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2023 | Book

Promoting Sustainability Through Water Management and Climate Change Adaptation

Editors: Anupama Dubey, Subhash Anand, Basavaraj Bagade

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences

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About this book

This book explores the concept and issues of sustainability and its symbiotic relationship with existing water resources, the surrounding climate and geospatial development. It covers many dimensions of sustainable water resources, climatic variability, change. It also includes case studies on the basis of specific problems and issues, providing sustainable solutions for the future of the earth.

Over the past several decades, climate change has significantly impacted a number of components of the hydrological cycle and hydrological systems, including changes in precipitation patterns and intensity; widespread melting of snow and ice; increased atmospheric water vapour; increased evaporation; and changes in soil moisture and runoff. Excess runoff eventually reaches larger bodies of water such as lakes, estuaries and the ocean, contaminating the water supply and limiting human and environmental access to water. An improved understanding of how changing anthropogenic activities could affect water resources, and climate in various parts of the world is a necessary step towards sustainability. This awareness requires analyses of challenging interactive areas within the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and sociosphere, as resultant long-term sustainable strategies and measures are greatly needed.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
19. Correction to: A Change Detection Analysis of Mangrove Forests in and Around Devi River Mouth, Odisha Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technique
Prasanna Kumar Nayak, Sujata Mishra

Sustainability Through Water Resource Management

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Geostatistical Modeling and Mapping of Arsenic Occurrence and Vulnerability—A Case Study on Bihar, India
Abstract
Determination of the vulnerability of groundwater to arsenic contamination in general and mapping the vulnerable zones is essential for the preservation of groundwater quality. CGWB has explored and marked the occurrence of arsenic mainly along the Ganga–Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river basin. The major aim of the current study is to conduct geostatistical modeling of arsenic occurrence in the groundwater employing the available secondary data based on the subsurface and hydrogeochemical parameters for the districts of Bihar. Further, the arsenic vulnerability index has been developed employing the Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method after integrating various thematic layers in the GIS platform and generating a vulnerability map. This has helped to identify the arsenic-vulnerable zones. The north-western and the central parts, including Patna, Bhojpur, Munger, Bhagalpur, and Vaishali districts, exhibit high arsenic risk zones due to shallow depth of water and low elevation associated with high silicate and iron contents. It is found that high arsenic risk is associated with the districts lying along the Ganga River. The output was validated against the existing arsenic locations for 2015 (CGWB) and, 2019 (primary data of three districts named Saran, Samastipur, and Vaishali), and by the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) metric.
Sana Dhamija, Himanshu Joshi
Chapter 2. Livelihood Change and Sustainability Potential in a Sri Lankan Mountain Village
Abstract
The sustainability of urban areas is the main theme of this volume which is one of the key challenges faced by the global community today. SDG11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), elobarates the importance of economic, social, and environmental links between urban, peri-urban, and rural areas. However, many rural populations are migrating to urban areas, causing negative effects (e.g., development of slums, poverty, and failure of medical and welfare services) in urban areas and depopulation in rural areas. In mountainous rural areas, where the natural environment is fragile and difficult to live in, people are engaged in considerable efforts to maintain their livelihoods, which could be a factor that pushes people to migrate to cities. By understanding how socioeconomic dynamics affect people’s livelihoods in such mountainous rural areas, we can determine how sustainable livelihoods can be developed and finally aim for an appropriate flow of people from rural to urban areas. Thus, this paper aims to clarify how livelihoods have changed in response to socioeconomic changes in a rural mountain village in Sri Lanka. In the studied village, while traditional rice cropping for self-sufficiency remains important, villagers have also sought various sources of cash income, employing multiple livelihood strategies. Although located in mountains, far from lowland urban areas, the studied village had easy access to nearby towns. Therefore, the village can gain income from the non-agricultural sector, which played a major role in their subsistence alongside rice cropping.
Miyo Matsumoto
Chapter 3. Ensuring Potable Water Supply to Rural Areas: A Case of Rural Water Supply in Tumkuru District, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Access to clean water is a major challenge across many Indian rural regions. Although the local governments in rural Karnataka are striving to provide water to the households through strategically located borewells, the quality of this supplied water is a major concern. In many regions, water is consumed with little to no treatment of the supplied bore well water. This study focuses on developing a system for accessing information about the portability of underground water by various stakeholders. For this study, we have selected two Gram Panchayats (GPs) of Madhugiri taluk in the Tumkuru district of Karnataka. The GPs are situated in eastern Karnataka, which is a drought-prone, rocky region. We examine the key concerns of how water is consumed in the region and people’s reluctance toward the use of public RO filters. Based on our findings, we propose a framework to ensure regular water monitoring by the concerned authorities and dissemination of information to the relevant stakeholders, especially consumers, through a common digitized report providing information about the quality of drinking water. This will help consumers make well-informed decisions regarding their drinking water source(s), as well as improve the functioning of the water regulatory system.
Jisa Shaji, Shivam Sakshi, Gopal Naik
Chapter 4. A Change Detection Analysis of Mangrove Forests in and Around Devi River Mouth, Odisha Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technique
Abstract
A mangrove is a type of forest species present in coastal parts of the World. Mangroves are present throughout the world in the tropic as well as sub-tropic region, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The total mangrove forest area of the world surveyed in the early period of this decade is covered by 34,051,121.6 acres of land disseminated through more than above 100 countries and regions. Mangrove forests are one of the world’s more susceptible ecosystems. Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) mapped the mangrove forests as Ecological Sensitive Zone. A lot of industrial development in the Coastal regions of the World as well as infrastructure growth leads toward the decreasing trend in the Mangrove ecosystem. The emphasis of this paper is to record the changes in mangrove ecosystem during 2006–2021 and the distribution of mangrove forests in and around Devi River Mouth of Odisha State, India. Devi River is one of the bifurcated river of Kathjodi and river Mahanadi which is also a part of Mahanadi Delta. It covers both Jagatsinghpur and Puri districts and finally falls into the Bay of Bengal. The potential of the study area for mangrove regeneration, having the Value of Longitudes and Latitudes 86°22′3.81″E to 86°24′56.18″E and 19°58′51.14″N to 20°2′35.33″N respectively.
Prasanna Kumar Nayak, Sujata Mishra
Chapter 5. Study of Spatio-Temporal Variation in Rainfall at Suketi River Basin by Using Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI)
Abstract
There is a great variation in the pattern of rainfall in any region, therefore it is important to study this phenomenon by using the appropriate methodology. In the present study Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI) has been used to study the Spatio-temporal variation in the rainfall pattern at the Suketi river basin of Himachal Pradesh. Monthly rainfall data between the years 1985 and 2020 for two rainfall stations, i.e., Mandi and Sundernagar has been used. The rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI) is a useful tool to find out the rainfall pattern in terms of humid and dry years in any region. In this paper rainfall distribution pattern in the two most dry and humid years has also been calculated. The years with extreme rainfall events have also been analyzed.
Ajay Kumar, Navneet Kaur, Shilpa Devi
Chapter 6. Hydrogeomorphic Investigation to Select the Suitable Locations for Water Conservation Structures in PG-4 Watershed of Painganga River Basin of the Buldhana District, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
This study presents our remote sensing technique data on PG-4 watershed of the Painganga River of Buldhana district, Maharashtra, India, in order to delineate the hydrogeomorphic unit. Our analysis suggests that the groundwater potential of the hydrogeomorphological units including plateau moderately dissected, plateau slightly dissected, plateau weathered, and plateau weathered shallow are found to be in a good to moderate state, whereas two other units including Plateau un-dissected and Escarpment slope exhibit poor to moderate groundwater potential. The maximum area of the studied watershed exhibits low drainage (0 to 2.31 km), which is good for the percolation and recharge of the groundwater. The studied area also shows the lowest slope value (0–1.68), so that it can be considered for the construction of water conservation structures including those to support the groundwater resources. In the PG-4 watershed, ~75% area is nearly flat and hence it is good for the construction of the groundwater recharge structures. These water conservation structures are also suitable for the proper management of soil and surface water resources. We have recommended 78 locations for the artificial structures in the PG-4 watershed, out of them 38 locations are suitable for nala plugging, 28 for percolation tanks, and 12 for check dams.
Sandip K. Sirsat, Mohan A. Sonar, Vishranti B. Kadam
Chapter 7. Suitability of Groundwater for Irrigation: A Spatial Analysis with Reference to Rohtak District
Abstract
The rapid increase in population and urbanization has pushed farmers to grow on even marginal land available to them and at the same time, in the light of increasing population pressure on land, land and water resources are being used even more regressively. Resultantly as compared to the past indiscriminate and excessive use of agricultural land has led to the degradation of all land-based resources including water. It is a well-known fact that the prosperity of agriculture in the area is the outcome of many factors. It is widely accepted that after the green revolution, irrigation has emerged as the single most crucial factor determining agricultural changes and the intensity of use of land. The intensity of use of green revolution technology is largely governed by assured irrigation facilities, as most of the areas that have less irrigational potential or have inferior quality of irrigation water lagged in terms of agricultural performance. Haryana lies in the heart of the green revolution belt, and its prosperity of agriculture is based on ‘canal-tube-well’ irrigational sources. Largely, agriculture in northern and southern districts of Haryana is tube-well based, whereas, central and western districts are dependent on canal irrigation. Given the richness of available water resources in Haryana, it emerged as the powerhouse of agricultural growth in the country. Off late, unwisely use of water resources has raised many issues for sustainable agriculture. Now, many parts of the state are facing problems with falling water tables or rising water tables, due to indiscriminate use of groundwater. Given the dependence on groundwater, quality is also a very crucial aspect in the case of Haryana in general and Rohtak in particular. As many parts of the state are struggling due to the contamination of groundwater with arsenic, mercury, and other heavy metals. Taking a clue from it, in this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the quality aspect of groundwater using sample data collected by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB). Using different parameters on the quality of groundwater (i.e. Electrical Conductivity, pH, TDS, etc.) suitability for its use for agricultural purposes was analyzed, and found that groundwater quality is not uniform all over in the district of Rohtak. Urgent attention is required in this regard to ameliorate problems about the use of groundwater for irrigational purposes.
Vinod Kumar, Neeraj
Chapter 8. Policy Perspectives and State Responses on Water and Politics in Two States (Telangana State and Andhra Pradesh)
Abstract
Earth’s water supply is one of the world’s most valuable resources. Water is necessary for both plants and animals to survive. If there was no water there would be no life on Earth. While water is critical to agricultural productivity, it is also essential for animal care and human consumption. Water can be used for a variety of purposes besides simply being ingested. Agriculture relies heavily on water for the development, growth, and production of crops and plants. If there is no water no food for human beings no feed (grass) for animals. Where there is no water (Rain) there are droughts and famines in the World. The role of water in a country’s growth and development is undeniable. In countries where irrigation projects have been implemented, food output and economic growth have increased. In the wake of the Krishna water projects, tensions between the two states have erupted. Numerous projects will be built on Krishna by the Telangana state government. Telangana and Andhra Pradesh seem set for yet another collision course over the construction of new irrigation projects on the Krishna River. In view of the above Water and politics in two (Telangana and Andhra Pradesh) states Policy perspectives and state responses are important components in two states. This paper examines the policy perspective of water and politics playing an important role in two states.
Chalamalla Venkateshwarlu
Chapter 9. Estimation of Surface Runoff Using NRCS CN Method and Geospatial Techniques for Sub-basins Prioritization of Conservation Planning of Ghera Sinhagad Land System, Western Maharashtra
Abstract
The study about runoff modeling is necessary to prioritize sustainable land and water resource management. Geospatial techniques have been apply for the grid-based assessment of surface runoff in an engaged region. In this study, surface runoff was predicted using the NRCS SCS Curve Number (CN) method developed by USDA. The study area is Ghera Sinhagad Land System (GSLS), i.e., 131.62 km2 lies in hilly terrain and the high rainfall zone of the Sahyadri hill ranges of the Deccan plateau, Maharashtra, India. The widespread fieldwork and hydrological measurements were conducted and 361 soil samples were collected for evaluation of soil characteristics. Laboratory work includes the analysis of soil samples, data generation, mapping, an analysis of input parameters and surface runoff estimation using the NRCS (SCS) CN method, database of land use/land cover generated through IRS LISS III FCC image. Grid-wise soil types and LU/LC are used for estmation of HSG. The rainfall grid was prepared using the Isohyetal map of NATMO. Terrain properties were assessed using the DEM. Severe surface runoff (150,000 m3/year) comprises 3 sub basins including 38.11 km land surface area of GSLS. The surface runoff below 120,000 m /year comprises a 57.33% area of one and two fifth-order sub-basins that are included in the low category of prioritization. Geospatial technologies are potent for predicting surface runoff from inadequate rain-gauged basins for sustainable watershed prioritization conservation and management.
Dnyaneshwar N. Pawar, Sunil Gaikwad
Chapter 10. Valuing Benefits of Urban Green Spaces for Mitigation of Climate Change Impacts and Promoting Urban Resilience
Abstract
Globally, increased urbanization and rapid population growth are exerting a burden on environmental resources, leading to climate change. Urbanization and population growth are however key components of society and it is important that resilience is built within the system to promote sustainable livelihood. Urban Green Spaces (UGS) along with public open spaces and common services, play a vital role for the metropolis to build a healthy surrounding. The diversity of roles (also known as Ecosystem services (ES)) of UGS, which vary from carbon sequestration to microclimate regulation, demonstrates their importance in maintaining environmental balance. The economic assessment of such services sheds light on the significance of UGS in climate regulation and allied services. The current study deals with the assessment of UGS available in Nagpur city and the changes in its land use/land cover (LULC) are studied from 1990 to 2020. A loss of 20.63 crores INR of ES has been assessed as a result of the research area's deteriorating urban green spaces during a 30-year period, which has harmed the social, economic, and, most crucially, the environmental balance. Using the results of the paper, the stakeholders and policymakers can make informed decisions for improving urban planning processes for long-term sustainability.
Dhanya V. B., Sourav Dutta, Hemant Bherwani, Atya Kapley, Rajesh Biniwale, Rakesh Kumar
Chapter 11. Reinforcement of Drinking Water in Fluoride Affected Areas of Nalgonda District Through Improvised Rainwater Harvesting System
Abstract
Rainwater harvesting is a simple technique that allows rainwater to percolate into the soil. Rainwater harvesting must be considered in areas with high fluoride concentrations in the groundwater in order to make the groundwater drinkable and for other domestic reasons. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate in practice the efficacy of modified Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) systems in lowering the fluoride concentration in a community where fluoride levels are more than 6 ppm at a depth of 180 ft below ground level. An enhanced Rainwater Harvesting System was developed at the ZPHS School in Nalgonda's Gottiparthi hamlet, Telangana, India, utilizing a specialized four-layer filter media. A pre- and post-monsoon fluoride assessment was also carried out for four years since the construction of the RWH structure. According to the study, RWH structures were shown to be effective, significantly decreasing fluoride levels in groundwater over the period of four years. Prior to the monsoon, the maximum fluoride concentration was 7.45 ppm in 2017 at the School Premises, reducing to 1.23 ppm during the post-monsoon in 2020. Fluoride concentrations in freshly dug RWH borewells of depth 100 ft and 200 ft were 5.16 ppm and 5.30 ppm, respectively, before construction in 2017 and had reduced to 0.70 and 1.04 ppm in the post-monsoon season of 2020.
M. V. S. S. Giridhar, Shyama Mohan
Chapter 12. Assessment of the Farmer Support Initiative Programmes in Telangana State—A Case of Mission Kakatiya and Rythu Bandu
Abstract
After formation of Telangana state, the government has taken major initiative programmes such as; Mission Kakatiya, lift irrigation projects and Rythu Bandu and Rythu Bheema. In order to overcome the drought situation, the schemes are playing a key role across the state. More than 40,000 tanks have been renovated and developed in four phases, under the Mission Kakatiya Scheme. The state government, nearly Rs. 15,000 crore rupees are spending on the Rythu Bandu scheme, every year and very recently (January 2021) a total of Rs. 7,515 crore rupees were deposited in 61.49 lakh farmers’ accounts. Based on the performance of the schemes, Central institutions like; NITI Ayog, NABARD and other international organizations are also praised. The primary data was collected through Questionnaire and interview method. In this regard, a total of 330 farmers were interviewed, in the state. Based on the primary data, the paper concluded that, Mission Kakatiya programme resulted in crop productivity, soil fertility and ground water levels have been increased and also created employment. Overwhelming percentage of the eligible farmers are benefitting under Agriculture Investment Support Scheme (Rythu Bandu). Based on the views of the farmers, the study suggests the need to integrate agriculture crop works to 100 days work programme and extend Rythu Bandu to land tenants (Kaulu Rythulu).
T. Anuradha, R. Sudhakar Goud
Chapter 13. Role of Women in Water Resource Management in Sikkim
Abstract
Women have a strong affiliation with natural resources, as they are, by tradition, responsible for collecting fodder, grasses, fuel-wood and water and management of it for domestic purposes. Women across the world do play a vital role in natural resource conservation and management. This chapter analyses women's role in water management in water deficit and rain shadow zone of Darjeeling Himalaya. The findings of this study are based on intensive fieldwork conducted in five villages of Namchi, South Sikkim. The study reveals their overwhelming role in water collection but their near-complete exclusion from the decision-making process.
Chhunu Maya Giri
Chapter 14. Assessing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Tiger Corridor Habitat: A Case Study of Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve, India
Abstract
Human-wildlife conflict is a very common phenomenon in any protected area. Man-environment relationship research has been conducted on human-wildlife conflicts in different locations of the world. However, the nature and extent of human-wildlife conflicts vary from place to place. This paper examines human-wildlife conflict activities by animals in the Ranthambore Tiger Reserve (RTR) on various livestock, using data collected over sixteen years (2001–2016). Research data is collected through qualitative information such as questioning, observation, fieldwork, personal interviews, and other methods. Quantitative information has also been collected from RTR Forest Office. One thousand five hundred and forty-six were killed along with tigers, leopards, bears, and other wild animals. Most of the livestock killings were of domestic cattle such as cows, bulls, buffaloes, goats, and others. The leopard is an important wild animal that was often targeted at cattle. After that, the tiger is the second predator. Overall, livestock hunting was highest in summer and low in other seasons. Phalodi and Khandar districts were identified as the most ‘poaching hotspots’ with a high proportion of deaths in the relative abundance of livestock. The proximity of core areas and the implications of our findings for reducing livestock loss in RTR and conservation of large carnivores are discussed.
Bhanwar Vishvendra Raj Singh, Anjan Sen, Manjit Singh, Ritika Prasad, Ravi Mishra
Chapter 15. Environmental Ethics: In the Context of the COVID-19
Abstract
There is an intimate relationship between humans and the environment. If people use the environment well then they will get good results and if used badly then environment will not give the same. It’s not just that people have a moral relationship with people. The aspect that has a moral relationship with human beings as well as the whole living world and the environment is highlighted here and it has also been mentioned that the moral aspect of the environment with human beings is not to be neglected in the corona atmosphere but to adhere properly for the overall welfare. All the changes that have taken place in environmental ethics as a result of living in a long Corona period. (1) People have become more selfish. (2) The poor have become poorer. (3) Children are house prisoners, unable to enjoy childhood. (4) The women’s entertainment of the neighborhood can no longer be seen. (5) The number of unemployed has increased. (6) Many people have lost their livelihood. (7) There is absolutely no hospitality in the society. (8) The situation is very bad as the street dogs do not get to eat.
Pran Kumar Rajak
Chapter 16. Building Sustainable Livelihoods Through Everyday ‘Green Urbanism’ Practices—A Case Study of GTB Nagar Neighborhood Delhi, India
Abstract
As urban processes become increasingly complex over time, cities expanded at the cost of green spaces. “The blind forces of urbanization flowing along the lines of least resistance”, as argued by Mumford (1956) “show no aptitude for creating an urban and industrial pattern that will be stable and self-sustaining”. Through the age of “The Anthropocene”, cities evolved from their traditional socio-political-economic functions to geological actors with the potential capacity to alter the earth’s climate- locally and globally. This has made urban a more difficult place to live initiating an urge to look for more innovative ways to improve the quality of city life by bringing nature back into everyday living spaces. People began greening the congested urban spaces to make a healthy living in the cities possible. This “green turn” in urbanization has taken various forms across the world. Indian cities are influenced by green turns in urbanization. In this context, the paper tries to map and comprehend home gardening practices as everyday negotiation with the urban crisis in Delhi. The study grounded on both primary and secondary data, and involving a mixed methodology tries to focus on the untold but practiced epistemologies of different forms of green urbanism in Delhi.
Anisha, Komal, Sneha Agrawal, Vaishali Tomar
Chapter 17. Understanding the Impact of Climate Change and Policy Development in India During Post-NAPCC Era
Abstract
Climate change is a geo-natural and anthropogenic continuous process. It is regarded as one of the major concerning problems that the humanity faces today. Its gravity is more serious than any other global risks. However, the pace of its progress can be halted, and its impacts can be better adapted. In this context, two important strategic policy alternatives, ‘adaptation’ and ‘mitigation’ can be taken into account. Considering climate severity and all-encompassing implications, it warrants urgent collective policy formulation and responses. The primary objective of the study is to understand and identify policy gaps between policy formulation and its implementation and to suggest possible strategic policy recommendations to bridge the policy gaps to address the issue of climate change. The study primarily analyzes climate change policy issues and development in India since the initiation of the first ever National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC 2008) policy of India. Climate change as an issue requires joint implementation of effective policies and programmes both by the Centre and its units. This study includes integrative methodological approach for climate policy analysis and implementation purposes. Furthermore, the study would compare the integrated policy at the national level (top-down) with region-specific (bottom-up) approaches while dealing with policy development, implementation and its effectiveness.
Nisikant Nayak, Sumanta Nayek
Chapter 18. Carbon Dioxide Reduction in Environment by Biomass Gasification Approach
Abstract
The paper has explored the role of carbon dioxide capture technology (CCt) in minimizing carbon dioxide (CO2) produced during the power plant process. The evaluation is based on an in-depth review of the literature, including studies from the biomass gasification power plant research and development and academia. The CCt in biomass gasification power plants is often an important option to stabilize CO2 emissions. The gasification plant captures CO2 at suitable measures within acceptable limits. One of the major redeeming factors from the gasification process is that CO2 released into the atmosphere does not exceed what would have been produced. This type of plant provides power to the grid to indirectly prevent a proportional quantum of pollutants. As biomass plants are thus indirectly environment-friendly, they deserve to be an encouragement. The reduction of emissions has the potential to reduce the greenhouse effect. Among emerging CCt, the Absorption technology has been given considerable attention. The gasification with CCt is designed to capture 84% of CO2.
Gopal Sonkar
Metadata
Title
Promoting Sustainability Through Water Management and Climate Change Adaptation
Editors
Anupama Dubey
Subhash Anand
Basavaraj Bagade
Copyright Year
2023
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-9954-79-7
Print ISBN
978-981-9954-78-0
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-5479-7