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2016 | Book

Project Management and Engineering Research, 2014

Selected Papers from the 18th International AEIPRO Congress held in Alcañiz, Spain, in 2014


About this book

This volume features papers from the 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering, held by the University of Zaragoza in collaboration with the Spanish Association of Project Management and Engineering (AEIPRO). It illustrates the state of the art in this emerging area. Readers will discover ways to increase the effectiveness of project engineering as well as the efficiency of project management.

The papers, written by international researchers and professionals, cover civil engineering and urban planning, product and process engineering, environmental engineering, energy efficiency and renewable energies, rural development, safety, labor risks and ergonomics, and training in project engineering.

Overall, this book contributes to the improvement of project engineering research and enhances the transfer of results to the job of project engineers and project managers around the world. It will appeal to all professionals in the field as well as researchers and teachers involved in the training of future professionals.

Table of Contents


Project Management

Critical Success Factors For Construction Projects
The literature demonstrates a lack of consensus and consistency to identify critical success factors (CSFs) for different construction operations. Therefore, the objectives of the study are to: (1) identify and categorize CSFs from literature; (2) examine the limitations of the current practices; and (3) recommend future studies. CSFs from the existing literature were categorized according to their emphasis on project outcomes, delivery methods, project types, and partnering processes. Upper management support, commitment, constructability reviews, teamwork, communication, and building trusts emerged as they shared key elements of success in most construction activities. Previous studies’ major limitation lays in the emphasis on experts’ subjective prioritization of CSFs and the limited number of empirical studies. The results of the study also demonstrate that there is a great potential for investigating CSFs for emerging delivery methods, and for exploring the causality relationships between CSFs and project success.
Behzad Esmaeili, Eugenio Pellicer, Keith Robert Molenaar
Implementation and Evolution of the Critical Chain Method: A Case Study
The Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) method has been implemented in a wide variety of industries, activities and countries. This article is based on the implementation of this method in two different units of the same company which designs, develops and produces high-tech parts. Even if it is based on the implementation process and its results, the scope exceeds this context. The analysis is made with a time perspective, considering not only the implementation but also the evolution following its completion. As a result, two different sides can be highlighted: the first one concerns the outcomes achieved in each case as a consequence of the implementation of the method, and the second one is related to the key aspects identified in the implementation processes—in particular the success factors. The comparative analysis regarding the results achieved in both cases, in a time period that goes beyond the implementation timeframe, is of special interest. The findings of this work lead to some new aspects concerning the method, which require further research.
U. Apaolaza, A. Lizarralde
A Project Monitoring and Control System Using EVM and Monte Carlo Simulation
Earned Value Management (EVM) tells the project manager whether the project has overruns (costs, delays) or it is running better than planned. But taking into account uncertainty, the methodology does not specify whether the deviation from planned values is within the possible deviations derived from the expected variability of the project. In this paper, a different approach is proposed for monitoring and control projects under uncertainty. The Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain the “universe” of possible project runs and new and innovative graphs are defined. When the project is running, its current situation can be represented with these graphs, so that it can be established whether the cost or duration of a project is under control at a given time for a given level of confidence.
Fernando Acebes, Javier Pajares, José Manuel Galán, Adolfo López-Paredes
Proposal for a Maturity Model Based on Expert Judgment for Spanish Project Organisations
Maturity models indicate a path for achieving excellence in project management by evaluating how organisations implement best practices. The Software Engineering Institute developed in 1987 the first maturity model designed to help software companies improve their processes—the Capability Maturity Model. Various models have since been proposed, and they are most commonly employed in areas where project management techniques are frequently used (US, UK, and Latin America). The excessive variety of maturity models has made their practical application in business difficult. In Spain, there is little documentation available on the current use of maturity models in organisations and this study aims to fill that gap. To achieve this it was necessary to consult project management experts to establish the most common business practices and so propose the basis of a maturity model for Spanish project organisations.
L. J. Amendola, T. Depool, M. A. Artacho, L. Borrell Martinez, M. Martín
National Culture and Planning and Control of Projects in Portugal
Previous research report abundantly that management practices are impregnated with national culture, in particular the practices of project management. This is an area with a high impact on the sustainability of countries and organizations, given the importance of efficiency and effectiveness of project management for the economic and social development. This work focuses on attitudes towards planning and control of projects and on practices of these management activities in Portugal. It is based on the application of a survey to 634 professionals involved in implementing and/or managing projects, across the country and in most economic sectors. Although several published studies refer that Portuguese culture attribute low importance to planning and control, the surveyed professionals report a high importance attributed to planning and control of projects. On the other hand, the comparison with a similar study conducted in the USA revealed similar levels of practices of planning and control of projects in these two countries. This is a surprising outcome that raises the possibility of changes happening in the national culture of Portugal.
José Salgado Rodrigues, Alexandra Ribeiro Costa, Carlos Guillén Gestoso

Civil Engineering, Urbanism and Urban Planning. Building and Architecture

Calculating the Carbon Footprint of the Household Urban Planning Land Use
The present paper presents a methodology to incorporate carbon footprint calculation in the urban planning process. Using the developed methodology for residential land use, the general scope is defined, the sources are identified, and greenhouse gas emissions are calculated for several municipalities in the south of Madrid, which amounts which amounts to 6.609 tCO2eq/dwell.yr. A set of 31 municipalities in Madrid was analyzed to quantify its greenhouse gas emissions, which vary between 165.23 and 147543.32 tCO2eq/yr. The relations between the emission of greenhouse gases and urban design parameters and the aptitude of the non-developable land to fix projected emissions, varying from 3.18 to 24.55 hectares of non-developable land were studied. Resumen En la presente comunicación se expone una técnica para la incorporación del cálculo de la huella de carbono en los procedimientos urbanísticos. Se ha definido el contexto general, identificado las fuentes y cuantificado las emisiones vinculadas a los usos residenciales para un conjunto de municipios en el sur de la Comunidad de Madrid, que se han cifrado en 6,609 tCO2eq/viv•año. Se han estudiado también las relaciones entre las emisiones y los parámetros de diseño urbanístico y la aptitud de suelo no urbanizable para fijar las emisiones previstas oscilando los ratios entre las 3.18 y las 24.55 hectáreas de suelo no urbanizable.
S. Zubelzu, A. Hernández

Product and Process Engineering and Industrial Design

Methodology for the Selection of Key Performance Indicators for Sustainable Steel Production Through an Intelligent Control System Use
Steel production is involved in a continuous improvement process forced by customers to enhance product quality as well as to reduce production costs. Moreover, both society and the regulators increase their pressure to reduce the environmental of this activity, so the decision process has necessarily to include the environmental perspective. This communication proposes the concept of an Intelligent Control System (ICS) to assist the optimization of the production process of steel in a holistic way, considering quality, economic and environmental parameters. Processes environmental evaluation are based on the definition of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) susceptible to be managed online by the ICS and this communication is devoted to the development of a methodology for KPI selection. Then, the procedure is applied to a case study, the Hot Strip Mill, and after its systematic application, a collection of KPIs based on GHG emissions monitoring and suitable to be managed automatically and in real time is proposed.
J. M. Mesa Fernández, F. Rodríguez Pérez, G. M. Martínez Huerta, S. M. Andrés Vizán
Design and Optimization of a Chassis for an Air-Assisted Sprayer with Two Fans Using the Finite Element Method
The use of plant protection products such as pesticides to protect crops against attacks by fungi, insects and weeds is a common agricultural practice. The affected areas have to be treated uniformly and with the appropriate concentration. This is achieved by the use of agricultural machinery such as air-assisted sprayers. The most common air-assisted sprayers have only one fan on the rear. This implies that the airflow generated around the machine is not symmetrical. Consequently, it is not possible to ensure the same quality of treatment for all trees. The installation of a second fan and the increase in tank capacity in the machines have resulted in machines with greater dimensions. These machines have to support higher loads compared to traditional air-assisted sprayers. The development of these new designs of air-assisted sprayers requires optimization of their chassis in order to ensure the proper operation of these agricultural implements. The main objective of this study is the design and optimization of a chassis for an air-assisted sprayer equipped with a 4000 l tank and two axial fans.
H Malon, F. J. Garcia-Ramos, M. Vidal, A. Bone
Conceptual Design of a Small Electrical Appliance with Multiple Uses Following the Design-to-Last Approach
Nowadays a large variety of small electrical appliances are available to perform many functions and most of them are intended for tasks usually done in the kitchen. Different electrical appliances often have the same or a very similar main function such as heating a fluid (coffee-maker or tea-maker) or transferring heat to an object (bottle sterilizer or heater, food heater). Sometimes these products are designed for just one specific function, as in the bottle sterilizer or the heater, without considering how to apply them to other elements that could also be sterilized or heated. One of the design approaches that may guide the future of sustainable design is to design objects to last, thereby increasing their use. This work analyses the possibilities of integrating multiple uses to extend the life and use of a small electrical appliance, the main function of which is to heat, while proposing a conceptual design and assessing the improvement in its expected use.
M. Royo, M. Navarro, E. Mulet
A Cost Analysis of Electric Vehicle Batteries Second Life Businesses
In the following years thousands of electric cars are expected to be sold. Knowing that their batteries cannot be used for traction services after they have lost a 20 % of its capacity, there will be thousands of batteries available for re-use. The re-use represents a considerable environmental improvement compared to the immediate recycling. According to battery recycling enterprises, not even half of them are collected back after being used and car manufacturers should ensure that their electric vehicle batteries will be correctly processed. A second life added value might help for a better deposition and management control. Although interesting, the second life re-use is not simple. Vehicles should first arrive to the dispersed authorized processing centers in the country. Once there, batteries should be extracted, packed according to legal regulations and transported to the restoration plant, where they will be tested, their components revised and they will be prepared for the second life application. All this implies personnel, transport, installation amortization and spare part costs. This work will present how appropriate the idea of the battery recovery for second life applications is.
Lluc Canals Casals, Beatriz Amante García, Maria Margarita González Benítez
Work Procedure for Evaluating Conceptual Users’ Experiences Using the Multimethod Tool EyeFace
The assessment tools used in development processes must meet specific conditions to guarantee their successful application in business. Defining a work procedure for the multimethod tool EyeFace will help to meet these conditions and integrate this new tool into an experience design process. The aim of this paper is to define a specific work procedure for the new multimethod assessment tool EyeFace and to evaluate users’ experiences of it at a conceptual level. To achieve this aim, an experiment was carried out to evaluate users’ experiences with Fundawear, a new product created by Durex.
Ganix Lasa, Daniel Justel, Aiur Retegi
Product Phenetics as an Alternative to Establish a Relationship Between Morphology and Perception Associated to Industrial Products
Morphological analysis can be a valid alternative in order to control the relationship between different design proposals and what these connote and denote. This work suggests a new perspective of perception analysis of products based on phenetics and cluster analysis. Ten drill models are digitized, morphologically compared and grouped depending of a proposed dissimilarity index based on the Procrustes Method. In the same way, the cognitive and emotional responses, and the purchase intention related to the power tools belonging to each of the groups are all obtained by using semantic differential method. As a result there appear statistically significant differences between the user’s perceptions of the different morphological clusters. This way the methodology being followed in this work is justified and the proposed dissimilarity index is granted validity.
Miguel Ángel Artacho Ramírez, José Manuel Arrufat Álvarez, Enrique Alcántara Alcover

Environmental Engineering and Natural Resource Management

Optimization of the Location of the Municipal Solid Waste Bins Using Geographic Information Systems
Nowadays, in the Spanish cities streets there are several types of bins to collect the different municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions: organic matter and reject fraction, paper and cardboard, light packaging, glass, used oil, clothes, etc. To locate them correctly in the urban landscape is an important task in the MSW management. In the first place, from the MSW collection point of view, a appropriate bins location makes their collection easier. In the second place, in the selective collection, a good location is basic to ensure the citizens participation in the recovery of the recyclable materials. Moreover, the bins location must respect the urban environment. This work presents a methodology to optimize the MSW bins location taking into account several factors such as the distance to the users, the streets characteristics, the presence of singular urban points, etc. The methodology will be later applied to the optimization of the location of the different waste fraction bins of a Spanish city using the Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
Mar Carlos, Antonio Gallardo, Mónica Peris, Francisco J. Colomer

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energies

Photovoltaic Installations for Self-consumption in Buildings: Feasibility Analysis and Determination of Optimal Design Parameters for the Project
In some building typologies with stable electricity consumption profiles in the middle hours of the day, solar photovoltaic technology has emerged as a source of energy that can replace a high percentage of the electrical supply from the conventional power grid. This paper analyzes the photovoltaic energy installations for self-consumption in public buildings of two types from the energy point of view, and reviews the financial aspects. To do this, a software tool which applies recognized models for the prediction of photovoltaic intraday productions has been applied. This tool compares the photovoltaic energy productions with the typical energy demand curves of thirty public buildings and makes the energy and economic balances. The analysis is used for the project decision making regarding the proper location for the installation of panels and the determination of the optimal design parameters of the self-consumption photovoltaic installations to be built in two of the buildings analyzed. In conclusion, for the typical profile of energy consumption of administrative and service buildings, such installations are of interest from the economic and energetic point of view discussed in the article.
D. Encinas, F. López, C. Segador, J. M. Cosme, L. Cuadros
Analysis and Comparison of Energy Saving Measures Through Marginal Abatement Cost Curves
In the European Union, the building sector uses the 40 % of the total final energy consumption. This, together with the commitment to achieve the Kyoto Protocol levels, in terms of energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, has led to changes in the legislation of the sector to get lower energy demand in buildings. In Spain, from 1st June 2013, it is required to make the energy performance certificate available to buyers and/or users every time buildings or units thereof are built, reformed, rehabilitated, sold or rented. For existing buildings, the certificate will include a proposal of a series of measures to improve the energy rating, and the impact of each measure will be indicated. The aim of this work is to study, in detail, the results obtained after implementing the various measures for energy rehabilitation in existing residential buildings, through the creation of marginal abatement cost curves, showing the results in savings obtained in relation to the cost of implementing the measure.
R. Fresco Contreras
A Comparison Between Spanish and Australian Building Energy Efficiency Codes. A Case Study
The main aim of this study is to compare the requirements established by Spanish and Australian Building Codes in energy efficiency terms through a case study. First the BCA (Building Code of Australia) was analyzed in detail by studying its structure and finding a correlation of the sections with the Spanish Building Code (CTE; Código Técnico de la Edificación) in Spain. Then the contents in both regulations were identified, as were the building classification, usages and climate zones by climate severity defined for summer and winter using accumulated global radiation and degree per day average. Other factors, such as solar heat gain coefficient, helped develop and facilitate the comparison between both Building Codes. To illustrate the comparison, a detached house was analyzed by implementing the energy requirements for both Building Codes, and by providing construction solutions through natural insulation. The points that presented de most notable differences were identified, as well as the topics with more restrictive regulation notable differences, whose regulation is more restrictive in each aspect. Finally, a programmed software, capable of automatically determining these data, was developed to facilitate the comparison for any other case study.
Marta Braulio-Gonzalo, Aroa Capdevila-Mateu
Energy Efficiency as a Strategic Planning Tool in a House Type Project
Energy efficiency in a project to build house types is an essential tool in strategic planning as it provides the opportunity to reduce energy consumption, to design houses with low energy demands and to promote more sustainable constructions. This paper analysed a house type project in Mexico by considering different climate zones to explore and study the thermal behaviour of houses under different operating conditions. The analysis was performed with the TRNSYS software, transient simulation software used for designing and optimising energy systems and the thermal simulation of buildings. The results of the housing type project’s performance in different structural designs for distinct climate zones are presented, and its utility for implementing strategic planning to design, construct, use and maintain energy-efficient homes was explored in hygrothermal comfort terms.
J. A. Castelán Peña, C. Aparicio-Fernández, J. L. Vivancos
Predictive Probabilistic Functions for Energy Prices as an Input in Monte Carlo Simulations
The continuous increase in energy costs and the volatility of energy prices are enforcing the implementation of energy efficiency measures (EEM) in companies. The choice of EEM in most cases is based on Pay-Back (PB) criteria, and in several cases on NPV and IRR criteria. In all these cases, it is necessary to estimate the price of energy in the following years so as to be able to study the profitability of the proposed EEM. Energy prices: electricity, biomass, petroleum, natural gas… change greatly throughout the period of a project, and their values are not easy to predict. If probabilistic functions are used to define the evolution of energy prices, in the period of the project, the economic parameters (PB, IRR, NPV) could also be obtained as probabilistic functions, by applying Monte Carlo Simulation Methods. This paper shows how to obtain the probabilistic functions that best describe the variation of energy prices in the period of a project, and how to apply the Monte Carlo Simulation Method to obtain a better approach to predicting future energy prices.
Adrien J. P. Grid, Andrés Ortuño, M. Socorro García-Cascales, Juan Miguel Sánchez-Lozano

Rural Development and Development Co-operation Projects

Revolving Funds as a Tool for the Success of Rural Development Projects. Case Study: “Casa Campesina” Cayambe (Ecuador)
A key element of sustainable rural development is to improve the welfare of communities so they can enjoy a decent and fair life, which cannot be achieved without an increase in their incomes. To achieve this, it is necessary that rural development projects seek to strengthen productive capacities and management of communities as well as successfully incorporate funding mechanisms to enable the sustainability of accomplished development. One of these is called a “Revolving Fund” for microcredits, which is an example of a funding mechanism that has been applied in rural settings to support entrepreneurs in order to generate productivity. To prove that these mechanisms are valid to ensure the sustainability of the improvement in the welfare of communities, this paper details the experience of Revolving Funds which were implemented in 1994 in the “Casa Campesina” development project in Cayambe (Ecuador) with $16.708, and that remain active in 2013, and have lent more than $4.000.000 of credits. A two-step research model was used which analyses the experience from both a quantitative (amount and number of credits) and qualitative (impact on beneficiaries) approach.
M. Maneiko, V. Montalvo, S. Sastre-Merino

Training in Project Engineering

Planning and Projects: Three Visionaires Friedmann, J., Trueba, I. and Ramos, A
It is impossible to talk about planning as a scientific meta-discipline without mentioning one of the most influential worldwide figures in the second half of the twentieth century: John Friedmann. His contribution to the planning concept on his Planning as Social Learning theory is still very relevant. This paper shows the intellectual connection between Friedmann, Angel Ramos and Ignacio Trueba, two of the Spanish intellectual drivers in the engineering project knowledge area, who contributed to the foundation of the Project Engineering Spanish Association. The three of them share a broad vision of the project and abandon the “blue print” planning model. They also see the project as a transformational tool that requires a different planning style to the one which prevailed in the 70s—both in public and private domains. They were pioneers in structuring Knowledge/Action in a different way, both in academic institutions where disciples helped to bring about change—and with direct action via projects.
A. Cazorla, L. De Nicolás
Project Management and Engineering Research, 2014
José Luis Ayuso Muñoz
José Luis Yagüe Blanco
Salvador F. Capuz-Rizo
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