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About this book

This book is about the strategic relevance of quantum technologies. It debates the military-specific aspects of this technology. Various chapters of this book cohere around two specific themes. The first theme discusses the global pattern of ongoing civilian and military research on quantum computers, quantum cryptography, quantum communications and quantum internet. The second theme explicitly identifies the relevance of these technologies in the military domain and the possible nature of quantum technology-based weapons. This thread further debates on quantum (arms) race at a global level in general, and in the context of the USA and China, in particular. The book argues that the defence utility of these technologies is increasingly becoming obvious and is likely to change the nature of warfare in the future.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Section I

Frontmatter

1. Quantum Physics: An Esoteric World

Abstract
Science evolves over different stages: the first stage is that of immature science (pre-science), next stage is about normal science (in which a paradigm is acquired), and the third stage represents revolutionary science and here there is a paradigm shift‏.
Ajey Lele

2. The Context

Abstract
Theoretical physics is known to employ mathematical models and concepts of physical objects and systems to offer explanations for existence of a natural phenomenon. It also could predict the future of such occurrences.
Ajey Lele

Section II

Frontmatter

3. Quantum Computers

Abstract
The fundamental problem of communication is to ensure that, the process of communication should always help reproduce at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point. Normally, every message has a meaning and purpose and possibly even a backdrop too.
Ajey Lele

4. Quantum Cryptography

Abstract
Keeping secrets is a universal problem. Quantum technology promises to offer a solution to this problem. Data is all about facts and statistics. Many recognise data as a personal and secret entity. The quantitative data is available in form of numbers while text, images and videos make for qualitative data. Mostly various security mechanisms are put in pace for securing all kinds of data. In general, humans have been using various techniques to keep various secrets intact for centuries. This being a dynamic process, constantly efforts are getting made to upgrade and evolve new security mechanisms.
Ajey Lele

5. Quantum Communications

Abstract
The word communication could have different meanings, essentially based on the context. But, irrespective of the context, any form of communication, broadly involves conveying a message or exchanging information amongst two or more groups (or individuals). Communication comprises of successfully carrying or sharing various ideas and feelings. There could be various ways and methodologies to convey such messages. Few centuries ago, people living in forested areas used to follow a practise of using drums for long-distance communication. Over the years, the art commination has evolved and different types of mediums are put in use to communicate. Various technological developments in field of commutations and even otherwise have assisted the evolution of various means of communication. For many years one of the major concerns associated with the various methods of commutations has been to ensure the ‘security’ of what is getting communicated.
Ajey Lele

6. Quantum Internet

Abstract
Internet is at the heart of information age. It is a global network of billions of computers and other electronic devices. Over last few decades, Internet has revolutionised the human living by bringing in major changes in patterns of communications and has also made enormous amount of information available to the society. Internet also gets referred as a ‘network of networks’. During 1970s, the development of Internet happened in the United States, initially as a system for military utility and for other specific uses.
Ajey Lele

Section III

Frontmatter

7. Global Investments

Abstract
Technology has been the driver of success for modern businesses. From production to advertising to trade to security, technology in some form or other always gets associated with various business actions. As and when any new technology evolves, industries and production houses try to adopt that technology (whenever feasible) to improve their performance. The induction of new technologies in businesses requires upgradation of skills to perform a wide range of associated business functions. Broadly, from increasing efficiency to increasing profit, technology is known to play a dominant role in various sectors of businesses.
Ajey Lele

Section IV

Frontmatter

8. Military Relevance of Quantum Technologies

Abstract
Violent struggle is as old as humanity. War is a violent conflict amongst states or amongst various powers. Violent struggle took the character of war probably when the ‘rise of nation-state’ happened.
Ajey Lele

9. Quantum (Arms) Race

Abstract
Technology plays a crucial role in warfare and has immense importance both in offensive and defensive phases of warfare. It supports developing operational and logistical dimensions of strategy. It is known to drive changes in warfare more than any other factor. Militaries are mostly required to change their warfighting doctrines when any major military technology orientation takes place or an altogether new technology gets inducted to the military domain. Obviously, militaries always try to figure out about what new technologies their adversaries are inducting or researching on. Mostly, this leads to these states trying to outdo each other towards building their defence infrastructure.
Ajey Lele

Section V

Frontmatter

10. In Closing

Abstract
The excitement and tangible outcomes of quantum science, debated in this book, cannot be overstated. Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics and by now scientists have succeed in identifying the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. Presently, various governmental agencies and major industry houses are deeply involved in undertaking research, development and innovation in the cutting-edge applications of quantum technologies.
Ajey Lele
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