of the iterative process of calculating the object from the deformed state to assess the degree of dissatisfaction with the overall stability condition. In the paper, this issue is solved for space frames based on LDLT decomposition of the tangent stiffness matrix of the finite element model of the structure. The auxiliary function of the goal uses the values of the elements of the diagonal matrix obtained from this decomposition. This approach provides an efficient stability test without directly considering the generalized eigenvalue problem for matrices. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using the example of optimization of a console made of round pipes.

Igor Serpik
Heatmass Transfer in Seasonal Natural Cold Storage Facilities for Air Conditioning Systems

The process of heat and mass transfer between the air flow and the natural source of cold - ice is considered. It includes heat exchange by sensible heat and moisture exchange through latent heat transfer. This type of heat and mass transfer is observed in seasonal refrigeration storages for air conditioning systems. Snow or ice frozen during the cold season is used as a natural source of cold. The experimental setup created conditions for the contact of the flow of thermal air and natural sources of cold. The air flow is uniform. For this, the setup was carried out. Based on the analysis of experimental data, equations were obtained that determine the process of heat and moisture exchange. These are the dependences of the thermal Nusselt number on the Reynolds number and the diffusion Nusselt number on the Reynolds number. The heat transfer equations were compared with the previously obtained equations for non-uniform air flow in the experimental setup. Heat transfer with a uniform air flow is less intense at high Reynolds numbers from the considered interval. However, at lower air flow rates, the thermal Nusselt numbers become higher than at nonuniform air flow. These dependencies make it possible to calculate the dimensions of the required surface of contact of air with a natural source of cold for designing seasonal refrigeration storages.

Elena Tarasova, Alla Shtym, Alexandr Kobzar
Functional Parameters of Sod-Podzolic Soils Affected by Electroplating Waste

In recent years the increase of the hazardous waste accumulation, containing high concentrations of heavy metals at the industrial enterprises areas and unauthorized landfills has been observed, causing soils contamination from which heavy metals are actively migrating into the neighboring environment. The research objective is to study the functional parameters variability of sod-podzolic soils contaminated with high doses of heavy metals. Materials and methods. The experiment was performed in culture pans under laboratory conditions. Heavy metals were introduced into the soil by adding industrial waste – the sediment of electroplating neutralization plant. The following parameters have been determined in soil samples: pH, nitrate content, soil respiration, and organic substance content. Oat seeds (Avéna satíva) have been used to determine phytotoxicity. Experimental and control samples have been analyzed to determine heavy metals amount. The research results revealed that galvanic sludge the amount of 3.5 kg/dm2 introduced into sod-podzolic soils statistically significantly reduces the nitrate content and soil respiration. The pH and organic substance amount in soil increased statistically significantly, which probably depends on electroplating sludge pH and organic substance in it. Electroplating sludge introduced into the soil causes the depressing effect on the growth and development of oats (Avéna satíva).

Anton Martsev
Ecological Reconstruction of a Residential Building: A Business Game Based on Functional Modeling

This paper contains an overview of a business game that is dedicated to optimizing ecological building reconstruction and deploys functional models in the IDEF0 notation. The game goal is to build up and develop students’ knowledge and skills by using innovative training techniques (as exemplified by business games) and modern information technology. Global practice reaffirms the need for improving the education system through a broad application of computer technology. The business game presented in this paper allows students to conduct their own analysis of the business process around ecological building reconstruction. Their efforts are primarily facilitated by the BPWin design tool environment, but they are also allowed to use the Ramus software for simpler tasks. In addition to the above, the MS Project software for project managers is also of use, for further process optimization. The main analysis and optimization parameters are usually operation costs and duration. The IDEF0 methodology also makes it possible to find business process bottlenecks, which can later be eliminated. The business game is intended for several student teams, meaning that, aside from professional knowledge and skills, the participants will also get teamwork training. At the end of the game, the students are to make reports and presentations on what they have achieved. The results are summarized by a group of experts.

Tatyana Kostyunina
Computer Vision Technology in the Development of an Ultrasonic Repeller

This article considers the main problems that are currently identified in the Russian Federation during the implementation of the project “Digital agriculture”. There is a selection of development trends of modern agriculture in the Russian Federation, where such digital technologies as big data, the Internet of Things, robotics, artificial intelligence are implemented. The authors have analyzed current agricultural research areas that conduct studies and implement various methods using deep machine learning and computer vision technologies. Attention is focused on the main tasks that, according to the authors, can solve various problems by implementing computer vision technology in crop production. Conclusions are also made about the representation and implementation of this technology in animal husbandry and fish farming. The team of authors presents a developed device for ultrasonic repelling of synanthropic mammals, describing the possibility of detecting a synanthropic organism, and shares research on the influence of ultrasonic signals on the behavior of mink. The article defines further areas of the practical application of deep learning neural networks in fish farming to solve applied problems that can be solved solely with the usage of computer vision technology.

Alexey Petrov, Anton Popov
Multimodal Transport Network of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia

This paper describes the general characteristics of the problems and the prospects of the development of the Far East and the Arctic zone of Russia. The main provisions of the methodology for designing the integrated development of a multimodal transport network, which are used by the authors to solve the problem of designing the development of a multi-species transport infrastructure of the region under study, are stated. The paper within the framework of this methodology, a method for forming the appearance of a multimodal transport network is considered. A variant of the appearance of the regional multimodal transport network of the Far East and the Arctic zone is presented. The proposed option allows combining in this region the growth of extraction, processing and transportation of natural resources of global importance to seaports and the realization of the country’s transit potential. Variants of the appearance of a multimodal transport network are used to determine the design cases, within which the area of effective strategies for its development is formed.

Vladimir Anisimov, Lubov Bogdanova, Olga Morozova, Sergey Shkurnikov, Natalia Nesterova
Dynamics of High-Rise Building During Earthquake

The behavior of the 25-storey building of the “Kazakhstan” hotel located near a tectonic fault is analyzed during the earthquake on March 26, 2018. The epicenter of the earthquake is located 68 km north-east of Almaty in Kazakhstan. A digital station of the engineering and seismometric service is installed on the hotel building. The absence of resonance phenomena of the building was revealed during the indicated earthquake. The curves of acceleration distribution in the building levels on the azimuthal plane are plotted. Significant acceleration in the vertical direction at the level of the technical floor was noted, which may be a consequence of the presence of a tectonic fault near the building. It was found that at the basement level, the period of the spectrum maximum is about 0.18 s. For the first time, the energy characteristics of instrumental records in building levels are determined. Instrumental records can be used to build seismic models.

Vladimir Lapin, Syrymgali Yerzhanov, Nurakhmet Makish
The Express Method for Assessing the Degraded Lands Reclamation Costs

The article deals with the problem for the cost express-assessment of land reclamation, degraded in the production activities process. It is proposed to use a calculation method based on the compounding interest principle, since this approach is fully consistent with the budget planning applied principles at enterprises. The study compared the results for assessing the cost of the traditional and the proposed approaches reclamation, based on the actual data of three projects implemented in different years in the Samara region. At the lowest cost, rapid assessment delivers results with a high degree of accuracy. In two of the three projects considered, the deviation of the calculated result from the actual one was from 0.6 to 2.4%, which falls within the statistical error boundaries. In the third project, it can be seen that the deviation is 66.7%. At the same time, the difference between express assessment and the cost of only the agrotechnical stage is 6.6%. This case applies to various emergencies such as oil spills. In this case, the use of the express method is only partially possible (when calculating the costs of the agrotechnical stage) and it must be supplemented by calculations related to the disposal and treatment of contaminated soil. Perhaps the amount of costs in this case will be directly proportional to the reclaimed land volume.

Kirill Zhichkin, Vladimir Nosov, Lyudmila Zhichkina
Increasing the Efficiency of Engineering Systems of Power Supply and Waste Management

In modern conditions of economic development of society, technological complexes are used to obtain thermal energy, which is then converted into other types of energy, depending on the purpose of the engineering power supply system. They mainly use various types of organic and hydrocarbon fuels as an energy source. At the same time, along with the increasing demand of mankind for energy, there is a significant increase in the formation and accumulation of production and consumption waste, among which the largest volume is accounted for solid municipal waste (MSW). The purpose of this study is to provide a possibility of solving the problems of increasing energy production and improving the environmental efficiency of the MSW management system by formulating a scientific hypothesis and scientific approaches based on the main provisions of the theory of dispersed systems and considering MSW as a set of dispersed systems that have a certain amount of energy, and therefore, calorific value. Based on this approach, to improve technologies for recycling MSW in order to extract the maximum amount of various types of energy from them. The proposed fundamentally new scientific approach, based on the energy classification of certain types of waste in MSW, as well as energy indexing of technologies for their utilization, allows us to improve the modern system for handling MSW, based on the conditions for extracting the maximum possible amount of different types of energy from waste and ensuring a minimum (within the established standards) negative impact of waste on the environment.

Vadim Bespalov, Oksana Gurova, Oksana Paramonova
Features of Fine-Grained Concrete Mechanically Activated with Silicate Sodium Solution

This article discusses the issue of improving the performance of fine-grained concrete by using composite binders. In particular, in this study, sodium silicate (water glass) is considered as an additive to Portland cement, which gives concrete products an increased thermal resistance. The article describes in detail the behavior of fine-grained concrete after its mechanical activation with sodium silicate solution, and also describes the processes occurring in the body of the concrete mixture during mechanical activation. It should be expected that the performance characteristics of fine-grained concrete depend on the concentration of water glass and the time of its mechanical activation. The research method used is analysis, synthesis, generalization of reference and scientific literature, followed by an experiment. To study the effect of mechanical activation of a liquid glass solution on the structure-forming processes occurring in cement stone, the method of differential thermogravimetric analysis was applied. The results of this analysis and its interpretation are presented. In conclusion, information is provided on the compaction of the structure of a concrete stone.

Alexander Belykh, Daniil Khromenok, Marina Shevtsova, Ekaterina Gorbunova, Ekaterina Shulzhenko
Resonance Method for Determining Dynamic Characteristics of Buildings

A resonant method of determining the dynamic characteristics of an 11-storey building with a steel frame and a 25-storey building of the Kazakhstan Hotel in Almaty is proposed. Both buildings are located near the tectonic faults. The buildings have engineering seismometric service stations equipped with digital systems. From the base of accelerograms of KazRDICA JSC, accelerograms of earthquakes were selected, under the influence of which resonant oscillations of these buildings took place. Such were remote earthquakes with epicentral distances of over 300 km. An earthquake was chosen on August 9, 2017 with a focus of 480 km from Almaty in the border region of China (Xinjiang-Uygur autonoma district). When exposed to earthquake, periods of oscillation of buildings by main and second forms of oscillation are revealed. A significant change in the periods of fluctuation during the existence of buildings has been established. In constant earthquake conditions, the selection of instrumental records was not a complex task. The results of the work can be used to determine the dynamic characteristics of buildings during its lifetime.

Vladimir Lapin, Syrymgali Yerzhanov, Nurakhmet Makish, Zhassulan Omarov
Experimental Study of the Deformation Properties of Soil-Crushed-Stone Samples Under Compression

The article presents the results of an experimental determination of the deformation characteristics of soil-crushed-stone samples under compression. The technique of manufacturing cylindrical specimens 20 cm high and 10 cm in diameter with different content of crushed stone in a mixture of fractions 50–10 and 10–20 mm is described. In addition, methods of saturation of samples with water and their testing by uniaxial compression are given. The rules for processing the experimental results are stated, which include: correction of the initial part of the graphical dependence of deformation from pressure and statistical processing of the results. The analysis of methods for calculating the deformation modulus is carried out, which are classified into three types: secant modulus, tangent modulus, and piecewise linear modulus. Basis on this analysis, a method for calculating the deformation modulus of a soil-crushed-stone sample under uniaxial compression was substantiated. As a result, the dependence of the modulus of deformation of the soil-crushed-stone sample on the moisture content of the soil and the content of crushed stone used in the soil-crushed-stone mixture was obtained. Based on the results of the experiment, a two-factor mathematical model was selected that allows calculating the deformation modulus of soil-crushed-stone material under uniaxial compression, depending on soil moisture and crushed stone content. Recommendations are given by the application of the research results for the development of an album of typical designs of pavements of the lowest type in the regions of the Omsk region.

Gennadiy Dolgih, Natalya Aleksandrova, Aleksandr Prolygin
Virtual Reconstruction the Lost Fortifications of the XIII–XVIII Centuries on the North-Eastern Coast of Black Sea Region

Today, there are great opportunities for replenishing information about the historical past in the field of architecture. In historical and architectural studies, IT-technologies play an important role as a ‘tool for restoration’ of lost or destroyed monuments of architecture and culture. Of considerable interest is the creation of 3D models of objects of the Middle Ages, which was the peak of the construction of both palaces and fortified structures of various types. Such models allow not only virtual restoration of the appearance of the lost structures in the form of a computer model, but also recreation of the environment in which the historical and architectural object was located using visualization tools. The creation of such models is carried out on the basis of a thorough study of all information available in archives and other sources. The paper examines the techniques of virtual reconstruction used for the restoration of historical and architectural monuments of cultural heritage both by domestic and foreign experts. The process of the virtual reconstruction of fortifications carried out by the authors, which have the status of ‘lost’ or ‘ruins’ and were located on the territory of the North-Eastern Black Sea region in the XIII–XVIII centuries, is described in detail. Examples of fragments of a virtual reconstruction of the Sujuk-Kale medieval fortress located on the territory of the modern city of Novorossiysk, Krasnodar Territory, Russian Federation in the XVI century are given.

Natalya Soina, Olga Ievleva
Cracking in Asphalt-Concrete Pavement of Highways Located in Permafrost Areas

Climatic, geotechnical and permafrost conditions for gas- and oilfield construction in areas of cryotic ground are highly changeable and come together with unfavorable transformation of all components of the environment. This situation is peculiar, in particular, to highway construction and their further use. Ensuring durability of asphalt-concrete pavements encompasses a wide range of issues, for instance: analysis of the influence of climatic and operating conditions on durability of wearing courses; improvement of methods for quality inspection of materials; application of new materials; substantiation of reasonable techniques of performing work, etc. Proper maintenance of expansion joints and cracks that require highly effective waterproof materials helps extend the life of wearing courses of pavements. Knowing the scope of work to perform, i.e. the number of cracks in asphalt-concrete pavement, is an essential aspect in solving these problems. The present work defines the parameters of crack propagation in asphalt-concrete pavements located in areas of permafrost soils that are required for technical-economic and engineering-ecologic calculations and for scope planning during the use of roads. Specifically, the amount of transverse temperature cracks in asphalt concrete pavement and their placing on road segments were defined. A promising line of research in this field is the study on the influence of terrestrial ecosystems existing in areas of permafrost soils on the condition of roadsides.

Oksana Ageikina, Rudolf Sufyanov
Scanning the Thickness of Conductive and Dielectric Coatings Using Superminiature Eddy Current Probe

The paper presents a hardware-software complex focused on measuring the thickness of conductive and dielectric coatings localized on a conductive base, deployed on the basis of an eddy current transformer type transducer. The eddy current transducer presented in this work has in its basis a core with three windings superimposed on it: exciting, compensating, and measuring. The author also provides technical solutions used in the system and methods and measurement procedure. Based on the obtained data, a correlation was established between the amplitude part of the signal and the thickness of the objects. Presented technical solution opens up ways to expand the frequency spectrum of the signals sent to the exciting winding, which indirectly affects the capabilities of this measurement method. The limits of applicability of this measuring system, as well as the conditions for the appropriateness of measurements, were experimentally determined. The presented series of experiments was aimed at determining the influence of materials of various characteristics on the output voltage of the eddy current transducer.

Sergey Dmitriev, Alexey Ishkov, Vladimir Malikov, Alexander Katasonov, Denis Fadeev, Kseniia Rykova
SCADA and GIS Systems for Monitoring and Managing Digital Objects of Agro-Industrial Production

An overview of GIS and SCADA systems for use in agro-industrial precision farming is presented. A systematization of the stages of its development based on the use of digital technologies and artificial intelligence (AI) is given. The main information about the features of the new domestic SCADA system of the 4-th generation, suitable for monitoring and managing digital objects of the agro-industrial complex, developed taking into account modern world standards, is given. The architecture and feature of AggreGate SCADA/HMI, which belongs to the 4th generation of SCADA systems, the Internet of things IoT, are presented. Recommendations on the use of digital technologies and AI in agro-industrial production of the 4-th generation are given. The main requirements for the developed systems of intelligent management of irrigated agriculture based on the use of artificial intelligence systems are defined. A review of SCADA systems offered by manufacturers has shown that they can solve not only generalized, but also specific tasks of agricultural production. This determines the importance of optimal selection of innovative solutions, including architecture and configuration, providing the necessary functionality with maximum efficiency.

Aleksey Rogachev, Elena Melikhova
Lift-Slab Method - Alternative for Construction in Conditions of Dense Urban Development

The article discusses technologies for the construction and reconstruction of buildings in a dense urban development. The description of the most popular and widely used ones is presented, the criteria for choosing effective and expedient methods are determined. As an alternative, the processes of the technology of lift-slab method are described, the stages of work are highlighted. The analysis of the application of the method with the floor-by-floor arrangement of columns is carried out, the advantages are revealed. For buildings of the same type, a comparison was made of the assembling (mounting) of a stage of four floors using the technology of lifting and installation (assembling) using elements of a universal non-girder framework. Organizational and technological models are shown, demonstrating the dynamics and terms of the construction of each of the variants. The resulting technical and economic indicators have been determined. Recommendations for using the methods are given.

Dmitriy Lyalin, Evgeniy Pugach
Materials and Methods of Experimental Studies of Welded Metal Structures of Construction Machines

The paper describes experimental studies of 08 ps low-carbon steel (as a model material), St3 steel and low-alloy steel 10KhSND. A complete description of the developed methods of experimental studies of welded metal structures of construction machines is given, specifically: the method of mechanical tests; heat treatment technique; metallographic analysis technique; method of passive fluxgate control. The influence of the magnetic and mechanical prehistory of the metal, as well as the influence of the thickness of the non-magnetic protective coating, is studied.

Alexander Scherbakov, Anna Babanina, Elena Solovyeva, Maxim Aleksandrovskiy
Determination of Rheological Parameters of Polymer Materials Using Nonlinear Optimization Methods

The article proposes a new method for determining the rheological characteristics of polymers based on the Maxwell-Gurevich nonlinear creep law. In contrast to the previous works, the presented method gives an opportunity to obtain the indicated characteristics from tests for any of the simplest deformation types. The problem of finding the rheological parameters of the material is considered as a nonlinear optimization problem. The objective function is the sum of the experimental values deviations’ squares on the creep curve from the theoretical ones. The variable input parameters of the objective function are the initial relaxation viscosity and speed module. The theoretical creep curve is constructed numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The solution of the nonlinear optimization problem is performed in the Matlab environment by the interior point method. The values the initial relaxation viscosity and speed module, at which the objective function takes the minimum value, are found. To test the technique, the inverse problem was solved. For the given values of the material’s rheological parameters, a theoretical creep curve in bending was constructed, and the values the initial relaxation viscosity and speed module are found from it. The technique has also been tested on the experimental stress relaxation curves of secondary polyvinyl chloride and pure shear polyurethane foam creep curves. A higher quality of the experimental curves’ approximation is shown in comparison with the existing techniques. The developed technique makes it possible to determine the rheological characteristics of materials from the tests for bending, central tension (compression), torsion, pure shear, and it is enough to test only one type of deformation, and not a series, as it had been suggested earlier by some researchers.

Stepan Litvinov, Serdar Yazyev, Anton Chepurnenko, Batyr Yazyev
Improving of the Sod Seeders SDK of Strip Grass Seed Sowing

Most of the technologies for increasing the productivity of natural fodder lands are based on a combination of suppression of their biocenoses by herbicides with slicing in the furrow sod and sowing grass seeds in them. An alternative to them is strip sowing with processing in the sod of a strip of soil, the parameters of which ensure the successful development of shoots without the use of herbicides. To implement this technology, a family of SDK seed drills with milling coulters has been developed. To improve the quality of soil cultivation, double-disc milling tools with L-shaped knives and plate knives have been developed. The influence of the kinematic regime and the type of the working element on the parameters of the strip width and the crumbling of the soil of the developed and serial milling working organs was studied. The best cutter is provided by a milling opener with plate knives, with the content of the fraction up to 3 mm increasing by 12.5%, 3 10 mm from 22,5 to 30% increasing with the increase of the kinematic regime. The crumbling of the soil with double-disc milling openers is more intensive due to the doubled number of cutting elements, which allows to reduce their circumferential speed without affecting the quality of processing.

Viktor Saitov, Rustam Kurbanov, Sergey Demshin, Alexander Sozontov
CFD Technology for Use in Optimizing Fittings for Ductwork

Subject. Designing duct networks requires aerodynamic calculation. An accurate calculation of pressure losses in ducts is complicated by the lack of reliable information on the local resistance coefficients, if they differing from standard constructions. There is a need to use operational methods for assessing the aerodynamic characteristics of non-standard fittings. Methods. The search for a solution is carried out using mathematical modeling using the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). Problem solving is carried out using three models: k-ε, k-ω, SST-model. Results. The pressure distribution zones of the circular duct are determined. The dependences of the pressure change on the speed of the air flow are obtained. The efficiency of using various turbulence models is estimated. A quantitative assessment of the resistance to the movement of the air flow is carried out for various model details. Conclusion. The analysis of the results showed that for modeling local resistances of fittings of air ducts, more adequate results can be obtained using the SST-model and the k-ω model. The accuracy of the calculation increases with the increase in the detail of the model, but the calculation time also increases.

Nikolay Rudenko, Yaroslav Babushkin, Irina Fursova
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Proceedings of the XIII International Scientific Conference on Architecture and Construction 2020
Editor
Dr. Angela Mottaeva
Copyright Year
2021
Publisher
Springer Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-336-208-6
Print ISBN
978-981-336-207-9
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-6208-6