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About this book

Northern Tanzania is an important and diverse ecological and cultural region with many protected lands. This book, Protected Areas in Northern Tanzania, brings to the forefront research on significant issues and developments in conservation and management in national parks and protected lands in northern Tanzania. The book draws attention to issues at the intersection of conservation, tourism, and community livelihood, and several studies use geospatial technologies—Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing data and techniques—to study land use and land cover conversion. With contributions from professors at the Mweka College of African Wildlife Management located at the foot of Mount Kilimanjaro and other Tanzanian researchers, the book provides important perspectives of local experts and practitioners. Protected Areas in Northern Tanzania provides a significant contribution in research and technological advancement in the areas of wildlife conservation and protected land management throughout this critical region.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Tanzania: A Microcosm of the World’s Changing Geography for Protected Areas

On October 6, 1889, Yohani Kinyala Lauwo guided Hans Meyer to the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro. “Lauwo,” as he is often referred to, was only a teenager when he was chosen by local Chagga leaders to guide the European expedition on the first known ascent to the highest point in Africa. One hundred years after this first ascent of the legendary mountain, Lauwo was able to attend the centennial celebration of the climb, as he lived until May of 1996. The 107 years between the first known ascent of Kilimanjaro and the death of Lauwo brought massive changes to the area around the mountain and the country of Tanzania. And the subsequent decades have only hastened these changes and the broader geography that surrounds protected areas such as Mount Kilimanjaro.
Jeffrey O. Durrant, Rebecca Formica

Chapter 2. Growing Concern for the Conservation of Cavity-Nesting Birds Outside Protected Areas: Can Artificial Nest Boxes Be Effective Conservation Tools?

The overwhelming demand of deadwoods outside protected areas has not given deadwoods enough time to remain standing for the formation of the tree cavities by birds and other natural agents. Consequently, cavity adopter and large-bodied species face difficulties in finding and establishing acceptable nest sites. The focus of biodiversity conservation has been mainly within protected area systems, and less attention has been given to areas outside protected areas despite the fact that these areas support a bigger proportion of bird community. A high pace of deadwood loss on the entire landscape on the southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro is an irreversible situation in which is increasingly becoming a growing concern for the conservation of biodiversity beyond protected areas. Here, we investigate what extent deadwoods have in providing nest sites among cavity-nesting birds. We do this through observations and by placing artificial nest boxes on trees within three different land-use types. We found that deadwood volume and number of natural tree cavities were lower at coffee plantations as compared to mixed farming areas and Kilimanjaro National Park (KINAPA). Likewise, tree cavity positions from the ground were higher at coffee plantations than in other two land-use types. However, application of artificial nest boxes reveals that a good number of larger artificial nest boxes had greater occupancy, as did boxes placed at higher positions on trees from the ground at coffee plantations and mixed farming areas than at KINAPA, suggesting a shortage of natural cavity-nesting sites for larger birds and an avoidance of nest predation or human disturbances, respectively. Therefore, provision of artificial nest boxes could offer nesting opportunities for a range of cavity-nesting birds if designs and constructions take into consideration all possible factors that might hinder their occupation by cavity-nesting birds. In this manner, application of cavity nest boxes could be a vital alternative tool for conservation of cavity-nesting birds beyond boundaries of protected areas.
Hamadi I. Dulle, Saleh S. Seif, Shedrack K. Mungure, Jafari R. Kideghesho

Chapter 3. Historical Change in Porter Work on Kilimanjaro

This chapter charts changes in the nature of porter work on Mount Kilimanjaro from the first Europeans to employ porters on their expeditions to Kilimanjaro in the mid-to-late nineteenth century to the more recent changes in regulations of porter working conditions. It separates the changes over time into three main periods: the period of long-distance trade caravans and colonial expeditions; the rise of the climbing and tourism industry on the mountain when local Chagga guides and porters dominated the mountain crews; and, finally, the era of more responsible tourism and porter organizations around the turn of the twenty-first century. Highlighting this history brings into relief the characteristics of porter work on the mountain and the dynamics of the relationships involved. The chapter argues that as porter work shifted from long-distance trade caravans to high-altitude mountain tourism, colonial customs that disadvantaged porters continued. As the support crew, porters were expected to attend to every need of the visiting climbers with little regard for their own conditions. When some of the people driving the industry (foreign climbers) challenged the system, porter organizations were formed which helped advocate for better working conditions, although some challenges in regard to the loads porters carry, their equipment, clothing, food, and health continue.
Leslie A. Hadfield

Chapter 4. Attitudes of the Local Community Toward Giraffe in Arusha National Park, Tanzania

This study examines the attitudes of the local community toward giraffe in Arusha National Park, Tanzania. This study was carried out between January and May 2018. Data were collected through questionnaires and key informants, to investigate views and attitudes of people toward giraffe. Our results revealed that local community had positive attitudes toward giraffe. Important variables that explained the positive attitudes of local people toward giraffe were sociodemographic variables (age, education, occupation, and duration of stay), calmness, and peacefulness of giraffe. Other important factors that influenced positive attitudes of local people toward giraffe were economic significance accrued from the presence of giraffe through tourism revenues and employment opportunities offered by the Park authority. We recommend the Park and other stakeholders to raise awareness among the local community through education to stop and discourage the notion of seeing giraffe through their primitive norms, taboos, and beliefs that its bone marrow cures HIV/AIDS.
Obeid Mahenya, Naomi Chacha

Chapter 5. Preparing Students for Protected Areas Through Solo and Plain Expedition on the Roof of Africa

With particular reference to the College of African Wildlife Management, Mweka, this chapter provides an overview of activities involved in preparing students for careers in protected areas through fieldwork. A sample of 87 students in the diploma program consented to participate and complete a survey at the return of their solo and plain expeditions to Mount Kilimanjaro. The study results reveal that through fieldwork activities during their expedition, students acquire hands-on experience in aspects of nature conservation. In addition, wilderness training promotes the students’ appreciation and understanding of the wilderness area systems while instilling confidence in leadership capacity development. This study at Mweka College reveals that necessary resources can be harnessed to provide these supportive experiences for students.
Kokel Melubo, Elizabeth Kamili, Rehema A. Shoo

Chapter 6. Ecotourism Potential and Challenges at Lake Natron Ramsar Site, Tanzania

Ecotourism is thought to carry the promise to generate funds for conservation and provide alternative livelihood opportunities that are consistent with conservation of nature. However, lack of careful ecotourism planning and appropriate management in protected areas may result in environmental deterioration and inequitable development among the local communities. This paper analyzes the ecotourism potential and challenges in contributing to local sustainable management and conservation of Lake Natron Ramsar Site. Data were gathered through questionnaire surveys to area’s residents and foreign tourists, interviews with key informants, and field site observation. Findings show that Lake Natron has immense tourist attraction potentials that are important for ecotourism development. However, lack of a general management plan, inadequate funding at the operational level, lack of mechanisms to secure a fair distribution of ecotourism benefits, and poorly developed tourism infrastructural facilities to support diverse segments of tourists were identified as the main challenges associated with the management of ecotourism in the area. The paper suggests a design of an effective management structure that can effectively address the obstacles and ensure that ecotourism achieves its long-term economic and conservation goals.
Rehema Abeli Shoo

Chapter 7. Poachers’ Strategies to Surmount Anti-poaching Efforts in Western Serengeti, Tanzania

Poaching is increasingly threatening the survival of numerous species in protected areas. However, information on how poachers work afield is sparse—especially in East Africa. Understanding how and where poachers work is an important step toward improving wildlife ranger patrols and, therefore, success of law enforcement practices. This study used observations from two years of fieldwork in the Serengeti ecosystem in northern Tanzania and volunteered information from ex-poachers to highlight poachers’ tactics and adaptability to avoid detection and arrest while committing crimes. Using available theories in criminology and socio-sciences, we uncovered ten strategies that poachers employ to avoid detection and arrest by rangers, sustain wildlife poaching, and supply wildlife products to illegal wildlife markets. We argue that increasing wildlife crimes related to bushmeat and high-value trophies such as ivory and rhino horns may have influenced adaptability in the strategies employed by poachers while operating afield. Possible options for improving detection of illegal activities afield, therefore reducing the supply of wildlife products to illegal markets, and saving the target species from decline are discussed. This information has a potential to improve wildlife crime detection and prevention by the wildlife rangers. It is also important for programs aiming at curbing wildlife crime within and outside the protected areas.
Alfan A. Rija, Jafari R. Kideghesho

Chapter 8. Community Governance of Wildlife Resources: Implications for Conservation, Livelihood, and Improvement in Democratic Space

The past three decades have seen increased involvement of communities in the governance of wildlife resources. In northern Tanzania, communities have been involved in wildlife conservation in a variety of ways, from the establishment of Community Wildlife Management Areas, establishment of conservation easements in village lands, to the establishment of land trusts and setting aside areas for wildlife based investments in villages. This chapter presents findings from a number of studies on community involvement in protected area governance in Northern Tanzania. The chapter adopts a V^3 leadership model in analyzing data from key informant interviews, focused group discussions, and a review of relevant documents in villages, districts, and community-based organizations (CBOs). The outcome of these initiatives, although not very impressive, does indicate a gradual change in some key aspects. In conservation, there have been increases in the sizes of land under conservation estate and a notable improvement in populations of key species. With regard to livelihood improvement, there are notable changes as some community members access both direct and indirect employment from wildlife-based organizations and enterprises, as well as the involvement of community members in micro-finance enterprises and wildlife based entrepreneurship. With regard to social benefits, there is more empowerment for community members and more involvement in advocacy and voicing their concerns. This is highly attributed to the involvement and training they received in the establishment of wildlife conservation areas from land use planning to governance and leadership training. There are great achievements, but there are also some notable setbacks. Some notable setbacks include possibilities of power capture by elite groups, recentralization tendency, and inadequate financial management by community-based organizations that give room for corrupt practices and embezzlement.
Alex W. Kisingo, Jafari R. Kideghesho

Chapter 9. Land Cover and Landscape Changes in the Kwakuchinja Wildlife Corridor Adjacent to Road A-104, 2002 to 2017

The Kwakuchinja Wildlife Corridor in northern Tanzania connects Lake Manyara National Park with Tarangire National Park. In 2005, an existing road was paved and raised to improve the connection between the towns of Arusha and Babati. However, the road’s improvement may impact animal movement between the two national parks by providing a physical obstacle and opening up the area to more human settlements. This study examines satellite remote sensing data to estimate land cover changes adjacent to the road in a 50–2000-m buffer before and after the road was paved in 2002 and 2017, respectively. Classified maps were generated using Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 data, and a drone orthophoto was created to visualize accuracy of the 2017 classified map. Results indicate changes in both land cover and landscape metrics. While there were large increases in agricultural activity throughout the buffered area, bare ground or grass decreased from 50% to approximately 12%. All landscape metrics measured for the two dates—Shannon Diversity Index, Simpson’s Diversity Index, Landscape Patch Index, and Patch Density—described a simpler and less aggregated landscape that may affect animal movement through the corridor.
Emanuel H. Martin, Perry J. Hardin, Ryan R. Jensen, Rehema A. Shoo, Alex W. Kisingo

Chapter 10. Dry Season Wildlife Census in Mkomazi National Park, 2015

Transect lines were laid down in Mkomazi National Park for the wild animals ground count exercise. This technique is applied as a ground truth of population density of animals. Forty transects were set to represent all major habitats, including grasslands, woodlands, forests, shrub land, scrubland, and riverine. Program DISTANCE was employed for data analysis. Normal cosine function was applied without any truncation from which mean population densities of each species were calculated separately with standard errors, encounter rate, and detection probability. A total of 22 species mean population densities were estimated, whereby African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) was leading, while gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) was the least. The Park is well protected at the core zone; however, areas close to boundaries are facing frequent disturbances from humans. Since some species of animals such as large carnivores and elephants were not observed, camera traps should be used to estimate carnivore population, whereas dung counts can be used to estimate elephant density. Continual investment in anti-poaching operations by managers is important to keep safeguarding habitats for wildlife. We recommend the use of these results as a benchmark for future population estimates, and these 40 transects be regarded as standard in future counting.
Gideon A. Mseja, Alex W. Kisingo, Emanuel Stephan, Emanuel H. Martin

Chapter 11. Using MODIS Yearly Land Cover Data to Study Vegetation Changes in Mkomazi National Park 2001 to 2013

Mkomazi National Park in northeastern Tanzania was gazetted to a national park in 2008 by upgrading the Mkomazi-Umba Game Reserves. It is possible that national park policy, management, and additional park visitors may change the vegetation within the park. This study examines vegetation changes in Mkomazi National Park using MODIS yearly land cover data and scripts in Google Earth Engine for 2001 and 2013. Results indicate few significant changes in land cover between the two dates. However, grasslands increased by approximately 13% between the 2 years (69–82%), and there were many additional smaller changes. The relatively subtle changes in Mkomazi National Park’s vegetation cover between 2001 and 2013 are most likely reflective of the subtle changes in land management policy after its conversion from two separate game reserves.
Emanuel H. Martin, Ryan R. Jensen, Perry J. Hardin, Glory Sumaye, Abel Mtui, Rehema A. Shoo, Emanuel Stephan

Chapter 12. Conservation of Large Mammals in the Face of Increasing Human Population and Urbanization in Tanzania

Tanzania, like many other developing countries, has experienced rapid population growth and urbanization in the past five decades. Its population has grown from 8,000,000 in 1961 to over 50,000,000 currently, and this population is projected to double in the next two decades. This growth is also notable around the wildlife-protected areas. Using existing literature and personal experience, this chapter reviews the major aspects related to wildlife conservation in relation to human population growth and urbanization. Using examples from different parts of Tanzania, this chapter provides highlights on the trends and causes of human population growth and urbanization in areas bordering wildlife-protected areas and the effects brought about by these trends. The chapter presents the repercussions caused by these trends on the population of large mammals and other wildlife species. Recommendations are provided on how best to minimize the negative impacts that human population growth and urbanization cause on large mammals.
Jafari R. Kideghesho, Gideon A. Mseja, Oliver C. Nyakunga, Hamad I. Dulle
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