Solid particle erosion is a common phenomenon in engineering fields, such as manufacturing, energy, military and aviation. However, with the rising industrial requirements, the development of anti-solid particle erosion materials remains a great challenge. After billions of years of evolution, several natural materials exhibit unique and exceptional solid particle erosion resistance. These materials achieved the same excellent solid particle erosion resistance performance through diversified strategies. This resistance arises from their micro/nanoscale surface structure and interface material properties, which provide inspiration for novel multiple solutions to solid particle erosion. Here, this review first summarizes the recent significant process in the research of natural anti-solid particle erosion materials and their general design principles. According to these principles, several erosion-resistant structures are available. Combined with advanced micro/nanomanufacturing technologies, several artificial anti-solid particle erosion materials have been obtained. Then, the potential applications of anti-solid particle erosion materials are prospected. Finally, the remaining challenges and promising breakthroughs regarding anti-solid particle erosion materials are briefly discussed.