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About this book

This expansive reference provides readers with the broadest available single-volume coverage of leading-edge advances in the development and optimization of clean energy technologies. From innovative biofuel feed stocks and processing techniques, to novel solar materials with record-breaking efficiencies, remote-sensing for offshore wind turbines to breakthroughs in high performance PEM fuel cell electrode manufacturing, phase change materials in green buildings to bio sorption of pharmaceutical pollutants, the myriad exciting developments in green technology described in this book will provide inspiration and information to researchers, engineers and students working in sustainability around the world.

Table of Contents


Battery Technology


Chapter 1. Electrochemical Study of the Cobalt-Containing and Non-Cobalt-Containing AB5 Alloys Used as Negative Electrodes in Nickel–Metal Hydride Batteries

The thermodynamic parameters of LaNi3.55Mn0.4Al0.3Co0.75 and LaNi3.55Mn0.4Al0.3Fe0.75 alloys have been evaluated from the electrochemical isotherms determined by OCV method. A comparative study has been done between the parameter values deduced from the electrochemical OCV method and the solid–gas method. It was found that the difference can be explained by the electrochemical corrosion of these alloys in aqueous KOH electrolyte. The corrosion behavior of the LaNi3.55Mn0.4Al0.3Co0.75 and LaNi3.55Mn0.4Al0.3Fe0.75 electrodes after activation was investigated using the method of the potentiodynamic polarization. The evolution of corrosion current density and potential values as function of the state of charge (SOC), show that the total substitution of cobalt by iron leads to accentuate the corrosion process.

Chokri Khaldi, Jilani Lamloumi

Chapter 2. Nanocomposite Based on Li4Ti5O12 Structures for High-Rate Li-Ion Battery Applications

Lithium titanate is synthesized from titanium isopropoxide and lithium nitrate solution via sol–gel processes. The obtained nanocrystalline lithium titanates were then subjected to electroless deposition in order to obtain Cu/Li4Ti5O12 nanocomposite structures. The crystalline structure and morphological observation of the as-synthesized Li4Ti5O12 are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. It is demonstrated that the electrochemical performance is significantly improved by the copper deposition onto lithium titanate structure. The copper-coated lithium titanate exhibits a stable capacity of 170 mAh g−1 at 1 C. Besides, the reversible capacity at 80 C remains over half of that at 1 C. The superior C-rate performance is associated with the copper/lithium titanate nanocomposite structure, facilitating lithium transportation ability during cycling.

Aslıhan Erdaş, Şeyma Özcan, Deniz Nalci, Mehmet Oğuz Güler, Hatem Akbulut

Chapter 3. A Novel Battery System for Electric Vehicles

Battery electric vehicles are the optimum way of clean transportation without any pollutant emission. The power source needs to have both high power and high energy densities in electric vehicles. Lithium-ion is the most energy- and power-dense battery type, compared with the other types; however, none of the other commercial batteries provide both of these two features together. Therefore, mostly battery-supercapacitor hybrid systems including high-energy batteries and high power supercapacitors are used. Supercapacitors have higher power densities and longer life cycle than batteries; however, they are heavy and have longer charge and discharge times. Besides, following the development in lithium battery technologies, features of lithium batteries are improving while the prices decrease. Thus, a suitable battery can be used rather than a supercapacitor in order to maintain high power. In this study, a new structure named hybrid battery system is proposed. The system includes two different lithium batteries with different energy and power characteristics. One of these batteries has high energy density, while the other has high power density. In this paper, the proposed system is introduced in details, energy management of the system is performed, and the results are validated by real-time experiments by using Kokam SLPB55205130H and Altairnano 13 Ah automotive-grade batteries.

Turev Sarikurt, Abdulkadir Balikci

Chapter 4. Cr- and V-Substituted LiMn2O4 Cathode Electrode Materials for High-Rate Battery Applications

Spinel Cr- and V-substituted LiMn2O4 cathode materials were prepared by facile sol–gel process, which used lithium carbonate and manganese carbonate as starting materials and citric acid as a chelating agent. In order to increase electronic conductivity and prevent the Mn ion dissolution into the electrolyte, surfaces of the as-synthesized powders were coated with Cu via electroless deposition technique. The structure and physicochemical properties of the obtained Cr- and V-substituted LiMn2O4 powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), galvanostatic charge discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results have shown that the successful formation of Cr- and V-substituted LiMn2O4 product was highly dependent on its second-stage calcination temperature.

Ahsen Akbulut Uludag, Aslıhan Erdaş, Şeyma Özcan, Deniz Nalci, Mehmet Oğuz Güler, Tuğrul Çetinkaya, Mehmet Uysal, Hatem Akbulut

Biomass and Biofuels


Chapter 5. An Overview of Science Teachers’ Knowledge of Bioenergy and the Need for Future Research: A Case from India

The study aimed to explore science teachers’ knowledge of bioenergy and their views regarding bioenergy education in schools. Data were collected from 28 science teachers from four schools based in New Delhi and Bengaluru in India. The results showed that although the teachers knew some of the facts of bioenergy, the majority did not appear to know that the use of bioenergy could release CO2 into the atmosphere. Moreover, not all the science teachers were aware that bioenergy was included in the science syllabus of the tenth grade, and it indicated that bioenergy was not taught with much importance by the science teachers. The study recommends improving science teachers’ knowledge of bioenergy including other renewable energy sources so that they can provide a high quality science education related to energy topics to their students.

Pradipta Halder

Chapter 6. Advances in Algae Harvesting and Extracting Technologies for Biodiesel Production

Bioenergy production by microalgal cell factories via different culturing, harvesting, extracting, and conversion methods offers a potentially viable approach towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. The approach, however, should be an integrated approach, and always be coupled with other benefits such as wastewater treatment, greenhouse gas sequestration, food and feed production, or biosynthesis of valuable biopharmaceutics. With a growth rate of up to 50-folds higher than crops, oleaginous eukaryotic microalgae and prokaryotic cyanobacteria are considered as the most promising versatile feedstock for the production of biofuels. These potent microscopic biomanufacturers are able to biosynthesize primary metabolites such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates which can be converted into different forms of bioenergy as well as valuable secondary metabolites such as food supplements, enzymes, polymers, toxins, and pigments. Depending on microbial species, cultivation, harvesting, and extraction technologies employed, microalgal feedstock can flexibly and continuously produce multiple biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, and biohydrogen. However, a large-scale microalgae biomass production system cannot lead to a sustainable “greenenergy” production unless low-cost technologies are developed and employed in upstream and downstream processing. This article reviews the most-recent and relevant investigations in microalgal upstream and downstream bio-processing technologies highlighting potential cost-effective and feasible separation and extraction technologies.

Farshad Khademi, İlhami Yıldız, Asena Cansu Yıldız, Soheila Abachi

Chapter 7. Investigation of Photobioreactor Design for Biomass Production by Green Microalgae

In order to improve biological processes involved in biofuel production from microalgae, photobioreactors (PBR) should be adapted to control the production in optimal conditions. It should be first to study and control adapted reactors to model the entire process and facilitate the decision on the choice of raw material and design means, and finally to demonstrate the experimental feasibility of the process and allow biomass conversion for energy.In this chapter, an overview on the role of PBR design over the microalgae growth efficiency is presented. Also, the study of the growth of Chlorella sp. microalgae, locally isolated from freshwater from southern Algeria, is followed inside a lab-scale PBR under controlled conditions. Some process parameters such as dry weight, and optical density were followed during the process. The obtained results show clearly the effectiveness of the closed-controlled reactor for a better growth of the Chlorella sp. microalgae.

Amel Ounnar, Fayrouz Kaidi, Lamia Benhabyles, Majda Amina Aziza

Chapter 8. Bioethanol Production from Molasses by Pervaporation Membrane Bioreactor

Bioethanol is a clean and green energy source that can be produced from fermented biomass. Environmental regulations require bioethanol to be blended with gasoline. Thus researchers and producers accelerate ethanol production from biobased sources and waste. There are many bioethanol production plants all over the world. Ethanol production steps consist of pretreatment, fermentation, and deep purification steps. The impurities in fuel ethanol should be below the limit values. Therefore, some specific purification techniques are required. The major production drawback is the complicated separation step that covers a very large portion of the production cost. Hence researchers place great emphasis on the separation step. For some time, the separation–fermentation hybrid system has garnered much attention owing to its economical and environmental features. The pervaporation membrane bioreactor (PVMBR) is a pervaporation-coupled fermentation hybrid process. In PVMBR, ethanol is selectively removed from the fermentation broth.In this study bioethanol production from molasses by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied in PVMBR. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM)/Poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) blended membrane has been used as membrane material. The membrane structure has been investigated using a scanning electron microscope. Process efficiency has been determined as a function of ethanol productivity, total flux, and ethanol selectivity. Membrane reactor data have been compared with batch reactor data in order to evaluate system efficiency.

Filiz Ugur Nigiz, Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu

Chapter 9. Biofuel Production from Sunflower Oil and Determination of Fuel Properties

The depletion of crude oil is central to the debate on energy, and the subject becomes even more pressing because of the rapid industrial development of emerging countries that hangs over demand. Growing emissions of combustion generated pollutants, and their increasing costs will make biomass sources more attractive. Currently, biodiesel is becoming popular as a more environment-friendly fuel, because it is a renewable, domestic resource with an environment-friendly emission profile, readily biodegradable and nontoxic.The objective of our work is to produce biodiesel from a renewable and sustainable energy resource which is sunflower oil through transesterification process using alkaline catalyst and methanol, to optimize some parameters in the aim to obtain the best reaction yield, and to study some biodiesel’s properties such as kinematic viscosity, density, cloud, and flash points; the biodiesel was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The results of the analysis confirm that the synthesized biodiesel is a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, a comparative study of biodiesel has been conducted versus standard biodiesel ASTM D6751, and the results obtained show good properties when compared to those of biodiesel’s standard.

Imane Boumesbah, Zohra Hachaïchi-Sadouk, Aida Cherifa Ahmia

Chapter 10. Biodiesel Production from Non-comestible Oils

Increase in the price of petroleum, finite nature of fossil fuels, increasing concerns regarding environmental impact, especially related to greenhouse gas emissions, and health and safety considerations are driving the search for new energy sources. Consequently, recent years have seen the development of several sectors of renewable energy production. Among these energies, biofuels are a promising way to reduce the environmental degradation by increasing pollutants. Research on biofuel production is considerably focused on producing biodiesel from comestible oils. This production has been debated recently because of the use of fertile lands needed to produce biofuels and increased prices of staple foods making them more scarce which is dangerous to the food security of poor people around the world. Therefore, it is clever to produce biodiesel from vegetable species not intended for food. The purpose of this chapter is to consider the employment of non-comestible oils into biodiesel production, to present the various processes of oil extraction and oil conversion with emphasis on the transesterification, and, finally, to highlight several uses of biodiesel in the world.

Aida Cherifa Ahmia, Fetta Danane, Rahma Bessah, Imane Boumesbah

Chapter 11. Development of a Bi-fuel SI Engine Model

Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel, with the potential to meet strict engine emission regulation, and is cheaper than other fuels in many countries. Use of natural gas as an automotive fuel may bring a reduction of environmental pollutants and reduce the economic costs of the transportation sector. As an intermediate step, and an alternative to dedicated CNG engines bi-fuel engines, powered by gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG), provide many an opportunity. In support of the development of such engines and to aid analysis and improvement in this study, a four-stroke bi-fuel spark ignition (SI) engine model is developed. The engine model is based on the two-zone combustion model, and it has the ability to simulate turbulent combustion and compared to computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models it is computationally faster and efficient. The selective outputs are cylinder temperature and pressure, heat transfer, brake work, brake thermal and volumetric efficiency, brake torque, brake power (BP), brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), concentration of CO2, brake-specific CO (BSCO) and brake-specific NO x (BSNO x ). In this research, the effect of engine speed, equivalence ratio and performance parameters using gasoline and CNG fuels are analysed. In addition, the model has been validated by experimental data using the results obtained from bi-fuel engine tests. Therefore, this engine model is capable for prediction, analysis and useful for optimisation of the engine performance parameters and minimisation of the emissions. In addition, in this chapter, a specific bi-fuel engine is studied and discussed that is used in the vast majority (almost are taxi). Therefore, the model and its results are significant.

K. Rezapour

Chapter 12. Gasification of Biomass for Hydrogen and Power Production: Efficiency and Environmental Assessment

This study focuses on efficiency and environmental impact assessments of steam biomass gasification and gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) integrated system for power and hydrogen production. Biomass is considered as the main energy source of the system, and it is changed into gaseous components through gasification process where steam is used as a drying and gasification medium. The gasifier is proposed to be integrated with SOFC unit for power production after extracting part of the produced syngas for hydrogen production. Thermodynamic model is introduced to analyze the gasification process and the electrochemical process through the SOFC. The effect of steam biomass ratio on the system performance is investigated. Environmental assessment is performed based on the carbon dioxide produced from the system with respect to the generated useful products.

Rami Salah El-Emam, Ibrahim Dincer, Salah H. El-Emam

Clean Coal Technologies


Chapter 13. Influence of Oxygen Concentration and Equivalence Ratio on MSW Oxygen-Enriched Gasification Syngas Compositions

Oxygen-enriched gasification for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is proposed in this chapter; mechanism analysis and thermodynamic calculations results show the advantages of lower heat loss than air gasification. The effects of oxygen concentration and equivalence ratio (ER) on gas products compositions were investigated. It was found that, during the ER range of 0.23–0.29, CO, H2, and CO2 content in combustible gas continuously increased, and CH4 content continuously decreased with the oxygen concentration in the gasification agent rising from 20 % to 100 %. Furthermore, when the oxygen concentration was 20 % or 40 %, the CO2 content in combustible gas grew constantly, and the CH4 content gradually decreased within the ER span of 0.23–0.29, however, CO and H2 contents increased then decreased when ER exceeded 0.27. In addition, when the oxygen concentration was 80 % or 100 %, the CO2 content grew, CO and CH4 content decreased gradually, and H2 content decreased when ER exceeded 0.25 and 0.27, respectively. Therefore, gas product quality could be improved through increasing oxygen concentration within a certain ER range.

Haoran Yuan, Tao Lu, Dandan Zhao, Yazhuo Wang, Noriyuki Kobayashi

Chapter 14. Oxy-fuel Combustion for Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) from a Coal/Biomass Power Plant: Experimental and Simulation Studies

Oxy-fuel combustion is a promising and relatively new technology to facilitate CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) for power plants utilising hydrocarbon fuels. In this research experimental oxy-combustion trials and simulation are carried out by firing pulverised coal and biomass and co-firing a mixture of them in a 100 kW retrofitted oxy-combustor at Cranfield University. The parent fuels are coal (Daw Mill) and biomass cereal co-product (CCP) and experimental work was done for 100 % coal (w/w), 100 % biomass (w/w) and a blend of coal 50 % (w/w) and biomass 50 % (w/w). The recirculation flue gas (RFG) rate was set at 52 % of the total flue gas. The maximum percentage of CO2 observed was 56.7 % wet basis (73.6 % on a dry basis) when 100 % Daw Mill coal was fired. Major and minor emission species and gas temperature profiles were obtained and analysed for different fuel mixtures. A drop in the maximum temperature of more than 200 K was observed when changing the fuel from 100 % Daw Mill coal to 100 % cereal co-product biomass. Deposits formed on the ash deposition probes were also collected and analysed using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) technique. The high sulphur, potassium and chlorine contents detected in the ash generated using 100 % cereal co-product biomass are expected to increase the corrosion potential of these deposits. In addition, a rate-based simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus® and experimentally validated. It is concluded that the model provides an adequate prediction for the gas composition of the flue gas.

Nelia Jurado, Hamidreza G. Darabkhani, Edward J. Anthony, John E. Oakey

Energy Storage


Chapter 15. Numerical Simulation of Wallboards Constructively Incorporated with Different PCM Content Solutions for Passive Cooling in Southern of Algeria

Buildings in Algeria represent 41.4 % of the total energy consumption. Heating and cooling represent the largest component of energy use. Opportunities to reduce the heating and cooling demand in buildings therefore represent a potentially significant part of the future energy and CO2 emission savings. The heating and cooling loads of buildings are most of the time due to heat transfer through building envelope. From the point of view of energy saving, the most effective way to reduce these loads is to carry out thermo isolation with building envelope, between others, by using phase change materials (PCMs). The effectiveness of wall protection systems depends on several parameters such as orientation, size, and their thermal operation, with respect to the climate. The objective of this work is to study the thermal behavior of plaster wall containing three different types of PCM (eicosane, Na2CO3 ⋅ 10H2O, and CaCl2 ⋅ 6H2O) with variable concentrations to highlight the importance of quantity and quality of PCM under the climatic conditions in Ouargla city (at south of Algeria). The results indicate that CaCl2 ⋅ 6H2O gives good performances compared with other PCM. The increase in PCM percentage makes it possible to increase thermal inertia.

R. Ghedamsi, N. Settou, N. Saifi, S. Rahmouni, B. Dokkar, B. Recioui

Chapter 16. The Energy Conservation Potential of Using Phase-Change Materials as Thermal Mass Material for Air Source Heat Pump-Driven Underfloor Heating System in a Building

Improved energy efficiency in buildings is the key element to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to energy security. Underfloor heating is a more efficient and economical method for home heating with improved thermal comfort than any other heating methods. Due to the low-temperature heating source requirement the underfloor heating is widely accepted as the most efficient form of heating. Heat pumps are energy-efficient equipment to provide low-temperature heat source which is suitable for underfloor heating applications. Phase-change materials (PCMs) are attractive for use in thermal energy store for underfloor heating applications due to their high-energy storage density over a small temperature range, therefore allowing the air source heat pump to operate during winter warmer afternoon ambient air conditions or in an electricity tariff management mode. A numerical simulation model has been validated and used to analyse the thermal performance of PCM-layered underfloor heating under different heating modes. Different layouts of the underfloor heating pipes with PCMs as floor mass material were analysed for realistic diurnal temperature boundary conditions and temperature distribution was predicted.

Ming Jun Huang, Neil Hewitt

Chapter 17. Microcapsulation and Macrocapsulation of Phase Change Materials by Emulsion Co-polymerization Method

In this study, decanoic acid suitable for thermal energy storage applications was microencapsulated with poly(styrene-co-ethyl acrylate) by emulsion co- polymerization method. Chemical structures, morphological characteristics, and thermal properties of microcapsules and macrocapsules were determined using Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Differential Scanning Calorimeters (DSC) respectively. The microPCMs and macroPCMs were synthesized successfully and the encapsulation ratio was about up to 65.5 %. As a result, the as-prepared microcapsules show good potentials for thermal energy storage and could be used in many applications.

Murat Unal, Yeliz Konuklu, Halime O. Paksoy

Chapter 18. Investigation of Heat Storage Performance of a Solar Pond with Potassium Chloride

This chapter concerns an experimental investigation of heat storage performance of a solar pond saturated with potassium chloride. The solar pond consists of potassium chloride water zones. The heat storage zone (HSZ) is formed as saturated brine with potassium chloride to collect and storage reaching the solar radiation. The gradient zone (GZ) is called non-convective zone (NCZ) with various density layers prepared with potassium chloride brine decreasing from HSZ to upper convective zone (UCZ). The layers consist of five different concentrations with a thickness of 10 cm each. These layers form a brine gradient to prevent heat transfer by convection from HSZ and brine layers to UCZ. The brine gradient layers act as an insulator between HSZ and UCZ. UCZ is a clean water layer. Solar radiation is especially absorbed by saturated brine zone through UCZ and NCZ. The mass capacity of the HSZ is approximately 430 kg. The measurements of the temperatures and densities of the layers are obtained by using thermocouples and hydrometers from August to November. The exergy efficiency of saturated potassium chloride brine is defined in terms of heat storage capacity of saturated brine and average representative solar energy. As a result, the maximum and minimum exergy efficiencies of the HSZ are obtained as 25.33 % in August and 9.77 % in November, respectively.

Mehmet Karakilcik, Ismail Bozkurt, Ilker Balkaya, Ibrahim Dincer

Chapter 19. Performance Comparison of Sodium and Magnesium Chloride-Saturated Solar Ponds

This chapter deals with an experimental investigation of energy efficiency of sodium and magnesium chloride-saturated solar ponds. The solar pond systems are filled with varying-density sodium and magnesium chloride water in order to form gradient layers. A solar pond generally consists of three zones. The density of the zones increases toward the bottom. Solar radiation is absorbed by salty water and the temperature rises. The high-temperature salty water at the bottom of the solar pond remains denser than less salty water above it. Thus, the convective heat losses are prevented by gradient layers. The temperature distributions of the solar pond are obtained by using thermocouples from August to November. The density of the layers was also measured and analyzed by taking samples from the same point of the temperature sensors. The efficiencies of the solar pond are defined in terms of temperatures as the average representative solar energy. As a result, the maximum energy efficiencies of the heat storage zone for the sodium and magnesium chloride-saturated solar ponds are found as 25.41 % and 27.40 % for August, respectively.

Ismail Bozkurt, Sibel Deniz, Mehmet Karakilcik, Ibrahim Dincer

Chapter 20. Investigation of Effect of Using Evacuated Tube Solar Collector on Solar Pond Performance

The present study deals with the performance investigation of a solar pond integrated with an evacuated tube solar collector system. The experimental cylindrical solar pond system (with a radius of 0.80 m and a depth of 1.65 m) with an evacuated tube solar collector was built in Cukurova University in Adana, Turkey. The solar pond was filled with salty water of various densities to form three salty water zones (e.g. upper convective zone, non-convective zone and heat storage zone). Heat energy was collected by solar pond and evacuated tube solar collectors. The heat collected by collector was transferred to the heat storage zone of the solar pond with a heat exchanger system. Several temperature sensors connected to data acquisition system were placed vertically inside of the solar pond and inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger in the storage zone of the pond. The studies were performed using an evacuated tube solar collector integrated with the solar pond.

Ayhan Atiz, Ismail Bozkurt, Mehmet Karakilcik, Ibrahim Dincer

Geothermal Energy


Chapter 21. Numerical Modeling of Vertical Earth Pipe Cooling System for Hot and Humid Subtropical Climate

Energy crisis is one of the major problems facing the progress of human society. There are several energy-efficient technologies that can be applied to save energy and make a sustainable environment. Passive air cooling of earth pipe cooling technology is one of them to reduce the energy consumption for hot and humid subtropical climates. The technology works with a long buried pipe with one end for intake air and the other end for providing air cooled by soil to the desired space such as residential, agricultural, or industrial buildings. It can be an attractive economical alternative to conventional cooling since there are no compressors or any customary mechanical unit. This chapter reports the performance of a vertical earth pipe cooling system for a hot and humid subtropical climatic zone in Queensland, Australia. A series of buried pipes were installed in vertical arrangement in order to increase earth pipe cooling performance. To measure the performance of the system, a numerical model was developed and simulated using the CFD software Fluent in ANSYS 15.0. Data were collected from two modeled rooms built from two shipping containers and installed at the Sustainable Precinct at Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Australia. The impact of air temperature and velocity on room cooling performance has also been assessed. A temperature reduction of 1.82 °C was observed in the room connected to the vertical earth pipe cooling system, which will save the energy cost for thermal cooling in buildings.

S. F. Ahmed, M. M. K. Khan, M. T. O. Amanullah, M. G. Rasul, N. M. S. Hassan

Chapter 22. Determination of Geothermal Fields at Kızılcahamam (Ankara) Using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Spontaneous Potential (SP) Methods

Geophysical exploration of geothermal resources deals with measurements on the physical properties of the Earth with two methods. First, the vertical electrical sounding (VES) method which is useful in determining the depth of overburden and depth, structure, and resistivity of flat-lying sedimentary beds and possibly of the basement also if it is not too deep. Furthermore the search for geothermal reservoirs normally involves resistivity surveying, and it is also employed routinely in groundwater exploration, which is of increasing worldwide importance. Second, spontaneous potential (SP) method is applied for determining the possible faults and finding the places with and without the liquid flow in the study area. At the SP graphic is analyzed that the natural voltage in a few measuring points varied between +28 mV and −48 mV values. At the natural potential, the plus (+) and minus (−) transitions indicate faulting zone. In this work, VES and SP methods at Kızılcahamam (Ankara) geothermal area were used to delineate location of aquifer zones and site wells or estimate properties of the system. Schlumberger electrode arrays were used in the VES measurements at 60 point in the study area. Schlumberger soundings at the study area have been carried out to try and estimate the bedrock resistivity at different depths. The measured quantity at the study area was called apparent resistivity. Interpreting the resistivity data consists of two steps: first, a physical interpretation of the measured data, resulting in a physical model, and second, a geological interpretation of the resulting physical model. The resistivity structure at study area is dominated by two coherent low resistivity layers that underlie most of the field. The shallower layer (<10 Ωm) lies within 300 m depth, while the deeper one is at about 900 m depth. Resistivity of rocks depends on porosity, saturation, content of clay, and resistivity of pore water. As a result of all these studies, geothermal anomalies having low resistivity values at the five different VES points have been identified. For geothermal drilling of the suggested VES, points constitute the appropriate fields.

Hatice Karakilcik

Green Buildings


Chapter 23. The Sustainable Potential of Digital Fabrication Process and De-standardisation of Architectural Products

Digital fabrication processes consist in a parametric designing and in a product manufacturing by computer numerical control (CNC) machines.At the design stage, the architectural object can reach a great grip with the environmental and cultural context, because the parameters measured by the environment become the engine of the virtual model. In this way a change of external parameters results in a change of the project.In this chapter the possibility to optimise, through this method of project generation, is investigated. Parametric design increases the performance of the architecture in terms of structural, thermal and functional needs, with a reduction in resources, material and energy, ensuring greater sustainability.In the production stage, the use of CNC machines ensures the realisation of the objects, designed with parametric methods, that, for intrinsic reasons, cannot be standardised and thus they are unique.This feature of digital fabrication could radically change the industrialised society.

Rossella Siani

Chapter 24. A Building Energy Performance Model and Advisor System

The AFRESH home is an affordable, flexible, resilient, energy efficient, sustainable, and healthy home designed and built to integrate different technologies that help improve energy efficiency. The home is located at BCIT (British Columbia Institute of Technology, Burnaby, BC, campus and is constructed with energy efficient, nontoxic, and environmentally friendly materials and features: photovoltaic (solar roof panel), wind turbine, fuel cell, energy storage, and distributed energy generation. The home is also fitted with a heat-recovery and geo-exchange HVAC system. This article explains the characteristics of AFRESH home under study and its energy performance model, followed by a description of the actual design and implementation of the home energy management system. Results of the research and the analysis of the results are also included in the paper.

Ali Palizban, Mehrzad Tabatabaian

Chapter 25. Shading Performance on Terraced House Facade Designs in Malaysia

This study analyses shading performance on front house facades in Malaysia designed with early, modern, postmodern and neo-minimalist architectural style. For the case study, four front facades of the terraced houses are selected. The reason for the selection of terraced houses as the case studies is that terraced houses are the most popular house type built in urban areas in this country. The Early Modern Terraced House Style was built in 1950s to 1970s, and Modern Terraced House Style was popularly built later in 1980s to 1990s. Postmodern Terraced House Style was commonly integrated in the building design in 2000s while the Neo-Minimalist Terraced House Style has been integrated in the house design since 2010. The selected case studies are located in Petaling Jaya, Putrajaya and Shah Alam, the new towns of Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia. The SunTool software is used in the survey to calculate shading percentages on the front house facades. The survey will be conducted at a position when the sun path is perpendicular to the house facade. The study finds that the shading performance is improving over time. Recessed wall, balcony, attached roof and roof overhang are commonly used in the house facade design with car porch on the ground facade level.

Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Yasser Arab, Mohammed Salem Obaid Bakhlah

Chapter 26. Employing Second Matter from Agricultural Sector in Architecture: A Comparison Between the Italian and Romanian Situation

This paper deals with the complex issue of wastes and makes an effort to synthesize possible solutions by reuse applications in the building sector.Architecture as means of transformation of the environment has lately been responsible for a number of impacts, but at the same time it can be considered as a tool for trying to reduce the amount of waste through recycling and reusing by-products and wastes from various sectors.The paper discusses the employment of wastes in architecture and the necessary change of route from linear to circular processes. Some case studies are shown to compare the situation in the building sectors in Italy and Romania.The paradigms of the new sustainable society are defined in opposition to those of the last century, and an important input and incentive is noticed toward the promotion of a new market of wastes.The Romanian architecture of the past had widely employed the green and natural products of the countryside, either from wastes or from specifically growth species. Some examples of local Romanian architecture of the past are shown, so as to illustrate the construction of good quality buildings with waste systems. Then the present situation is shown, both in Romania and in Italy, where wastes from the agricultural sector are recycled, reprocessed, and employed in contemporary architecture, with great amount of sustainability and health benefits for users and for the environment.

Dora Francese, Ana-Maria Dabija, Ovidiu-Horaţiu Teleche, Nicolina Mastrangelo

Chapter 27. Comparison of Energy Reduction Potential of an Adobe House Under Different Climatic Conditions in India

The present work is an evaluation of energy reduction (heating and cooling) potential of a dome-shaped adobe house. The energy potential has been evaluated on the basis of energy balance assuming quasi-steady state condition. This has further been analyzed by incorporating the effect of passive energy technologies namely ventilation and Earth–air heat exchanger (EAHE). The analysis for room air temperatures and quantification of energy potential has been carried out for three different locations in India. These locations come under different climatic conditions viz. Bangalore (Moderate climate), Jodhpur (Hot climate), and Srinagar (Cold climate). Annual heating potential for winter was found maximum for the case of cold climate (Srinagar) of the order of 43.96 × 107 kW h while it was estimated minimum for hot climate (Jodhpur) as 16.47 × 107 kW h. Annual cooling potential for summer was found maximum for hot climate (Jodhpur) 28.14 × 107 kW h while it was estimated minimum for moderate climate (Bangalore) as 8.87 × 107 kW h. Thus, a comparison of energy reduction potentials for three locations falling under different climates in India has been made. The performance of dome-shaped house was found to be satisfactory both in winters and summers for the locations considered under different climates. The temperature of room air with an EAHE was found varying due to low isothermal mass of the building. Adobe house was found to temperate the room air temperature, significantly reducing temperature fluctuations within the building.

Basharat Jamil, M. Jamil Ahmad

Chapter 28. The Proper Utilization of Passive Solar Energy in Residential Buildings, Northern Cyprus

In the past, humans have always tried to have a relationship with the environment in order to create comfortable conditions for their lives. Over time, different cultures of the world created the architectural styles and techniques to adapt to climatic conditions. Unfortunately, building adaptation to the climate was gradually ignored with the arrival of the industrial revolution. Followed by high-energy consumption, environmental pollution and an energy crisis emerged. Thus there has been a revised consideration by architects motivated toward climatic design which is an effective approach to reduce the energy consumption in buildings. Undoubtedly, one of the important issues in compatible design with climate in mind is the proper utilization of solar energy. In this context, attention to the form and orientation of the building can significantly reduce energy loss especially in countries that enjoy solar energy such as Cyprus. This chapter focuses on the evaluation of appropriate orientation and form of dwellings regarding energy efficiency in Northern Cyprus based on a problem-solving method. The main purpose of this work is reducing building heat in summer and gaining heat in winter in order to achieve a favorable residential space. Ignoring climatic design can lead to harmful effects on human comfort.

Seyedeh Ayeh Mirrezaei, Harun Sevinç, Ahadollah Azami

Chapter 29. A Study on Thermo-Physical Properties of Building Materials: Concrete of Vegetable Fiber

The objective of this work is to make our contribution to the development of local resources, namely vegetable fibers (grignons of olives) of low cost and from a renewable source, and integrate it in a rational way in the field of construction. To date, these fibers remained undeveloped except for some traditional uses. A judicious choice of proportion additions (fiber) and technical implementation are considered. Particular attention is paid to the thermal characteristics (comfort and insulating properties of the habitat) and mechanical resistance which is a decisive criterion for the choice of a material in the construction. We determine the thermal conductivity of the materials studied with an experimental apparatus that allows us to make measurements of the thermal properties under actual operating conditions (temperature and humidity). Results show a significant reduction in the density and thermal conductivity with increasing dosage of vegetable fibers in the concrete. Thus, improving of the thermal insulation capacity is confirmed. The compressive strength decreases with increasing dosage of plant fibers.

Drifa Belkharchouche, Abla Chaker

Chapter 30. Theoretical Investigation on a Building-Integrated PV/T (BiPVT) System for Electrical and Thermal Energy Saving Case Study: Integrated Solar Village of Bou Saada

The aim of this work is to study and estimate, using TRNSYS software, the production and performance of hybrid water PV/T collectors and to assess the impact of integrating solar devices on energy and environmental balances of existing building.The results show a positive influence when integrating a BiPVT in the building on the economic and environmental balance. In addition to the electric production, heat productivity obtained is important, the solar fraction is satisfactory and the efficiency is high. The installation can supply the entire demand of hot water of the building and all the heating requirements during the entire period of using heater. The electrical production covers all consummations of solar pumps and regulation devices. This production also allows covering the cooling booster for air conditioning during months requiring air conditioning, which makes the installation completely autonomous during all months of the year. A zero-energy building is then obtained.

Oualid Sotehi, Abla Chaker, Mostefa Lamine Benamra, Esma Ramoul

Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells


Chapter 31. Water Is the Ultimate Source of Hydrogen Energy: Scientific Citations and Quotations

From the ancient times, mankind has always been aware that all life on earth depends upon water, the principal ingredient of all living cells. Its importance in forming the creation in all of its aspects in general and the living creatures in particular, as well as human kind, animals, and plants, is evident to all of us. It is highly important to know that water has played a major role for human kind. When the Ionian philosopher Thales of Miletus (624–545 BC) replaced the Gods with Natural Laws as the force governing all phenomena; he made water the central element in his theory.This chapter addresses the issue that water, besides its indispensable usage by human beings in drinking and in everyday life, is the key element in providing life with energy, in the form of hydrogen.The main aim of this work is to shed some light on the relationship between hydrogen, water, and energy. A review of some scientific unique physical and powerful properties of water is presented. The high specific heat, caused by hydrogen bonding, is behind the resistance to temperature change. Its availability for mankind made it the standard of the thermometric scale. Next, the work presents to the community of scientists some scientific citations and quotations that support our statement that water is the ultimate source of hydrogen energy.Newton, an avid alchemist set forth in De Natura Acidorium, views that all substances can be reduced to water. Eventually, hydrogen, one of the components of water, can be derived from it. What is most amazing is that all of these citations, scientific statements, and notions had been proven to be in perfect agreement with science and our modern-day scientific discoveries that were not known to man 1,500 years ago.This understanding of the use of water in providing energy in the form of hydrogen adds a new dimension to our scientific thinking that life on earth depends totally upon water, the principal ingredient of living cells.

Hussein K. Abdel-Aal, Nejat Veziroglu

Chapter 32. Twin-Head Platform

In this work, we discuss the design of a platform that will utilize the huge potential of hydrogen sulfide in the deep waters of the Black Sea. It will be different from an ordinary oil platform as it will generate energy from hydrogen sulfide instead. The construction of this platform is foreseen as a Green Project. While the platform is cultivating energy out of hydrogen sulfide, it will also be purposed to contribute to the ecosystem at the same time. Once it completes its function, the platform is planned to be fully recycled and recovered.Intended for the energy generation in the deep waters of the Black Sea, this platform is modelled as a multistage system, which consists of two major parts: (1) Sea water is drawn and processed to generate H2, and (2) the resulting water is purified and released back to the nature. The H2S concentrations are significantly high in 1,500 m and deeper in the Black Sea. Such information, as well as research data and the geographical conditions, is taken into consideration in the design of the platform.The hydrogen-based energy potential in the Black Sea needs to be added to existing energy sources. Otherwise, the sensitive ecological balance will begin to shift for the worse. Initially, the sea life will be contaminated and become hazardous for human consumption and eventually, it will cease to exist altogether. This platform project is a precursor in generating energy while improving the nature at the same time.

Oğuzcan Tokar, Şule Kapkin

Chapter 33. Coke-Resistant Catalysts for Methane Steam Reforming in the Presence of Higher Hydrocarbons

The catalytic performance on steam reforming and carbonaceous deposits was examined over Ni/La/CeO2-ZrO2 and Rh/La/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts, prepared via wet impregnation. The catalytic performance tests were conducted using mixtures of C2–C4 alkanes and CH4 as steam reforming feedstock for 4 h at the temperature range of 400–550 °C and for 10 h at 500 °C, with S/C = 3 and GHSV = 70,000 h−1. Analysis on the used catalysts was carried out via temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). Both catalysts showed high activity towards the alkane feedstock achieving product distribution close to that predicted by thermodynamics with no significant deactivation during the experiments. TPO of the used catalysts after 10 h on stream showed increased carbon depositions compared to the pure methane reforming but still at very low levels, even though the concentration of the second alkane used was much higher than the real concentration in natural gas.

Sofia D. Angeli, Fotis G. Pilitsis, Angeliki A. Lemonidou

Chapter 34. Ultrasonic Spray Coating Technique for High-Performance PEM Fuel Cell Electrode Manufacturing

The fabrication technique of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) significantly affects the performance and durability of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. In the present study, ultrasonic spray coating technique has been used for manufacturing different sizes of gas diffusion electrodes up to 400 cm2. The catalyst ink was composed of 70 wt% catalyst and 30 wt% Nafion in a solution of 1:7 water to 2-propanol. The platinum loading of the electrode has been adjusted to 0.4 mg Pt/cm2. Commercial Pt/C catalysts have been used having different platinum content. Catalyst ink has been sprayed onto the gas diffusion layer using an ultrasonic spray coating instrument operating at 48 kHz. Coating process was fully computer controlled, and it was programmed according to the coating area, spray flow rate, and multiple layer coating. The performance of electrodes has been tested in a single PEM fuel cell. The power densities reached with the new method were 0.53, 0.74, 0.77, and 0.88 W/cm2 for 20, 40, 50, 70 % Pt/C catalyst by keeping the platinum loading constant, respectively. The power density increased 2.5 times compared to “spraying of catalyst ink with air pressure atomizing spray gun”. Uniform thin film has been achieved with ultrasonic coating method. Multiple layer formation retained the porosity of the electrode, impeded flooding on the electrode surface during the coating process, and enhanced transport of reactant during the fuel cell operation. Therefore, high-performance, reproducible, and large area electrodes could be manufactured by ultrasonic spray coating technique.

Serdar Erkan, Inci Eroglu

Chapter 35. Role of Sulfur to Acquire Hydrogen from the Black Sea

In Turkey, the Black Sea, which features both hydrogen sulfur and wave energy, can be considered as one of the important alternative energy sources. Research in areas of about 200 m in depth has proved that there is a quite intense amount of H2S. Even at the depths of 30–40 m, the presence of the gas has been detected. It is possible to obtain hydrogen and sulfur from H2S by using a converter or by means of other methods. Sulfur is a very valuable gas in economic terms. Quantity of sulfur-containing resources decreases day by day in our country. The Black Sea is rich in hydrogen and sulfur. The aim of this work is to develop new methods for acquiring hydrogen and sulfur from H2S, which is handled as energy source and raw material.Therefore, the development of a new method has been attempted to obtain solid sulfur from sea bottom. Thus, in addition to obtaining new sources for energy, we will be able to prevent the formation of anaerobic conditions which will result in improvement in the environment, and will eliminate the risk of poisoning that is predicted to happen in the next 20–30 years.

Sevgi Güneş Durak, Şule Kapkin

Chapter 36. Hydrogen Generation and Storage from Sodium Borohydride

Hydrogen generator with circulation scheme that generates high-purity hydrogen from the solution of sodium borohydride has been developed. In circulation scheme working solution is repeatedly passed through catalytic unit in reactor; the velocity of solution flow and mass transfer processes are more intensive and the entire catalyst is working under approximately the same conditions. Alumina-supported Pt-, Pd-, and Ni-granulated materials have been used as model catalysts during performance testing of the hydrogen generator. Instead of water-alkaline solution it is proposed to use sodium metaborate solution saturated at room temperature as a solvent and stabilizer to prepare working solutions. Optimal parameters of working process (working solution composition, temperature, pressure) were defined. Technical specifications of the generator allow achieving hydrogen performance up to 3 Nm3/h and higher.

Valentina G. Minkina, Stanislav I. Shabunya, Vladimir I. Kalinin

Chapter 37. System Design and Optimal Management Strategy for Photovoltaic Energy and Hydrogen Production

Currently, hydrogen is used in a wide variety of applications mainly in the industrial sector. However, hydrogen as an energy carrier and chemical element can be obtained by several methods such as reforming and gasification of fossil fuel or electrolysis of water. Hydrogen from renewable energy sources is a clean and sustainable way to satisfy the world demand of this element. As hydrogen is mostly used in the industry where electrical energy is needed to run the various production machines, design of stand-alone photovoltaic system for both clean electrical energy and hydrogen production is proposed in this chapter as an environmentally friendly and zero-emission solution. This system, which constituted principally with a photovoltaic array, electrolyser, compressor, fuel cell and hydrogen tank storage, has a DC bus bar, AC bus bar and hydrogen piping. The latter connects in the same time the electrolyser to the hydrogen demand and storage tank, and the storage tank to the hydrogen demand and fuel cell.The mismatch between the intermittent solar irradiation and the time-varying of both electrical energy and hydrogen demands impacts the system performances and increases the system cost. In this context, optimal energy and hydrogen management strategy with a hysteresis band scheme is investigated to achieve high system efficiency with rational cost. Case study is carried out to verify the relevance and effectiveness of the proposed management strategy. Simulation results show that the use of the proposed stand-alone photovoltaic system design with the associate electrical energy and hydrogen management strategy provides a good solution for green energy and hydrogen production with high energy efficiency and low system cost.

Hammou Tebibel, Siffedine Labed

Chapter 38. Production of Synthesis Gases from Catalytic Steam Reforming of Ethanol and Propane Processes

In this study, steam reforming of ethanol and propane was purposed for production of hydrogen and synthesis gases. In the first stage of this project, ethanol steam reforming reaction studies were carried out at different experimental conditions for production of hydrogen and synthesis gases. In the second stage of this work, propane steam reforming reaction studies at different experimental conditions were performed. At the beginning, a commercial BASF catalyst at different experimental conditions was used for production of synthesis gases, and also, a catalyst with different metal compositions and supports was prepared in department research laboratory and then, it was used for production of synthesis gases under different experimental conditions.Compositions of synthesis gases over commercial BASF catalyst and compositions of synthesis gases over laboratory-prepared catalyst were compared on the basis of synthesis and hydrogen yields. The determined exit gas compositions for both catalyst studies were identical about hydrogen and synthesis gas yields. However, laboratory-prepared catalyst has longer life, but it has slightly lower activity than commercial BASF catalyst at 300–700 °C. In both ethanol and propane steam reforming reaction measurements, higher hydrogen ratios were obtained at the reactor exit. Hydrogen and synthesis gas compositions are increasing with catalyst amounts at the reactor exit, but other effluent gas compositions were determined in lower ratios with respect to exit hydrogen percentages.For analysis of kinetics data, similar complex reaction mechanisms were considered for both ethanol and propane steam reforming processes. Ethanol and propane steam reforming reactions are considered to have first-order reaction mechanism. Computed kinetics parameters and related graphs have realized this fact, clearly. According to obtained activation energies related to ethanol and propane steam reforming reactions, we may say that both reactions are chemical reactions controlled over both catalysts with lower diameters and lower catalyst quantities.

Murat Ağbaba, Menderes Levent, Yusuf Şahin

Chapter 39. Clean Energy Technology Development: Hydrogen Production by Escherichia coli During Glycerol Fermentation

Hydrogen (H2) is accepted as a clean, effective, and renewable energy source; the biotechnology of its production is intensively developed. Glycerol can serve as a cheap carbon source to produce H2 and the other biofuel by Escherichia coli during mixed acid fermentation. Data on metabolic pathways of glycerol fermentation, hydrogenase enzymes responsible for H2 production, and dependence of H2 production on pH and other external factors during glycerol fermentation are summarized; some novel findings are presented. Metabolic engineering to enhance H2 yield from glycerol has resulted in effective strains. The mixed carbon (glycerol and glucose) fermentation is a novel approach to improve H2 production and to enlarge carbon sources containing wastes used: glycerol added to glucose-containing medium is shown to increase H2 production. Taken together these are of significance for improving H2 production biotechnology as clean energy technology.

Karen Trchounian, Armen Trchounian

Chapter 40. Safety Rules and Measures to Be Taken Where Hydrogen Gas Is Stored

Hydrogen is much safer than other energy sources. Hydrogen is nontoxic, not easily flammable and the products of oxygen water released during energy production are harmless to the natural environment. For pressurized tanks, the higher the pressure of the gas is, the smaller the tank volume needed, and the higher the operating cost. Safety regulations on high-pressure gas storage (including the compression process), utility, and transportation are strict, and complying with the regulations costs more than the hydrogen generators and storage equipment. Cryogenically cooling hydrogen into a liquid state is a well-established technology and considered the comparative benchmark for storing hydrogen. But the technology requires substantial energy to liquify the hydrogen, including continual “boil off” of hydrogen during storage and it requires very costly storage tanks and handling. Chemical or physically combined storage of hydrogen in other materials has potential advantages over other storage methods. Intensive research has been done on metal hydrides recently for improvement of hydrogenation properties. Metal-hydride–based chemical hydride and rechargeable hydride technologies offer storage efficiency and storage safety while providing the cost-saving advantage of being able to use the existing fossil fuel infrastructure to deliver and store a pumpable and nonexplosive hydride slurry as future hydrogen fuels. In this study we compare hydrogen storage methods, and show their advantages and disadvantages.

Fevzi Bedir, Muhammet Kayfeci, Umran Elmas

Chapter 41. Inlet Methane Temperature Effect at a Planar SOFC Thermal Field Under Direct Internal Reforming Condition

In this work, an Anode Supported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (ASP_SOFC) is applied. The thermal fields are shown for a standard SOFC: yttria stabilized zirconia for the electrolyte, nickel/zirconia cermet for the anode, and doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) for the cathode. It is operating under direct internal reforming condition of methane gas.The present paper’s purpose is the thermal field visualization of an ASP_SOFC. The temperature fields are discussed under the influence of heat sources caused by the internal reforming reactions occurring at the SOFC anode side. The reforming reactions in the anode in this case are described by the endothermic steam reforming reaction, the exothermic water-gas shift reaction, and the endothermic overall chemical reaction. The SOFC thermal behavior is influenced by several parameters such as mole fractions, pressure and temperature, etc. In this work we focus on two parameters: the inlet methane temperature and pressure.This study requires coupling conservation equations; mass, energy, and species. To accomplish this study, it is necessary to calculate velocities. The latter is governed by Darcy’s law. The thermal fields are studied by a two-dimensional numerical simulation in the plane perpendicular to the methane flow. The method adopted for solving numerically a complex system of equations is the finite difference method. The thermal fields as results of this study are obtained by developing a program in FORTRAN language and the Tecplot software, respectively.The results show the thermal fields together with the application of the parameters studied in the literature. Methane and air inlet conditions are methane temperature values of 1,173 K or T=1,273K $$ T=1,273\ \mathrm{K} $$ and pressure values of 1 bar, 2 bar, or 3 bar. The inlet fuel is considered as a gas mixture of H2, CH4, CO, H2O, and CO2. Fuel and air inlet compositions are: CH4, 0.29; H2, 0.09; CO2, 0.01; CO, 0.01; H2O, 0.6; O2, 0.21; and N2, 0.79.The analysis of the thermal fields is based on the source term introduced in the energy equation. The influence of the heat source is shown by the decrease or increase in the temperature.

Hafsia Abdenebi, Bariza Zitouni, Hocine Ben Moussa, Djamel Haddad, Hadda Zitouni, Youcef Sahli

Chapter 42. Prospects and Analysis of Hydrogen Production from Renewable Electricity Sources in Algeria

In response to the global concerns for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions and ensure the energy security supply, renewable energy-based hydrogen systems appear to be an interesting solution. The purpose of this study is on techno-economic analysis of massive hydrogen production system through water electrolysis using different renewable energy sources. Numerical simulations are carried out to study the performance of hydrogen production system. The potential of all electrical sources is analyzed and assessed. The sizing of a hydrogen production system and annual energy requirements are determined. Correct methodology is demonstrated for a case study in Ouargla region. An approximate cost analysis, which included a total investment estimate, was performed. The levelized cost of hydrogen production was also calculated for comparison purposes. Finally, the results are discussed.

S. Rahmouni, N. Settou, B. Negrou, N. Chennouf, R. Ghedamsi

Chapter 43. Electrochemical Evaluation of High Rate Cu/LiCr2/3V1/6Mn1/6O2 Nanocomposite Structures as Cathode Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

In this study, a strategy used to design high-capacity (>200 mAh g−1), Cu-coated LiMO2 (M = Mn, Cr, V) electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed. The advantages of the LiCr2/3V1/6Mn1/6O2 component and its influence on the structural stability and electrochemical properties of these layered electrodes are highlighted. In this study, LiCr2/3V1/6Mn1/6O2 cathode active materials were prepared via facile sol–gel method and were then coated with Cu via electroless deposition techniques. Structural, chemical and electrochemical properties of LiCr2/3V1/6Mn1/6O2 electrodes are considered. The phase purity and the structural characterisation of the synthesised cathode active electrodes were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) using a Rigaku D/Max 2200 system and Cu Kα radiation. Surface morphology of the synthesised cathode electrodes was analysed via SEM tests. The electrochemical tests have shown that higher initial discharge capacities are obtained after first cycle. A total discharge capacity of 206 mAh g−1 and 194 mAh g−1 was obtained after first discharge cycle for LiCr2/3V1/6Mn1/6O2 and Cu/LiCr2/3V1/6Mn1/6O2 samples, respectively. Best results were obtained for Cu/LiCr2/3V1/6Mn1/6O2 electrodes, and a total capacity retention of 88 % was obtained after 50 cycles. From the experimental data, it is concluded that both Cr and V substitution and surface modifying with copper is an effective way to improve the cyclability of lithium-ion batteries for commercial applications.

Şeyma Özcan, Aslıhan Erdaş, Deniz Nalci, M. Oğuz Güler, Hatem Akbulut

Chapter 44. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy: Comparative Cost Assessment

Hydrogen is one of the most promising alternatives for sustainable energy solutions to meet the world energy demands. Recently, there has been great interest in nuclear hydrogen production. Hence, economic evaluation of the nuclear hydrogen production process has become a crucial issue for better implementation opportunities of the production technologies and the nuclear power plants that can be integrated in the process. This chapter presents the Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Programme (HEEP) which is developed by the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA). Five different cases of nuclear hydrogen production using different technologies of reactors and production are presented. The cost of hydrogen production is studied for these cases, including several scenarios with integrating storage of the produced hydrogen as compressed gas and/or transportation through pipelines to investigate the effect of these parameters on the hydrogen cost.

Rami Salah El-Emam, Ibrahim Dincer

Chapter 45. Activity of Yttrium Strontium Titanate-Based Catalyst over Steam Reforming of Dodecane

Hydrocarbon reforming to produce hydrogen (or syngas) on site or on board a transportation vehicle for fuel cell operation can solve the complicated problem of hydrogen storage and transportation. Using perovskite catalysts can be advantageous due to their high oxygen ion storage and lower cost. In this paper, the use of yttrium strontium titanate (YST)-based catalyst in autothermal reforming of dodecane is studied. The catalyst was prepared by the sol-gel technique and characterized by XRD. The B site was doped by noble metals such as Co, Ru, and Ni and their effect was studied. The operating temperature and pressure are 800 °C and 1 atm, respectively. Steam/carbon ratio was fixed at 3. Each test was conducted for at least 16 h. Hydrogen concentration varied between 65 and 72 % (free of water and nitrogen) with conversion rate as high as 80 to 90 %. The effect of doping at the B site on the catalyst activity is discussed.

Kais Hbaieb

Power Generation


Chapter 46. Cost Optimization of a Hybrid Off-Grid Power System for Remote Localities: A Statistical Model

Renewable energy sources like solar radiation, wind energy, geothermal energy, bioenergy are known to well integrate with off-grid stand-alone power systems. The choice of a renewable energy source depends on the geographical location and climatic condition of the region, available resources, and the economics of the power system. Thus, the evaluation and optimization of hybrid power systems in terms of cost of energy (CoE) with various alternative energy sources considering the demand of the location and available resources is highly pertinent for configuring a hybrid power system for remote localities. The present work describes a case study on development of a response surface (RS) model for predicting the optimum CoE of a hybrid off-grid power system (HOPS). RS model is developed using Box–Behnken experimental design (BBD) technique. A three-factor three-level BBD is used to describe the optimum CoE. The three process variables under consideration in BBD model are size of photovoltaic arrays (PV), diesel generator (DG) capacity, and number of battery (BAT) cells. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is conducted on the response (CoE) for each factor level settings of a three-factor three-level BBD in order to evaluate a full quadratic factor space. The results of ANOVA established significant linear, quadratic, and interaction terms in the RS model representing the factor space. The coefficients of the RS-model are determined using multiple regression analysis technique at 95 % level of confidence. The RS-model is checked for error in prediction by residual analysis technique and validated against experimental data to confirm the accuracy of the model. The results confirmed that the model has 97.5 % accuracy in prediction of CoE for a HOPS. The RS-model is also allowed to identify the optimal configuration of hybrid power system for minimum CoE. A minimum CoE predicted by the model is comparable with that reported in the literature from earlier studies. The model presented in this study can be a useful tool for cost comparison among similar architectures of varying capacities for HOPS.

Srimanta Ray, Debika Debnath, Ajoy Kumar Chakraborty

Chapter 47. Electricity Trade Patterns in a Network

Using high-frequency trade volume and price data in a transmission network we investigate patterns of trade and its impacts in the market price formation process. In particular, we study the Ontario wholesale electricity market and its trade with multiple interconnected markets, including New York, Michigan, and Minnesota, through 13 interconnections. This research has regulatory implications on integration of electricity markets, and possible investments in transmission and production capacity. The main findings are in order: (a) imports are unambiguously related to prices (significant Granger causality), while exports are not; (b) trade mainly occurs due to the market price differentials between the markets and traders can use past price observation to take trade positions before the markets clear; (c) there is a high degree of integration across the markets in the network, where the speed of convergence of cross prices is almost instantaneous.

Talat S. Genc, Ege Yazgan, Pierre-Olivier Pineau

Chapter 48. Optimal Sizing of PV Lighting System Using Genetic Algorithms: Application to a Site in South Algeria

Uncertain renewable energy supplies, load demands, and nonlinear characteristics of some components of photovoltaic (PV) systems make the design problem not easy to solve by classical optimization methods, especially when relevant meteorological data are not available. To overcome this situation, modern methods based on artificial intelligence techniques have been developed for sizing PV systems. In this study, a method for sizing PV lighting systems has been presented; this method is based on genetic algorithms. The method allows determining optimum PV generator size and optimum storage battery capacity that permit minimum system cost with total autonomy of the system. The method has been applied to a PV lighting system with orientation due south and inclination angles from 0° to 90° in Adrar city (south Algeria). Because measured data for the location chosen were not available, a year of synthetic hourly meteorological data of this location, generated by the PVSYST software, have been used in the simulation.

S. Makhloufi

Chapter 49. Performance of Induction Motor Under the Effect of Voltage Unbalance with Loading Consideration

The performance of induction motors under different voltage unbalance levels and different loading is investigated in this chapter. The stator/rotor currents, torque and additional power losses are determined for each voltage unbalance value. The levels range from low level to severe situations to assess the ability of the induction motor to withstand different stress levels. A MATLAB/SIMULINK implementation is done to produce the currents, torque and power losses.

Fatma Zohra Dekhandji, Larbi Refoufi

Chapter 50. A Simple and Accurate Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems

Many techniques have been proposed to seek the solar photovoltaic system’s maximum power point from which one can list the following algorithms Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm, the Incremental Conductance (IC) algorithm, among others. Every technique has its relative merits and limitations essentially in terms of stability and ease of implementation. This chapter presents a new algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking in PVS. The algorithm uses the Golden Section method to search for the point at which the derivative of the input power versus voltage is zero. The power versus voltage characteristics of the photovoltaic system is a unimodal function making the Golden Section Search technique very suitable. The process of searching uses a variable step to shrink the search space, hence helping to reach the optimum point of the function, the maximum power point, within a small number of iterations. The basic advantage of this search technique is the reduction of tracking convergence time, in comparison with classical techniques with slow convergence time that can lead to instability. The proposed Golden Section Search technique algorithm converges rapidly therefore reducing the number of oscillations due to perturbations and preserving system stability. Matlab/Simulink is used to simulate the Golden search based MPPT.

Aissa Kheldoun, Salim Djeriou, Abdelmalek Kouadri, Larbi Refoufi

Chapter 51. Energetic and Exergetic Performance Evaluations of an Experimental Beta Type Stirling Machine

This chapter focuses on a beta type Stirling receptive machine operating under an atmospheric pressure between two heat sources at constant temperatures. Two receiving modes are studied experimentally (refrigerator mode and heat pump mode). Parameters such as hot end temperature (about 110 °C maximum hot temperature output for the heat pump mode), cold end temperature (about −32 °C minimum cold temperature output for refrigerating mode) and coefficient of performance (COP) are studied under different engine speeds. In order to assess the receptive Stirling machine, we carry out energy and exergy performance assessment studies. Energetic and exergetic coefficients of performance and exergy destructions in the heat pump system and the refrigerating machine are quantified at different engine speeds. The results show that optimal operating mode for refrigerating machine is obtained at about 155 rpm. But, around this speed the heat pump mode deliver the worst COP. The influence of heat sources insulation on the exergy destruction and coefficient of performance of the system is investigated. Furthermore, the usefulness of good heat insulation is emphasized. In fact, it improves the energetic COP of the heat pump from 2.8 to 3.5 as the exergetic COP from 43 to 75.2 % at the same rotational speed.

Houda Hachem, Ramla Gueith, Fethi Aloui, Ibrahim Dincer, Sassi Ben Nasrallah

Chapter 52. Control of Single Stage Grid Connected PV-Inverter Based on Direct Space Vector PWM

Space vector modulation (SVM) is the preferred modulation technique in three-phase DC/AC converters. The most widely known SVM in the literature is based on generating eight voltage vectors in the Park reference frame. This chapter concentrates on a specific matter of the direct-space-vector modulation analysis for single stage three phase grid connected photovoltaic inverter, and proposes a direct approach selection for the reference vector within the corresponding sector in the space vector area. A particular modeling of this converter is presented and the feasibility of a space vector scheme without using a Park transformation is studied. All voltage vectors are drawn into the line-to-line voltage frame. Then, the switching vectors including the zero one are selected simultaneously and their duty cycles are computed. This method reduces the computation time, increasing the accuracy of positioning the switching instants for digital implementation purposes. Simulation results are carried out to confirm the validity of the proposed method.

F. Akel, T. Ghennam, M. Laour, D. Bendib, E. M. Berkouk, M. Chikh

Renewable Energy


Chapter 53. Determining the Optimal Capacities of Renewable-Energy-Based Energy Conversion Systems for Meeting the Demands of Low-Energy District Heating, Electricity, and District Cooling: Case Studies in Copenhagen and Toronto

This chapter presents a method for determining the optimal capacity of a renewable-energy-based energy conversion system for meeting the energy requirements of a given district as considered on a monthly basis, with use of a low-energy district heating system operating at a low temperature, as low as 55 °C for supply and 25 °C for return, and with additional considerations being directed to supply electricity and cooling. Several optimal solutions with various nominal capacities of the technologies involved were obtained in each of the two case studies, one being for the Greater Copenhagen Area, and the other for the Greater Toronto Area. Various climate conditions of the case areas in question caused different observations of nominal capacities for the energy conversion systems considered with single-production and multi-production based on different renewable energy sources.

Hakan İbrahim Tol, İbrahim Dinçer, Svend Svendsen

Chapter 54. Thermal Modeling of a Modified Basin-Type Solar Still

The mathematical model of a modified solar still that operates under vacuum condition and is equipped with an air-cooled condenser is developed. Simulation results for the behavior of such a system under the meteorological conditions of Cairo, Egypt, are presented. In addition, the proposed system is designed and constructed. The experimental validation of simulation results is carried out. Satisfactory matching between simulation results and experimental measurements is obtained. Performance investigation of the proposed system during a whole year is presented and conclusions are drawn.

Ayman G. M. Ibrahim, Elsayed E. Allam, Salman E. Elshamarka

Chapter 55. Potentials and Prospects of Renewables in Libya

As elsewhere, Libya too is affected by human-induced climate change and the volatility of world oil markets. This chapter is designed to present the potential and prospects for replacing nonrenewable fossil fuels (i.e., hydrocarbon) as a backbone of the economy by a range of renewables including wind, solar-PV, hydropower, geothermal, and biomass to deliver energy. The focus is on land opportunities and constraints and on production costs as a function of resource availability and depletion and of innovation dynamics. After outlining a range of renewable production technologies it demonstrates how to try to spread and instill the culture within Libyan society of the idea of renewable energy (RE). It uses best practices and lessons learned to start this culture at an early stage via universities, Libyan academies, high institutes and technical colleges in Libya, and even lower schools. Finally lessons learned are described to highlight a way forward towards a low carbon economy in the country to combat the dangers of global warming through the use of abundantly available renewable potential sources of clean energy.

Satya P. Bindra, Farag Soul, S. D. Jabu, A. Allawafi, A. M. Belashher, H. Reani, S. Abulifa, Khalifa Hammuda

Chapter 56. Synthesis of Titanium-Decorated Graphene for Renewable Energy Applications

Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was prepared from natural graphite by Hummers’ Method. Few-layer graphene was decorated with titanium by an incipient wetness impregnation method. The pristine graphene shows hydrogen storage capacity equal to 1.3 wt%, while graphene decorated by titanium (RGO–Ti) enhanced hydrogen storage capacity to 1.4 wt%. We showed that titanium addition improved hydrogen storage capacity by chemical interactions. These interactions can be used for fabrication of different graphene-based materials as potential candidates for developing new absorbents for energy application.

Zahra Gohari Bajestani, Yuda Yürüm

Chapter 57. Maximisation and Optimisation of the Total Solar Radiation Reaching the Solar Collector Surfaces

The performance of solar conversion systems is affected by its orientation and tilt angle with the horizontal plane. This is because both of these parameters change the amount of solar energy received by the collector surfaces.In this study, the optimum tilt angle of solar systems is determined in order to increase the solar radiation amount reaching the collector plane. Mathematical models have been used for estimating the total (global) solar radiation on a sloped surface and to determine the optimum tilt and surface azimuth angles in Ghardaïa area, southern Algeria, on a daily basis, as well as for a specific period of the year. Then, these models are compared with experimental data for choosing the best one, through the statistical test calculation.For this purpose, a database for one complete year of solar radiation components (global, diffuse and direct) has been used.The results obtained show that the optimum angle for each month allows us to collect the maximum solar radiation; the annual tilt angle is approximately equal to the latitude of the site and the surface azimuth is due south. The loss in the amount of energy between a fixed plane of 32.6° and another one adjustable according to the monthly optimum tilt angle is around 10 %.

Kacem Gairaa, Abdallah Khellaf, Farouk Chellali, Said Benkaciali, Yahia Bakelli, Salah Bezari

Chapter 58. Technical Study of a Hybrid Solar–Geothermal Power Plant and Its Application to a Thermal Design Course

An energetic model for a hybrid solar–geothermal electric power plant (HSGEPP) is developed to explore the extent to which solar thermal resources can extend and enhance marginal and declining geothermal fields. The model is developed and presented to allow replication in a 4th-year solar engineering thermal design course. The model is applied to a HSGEPP being developed in Turkey, and simulations are run using a typical meteorological year formatted data set. The solar fraction ( fs) of the HSGEPP is equal to the fractional decrease in the geothermal resource usage. The increase in annual fs with the collector field’s solar multiple (Ms) is linear up to approximately fs = 0.25 for Ms = 1.25, after which the rate of increase in fs begins to decay and fs approaches 0.37 for Ms = 5. For Ms = 1.25, the monthly solar fraction ranges from 0.05 in December to 0.43 in July.

Derek K. Baker, C. Cihan Özalevli, S. Kazım Sömek

Chapter 59. Technical Analysis of a Hybrid Desiccant Cooling in a Mediterranean Climate

This chapter presents a performance analysis of a hybrid liquid desiccant cooling system (DCS) with lithium chloride as the desiccant material in a Mediterranean climate. Mathematical models of desiccant contactors are adopted from the literature. The complete system is modeled in the TRNSYS platform and is simulated using Typical Meteorological Year data. The building model was developed in accordance with the building’s construction material and usage style. Simulations are performed over the summer period of a typical year and the results of the system are compared with the results of a conventional vapor compression cooling system (VCCS) from viewpoint of system characteristics and energy savings. One of the important contributions is the conclusion that a transient cycle analysis is necessary to understand the DCS cycle’s performance. The results also indicate that the consumed energy in both systems is approximately equal in magnitudes but different in type; DCS shifts the energy required for the operation of the system from electrical energy to thermal energy. It is also observed that for large supply-airflow rate applications, DCS would be more beneficial than VCCS.

Arash Karshenass, Derek Baker, Cemil Yamali, Rahul Singh

Chapter 60. Certification Issue of Solar Photovoltaic Modules for Local Production, Problems, and Solutions in Turkey

In parallel to Turkey’s developing technology and growing economy, to meet the increasing energy needs, Turkey should focus on domestic and renewable energy resources. Any growth in energy supply must be achieved in a low carbon way. In this process, the production of electricity from solar energy, namely photovoltaic technology, will have a large share. Hence determining the quality of photovoltaic modules has great importance in both financial terms and manufacturing.Determination of quality and reliable photovoltaic modules is only possible by the product certification and inspection services. Thus, the production stage of the module and installation process can be demonstrated by checking all of the quality system standards. In order to ensure the most accurate and independent service, international accreditation is crucial.There are three steps in front of Turkey during the adaptation of solar energy. First of them is quality production of photovoltaic modules, second is testing and certification, and lastly proper installation of photovoltaic modules onto the power plants. This research finds solutions for the problems faced in testing and certification process of solar photovoltaic modules for local producers by local certification laboratories and certification bodies.As there are different elements which affect the quality of photovoltaic modules, this research focuses on production of solar photovoltaic modules in Turkey, certification and accreditation for photovoltaic modules, regulations in Turkey, and encountered problems and solutions.

Yusuf Bicer, Cevat Ozarpa, Y. Erhan Boke

Chapter 61. Statistical Analysis of Short-Term Solar Radiation Data over Aligarh (India)

This study aims at exploring solar radiation in the Aligarh region of India (latitude, 27.88°N; longitude, 78.08°E), due to the fact that measured solar radiation data for this region is scarce. A new set of regression coefficients for the Angström-type correlation for estimation of monthly average daily solar radiation on horizontal surfaces in Aligarh (India) has been presented. The regression coefficients were applied to the data of bright sunshine hours obtained from the Solar Energy Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, during the period of September 2013 to February 2014. The results were compared with the correlations of other researchers available in literature and solar radiation data obtained from measurements. Correlation for the estimation of monthly average diffuse solar radiation is also developed in terms of the ratio of diffuse to global radiation. The performances of the proposed correlations were analyzed by mean bias error and root mean square error. A good agreement was found between the estimated and measured values following the application of the new proposed correlations. Thus, monthly average global, diffuse, and direct solar radiation on a horizontal surface in the Aligarh region of India has been obtained.

Basharat Jamil, Naiem Akhtar

Chapter 62. Characterization and Simulation of Silicon Oxynitride Films Deposited by ECR-PECVD: For Solar Applications

Graded refractive index silicon oxynitrides are deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ECR-PECVD). The analysis of engraving speeds and infrared absorption spectra taken on samples informed us about their chemical compositions. This analysis shows the presence of refractive index gradient. To benefit at the same time from antireflective and passive properties of oxynitrides, we proposed graded index layer having Fermi profile, which we optimized by simulation. This coating would replace the classic double layer antireflective coating (ARC) made in two different technological steps. Calculation predicts an enhancement of photogenerated current exceeding 45 % and a weighted reflectance (between 300 and 1,100 nm) around 5.6 %.

Lilia Zighed, Abdelhakim Mahdjoub

Chapter 63. Effective Manufacture of Free-Standing TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Without Bottom Barrier Layer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Different from other procedures, we introduce a simple procedure for preparing large-area, free-standing, non-curling, opened-end TiO2 nanotube array (TiNT) films by selected annealing temperature and oxalic acid treatment. The selective dissolution properties of oxalic acid are used to easily separate TiNT off Ti substrates and dissolve the bottom caps in this one-pot reaction. These TiNT films were attached on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses and used in the front-side-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). As compared to the DSSC made of closed-end TiNT, the DSSC made of opened-end TiNT exhibited an enhancement in efficiency from 4.65 to 7.82 %, corresponding to 70 % improvement.

Wen-Kai Tu, Jia-Shiang Chen, Shu-Hua Chien

Chapter 64. Effect of Different Parameters on the Solar Drying of Henna; Experimental Investigation in the Region of Biskra (Algeria)

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the thermal performances of two models of solar air flat-plate collectors (FPCs) for drying applications (indirect dryers). We carried out studies in order to determine the best-performing model and to achieve a clean product in the least possible time by using a sustainable energy. Thus, we have proceeded to the application of the best-performing dryer for the drying of the henna (Lawsonia inermis); we have sought to determine the influence of some parameters on the drying kinetic of the product for the forced convection hot-air drying and their temperature dependence. The drying air was heated by solar energy under variable outdoor conditions. Both collectors were designed, constructed, and tested in the University of Biskra (Algeria) on a stand facing south at an inclination angle equal to the local latitude.

Adnane Labed, Noureddine Moummi, Miloud Zellouf, Kamel Aoues, Amar Rouag

Chapter 65. Parametric Study of Tower Power Plant Performances for Its Implementation in Algeria

There is a great interest in the development of the concentration power technologies to produce electricity. Among these technologies, the power tower technology plays an essential role. Beside the heliostat field, the receiver is an important part in this technology and its performance highly affects the efficiency of the whole system.In the present work, the performance of a solar power tower receiver is studied. First, the case of the conventional water/steam receiver is considered, and then the open volumetric receiver is investigated. The study is carried out for the site of Hassi R’mel in Algeria.An analysis of the results has indicated that the open volumetric receiver is more suitable for the Algerian climate than the conventional water/steam receiver.

Noureddine Yamani, Abdallah Khellaf, Kamel Mohammedi

Chapter 66. Experimental and Theoretical Modeling of 5 MW Offshore Wind Turbine with TLP Platform

The importance of substituting the conventional fossil fuels by clean energies exhorts the scientists and specialists of this major to present new and effective methods for this substitution. These new methods must have enough capability for utilizing the clean energies more than the previous operated methods. The main goal of this research is based on experiencing the experimental ways of floating the tension leg platform (TLP) and analyzing the dynamic responses of this structure. For realization of this goal, 1/100 scaled model of the real structure was designed and during the test process several probable defects were assumed. Consequently, results of each step were obtained and recorded. In addition, for analyzing the responses, diagrams of power spectral density (PSD) of each phase of the test were derived. Furthermore, the 2-D mathematical model of this structure was considered and the results were used for validating the experimental responses.

M. M. Ettefagh, Mobin Alipour, Yousef Golizadeh Akhlaghi, Ebrahim Akbari

Chapter 67. Wind Resource Assessment and Micrositting: A Case Study for Turkey

Due to earth’s limited fossil energy resources along with their environmental and health hazards, the usage of renewable energy resources is very crucial. Among all the renewable energy resources, wind is one of the most promising. Wind resource assessment which estimates the strength of wind resources at a planned site and micrositting which determines the highest annual energy production for turbines’ layout are very important in installing wind farm. The output of wind resource assessment is wind conditions and annual energy production at a site. The output of micrositting is the optimal layout for the highest annual energy production through the turbines. In this paper, wind resource assessment of a site located in Seferihisar-İzmir, Turkey, is accomplished by using wind data collected between September 2008 and June 2010. The micrositting study is done for five different wind turbines. The commercially available softwares WindPRO and WAsP are used for these analyses. As a result, the best alternate is obtained and presented.

Mustafa Süel, Barış Özerdem

Chapter 68. Investigation of the Long-Term Resource Variation in Western Coast (Aegean Sea) of Turkey Through Use of MERRA Reanalysis Data

The onsite measurement periods, typically ranging from 1 to 5 years, are short when compared with the standard period for average climate definition of 20–30 years and the lifetime of a wind farm. The annual variability of the wind regime, if not accounted for, adds to the uncertainty of the site’s resource assessment and can lead to serious misevaluations. The use of long-term wind data is an old issue in wind resource assessment. The typical methods of eliminating the annual variations of the wind regime from the average are correlations like the measure–correlate–predict (MCP) technique. However, the availability of such long periods of wind data is not as frequent as desired. At the end of 2009 a new reanalysis dataset named MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) was published by NASA’s Global Modeling and Assimilation Office/Goddard Space Flight Center. The MERRA analysis is being conducted with the GEOS-5 Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (ADAS). The model grid is 0.5° latitude and 2/3° longitude and temporal resolution of 1 h. The MERRA data considers the orography and roughness of the site, and has a high availability.In this work, the author analyzes the MERRA data for the level of 50 m above ground level (agl), period 1979–2013, in the wider area of Western Coast (Aegean Sea) of Turkey (17 grid points from the area of Enez to Antalya cities, 26.0°E–30.67°E and 40.50°N–36.0°N) and studies the yearly variability. Also, a correlation study (using MCP techniques) is done between the different grid points of MERRA reanalysis project and their combinations should also be evaluated. Possible relationships between terrain characteristics, local wind systems, and correlation values should also be investigated. The establishment of the existence of a predominant periodicity in the long-term wind variation could provide valuable information on the behavior of the wind climate for the upcoming years.

Konstantinos C. Gkarakis

Chapter 69. Using Remote Sensing Technologies for Wind Turbine/Farm Health Monitoring

Efficient use of contemporary measurement systems (accelerometers, piezoelectric or fiber-optic strain gauges) in structural health monitoring of wind turbines is mainly limited due to high sensor installation costs, practical limitations in placing these sensors on existing structures, low spatial resolution, and similar disadvantages caused by the complicated nature of wind loading and the turbine structure. The factors affecting the performance of these sensors such as sensitivity to lightning, electromagnetic fields, humidity and temperature variations, and the corresponding error compensation methods are still being investigated. Similarly, additional long-term durability tests are required to determine whether the bonding between the sensor and composite blade material deteriorates over time due to repetitive loading and severe environmental factors or not.In this work, two optical measurement techniques (photogrammetry and laser interferometry), which do not require any sensors to be installed on the structure, are introduced as promising and versatile alternatives for measuring the vibration response of wind turbines. By using LDV (laser Doppler vibrometer), the dynamic behavior of the turbine at parked condition can be measured with a very high accuracy (in micron level). Similarly, photogrammetry enables the in-operation vibration response of the turbine to be measured with an average accuracy of ±25 mm from a measurement distance of 220 m. Considering the fact that during rotation peak-to-peak blade deformations can be as high as 1,000 mm, this accuracy can be considered as quite high and still be improved further.

Muammer Ozbek, Daniel J. Rixen

Chapter 70. Dynamic Stability Analysis of Wind Turbines Through In-Field Vibration Tests

Depending on their types and sizes, MW-scale wind turbines are usually designed to be operational for wind speeds between 4 and 25 m/s. In order to reach this goal, most of the turbines utilize active pitch control mechanisms where the angle of the blade (pitch angle) is changed as a function of wind speed. Similarly, the whole rotor is rotated toward the effective wind direction by using the yaw mechanism.The ability of the turbine to adapt to the changes in operating conditions plays a crucial role in ensuring maximum energy production and the safety of the structure during extreme wind loads. This on the other hand makes it more difficult to investigate the system from the dynamic analysis point of view. Unlike ordinary engineering structures, the modal damping ratios identified for wind turbines are not constant; they change depending on wind speed, rotor speed, and blade pitch angle. Unexpected resonance problems due to dynamic interactions among the aeroelastic modes and/or excitation forces can always be encountered. Therefore, within the design wind speed interval, for each velocity increment, it has to be proven that there are no risks of possible resonance problems and that the structure is dynamically stable.This work presents the results of in-field vibration tests and the corresponding data analysis performed on a 2.5 MW, 80 m diameter wind turbine. Within the scope of the research, 12 different modes were identified for the turbine at parked conditions. Similarly, seven different aeroelastic modes were extracted for the rotating turbine. These results were then qualitatively compared with a reference study in literature which includes in-field vibration tests and aeroelastic stability analysis performed on a similar size and capacity wind turbine.

Muammer Ozbek, Daniel J. Rixen

Chapter 71. PV/Wind Installation: Powered Rural Zone Family House in Bechar (Algeria)

In the development of energy sources in rural regions in Algeria, it is necessary to view the use of solar and wind energy in all applications as one of the most promising new and renewable energy sources. This paper presents the methodology of the feasibility study using hybrid (wind-solar) energy conversion system for providing the electrical loads in a family house according to their energy requirements. A long-term data of wind speed and solar radiation for every hour of the day were used. These data were used to calculate the average power generated by a PV/wind installation for every hour of a typical day in a month. A load of a typical family house in a rural zone in Sahara of Algeria (desert area) was used as a load demand of the system. The hybrid (wind-solar) system considered in the present analysis consists of one 1 kW wind energy conversion system (WECS), 125 W of (10) BP photovoltaic panels together with battery storage system. A computer program has been developed to achieve this and to determine the specification of hybrid system component. The study was performed using a graphical user interface programmed in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

B. Bouchiba, M. Dahbi, F. Benhamida, A. Hazzab, M. Habbab

Chapter 72. Prospects of a Settlement in Southern Georgia Based on Green Energy

Georgia is an ideal country for the project of a settlement entirely based on renewable energy: its renewable energy resources are huge, diversified, and entirely meeting the demands of the project. As a result of a thorough investigation, the Zveli Site in Southern Georgia was identified. The site represents a land plot of about 25 km2 situated on the second plane above the flood of the Mtkvari (Kura) River. Hydropower resources of the Mtkvari River and its inflows near the Zveli Site are about 400 MW, 40 times exceeding the preliminary assessed needs of the site. Geothermal resources of Samtskhe-Javakheti are assessed to be 13.87 MW including 2.16 MW in the Aspindza deposit situated in 5 km from the site. Photovoltaic and wind resources are also huge. The settlement will consist of residential + administrative and industrial zones. The settlement and its industries are suggested to use energy-saving technologies. Wind, photovoltaic, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal sources of energy will be used. The main fields of business activities would be agriculture and food product processing and marketing at the background of 100 % employment. The settlement will have a kindergarten, a school, a police post, a fire station, municipality services, supermarkets, and cafés, as well as a park zone.

Alexander G. Tvalchrelidze

Chapter 73. Modeling and Transient Simulations of 30 MW Solar Thermal Electric Power Plants in the Northeast Mediterranean Region

The annual performance of a parabolic trough collector (PTC) concentrating solar power (CSP) system without storage or backup is predicted for Antalya (Turkey) and Güzelyurt and Larnaca on the island of Cyprus by modeling the system with TRNSYS software. The model is established to be similar to the 30 MWe CSP plant (SEGS VI) in Kramer Junction, California. The model is benchmarked with published results for Kramer Junction and Antalya, and good agreement is found. Based on irradiation maps, Güzelyurt is expected to be one of the sunniest areas on Cyprus, but hourly meteorological data are not supplied with TRNSYS for this location. Meteorological data in TMY2 format are available in TRNSYS for Larnaca. In this work, TMY2 data for Güzelyurt is created using Meteonorm software. The investigation of the performance of a CSP plant for these two locations on the island of Cyprus is one of the main objectives of this paper. The annual performance of these systems is predicted by performing simulations using an hourly time step. Results for typical clear and cloudy days are compared for the three locations. The highest monthly average net power outputs are observed for Güzelyurt. Finally, the capacity factor of the CSP plant is investigated for different solar multiples for a solar-only PTC plant without hybridization or thermal storage for all three locations. Results show that maximum power outputs are obtained for Güzelyurt. For our solar-only system, solar multiples of 1.1–1.3 have good results, but for solar multiples greater than 1.3, an excess amount of solar resources starts to be wasted, so that storage is recommended especially for Güzelyurt.

Serhat Bilyaz, Rahul Singh, Arash Karshenass, Derek Baker

Chapter 74. An Experimental Study on the Drying of Peanuts Using Indirect Solar Dryer

An indirect type natural convection solar dryer is designed, constructed, and investigated experimentally to study the drying of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under the weather conditions of Ouargla, Algeria.During the experiments, the samples of peanut were dried to the final moisture content of 8.31 from 34.15 % (w.b) in three days of drying. Experimental drying curves showed only a falling drying rate period. Measured air-drying temperatures, relative humidity, and air velocity in the dryer ranged between 20 and 46.06 °C, 8.03 and 35.82 %, and 0 and 1.68 m/s, respectively.The data of sample weight, relative humidity, and temperatures were recorded continuously from morning to evening for each test.The peanut oil extraction (solid-liquid extraction by using Soxhlet extractor) shows that the yield of oil in the dried product increased by 16.26 % compared to the fresh product.Peanut dried in the indirect solar dryer (type natural convection) was completely protected from insects, rain, and dusts, and the dried samples were of high yield in terms of oil. This system can be used for drying various agricultural products. Also, it is simple in construction and can be constructed at a low cost with locally obtainable materials.

D. Mennouche, B. Bouchekima, S. Zighmi, A. Boubekri, S. Boughali, A. Matallah

Chapter 75. Comparative Study of Conventional and Renewable Energy Sources for HVAC Systems

In this chapter, the life cycle aspects and environmental impact of substituting various renewable and non-renewable energy sources are analysed for several heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and several case studies are considered. For the case of conventional energy sources, it is found that substitution of natural gas for other conventional energy sources can significantly reduce CO2 emissions. For the case of biomass, biogas is found to be the most effective type of biomass for reducing CO2 emissions. The case studies demonstrate that building design and insulation significantly affect HVAC energy consumption. The results are significant because HVAC is the major source of energy consumption in most residential and other buildings.

M. Malik, I. Dincer, M. A. Rosen


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