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2017 | Book

Project Management and Engineering Research



About this book

This book gathers the best papers presented at the 19th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering, which was held in Granada, Spain in July 2015. It covers a range of project management and engineering contexts, including: civil engineering and urban planning, product and process engineering, environmental engineering, energy efficiency and renewable energies, rural development, information and communication technologies, safety, labour risks and ergonomics, and training in project engineering.

Project management and engineering is taking on increasing importance as projects continue to grow in size, more stakeholders become involved, and environmental, organisational and technological issues become more complex. As such, this book offers a valuable resource for all professionals seeking the latest material on the changing face of project management.

Table of Contents

Retraction Note to: Guadua angustifolia as a Structural Material for Greenhouse Design
Eduardo Garzón, Manuel Cano García, Luis Pérez-Villarejo, Sergio Martínez-Martínez, Pedro José Sánchez-Soto

Project Management

Comprehensive Reorganization of Project Management: A Case Study
At the starting point of the present study stands the need to improve the Project Management (PM) of a company. The fundamental aspects of the implementation of the Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) method and its implications for the organization are described, focusing on the changes and improvements achieved during implementation of phase 1. The analysis highlights a number of aspects revealed as a result of the implementation of the method beyond the quantitative results. The present findings are interesting from a dual perspective: their inherent value as knowledge and basis for future research; and, furthermore, the fact that they led to the need of a second phase, transcending the scope initially established by the project.
Unai Apaolaza, Aitor Lizarralde

Civil Engineering, Urbanism and Urban Planning. Building and Architecture

The Dilemma of Innovation in the Construction Company: A Decade of Lessons Learned
Innovation can be defined as the integration of non-trivial ideas capable of generating positive changes that increase a company’s competitiveness. For construction companies, innovation is not an easy task, since their production is based on single projects built in different locations. This article summarizes the exploratory research conducted by the authors over the last decade, focused on the implementation, development and monitoring of a standardized innovation management system in a mid-size Spanish construction company. Collected evidence, also contrasted with other companies as well as with the sector as a whole, provide lessons learned, not only for the analyzed company, but also for construction companies in general. Innovation, in this kind of businesses, may not be a spontaneous act that appears on solving a specific problem, becoming a managerial process that can be systematized and homogenized. It allows faster identification of the involved tasks in creating new processes, products and services for companies and, therefore, their market competitiveness is improved.
Eugenio Pellicer, Víctor Yepes, Christian Luis Correa, Luis Fernando Alarcón

Product and Process Engineering and Industrial Design

Study on the Influence of Fresh White Cheese Packaging Design Variables on Users’ Perception
Packaging design is a decisive factor in the perception that users have of a product before its consumption, so it is key to know precisely which design is the most suitable for the message that brands wish to convey. This research aims to study the influence of two variables, serving suggestion and label colour, on users’ perception of products which, by themselves, do not have high aesthetic or taste appeal. The case of fresh white cheese was studied due to its high consumption in Spain and because it is usually accompanied by other products during consumption. Two hundred and forty seven people took part in a survey in which sensory attributes and the willingness to buy were analysed through the presentation of 8 different packaging proposals which designs were the result of the combination of 5 types of serving suggestions and 4 label colours. The results show that the serving suggestion is strongly related to both the users’ sensory expectations and the appropriate time of day for consumption, and that the colour of the label influences the perceived fresh white cheese category.
Ignacio Gil, Rubén Rebollar, Iván Lidón, Javier Martín
Study, Design, Development and Construction of a Linear Tribometer for Testing Human Skin
The study of the tribological properties of the skin is a very important research field for medical investigation, development of dermatological products and the analysis of the interactions between textile products and the skin. To obtain these properties it is necessary to perform tests using tribological equipments which can simulate the conditions to obtain reliable values that will allow the measurement of skin wrinkling. The skin aggressions are usually analyzed using special equipments, known as tribometers, that enable the performance of the tribological characterization of a pair of materials, in order to obtain parameters such as friction coefficient and wear; for this purpose, the control of test variables, such as normal applied load, displacement speed, environmental conditions and other relevant circumstances which influence the interaction of surfaces in contact is required. The most important objective is the evaluation of a concept commonly known as touch, difficult to define and measure (which is related to the quantification of the level of comfort provided by the contact with the skin), with the requirement of studying soft materials, namely the skin. For that purpose it became necessary to design and manufacture a tribological equipment capable of responding to the demands of the required tests.
Eurico Seabra, Luís F. Silva, José Martins, Mário Lima
3D Myocardial Modelling by Computational Geometry Techniques. Analysing Performance
The first cause of death in Spain is cardiovascular diseases, with a death rate of 30.3% according to the latest mortality data published by INE (Spanish National Statistics Institute). In this scenario, it is necessary to develop powerful computer tools capable of predicting, among others, mechanisms of performance of heart muscles with certain pathologies. The present work proposes a 3D myocardial geometry reconstruction procedure that employs computational geometry techniques to later simulate mechanical myocardial performance under normal ventricular load and stenosis conditions. The variability in the obtained responses allows the disease to be characterised by defining a new approach, used to diagnose this pathology by solid biological structure modelling.
F. Cavas, F. J. F. Cañavate, J. Nieto, D. G. Fernández-Pacheco

Environmental Engineering and Natural Resource Management

Study of the Energy Recovery of the Reject Materials from Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Plants in Spain
In 2012, 21.2 million metric tons of municipal solid waste were collected in Spain (MAGRAMA 2014), of which 85% corresponds to mixed waste. This is then treated in different plants with the aim of recovering materials for their subsequent recycling and the transformation of the biodegradable organic fraction into compost and biogas. However, of the total amount of material processed in these plants, 42.2% is rejected. In Spain, there are 10 energy recovery plants. In 2012, only 13.57% of the total amount of the rejected material was processed in these plants. The rest was deposited in landfills. Therefore, a significant amount of the material is rejected, and is not currently exploited. The aim of this work is to analyze, on the one hand, the potential energy recovery of the material rejected from the municipal solid waste plants in energy recovery plants, by studying the energy efficiency of the existing plants. On the other hand, it will also compare different energy valorization technologies in order to analyze the need for new Waste-to-Energy plants to take advantage of all the rejected biofuel material generated in Spain.
I. Sánchez-López, A. Gallardo, N. Edo-Alcón
Review of Options for Solving Problems of Frazil Ice in Industrial Water Intakes
Most of the major industrial processes require the use of water either for cooling or as process water. In cold regions the existence of ice is very common in rivers and lakes during the winter. Even with underwater intakes their presence becomes a problem when supercooling appears. Frazil ice grows rapidly and adhere to the grids coming to clog the pipe systems that feed facilities such as hydroelectric power plants, factories or even municipal supplies. This phenomenon leads to severe problems, even resulting in the closure of the plant affected. This paper presents a review on the main aspects of this problem in certain industries and an analysis of its causes and possible solutions as well as an analysis of use cases.
R. Luiña Fernández, M. A. Vigil Berrocal, J. M. Mesa Fernández, A. Fernández Iglesias
Environmental Behaviour of an Element of the Construction Sector
Most European cities use prefabricated cement-based materials to transform public spaces to be used by citizens. These facilities must be resistant, economic, functional and, above all, sustainable. Furthermore, civil works have a very high consumption level of raw materials and energy, which implies high environmental emissions. Ecodesign is a response to comply with these criteria throughout the lifecycle of a product in order to prevent or reduce its environmental impact. The Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology allows for evaluating all the processes related to a product, to identify key points and to establish a strategy for improvement. The main objective of this work is to show the results of the application of the LCA for the common precast concrete pavers used in civil works, analyzing their entire life cycle: from obtaining the raw materials for their production to the pavers’ end of life. The main reason for this LCA is to assess the environmental performance at the various stages of their life cycle and the environmental burdens associated with these stages, so that possible improvements can be identified.
Maria Luz Garcia Ceballos, José Ramón de Andres Diaz, Francisco Pinto Oliver
Identification and Measurement of Complementarity Variables in Strategic Projects of Water Irrigation from the Sustainability Practices. Case: Republic of Ecuador
Based on the assessment of water resources in Ecuador and strategic water projects in this country, questions were raised about the need to complement these projects under the sustainability approach, effectively balancing the original intentions, needs and environments with the services currently offered. To do so, 32 variables of complementarity were identified and characterized: 7 economic variables, 11 environmental variables and 14 social variables. These variables were used to perform an expert panel assessment of 16 strategic projects from the irrigation water sector in Ecuador. Experts assessed the current implementation of such practices, the performance level achieved and their relative importance. The results allow to identify, assess and prioritize gaps in such projects, in existing complementarity from the initial planning stages, providing a basis to address these gaps in future projects.
Galo Fernando Gallardo Carrillo, Elena Melia Martí, Marta García Mollá, Miguel Ángel Artacho Ramírez

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energies

Aging Model for Re-used Electric Vehicle Batteries in Second Life Stationary Applications
Energy generation and distribution around the globe expect that micro-grids, renewable and distributed energy services will be key elements in future grid infrastructures. That is why batteries, as storage energy systems, are in the scope of many studies. To counteract the high costs of Li-ion batteries appears the idea of electric vehicle battery reuse or second life for stationary applications. In fact, batteries from electric vehicles are not useful for transportation purposes after they have lost a 20% of its capacity. This study uses an electric equivalent circuit to model battery behavior and aging under five different second life applications: Fast charge of electric vehicles; isolated applications; uninterruptible power systems and Self consumption with and without participation on grid frequency regulation. The battery model takes into account temperature, C-rate, depth of discharge and voltage of the battery to evaluate and calculate battery aging along time and use. This model runs on Matlab and Simulink to determine the battery state of health evolution and, therefore, the rest of useful life, which can be used for future economic analysis and maintenance management.
Lluc Canals Casals, Beatriz Amante García, Maria Margarita González Benítez
Assessing the Energy Saving Potential for Building Stock and Choice of Rehabilitation Strategy by a Multicriteria System
The realities of the current economic situation along with the potential for energy savings have led energy and economic policies to postulate retrofitting existing buildings; the business sector has also followed suite, as retrofitting creates commercial opportunities for companies. However, the lack of criteria for choosing an adequate energy retrofitting strategy proved to be problematic; the European Project E4R was created in order to address this problem. The Project developed a software tool, called E4RSIM, capable of easily quantifying potential building energy savings and assessing the digital model generated from cadastral information and a database of construction systems and facilities. This tool takes two factors into account in choosing the adequate retrofitting strategy: energy consumption and investment costs. However, there were other factors of interest; e.g. the embodied energy of the materials used or the disturbances caused by construction tasks to users. This tool has evolved as part of the EDEARenov project by calibrating the energy analysis results of existing buildings, and incorporating environmental and social criteria to choose the right strategy in each case.
Sergio Muñoz Gómez, Sagrario Conejero, Bernardino Morillo Merino, Rubén Gregori, José-Luis Vivancos
Adapting Buildings to the Current CTE-DB-HE: A Single-Family Housing Development in Logroño (La Rioja)
The main innovation introduced by the new CTE-DB-HE 2013 regulation for private residential housing is the mandatory limitation of energy demand and non-renewable energy consumption; such buildings, therefore, need to be simulated with official or authorised computer tools. The previous CTE-DB-HE 2009 limited energy demand, but the resulting energy demand figures were far higher than those stipulated by the current Code. A decrease in energy demand translates into final energy savings. If more efficient technologies are used, those savings can be increased. Overarching priorities include the following: a proportion of the energy used must come from renewable sources, and consumption of primary energy and CO2 emissions must be reduced. A study has been conducted on how these parameters are affected by five different building envelopes used in single-family housing developments in Logroño (La Rioja), considering prior and current regulations. The thermal transmittance figures utilised in the study are as follows: the limit values established under the CTE-DB-HE1 2009; compliant with the CTE-DB-HE 2009; the limit values established under the CTE-DB-HE1 2013; the recommended values listed in Appendix E of the CTE-DB-HE1 2013; and compliant with the current CTE-DB-HE 2013.
Luis M. López-González, César García-Lozano, Jesús Las-Heras-Casas, Luis María López-Ochoa
Geographic Information System for Optimization and Integration of Photovoltaic Solar Energy in Agricultural Areas with Energy Deficiency and Water Scarcity
The high cost of fossil fuels and the energy dependence of agriculture, primarily for use in irrigation groundwater, has been a serious challenge to agriculture in Spain. Other factors, such as the shortage of rainfall in the Mediterranean climate, increase the problem of water scarcity for farming in these areas. In response to this scenario, a sustainable development in rural areas is necessary, seeking to optimize the water and energy resources. As a useful tool to optimize and analyze natural resources, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are proposed. GIS allow to provide crucial information, both physical and meteorological, of the study area and help in optimizing water resources and reducing energy consumption. Furthermore, the integration of renewable energy with GIS tools offer great potential in reducing greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2). This can be seen in the paper with an example of optimization in the integration of photovoltaic solar facilities in the rural and agricultural sector through the use of GIS.
Álvaro Rubio-Aliaga, M. Socorro García-Cascales, Ángel Molina-García, Juan M. Sánchez-Lozano

Rural Development and Development Co-operation Projects

Guadua angustifolia as a Structural Material for Greenhouse Design
In Mediterranean greenhouses, wood is the most widespread structural element, although it is currently being replaced by galvanized steel. This substitution is not compatible with the change of a productive-constructive model, which seeks to leave a viable environment for the future generations by not exceeding the Earth’s carrying capacity, which is one of the fundamental worries of the humanity. In this sense, the present work examines the possibilities of material application of the bamboo species guadua (Guadua angustifolia), considered as a valid and sustainable alternative for greenhouse design. This initiative consists of analysing the possibilities of guadua as structural material for the “parral” type greenhouse of Almería. For this characterization, it has been necessary to review the works related to the use of the above-mentioned bamboo species as a building material.
Eduardo Garzón, Manuel Cano García, Luis Pérez-Villarejo, Sergio Martínez-Martínez, Pedro José Sánchez-Soto

IT and Communications. Software Engineering

Evaluation of the State of Cutting Tools According to Its Texture Using LOSIB and LBP Variants
The FRESVIDA project deals with the life assessment of cutting tools working under severe conditions using digital image processing techniques. The description of texture in materials through artificial vision techniques is very useful for this goal. There are several works based on Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and many variants such as Local Binary Pattern Variance (LBPV) or Diamond-LBP Code (DLBPCS) that have proved to be effective when distinguishing materials according to their texture. The Outex dataset comprises images from 24 materials acquired under different illumination conditions, becoming the present reference dataset for texture evaluation. In this work, several descriptors have been extracted based on the LBP from the Outex dataset, as well as their combination with LOSIB (Local Oriented Statistical Information Booster). All of them have been classified with Support Vector Machine (SVM) to assess which one is more useful for the above-mentioned task. In this case, all descriptors achieve a lower performance level combined with LOSIB because Outex is a data set that studies rotation invariances.
Oscar García-Olalla, Laura Fernández-Robles, Eduardo Fidalgo, Víctor González-Castro, Enrique Alegre

Safety, Labour Risks and Ergonomics

SAFEBUS: A New Active Safety System for Pedestrian Detection in Public Passenger Buses
Although passenger vehicles have lower accident rates in urban areas than in suburban ones, there are low-speed maneuvers with higher risk of collisions with pedestrians and more serious injuries accidents. This fact makes necessary the use of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for pedestrian detection in the vicinity of the vehicle. This paper describes part of the results obtained in the development of the project “Integral Advanced Safety Systems for Buses” (SAFEBUS). Specifically, it focuses on the development of a new active safety system to be used in situations of low-speed operation, where the vehicle is approaching or leaving bus stops. The results obtained are based on the development of a system for pedestrian detection in the front and right side of the vehicle (doors), a warning device for alerting the driver, which uses haptic and audiovisual feedback systems (pedals and steering wheel column), and signals generated for acting on the emergency braking system of the vehicle. Likewise, the experimental validations performed for the implementation of the system are described, which have shown the capability to alert the driver and, if necessary, stop the vehicle in dangerous situations to avoid pedestrian accidents.
Juan F. Dols Ruiz, Leopoldo Armesto, Vicent Girbés, Laura Arnal

Training in Project Engineering

Implementation of BIM in the Subject Technical Industrial Projects—Degree in Industrial Technologies Engineering—University of Valladolid
This study attempts to illustrate the current situation in the Industrial Engineering School in Valladolid regarding the development and management of engineering projects using the BIM (Building Information Modelling) methodology. It is widely accepted that the evolution of information modelling (BIM) is affecting the role of professionals in projects and in the management of the project life cycle. It is starting to become clear within the university environment, that the information modelling of BIM technology must become part of the education of future engineers. It uses integrated project delivery to respond to the professional demand that requires the development of skills in the educational practices to tackle the problems and limitations arising in the new practices. The BIM methodology covers everything from the project stage to asset management. The proposal of its inclusion in the Industrial Engineering School Degree qualifications came about in order to stagger the introduction of the student into the project process set up through this “new philosophy”.
Moisés Blanco Caballero, Patricia Zulueta Pérez, Ignacio Alonso Fernández-Coppel, Alberto Sánchez Lite
Technological Immersion in Industrial Engineering for a Project Management Course to Develop Dual Use Technology
Technological Immersion (TI) is defined as an approach process to current industrial activity. It is focused on improving the competitive standards of the production activity by analyzing innovation processes, which were regulated by any standard that summarizes most of the international and relevant knowledge on Innovation Management Processes (for Spain, this is the regulation UNE166000). It allows using education on Project Management as a basic foundation to develop dual use technologies for security and defense purposes and for any other industry framework as well. The aim of this case study is to compile, under a TI scope, the experiences acquired by the students of the fourth course at the University Centre of Defense at the Spanish Air Force Academy, when studying the last generation of films that may have high strategic interest for defense as well as for many industrial applications. The TI was performed through a workshop about UNE166000 (Spanish Regulation), McLuhan Tetrad and other lessons on Innovation Management, the main purpose being to teach the students how to draft a professional report about the technological and knowledge transfer opportunities that these films may generate in order to develop new industrial advantages on dual use industry.
José Luis Roca-González, Juan Miguel Sánchez-Lozano, Germán Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Pedro José García-Laencina, Antonio Juan Briones-Peñalver
Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Project-Based Learning to Acquire Competencies in Project Management
The workplace is increasingly demanding when hiring professionals as project managers, with a certain professional competence development level specific to this area. Universities and professional training centres face the challenge of applying learning methodologies that will facilitate the development of such competences. The aim of this communication is to rigorously analyse the students learning process, through a mixed evaluation methodology (quantitative and qualitative) applied to project-based learning methods, on a course that combines PMI (Project Management Institute) and IPMA (International Project Management Association) models. At the beginning, a statistical analysis of the evaluations results (objective tests) was performed. Afterwards, and based on these results, a qualitative analysis of the reports content was completed. Based on the specialized bibliography, a categorization of the results was achieved, to assess the evidence of how students have improved those competences during the learning process. As a result, this research will allow a diagnosis of the learning methodologies applied and how they contribute to the acquisition of competences by the student.
Dante A. Guerrero Chanduví, María del Carmen Barreto Pérez, Catherin Girón Escobar, Diego Saavedra Agurto
Project Management and Engineering Research
José Luis Ayuso Muñoz
José Luis Yagüe Blanco
Salvador F. Capuz-Rizo
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