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2015 | Book

Project Management and Engineering

Selected Papers from the 17th International AEIPRO Congress held in Logroño, Spain, in 2013


About this book

Project Management and Engineering is an emergent area. Projects have a tendency to grow in size, involve more stakeholders, and be of greater environmental, organizational and technological complexity. They must also fulfil continuously increasing requirements. This causes greater demands on the effectiveness of Project Engineering and the efficiency of Project Management. This volume brings together a collection of recent work by researchers and professionals in the fields of project management and design in civil engineering, environmental engineering, energy efficiency, rural development, production and process engineering, industrial design and information technology and communication.

Table of Contents


Project Management

An International Analysis of Project Delivery Systems for Public Works Projects
Project Delivery Systems (PDS) for public works projects can be summarized in only a few (depending mainly on the project stages they cover, which may even include the financing), but the different names and singularities that can be found in current literature are considerably diverse, and this is the main motivation behind the work that is being presented. This work is an international review of existing PDS for public works, covering both traditional and innovative models, some of which are still being developed. Specifically, the aim has been to construct a PDS international classification, for what several factors such as names, parties, applicability, advantages, disadvantages and distribution of responsibilities (assuming the act of contracting as the allocation of obligations, rights and risks among all parties) have been analysed. Then, the equivalence between these PDS and those defined by the Spanish Public Contracts Law has been established and an analysis of PDS used in Spain has been conducted.
I. De Sande, A. Jiménez-del-Barco, G. Martínez, B. Moreno, F. J. Alegre
Exploring the Relations between Project Duration and Activity Duration
In this paper we explore through a case study how project estimated duration and project variability are affected by changes in activity duration and/or its variability. This analysis allows us to reveal the most influencing activities, and how they impact project duration and variability. At the same time, criticality index and cruciality index are analyzed for each activity when their duration and variance are modified.
F. Acebes, J. Pajares, J. M. Galán, A. López-Paredes
Adoption of Project Management Practices and Performance. Non-Governmental Organisations of Navarre–Spain
This paper analyses the adoption of project management practices in NGOs of Navarre (Spain). It illustrates the impact of the implementation of methodologies, tools and techniques on the results of recent projects in the sector. To develop the study, a tool was applied for collecting information on project managers of NGOs in Navarre (Spain), which was supplemented by a contextualization study of the literature in the area. We analysed the correlation between the variables that determine the adoption and the success criteria of projects. A positive effect was found in the adoption of practices and performance in cooperation projects. However we found low rates of the use of methodologies, tools and techniques. The communication shows the importance of the implementation of project management tools in international aid and development cooperation projects, with the aim of increasing awareness and applicability of these in the sector and the countries that manage this type of resources.
M. I. Montes-Guerra, A. R. De-Miguel, F. N. Gimena, A. Pérez-Ezcurdia, H. M. Díez-Silva
Quick Planning Using “S” Curves and Cost Based Durations
The quick estimate of costs in the initial phases of the project using statistical references and parametric methods is a well studied, published and applied issue in the construction sector. However, there is little technical literature about predimensioning methods that allows the quickly developing of a project planning with a reasonable degree of accuracy. This text brings together two aspects already known, but until now independent, and our own and new contribution: (1) The estimation of total duration based on statistical references(2) The estimated distribution of total cost along the execution based on “S” curves (several authors) (3) The estimation of the duration of the activities according to their cost. All these three techniques, applied to a project, result in a project planning with detail and reliability enough to make decisions in the early stages of the project.
F. Valderrama, R. Guadalupe
Engineering Projects Assessment Using Earned Value Management with Performance Indexes Evaluation and Statistical Methods
One of the main key factors during the project life cycle is the control of the project’s real status against the planned one. It allows project manager to evaluate its health and to take corrective actions if needed. An efficient control requires an integrated supervision of the project performance, scheduling and costs. Earned Value Management (EVM) is a method that integrates these three parameters in a quantifiable form and therefore its use has been extended both in private and public companies. The latest research works about EVM go through the evaluation of the performance indexes and forecasting formulas, the applicability to any type of project and the consideration of specific projects issues such as the technical performance. This work presents the application of EVM to two real projects where the technical performance is a driver, and the further analysis of resulting EVM indexes. For the experiment, besides real data, several probable scenarios have been generated applying statistical methods by Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the efficiency of the EVM performance indexes in this type of projects.
J. Rubio, J. I. Muñoz, J. R. Otegi
Tool Based on AHP and Its Application in the RURENER Local Actions Plan Evaluation
The RURENER Project, network of rural communities for energetic neutrality, has as main objective to involve rural communities in the design of energy policies in order to achieve energetic neutrality and promotion of an innovative development that encourage public and private investment in renewable energy sources and rational use of energy in rural areas. This paper shows the results of the application of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method as a tool with a double objective: to assess the impacts caused by the Local Action Plans of the communities participating in the RURENER project and to extrapolate their results to other rural communities.
A. Paneque-de la Torre, P. Aragonés-Beltrán, J. Martínez-Almela

Civil Engineering, Urban Planning, Building and Architecture

Comparative Analysis of Calculation of Buildings Drainage Systems
The CTE in their exigency DB HS-5 marks the directives of specific legislative character in the engineered design of building drainage systems, of generalist character whose analysis is the object of this article. The investigators Hunter, Babbitt and Dawson-Kalinske, studied the behaviour of the free fall of the water in the vertical network proposing empirical equations of calculation, with the purpose of being able to evacuate residual waters in the skyscrapers. Later with the investigations of Karman, Prandtl, J. Nikuradse, C.F. Colebrook and C. White, in the field of the Mechanics of Fluids is possible to use this science in the sizing of the facilities of analytical form with a greater specification of the calculation variables. As resulting from comparative the CTE proposes minors calibers that those of the empirical and analytical methods of calculation, result that there is to interpret from the specification of the variables.
P. Arrué, A. M Romero, A. C Cárcel
Innovative Modular Building Manufactured Using Structural Black Poplar Plywood Panels
This article presents a small prefabricated building with constructive systems not usually utilized in Spain, together with the structural checking needed before its construction. The principal material is the black poplar plywood panel. These wood-derived panels may enhance building sustainability and lighten their weight, showing new business opportunities because of the possibility of mass production. This also allows companies to respond to large orders in shorter periods of time, such as critical situations after some recent catastrophes. The construction has to table with the worst environmental conditions in Spain, which are defined by the Spanish Building Technical Code (CTE). For that reason, the national standard mentioned and other recommendations from the American Engineered Wood Association were used in design and structural checking processes. Another important requirement is that the construction has also to be easy to set up by non-qualified workers. Its constructive solution consisted of a bearing wall that supports a roof with two slopes. A wide inner bearing wall supports the weight of the tile roof. Maximum moments and displacements generated were obtained using the Navier and Levy models based on plate’s theory. These calculations allowed us to demonstrate the significant resistance of the construction proposed.
M. Alia-Martínez, J. Fernandez-Ceniceros, J. Antonanzas, E. Fraile-García, R. Urraca

Environmental Engineering and Natural Resource Management

Multicriteria Decision Making Methodologies Applied to the Selection of Best Available Techniques in the Ceramic Industry: Equalitarian vs Prioritised Weighting
This paper presents two methodologies to evaluate and select Best Available Techniques (BAT): a methodology based on equal weighting of criteria and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The aim of this work is the identification of the most sustainable BAT for the ceramic industry. To target these, 9 BAT options used in 13 alternative configurations of the ceramic tile manufacturing process have been considered and assessed on sustainability using relevant environmental, economic, technical and social indicators. After that, two multicriteria methodologies are applied. The first one combines screening techniques, according to economic feasibility, with graphical comparisons. The second one is the AHP method, which is based on the preferences of a decision maker to prioritize criteria and technological alternatives. This method is widely used in multicriteria decision problems because it is a structured tool that simplifies complex decisions. Applying both methodologies, the most sustainable scenario for the ceramic tiles industry combines heat recovery from flue gas with techniques to reduce noise or diffuse dust emissions and/or the flue gas depuration with CaCO3 and/or Ca(OH)2.
V. Ibáñez-Forés, P. Aragonés-Beltrán, M. D. Bovea
LABWASTE.12: Calculation Tool for the Design of Solid Waste Landfills with Inert Waste Recovery
The Landfill models and software applications are limited to the individual calculation of some of the variables. However, there are none that address all of them. This paper shows the development of a computational tool called LABWASTE.12 for designing all the variables related to landfills with construction and demolition waste (C&DW) recovery. This tool presents a model from the Excel® program for the drafting of landfills, and establishes the possibility of developing recycled aggregates. In the development of the tool the following variables were taken into account: properties and composition of the waste; characterization and properties of natural/recycled debris; statistical correlation between population and area of the landfill; preliminary design of the vessel; slope stability and dams; evacuation perimeter ditch drains; leachate generation; design of storm water and leachate ponds, and pre-dimensioning; biogas generation; and, finally, sealing and closure in compliance with official regulations. This will make possible to obtain an estimate of the amount of aggregate, waterproofing, geotextile, fences, chimneys, dams, etc. required, as well as an analysis of the feasibility of use and overall budget and items
J. Esteban, F. J. Colomer, M. Carlos, A. Gallardo
Synergy as Strategy for the Energetic Valorisation of Waste Focused in Transport
Industrial by-products synergy is potentially capable of generating an industrial ecosystem that minimizes waste production. This article presents a case of synergy of a by-product use to produce fuel for the transport sector. This sector is selected because public administration is focused in reducing its fuel consumption. The initial by-product is dairy industry waste. This waste could be seen as a treatment problem, but can also be presented as an opportunity for energy recovery. Thinking on energy recovery, anaerobic digestion is the most suitable alternative. The biogas obtained can be upgraded for use in vehicles. Synergistic processes will be evaluated in order to use the by-products generated. Environmental sustainability analysis will be made using a Life Cycle Analysis tool. Carbon Footprint and Energy Ratio tools are also used. This work proposes an industrial ecosystem as closed as possible to minimize the required inputs and waste production, improving the sustainability of the waste treatment process.
J. V Álvarez, R. Luiña, F. Ortega, P. Lobo
Design of an SRF from Refuse from a Municipal Waste Treatment Plant
Mixed municipal waste is treated at waste recovery and composting plants. A portion of the material that enters the plant becomes refuse, which comprises different streams generated after the packaging selection stage and the compost refining phase. The percentage of combustible material contained in this refuse is considerable and recovering it is therefore a feasible proposition. The refuse from waste treatment plants can nowadays be considered a solid recovered fuel (SRF) with an acceptable value, according to the European standard EN 15359. This standard provides a classification for SRF in which the economic parameter is the net calorific value, the technical parameter is the chlorine content, and the environmental parameter is the mercury content. This paper presents the design of an SRF with a high market value according to European standards that comes from a recovery and composting plant. To this end, physical–chemical analyses of refuse were performed. Furthermore, a set of enhancements in the mechanical, electromechanical, and optical separation process have also been proposed.
A. Gallardo, A. M. Gómez, F. J. Colomer, N. Edo, P. Pascual
Local Analysis of the Characteristics and Frequency of Extreme Droughts in Málaga Using the SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index)
Drought is a natural phenomenon worldwide that triggers significant economic, social and environmental impacts. It is characterized by persistent time periods with recorded rainfall data below the mean, and it is one of the major climate-related hazards. The SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) is a simple and probabilistic meteorological index widely used to identify the duration and severity of droughts. It can be used in risk management and decision analysis, it can be tailored to time periods of interest to the user and it only needs rainfall data. In this work, the duration, intensity and magnitude of extreme droughts for the period 1945–2011 have been characterized in Malaga (Airport) by using monthly rainfall data. The drought events were identified and characterized using the SPI applied to time scales of 1, 3, 6 and 12 consecutive months. The estimation of the magnitude and intensity quantiles of the drought events for a return period from 2 to 200 years were obtained—using the L-moments method—by a frequency analysis of the maximum annual time series
J. L. Ayuso, P. Ayuso-Ruiz, A. P. García-Marín, J. Estévez, E. V. Taguas

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

Decision Support System Software Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Soft Computing to Solve Optimal Location Problems of Renewable Energy Plants
The capacity to make correct decisions could make the difference between success and failure, especially in business and engineering contexts. This issue becomes even more crucial in huge projects, where decision processes are very important. For that reason decision support tools such as Multicriteria Decision Analysis have been developed. Additionally, the powerful computing capacity of modern computers has allowed the widespread use of such powerful and flexible tools as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), for working with a database that represents a faithfully real world. Moreover, new views in computation have appeared, such as Soft Computing (SC) which uses fuzzy logic to mathematically contextualize the language. Combining these tools, a Decision Support System (DSS) has been developed. It consists of a software application which is the product of different studies relating to the optimal location of renewable energy plants. It helps to solve problems of optimal locations for any kind of installations, considering geographical and spatial variables.
J. M. Sánchez Lozano, J. Á. Jiménez Pérez, M. S. García-Cascales, M. T. Lamata Jiménez
Downscaling of Solar Irradiation from Satellite Estimates
Solar irradiation databases from satellite estimates are based on images taken from satellites with wide spatial resolution. The rising interest on solar energy technologies and climate change suppose the necessity of high spatial resolution data of solar irradiation. The downscaling of satellite estimates provides an alternative to dense pyranometers networks, which are very expensive to maintain. The methodology proposed is based on the shade impact analysed from a digital elevation model of high spatial resolution. This methodology is applied and validated with on-ground measurements in the Iregua river valley in the Spanish region of La Rioja. Eventually, it is generated a map of the annual sum of solar global irradiation for this valley.
F. Antoñanzas-Torres, J. Antonanzas, F. J. Martínez-de-Pisón, M. Alia-Martinez, O. Perpiñán-Lamigueiro
Self Energy Production by a Floating Photovoltaic System Covers for Irrigation Reservoirs
This paper studies the technical and economic viability of using photovoltaic energy generated by a photovoltaic floating cover system (CFFV). Therefore, a pumping system of a water supply network will use the renewable energy instead of using the traditional sources of energy. The case study is exemplified into a real situation, the irrigation community named “C.R. Virgen de las Nieves de Aspe” (Alicante). This community has a drip irrigation sector covering an irrigated area of 330 ha which uses a pumping system to achieve the conditions of pressure and flow needed. Firstly, the paper studies the current hydraulic and power situation. Then, the conceptual design of the CFFV is performed assessing the green energy produced. Since the production of renewable energy is greater than the irrigation energy needs, several solutions combining self-consumption and exporting the electricity back to the grid are proposed. Finally, an economic study is performed confirming the viability of the photovoltaic covering. Furthermore, the technical solutions are flexible to the extent that the installation can be performed into gradual steps according to the power needs and the affordable investment.
M. Redón-Santafé, C. M Ferrer-Gisbert, J. Ferrán-Gozálvez, J. B Torregrosa-Soler, F. J Sánchez-Romero, P. S Ferrer-Gisbert, E. Pons-Puig

Rural Development and Development Cooperation Projects

Leadership Development in Rural Development Projects: A Case Study in an Aymara Women Organization in Puno (Peru)
For years, capacity building of people involved in rural development projects is a factor often included in their formulation, design and management, under the local and endogenous development approach and seeking sustainability of actions. In this context, leadership development is considered the key to capacity building in rural areas. While traditionally this has been addressed through the development of leaders’ intrapersonal capacity, now it is considered that the development of interpersonal and relational skills is essential for the exercise of effective leadership, relating these concepts to the development of human, social and system capital. In addition, many of the current theories of leadership focus not only on the leader but in the processes between a leader and the followers. These processes are discussed in the case of a leadership development project with an organization of Aymara women artisans, comprising 21 groups and 300 women, in which we study the different leadership styles and their consequences in the process of capacity building and the development of the organization.
S. Sastre-Merino

Production Process Engineering

On-line Soft Sensor Based on Regression Models and Feature Selection Techniques for Predicting Rubber Properties in Mixture Processes
The paper deals with the complexity of rubber mixture process. The main issue is to develop well performing on-line soft sensors to monitoring rheological rubber properties. When mixing all raw materials, continual discards of defective materials with high costs associated can be caused by unexpected process variations and incorrect operating set points. Therefore, accurate on-line rubber properties predictions are crucial to obtain higher quality rubber bands. An on-line soft sensor based on a wrapper scheme is proposed to this end. The wrapper is mainly composed of a regression model and a feature selection routine. This routine is designed to find those optimal process variable subsets (input variables) that explain better the rubber properties (output variables). A backwards selection strategy is the basis of the feature selection routine. After an iterative process, the subset finally selected as inputs for the regression model was the one that predicted better the rubber properties. The proposed approach showed several advantages. First, wider and deeper knowledge of the industrial process was clearly achieved. In addition, the final on-line soft sensor was able to establish clear relations between the independent process variables and some rheological parameters of the rubber. A parsimony model was achieved thanks to a combination of a linear model and a selection feature routine that provided these good results.
E. Sodupe-Ortega, R. Urraca, J. Antonanzas, M. Alia-Martinez, A. Sanz-Garcia, F. J. Martínez-de-Pisón

Product Engineering and Industrial Design

Segregation of a Binary Granular Mixture in a Feed Shoe of a Single Punch Press Using DEM
This work analyzes the segregation phenomena during the die filling of a binary granular mixture in the feed hopper of a tablet compression machine. These phenomena, which are caused by an alternative movement of the feed hopper, are investigated using DEM simulations and empirical tests. The optimal values of the model parameters were adjusted after comparing them to the results of compression tests conducted on a real machine. In order to reduce the computational cost in using a feed hopper with dimensions similar to those of a conventional hopper (fully 3D model), the width of the feed hopper was reduced by 60 % (thin sliced model) in the simulation and the experimental tests. Due to the characteristics of the ingredients used in this study, the most relevant parameters of the simulation were the method of filling the feed hopper, its geometry and the value of different friction coefficients. The main outcome of this study has been a model that permits reasonable simulation of the segregation phenomena that occur in the feed hopper of a tablet compression machine (‘single punch’ eccentric press).
L. Martínez-Martínez, E. Sainz-García, J. Muro-Hernández, F. Alba-Elías, A. González Marcos

IT and Communications. Software Engineering

Use of Wireless Sensor Network to Control Landslides Interacting with Infrastructures
The use of sensors in infrastructures made by human beings is becoming a standard practice at the time to prevent geological disaster, which causes traffic jam, casualties, economic loss and environment disruption. In this work a real-time control of landslides is performed in order to monitor their situation and to generate an alert system than can prevent some future accidents. This goal is achieved through the use of a wireless sensor network based on motes ‘Imote2’ connected to ‘LCF196’ inclinometers. This network allows for the monitoring of the study area with a fault tolerance topology system provided also by energy autonomous power supply based in solar panels and energy storage batteries. The network gathers information from each spot every 15 min, based in a star topology which sends the measures of each node to a central station. The network makes a control for one landslide, where several displacement meters are needed to monitor the displacements in different points, in order to detect possible faults around the landslide. Besides, this network is set in an autonomous and scalable way, where new nodes can be added without any modification on the network configuration.
G. Combarros Hernández, A. García Garijo, F. Antoñanzas-Torres, E. Alonso García, R. Fernández Martínez
Evaluation of Clustering Configurations for Object Retrieval Using SIFT Features
Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features have been widely accepted as an effective local keypoint descriptor for its robust description of digital image content. This method extracts distinctive invariant features from images that can be used to perform reliable matching between different views of an object. Object recognition proceeds by matching individual features to a database of features from known objects using a fast nearest-neighbour algorithm, followed by a Hough transform to identify clusters belonging to a single object, and finally performing verification through least-squares solution for consistent pose parameters. Nonetheless, reasoning for the choice of this clustering approach is not provided and a lack of its theoretical insight is noticed. Here, we present and evaluate different configurations for clustering sets of keypoints according to their pose parameters: x and y coordinates location, scale and orientation based on Lowe’s approach.
L. Fernández-Robles, M. Castejón-Limas, J. Alfonso-Cendón, E. Alegre
A Novel Architecture for Recognising Symbols in a CAD Environment
The use of sketch based interfaces is not so extended due to the problems they present at the moment, like the lack of robustness, repeatability and reliability. The current recognisers used on line in some interactive applications do not offer ideal solutions, they use to be rigid and the success ratio in the classification decreases when the number of symbols admitted by the system increases. This kind of interfaces could, for instance, support the initial stages of design, in which the traditional pen and paper are still necessary, achieving the link of these phases with the parametric model of the product. In this paper a reliable and robust agent-based architecture to support the user in the first conceptual design stages by recognising hand-sketched symbols is presented and evaluated.
D. G. Fernández-Pacheco, J. Conesa, F. Albert, F. Cavas-Martínez, N. Aleixos
Symbolic computation applied to industrial robots through SAGE
This paper presents the kinematics development of an industrial robot through SAGE (Software for Algebra and Geometry Experimentation) programming. SAGE is a free alternative to owner computation software such as Maple, Mathematica or MATLAB. SAGE can operate in server mode from any browser, allowing you to apply new information technologies to multiple engineering problems. The kinematics of industrial robots is one of the applications of SAGE. The kinematics study is dealt considering a set of rigid bars linked together through articulations, making up all of them an open kinematic chain. From here, the robot motion analysis is solved using algorithms based on vector mechanics. The approach is performed following the Denavit–Hartenberg representation that standardizes the coordinate systems which describes spatial relations. After studying the kinematic problem, the symbolic computation programming in SAGE is performed and generic results of the kinematic variables of position, velocity and acceleration are obtained. The programming allows you to particularize the problem to any specific situation and the data can be presented graphically to give a simple computation environment for any particular structure of an industrial robot.
S. Nájera, C. Elvira, L. F. García-Verde, J. Rico-Azagra

Training in Project Engineering

Critical Learning in Development Projects and International Cooperation
The Master’s degree in Development Cooperation of the Universitat Politècnica de València started in the year 2011–2012 with a specialization in Project Management and Development Processes which capitalized the experience gained in the four previous editions of the master in Development Policies and Processes. Since its inception, the Master has been designed and developed on the basis of principles such as critical learning, participation, and the connection between the local and global problems. These principles have been incorporated into both the contents and the learning process leading to several teaching–learning practices that transcend the classroom space and help to define a very specific profile of specialist in project management and development processes. This article presents and discusses the main methodological innovations developed at an educational level in the master, as well as the monitoring and evaluation spaces that have been established to incorporate the active participation of students and other stakeholders from outside university. The analysis explores the major difficulties and the main supporting factors for a critical learning practice in the field of development projects and international cooperation.
J. Peris, A. Boni, V. Pellicer, S. Fariñas
Competences in Project Management Reachable Before Getting the Engineering Degree
Society demands certain skills, abilities and knowledge from its future professionals, and sees these as a fundamental part of higher education. This paper analyses the competences Industrial Engineering students have achieved during the course of Project Management, using Project-Based Learning (PBL) as their methodology. The implementation of this methodology has improved the following professional competences in Project Management: success in project management, parties involved, project organisation, scope and deliverables, time and project phases, and conflicts and crisis. The results obtained were statistically validated, over two consecutive years, by testing the hypothesis for the difference between the mean values for the achievement of students at the start and end of the course. There were two groups. Finding evidences with high statistical significance shows that there are improvements in the competences regardless of the group. It also shows that there is a correspondence here with international accreditation systems. This allows us to affirm that the acquirement of competences occurs not only regionally but also globally.
D. Guerrero, M. Palma, S. Vegas, V. Quevedo, G. La Rosa
Project Management and Engineering
José Luis Ayuso Muñoz
José Luis Yagüe Blanco
Salvador F. Capuz-Rizo
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