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2019 | Book

Project Management and Engineering Research


Editors: Prof. Dr. José Luis Ayuso Muñoz, Dr. José Luis Yagüe Blanco, Salvador  F. Capuz-Rizo

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Management and Industrial Engineering


About this book

This is the Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering, that was held at the Technical University of Cartagena, Spain, from July 13 to 15, 2016. It brings together a collection of recent works of researchers and professionals in the Project Management and Engineering fields of Civil Engineering and Urban Planning, Product and Process Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energies and Safety, Labour Risks and Ergonomics.

Table of Contents


Project Management

Predictive Tools for Project Performance Management in the Construction Industry
During the 2009–2015 period, the construction industry in Spain has experienced a state of crisis that has forced companies to rethink their strategies, both for their survival in the present and the carrying out of their activities in the future.
A. Cerezo, A. Pastor, M. Otero, J. M. Portela
Expanding the Knowledge on Project Management Standards: A Look into the PMBOK® with Dynamic Lenses
Despite the large number of available project management standards and the efforts for improving its content and application, projects still fail. Researchers have identified that project management standards are generic and abstract and there is still the need to expand our knowledge in how to use them properly. The aim of this work is to develop an analytical principle-based approach for project management by highlighting which of the processes contained in the PMBOK® are suitable to manage projects in moderately dynamic environments. Results of the work shows that PMBOK® processes could be considered as micro-foundations of a project management dynamic capability.
V. Hermano, N. Martín-Cruz
Lean Thinking: A Useful Tool to Integrate Sustainability into Project Management
Lean Thinking (LT) was first introduced in the Toyota Production System in 1970 (Hines et al. 2004), and it became popular in 1990 following the publication of Womack’s, Jones’ and Roos’ book “The Machine that Changed the World” (Anholon and Sano 2016)
C. Cruz-Villazon, J. R. Otegi-Olaso, M. E. Aguilar-Fernandez, L. Fuentes-Ardeo

Civil Engineering and Urban Planning: Construction and Architecture

Planning and Control of Civil Engineering Works in Peru: Current State and Improvement Proposal
Planning and control are the basic functions of project management, and this is also true in the construction sector. Peru is growing in the last decade at a very high pace and projected and constructed infrastructure reflects this growing rate. This communication analyzes the use and implementation in that country of different planning and control techniques and methods, as well as the difficulties that arise for a proper implementation of these functions in civil engineering works. It also explores the use of alternative techniques and methods based on Lean Construction. All this will be implemented through a state of the art in-depth review. From this analysis, variables will be extracted that are useful to formulate the questions of the survey. The field research consists in obtaining answers from the professionals involved in infrastructure design, construction and management. Data analysis and results discussion allow to elaborate a proposal to improve construction management in the Peruvian context.
P. M. Carbajal, E. Pellicer, S. Santos-Fonseca, C. Torres-Machi, P. Ballesteros-Pérez
Experiences on MEF Simulation for Linear Concrete Elements with the ATENA Tool
The modelling of concrete is a very important advance for optimizing structural elements, since it allows to simulate the expected behavior for elements which will be manufactured and determines the weakest points on the design with no need to perform preliminary tests or small scale models. Due to the complex and heterogeneous characteristics of the concrete behavior, research on the material models adapted to the real response of the concrete is getting more advanced. In this way, the ATENA commercial software has been specially developed to perform nonlinear FEM analysis on concrete elements in an easy way. This communication summarizes experience using ATENA for analyzing different lineal elements of structural concrete on the ETSIAM of Albacete. Thereby, different models of (a) reinforced, (b) pre-stressed, and (c) recycled concrete elements have been performed to compare the behavior on real experimental tests with the modelling results. This comparative work allows contrasting and calibrating ATENA for different concrete structural situations. Results of the models show a very good fit to the experimental results and also determine the most important values to calibrate the material models on each situation.
S. Laserna, E. Alcázar, J. Cervera, J. Montero

Product and Process Engineering and Industrial Design

Study on Optimization of the Tuna-Fishing Vessel Construction Project, Through Production Oriented Design
Presently, new shipbuilding projects are conditioned by a globalization frame that requires increasingly demanding competitiveness in delivery times and costs. For this reason, it is necessary to continuously study improvement and optimization proposals, both of the vessel project and also of the shipyard facilities. This work exposes a number of improvements focused on two main paths, production oriented design and the restructuring of the shipyard workshops and facilities. It will be shown that with a proper standardization of the components in the design phase, a reduction of their purchase costs is achieved. An improvement of the learning curve of the staff in charge of the assembly and maintenance is also achieved, reducing, as a result, delivery times and labor costs. Furthermore, plant distribution techniques and other Quality Management methodologies applied to production will be analyzed. Their application will allow optimizing workshop facilities and shipyard resources, thus reducing processing times and even diversify new lines of business.
C. Mascaraque-Ramírez, L. Para-González, D. Moreno-Sánchez
A Critical Evaluation of Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Electric Vehicle Batteries
There has been an intensive research and development focus on lithium-ion batteries, which have revolutionized the electric vehicle market due to the batteries’ high energy and power density, longer lifespan, and increased safety than comparable rechargeable battery technologies. The performance of lithium-ion batteries is achieved by packaging design, electrolyte, and electrodes material’s selection. This study focuses on cathode materials as they currently need to overcome critical challenges. In fact, cathode materials affect energy density, rate capability and working voltage that led to the cathode currently costing twice as much as the anode. For this reason, this study reviews cathode materials for electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries under economic and environmental perspectives to optimize the batteries’ structures and properties. Findings reveal that presently there is no commercially installed battery that can satisfy both, economic and environmental concerns while offering an overall excellent performance.
Robert Reinhardt, B. Amante García, Lluc Canals Casals, S. Gassó Domingo
Design and Structural Analysis of a Prothesis for an Arthroplasty. Definition of the Osseointegration Grade During the Rehabilitation Process
One of the main issues that shoulder arthroplasty presents during the execution of rehabilitation exercises is its mechanical stability. In the particular case of the prosthesis-humerus set, a structural analysis of the set is necessary with the aim of defining the osseointegration grade in the different regions, considering the influence of the stress level which will be applied during the rehabilitation process, thus preventing bio-integration problems. The present communication aims to obtain the geometric model of a set by using CAD technologies and its posterior structural analysis by means of finite element analysis under the action of various load conditions. The prosthesis-humerus generated model becomes very useful for the orthopedic physician because it allows defining and programming the different stresses to apply during the rehabilitation process according to the osseointegration grade existing in the set region, thus preventing and minimizing the possible complications that could be derived by such process.
F. Cavas-Martínez, D. Parras-Burgos, J. Nieto, F. J. F. Cañavate, D. G. Fernández-Pacheco
MOTIVA-PRO: Innovation Based on Users’ Motivations
For many years, design activity has adopted the problem-solving perspective. In this approach, solutions are based on users’ problem identification. However, to what extent do users truly seek the satisfaction of their needs? The key to successful innovation is market acceptance, and users’ motivations play a fundamental role in ensuring in this. This paper presents the MOTIVA-PRO innovation guide. MOTIVA-PRO enables the concretisation of innovation opportunities from the perspective of users’ motivations. Considering users’ motivations (self-assurance, self-esteem, relatedness, etc.) instead of their problems as the starting point for design innovation processes provides deeper insights into the real needs of stakeholders (clients, suppliers, etc.). This enables the design of products and services (systems) that are more in line with stakeholders’ expectations.
D. Justel, A. Retegi, I. Iriarte, G. Lasa, I. González

Environmental Engineering and Management of Natural Resources

Combined System UASB+MBR for the Biological Elimination of Emerging Contaminants, Organic Matter and Nutrients in Urban Waste Water
Conventional purification systems can achieve low efficiency in the removal and/or degradation of emerging contaminants (ECs) which are present in urban waste waters. Although biological aerobic technologies such as membrane bioreactors (MBR) have shown high effectiveness, some compounds are eliminated in a higher degree using anaerobic biological systems. This research is aimed at the study of a system which has all the advantages of both the aerobic and anaerobic biological cleansing, in order to optimize ECs, organic matter and nutrient elimination. To this end, a pilot plant operation has been analyzed, integrated by an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB) followed by a MBR with an external submerged configuration. The first phase of this research has been performed with the aerobic biomass in suspension and the second phase with supported biomass. Results confirm the synergic effect of both systems, due to the achievement of a high removal performance of the more persistent contaminants, such as carbamazepine, diclofenac, simazine, atrazine, linuron and terbuthylazine. Regarding organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus elimination, global yields were close to 98%, 45% y 35% respectively, with a particularly high performance in the supported biomass phase.
M. J. Moya-Llamas, M. A. Bernal-Romero del Hombre Bueno, E. D. Vásquez-Rodríguez, A. Trapote, C. M. López-Ortiz, D. Prats
Identification of Environmental Risk Areas Using Pollution Indexes and Geographic Information Systems
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of geographic information systems (GIS) and pollution indices to identify environmental risk areas affected by metals. The study area was located in the city of Murcia and its surroundings (SE Spain). The concentrations of Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd in 221 soil samples were determined, and five pollution indices calculated. After an analysis of each index and a comparison among them, the pollutant load index (PLI) was selected for the following reasons: (1) it provided a good spatial distribution of the areas of highest risk, (2) all metals contributed in a similar way to the index value, and (3) the index includes background concentrations in its calculation, which allowed to determine the level of metal enrichment. After selecting the index, GIS was used to create a spatial distribution map adjusting the parameters to obtain an adequate delimitation of the areas with the highest environmental risk. As a result, eight areas were identified. Therefore, the calculation of pollution indices and subsequent integration into a GIS is an appropriate and effective tool for rapid identification of environmental risk areas by presence of metals.
J. A. Acosta, M. D. Gómez-López, A. Faz, R. Zornoza, S. Martínez-Martínez

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energies

Review of Numerical Models for Studying the Dynamic Response of Deep Foundations for the Design and Project of Wind Turbines
Wind turbines support structures must be designed so that the natural frequencies of the entire system are sufficiently separated from the frequency of the different dynamic loads acting on the wind turbine. The design and analysis of the soil-foundation subsystem is subject to significant levels of uncertainty and simplification. Besides, as the number of wind farms increases, so does the need for installing wind turbines in weaker soils, which leads to the use of deeper foundations such as piles and suction caissons. Thus, the need exists for developing computational models able to estimate, with increasing accuracy and efficiency, the dynamic properties of the foundations mentioned above with the aim of being able to reach optimized, safe and long-life designs that help improving the profitability of the technology and reducing the wind energy costs. In this line, this paper presents a review of computational models, with different degrees of accuracy, applicable to the analysis of the dynamic response of deep foundations for onshore and offshore wind turbines.
G. M. Álamo, J. D. R. Bordón, F. García, J. J. Aznárez, L. A. Padrón, F. Chirino, O. Maeso
Development and Characterization of Modular Ceramic and Metal Elements in Vertical Gardens and Ventilated Façades in Buildings
The technology used in ventilated façades has allowed developing façades with vertical gardens. In this study, the behavior of such gardens will be analyzed, specifically the thermal behavior of the ventilated air chamber and it will be compared with a system of ventilated façade with stone cladding.
V. Pérez-Andreu, C. Aparicio-Fernández, F. Castilla, J.-L. Vivancos
Qualitative Analysis on Risk Assessment in Photovoltaic Installations: Case Study in the Dominican Republic
The banks of the Dominican Republic require a risk analysis that covers technical, environmental and economic considerations to access financing in renewable energy projects. Management and risk assessment are key requirements for financial viability. For this reason there is a need to model practical tools to help investors know the risks and reduce the probability of them occurring. In this way potential investors can more easily assess the profitability, risks and impacts of renewable energy facilities. To do this the probability and impact matrix with multi-criteria decision-making methods are combined in this study. A qualitative risk analysis is applied to a solar energy system in the Dominican Republic. In this study, the probability and the impact of the risks (high, medium, low) are assessed to determine the priority with which they should be addressed. The urgent priority is modeled in terms of time, cost, performance and risk scope. The experts determine the severity of the risks knowing the design of the project. Qualitative analysis alone does not guarantee the success of the project but can help to decide which uncertainties should be addressed before and during the project’s useful life.
Guido C. Guerrero-Liquet, M. Socorro García-Cascales, Juan M. Sánchez-Lozano
Optimal Thickness for Isolating Foams in Buildings
In this paper the calculation methodology for obtaining optimal thickness of polymeric foams EPS, XPS and PU is developed, taking into account investment costs and operating costs in the construction elements, whose thermal transmittance limit is determined by the CTE (BOE, 2006). The use of a thicker insulating material produces a higher investment cost but the energy cost is less. This relationship allows determining the optimal thickness for a minimum total cost. The energy study is conducted with varying monthly temperatures for a reference location and for a period of 10 years. The optimal thickness of the insulating material associated to the minimum cost allows analyzing the influence of the enclosure type, façade orientation and insulating material type. These are the variables which have the most important influence on decision making in the resolution process of the constructive elements design. The study indicates that the insulating material type is the most influential variable in the optimal thickness. The second influential variable is the façade orientation and the third, the constructive solution for the analyzed cases.
P. Arrué, A. C. Cárcel, A. M. Romero, C. Aparicio
Evaluation of the Biomass Potential in the Region of Murcia (Spain): Application to Heat/Cooling Requirements in Industrial Parks (Enering Life+)
This article focuses on evaluating the potential of renewable energy generation in processes that demand heat/cold inside industrial areas in the Region of Murcia (South-eastern Spain). To this end, the application of solutions similar to those already implemented in the current European project, Enering Life+, focusing on the use of biomass and photovoltaic generation is being studied in order to cover a high percentage of the energy demand of an industrial plant. In particular, this paper assesses the biomass and solar potential available in the surroundings of the industrial areas of the Region of Murcia, in order to evaluate the feasibility of the implantation of sustainable solutions in industrial areas and their impact on the CO2 emissions of the Region of Murcia. This implementation is mainly focused on industrial processes that demand heat/cold, proposing the integration of absorption processes and thus linking the sources used with the final use of energy.
A. Molina-García, J. M. Paredes-Parra, M. S. García-Cascales, J. Serrano
Financing Models for Sustainable Energy Communities in the United States of America
Sustainable Energy Communities (SEC) are citizen groups that join together with a common goal: implementing renewable energies and/or energy efficiency measures, taking advantage, to the extent possible, of their local resources. These organizations adopt different financing models depending on several factors, such as legal context for renewable energy promotion, renewable technology, activity (production, supply, etc.), number of members, etc. Whereas incentives for renewable energy in Europe are traditionally based on grants, most of the federal incentives in the USA are based on tax reduction. To use these incentives efficiently, investors must comply with some conditions related to tax responsibility, type and level of income. Meeting these requirements is difficult for many individual investors willing to take part in an SEC. That is why, in the USA, several financing models for SECs aimed at overcoming this difficulty have been designed. These models have been very useful for the creation of a large number of SECs producing photovoltaic and wind energy. In this document, these financing models will be described, in order to analyze if they could be applied in Spain.
Romero-Rubio, Díaz De Andrés
Optimization of Large Offshore Wind Farms Implementation
Presently, electricity production from wind energy contributes significantly to the energetic mix of some countries, being this type of renewable energy the most frequently implanted worldwide. At the end of 2015, the global total installed wind power was 432,419 MW, of which 11,551 MW were generated by offshore wind farms (GWEC, Global wind statistics 2015. Global Wind Energy Council, 2016). That year, 96 offshore wind farms were operating, 18 were under construction and dozens of facilities were approved. Furthermore, not only the number of offshore facilities is increasing, but their power capacity is increasing too. This situation demands the best orientation of the wind turbines alignment, so the wake effect produced in the rotors is reduced to avoid production losses. The aim of this work is to define criteria for the optimization of large offshore wind farms implementation in their design phase, based on geometrical arrangement of the wind turbines, so the wake effects are reduced to a minimum and, therefore, the electric power generation is maximized.
Bahamonde, Mena
A Computational Study of the Aerodynamic Hiding Factor Between Panels’ Arrays for the Optimization of Support Structures in Solar Parks
The heuristic design process currently followed for the project of support structures in photovoltaic plants is primarily driven by cost reduction, devoting the greater efforts to optimize geometric shapes or production and logistics processes. Another synergic possibility to address the issue—although not exploited in practice—is to assess more precisely the wind loads over these structures, taking into account the particularities of each specific facility. Current codes and recommendations do not allow accurately considering the hiding between successive panels’ arrays or tables, either because they behave altogether like a disconnected roof or because they are comparable to a sequence of sloping walls with bottom openings. In this communication, numerical simulation and parallel computing techniques typical of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are used to characterize the effect that the aerodynamic hiding between tables has on the total loads acting on the support structures of photovoltaic panels. The results show a significant reduction of wind loads in most of the tables of the solar park, suggesting a potential decrease in the construction cost of the plant.
R. Escrivá-Pla, C. R. Sánchez-Carratalá

Safety, Labour Risks and Ergonomics

Assessment of the Thermal Stress Risk During the Construction of a Warehouse
The existence of extreme thermal conditions in the workplace is a source of problems affecting both the health of workers and the efficient development of labor activities. Thermal environments, where heat and humidity are too high, can become a risk to the workers’ health. Similarly, the thermal discomfort in the working environment is directly reflected inproductivity. The exposition to a warm environment is assessed through the evaluation or calculation of the thermal stress, i.e. determining the net heat load to which workers are exposed which is the combined contribution of environmental conditions in the work place, the physical activity performed and the characteristics of the clothes they wear. The purpose of this communication is to perform an initial assessment of the risk of thermal stress in normal workplaces during the construction of an industrial building located in Ribarroja of Turia (Valencia).
J. L. Fuentes-Bargues, A. M. Revuelta-Arnao, M. C. González-Cruz
Project Management and Engineering Research
Prof. Dr. José Luis Ayuso Muñoz
Dr. José Luis Yagüe Blanco
Salvador F. Capuz-Rizo
Copyright Year
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

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