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About this book

The book includes the best extended papers which were selected from the 3rd International Conference of Electrical and Information Technologies (ICEIT 2017, Morocco). The book spans two inter-related research domains which shaped modern societies, solved many of their development problems, and contributed to their unprecedented economic growth and social welfare. Selected papers are based on original and high quality research. They were peer reviewed by experts in the field. They are grouped into five parts. Part I deals with Power System and Electronics topics that include Power Electronics & Energy Conversion, Actuators & Micro/Nanotechnology, etc. Part II relates to Control Systems and their applications. Part III concerns the topic of Information Technology that basically includes Smart Grid, Information Security, Cloud Computing Distributed, Big Data, etc. Part IV discusses Telecommunications and Vehicular Technologies topics that include, Green Networking and Communications, Wireless Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks, etc. Part V covers Green Applications and Interdisciplinary topics, that include intelligent and Green Technologies for Transportation Systems, Smart Cities, etc. This book offers a good opportunity for young researchers, novice scholars and whole academic sphere to explore new trends in Electrical and information Technologies.

Table of Contents


Power System and Electronics


One-Dimensional Electromechanical Equivalent Circuit for Piezoelectric Array Elements

In this chapter, we report a simple one-dimensional electromechanical method to model piezoelectric transducer array elements well known by slender bar elements. The method is inspired from Mason’s simplified model, which is tested in the case of a piezoelectric plate and extended to a rectangular slender bar. The research work investigates the effects of the material parameters on the electroacoustic performances, i.e., on the electrical impedance and the displacement. First, it compares the performances of a piezoelectric plate obtained experimentally and those calculated from the equivalent circuit. Two approaches are tested: the first method consists of the determination of the circuit components from the manufacturer parameters and the second one deduces them from the measured electrical impedance. The second approach is then tested in the case of a piezoelectric rectangular slender bar similar to those constituting the medical imaging transducer arrays. In this case, the electrical impedance and the displacement obtained are very close to the measured ones, especially around the resonance frequency. The same approach will be used to study a complete transducer array, i.e., taking into account all the elements, the filling material, the matching layers, and the backing. This constitutes the objective of our future work.
Abdelmajid Bybi, Hilal Drissi, Mohammed Garoum, Anne-Christine Hladky-Hennion

An Extraction Method of SiC Power MOSFET Threshold Voltage

Threshold voltage (\(V_{th}\)) is one of the most important electrical parameters in silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) design, characterization, modeling, and simulation. The reduction of the threshold voltage increases the performance in terms of switching time for the power converter. The study of the evolution of \(V_{th}\) over time must be considered by the designers of the new generations of energy conversion systems. There are several existing methods for \(V_{th}\) extraction, and the aim of this chapter is to compare the commonly used MOSFET threshold voltage extraction methods and to propose a new method based on a physical approach. The extraction method proposed in this chapter is based on the static I–V measurements and the use of the Levenberg–Marquardt optimization algorithm. The implementation of the several extraction methods is tested and discussed by applying them to commercial components in order to evaluate their performance and validity in both the linear and saturation regions. The study is carried out for two generations of power SiC-MOSFETs of CREE constructor.
W. Jouha, A. El Oualkadi, P. Dherbécourt, E. Joubert, M. Masmoudi

Flatness-Based Control of DC Machine-Serial Multicellular Power Converter Association

This chapter considers the control of serial multicellular power converter feeding DC motor. For this purpose, a new control strategy based on flatness approach is developed. The main aim consists on regulating the DC motor velocity to a desired level, keeping in mind the necessity of ensuring an equitable distribution of the supply voltage on the power switches of serial multicellular power converter. To this end, the regulation of the voltage at the terminals of the flying capacitors is necessary. The synthetized controller was verified by computer simulation using Matlab/SimPowerSystems, and the obtained results prove the effectiveness of the designed controller and show that the entire objectives are achieved.
M. Aourir, A. Abouloifa, C. Aouadi, I. Lachkar, F. El Otmani

Design and Implementation of Different Control Strategies of Unit Power Factor Three-Phase PWM Rectifier for Output Voltage Regulation

This chapter presents the analysis and design of different control strategies of unit power factor three-phase PWM rectifier: hysteresis current control, voltage-oriented control (VOC), and direct power control (DPC), in order to obtain high-performance DC bus voltage, lower input current harmonics, and higher unit power factor (UPF). The studied control strategies presented in this work are developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment and implemented in software of the DS1104 board. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate well the performance of the PWM rectifier control techniques.
Fatima-Ezzahra Tahiri, Khalid Chikh, Mohamed Khafallah, Aziz El Afia

Control Systems


A New Robust Control Based on Active Disturbance Rejection Controller for Speed Sensorless Induction Motor

This paper aims to present a new robust command called active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) applied to the sensorless induction motor and introduces the problem of the parameters, which significantly deteriorate the performance of the control, this variation introduces an important role in the loss of dynamic performance in an undesirable coupling between flux and torque of the machine. This paper offers a new scheme for estimation of induction motor speed using \( \upalpha \upbeta \) representation of the model in the stationary reference frame and measurements of accessible motor variables only (currents, voltages, and speed). A second-order of MRAS-based sliding mode estimator is designed for speed estimation. The proposed schemes are implemented using MATLAB simulation, which improve the system robustness against motor parameter variations and increase the performance of the speed loop controller.
Chalawane Haitam, Essadki Ahmed, Nasser Tamou, Arbaoui Mohammed

Optimal H∞ Control for a Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Using PSO Evolutionary Algorithm

This paper presents an optimal tracking and robust controller for a variable-speed wind turbine (VSWT). The main objective of the controller is to optimize the energy captured from the wind at below rated power, and minimize the mechanical stress in the system. In order to guarantee the wind power capture optimization without any chattering behavior, this study proposes to combine the H control with particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The PSO technique with efficient global search is used to optimize the H controller parameters simultaneously to control the system trajectories, which determines the system performance. The stability of the system using this controller is analyzed by Lyapunov theory. In present work, the simulation results of the proposed method (PSO-H) are compared with the conventional sliding mode control (SMC). The comparison results reveal that the proposed controller is more effective in reducing the tracking error and chattering.
Fatima Ez-zahra Lamzouri, El-Mahjoub Boufounas, Aumeur El Amrani

Nonlinear Control of the Web Winding System by Backstepping with Integral Action

The Web Winding System (WWS) knows several constraints such as the thermal effects caused by the frictions, and the mechanical effects provoked by metal elongation, that generates dysfunctions due to the influence of the process conditions. A major objective in the web winding system control design is
  • To obtain a precise thickness, with the best possible regularity when a sudden constraints occurs;
  • To achieve stable rolling and ensure strip quality.
This work presents the conception of a new law of nonlinear control of the WWS. This is the backstepping method with introduction of integral actions. Furthermore, the simulation under the MATLAB/Simulink software allows the highlighting performance of the control strategy adopted.
Abdelmajid Akil, Mourad Zegrari, Nabila Rabbah

Rapid Model Predictive Controller for Artificial Pancreas

Artificial Pancreas (AP) will help large diabetic patients to manage their disease. This paper presents a new Control Algorithm used in AP. This algorithm is based on a model predictive control and characterized by an acceleration of control law without producing overshoot. The method consists on the introduction of two penalization function in the cost function according to the system dynamic. Simulations under a realistic scenario in approved platform of simulation demonstrate the success of this method to obtain satisfactory control performances.
M. El Hachimi, A. Ballouk, A. Baghdad

Observer-Based Adaptive Backstepping Control of Grid-Connected Wind Turbine Under Deep Grid Voltage Dip

The stator windings of the DFIG are directly connected to the grid. This makes the DFIG susceptible to grid fault in form of short-circuit among the phases. The stator and rotor of the DFIG are electromagnetically coupled; therefore, the resulting stator current surge during low-voltage dips provokes inrush current at the delicate back-to-back converters and DC-link capacitor voltage swell. When rotor current and DC-link voltage increase above their admissible Save Operating Zone (SOZ), rotor converters are damaged and active–reactive power control is consequently lost even after the fault is cleared. In this paper, a robust nonlinear disturbance rejection controller, under the context of Lyapunov stability theory, is first employed to control the Rotor and Grid Side Power Converters under normal grid conditions. Then, an active crowbar and DC-link chopper are designed to be switched on at the detection of grid fault to serve as protection for the turbine. A comparative analysis under MATLAB/Simulink is carried out using the PI-controller (PIC) and Adaptive Backstepping Controller (ABC) for a 1.5 MW turbine.
Oluwaseun Simon Adekanle, M. Guisser, E. Abdelmounim, M. Aboulfatah

Information Technology


Band Selection with Bhattacharyya Distance Based on the Gaussian Mixture Model for Hyperspectral Image Classification

This paper investigates a new band selection approach with the Bhattacharyya distance based on the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) for Hyperspectral image classification. Our main motivation to model the Bhattacharyya distance using GMM is due to the fact that this tool is well known for capturing non-Gaussian statistic of multivariate data and that is less sensitive to estimation error problem than purely non-parametric models. To estimate the parameters of GMM, a Robust Expectation-Maximization (REM) algorithm is used. REM solves the shortcoming of the classical Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm by dynamically adapting the number of clusters to the data structure. The selected bands with the proposed approach are compared, in terms of classification accuracy, to the Bhattacharyya expressed in its parametric form and the Bhattacharyya modelled with GMM using the classical EM algorithm. The experiment was carried out on two real hyperspectral images, the Indiana Pines (92AV3C) sub-scene and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) dataset, and the experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in terms of classification accuracy with fewer bands.
Mohammed Lahlimi, Mounir Ait Kerroum, Youssef Fakhri

Advanced Methods and Implementation Tools for Cardiac Signal Analysis

The heart is considered as a muscular pump that propels the blood toward all the cells of the human body, this hollow muscle has an internal electrical activity that allows it to contract automatically. Measuring this activity, called ECG signal, is used to diagnose the heart disorders. So, in this chapter, we survey the current state-of-the-art methods of ECG processing which contain several steps such as preprocessing or denoising, feature extraction and then arrhythmias detection; and the technological solutions for real-time implementation on embedded architectures as CPU, GPU, or FPGA. Finally, we discuss drawbacks and limitations of the presented methods with concluding remarks and future challenges.
Safa Mejhoudi, Rachid Latif, Abdelhafid Elouardi, Wissam Jenkal

A Bi-criteria Distance Reduction Approach for Simple Plant Location Problem

Workspace location decision is considered as a complex problem that requires a detail evaluation and analysis approach. The determination process of a location position should be based on various factors and criteria in order to take into consideration all the requirements of the supply chain that are influencing the efficiency and the general performance of the workspace. The role of the workspace can be viewed differently according to the decision-maker preferences and the nature of business area. In this project, we propose an innovative resolution approach for the single workspace location problem in a polygonal area. Our objective is to locate the facility so as to minimize the total distance between the facility, the customers and the suppliers. Our bi-criteria approach is based on the consideration of the distance and the importance factor of each customer and supplier. We used the A-distance measurement and the aggregation methods to represent the real traveled distance as part of the mathematical modeling of the problem. The aim of the study is to determine the workspace location coordinates that put forward the economic, commercial, and ecological efficiency of the supply chain.
Sara Haddou Amar, Abdellah Abouabdellah, Yahia El Ouazzani

Telecommunications and Vehicular Technologies


Lyapunov-Based Control of Single-Phase AC–DC Power Converter for BEV Charger

In this paper, we consider the problem of controlling single-phase ac–dc power converter for battery electric vehicle (BEV) charger. The control objectives are threefold: (i) unitary power factor (UPF) in grid side, (ii) tight regulation of dc-bus voltage to its constant reference in dc side, and (iii) asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system. Based on the nonlinear model of the studied system, a nonlinear controller is designed using Lyapunov approach. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear controller, several numerical simulations are performed using the MATLAB/Simulink software.
Aziz Rachid, Hassan EL Fadil, F. Z. Belhaj, K. Gaouzi, Fouad Giri

Optimization Techniques for DC Bus Voltage Balancing in a PV Grid System Based EVs Charging Station

This work presents a smart algorithm to optimize energy in electric vehicles charging station while treating various constraints, i.e., the instability of renewable energy sources and the potential limited power provided by the grid. The PV array is recognized as one of the efficient energy sources to feed the charging station system; it is directly tied into a voltage DC bus, and thus the lithium–ion battery is implemented in this platform to complete the power flow of each potential charging scenario. In this research, a management algorithm is set to take into account the fluctuant power state of both, the DC and the AC bus. Besides, the algorithm handles also the state of charge of the storage battery of the charging station via two kinds of control, i.e., MPPT algorithm and PI control.
A. Hassoune, M. Khafallah, A. Mesbahi, T. Bouragba

Study of the Performance of the DRHT and TSP in Delay Tolerant Networks

In Delay-Tolerant Networks (DTN), routing is a very challenging task due to their peculiar characteristics. Among various routing schemes, we find routing schemes based on clustering in order to improve the performances of this networks. In this work, we provide a DTN Routing Hierarchical Topology (DRHT) which incorporates three fundamental concepts: ferries messages, ferries routes, and clusters. The intra-cluster routing is managed by the cluster head, while the intercluster routing is managed by the ferries messages. This approach allows us to improve the performances of DTN networks. The simulations results have shown that our solution to the DRHT proves to be effective and adequate in the context of the DTN networks when compared to the other existing approaches.
El Arbi Abdellaoui Alaoui, Hanane Zekkori, Said Agoujil

Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques on Double-Squirrel Cage Induction Motor for an Electric Vehicle Motorization

Electric Vehicles (EVs) are complex electromechanical systems described by nonlinear models and therefore, their control design and analysis is not an easy task. Double-Squirrel Cage Induction Motor (DSCIM) has the advantages of driving complex loads which require high starting torque and low starting current. This paper presents a speed control comparison between the PI controller and the advanced techniques of control based on the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic (FL) in order to be applied for an electric vehicle motorization. The simulation results are numerically validated by using the MATLAB/Simulink universe; they highlight the robustness properties of the different control strategies based on field-oriented control technique.
Hamza Mediouni, Soumia El Hani, Ilias Ouachtouk, Mustapha Ouadghiri, Imad Aboudrar

Generic Client–Server Interfaces for Real-Time Remote Automatic Control Laboratory

This paper constitutes a contribution in Distance Education field’s (E-Learning), more precisely to the Distance Training by practical activities of the laboratory (E-Lab). Indeed, the majority of distance training platforms offer theoretical courses and a few practical activities which are essential in training theoretical Science and Technology. In this work, we propose a generic and open hardware/software architecture which permits remote access to a laboratory’s equipment. We detail the implementation and the use of two user-friendly graphical interfaces using Internet/Intranet network and TCP/IP communication protocol. These interfaces designed in MATLAB environment, work both in intranet and internet network. It allows to a learner a real-time control and supervision to carry out all the practical activity according to a pedagogical scenario elaborated by the trainer. The functioning of these interfaces is illustrated by educational sessions articulated on the Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) regulation and the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) of the temperature control system. The challenge is to elaborate a remote practical activity taking into the pedagogical effectiveness is accomplished in the proposed solution. The remote training platform equipped by a specific hardware and software, allows to achieve traditional laboratory experimentations.
Driss Filahi, Najib Bennis, Soumia El Hani

Toward a New Broadcasting Protocol to Disseminate Safety Messages in VANET

VANETs are a kind of MANETs, where vehicles communicate among themselves via a vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, or with other devices located on the roadsides (RSU: Roadside Unit) via vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication. Some devices called on-board units (OBUs) are installed in each vehicle, and work in ad-hoc mode, being able to broadcast data through multiple hops to improve the driver’s safety and the transportation efficiency. The fast actual trend of broadcasting protocols in VANET aims to provide additional comfort to the cars’ drivers and be notified about a critical incident in the road. Therefore, the design of a good broadcasting protocol that performs well in all the previous criteria to avoid storm problem remains the most paramount task. The main issue is how to maximize the reachability while minimizing the rebroadcasting and the end-to-end delay. In most of the previous works, they either maximize the reachability or minimize the end-to-end delay, but they do not do both jointly. We present in this paper a novel method to calculate the waiting time of the counter-based and probability-based schemes, based on the speed of the vehicle, to assess the congestion level of the network. Simulation results through NS2 using 802.11P show that the new method performs better under different mobility scenarios (Grid and highway Map).
Assia Naja, Mohammed Boulmalf, Mohamed Essaaidi

Green Applications and Interdisciplinary Topics


Active Disturbance Rejection Control of Shunt Active Power Filter Based on P-Q Theory

Active filtering has been known as a promising solution for the compensation of reactive currents and harmonics in the grid energy quality. The present paper introduces a novel control algorithm for the detection of reference harmonic currents applied to a Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF), where the calculation of the references currents is achieved by the instantaneous active and reactive power theories (p-q), and the control of the DC bus voltage is achieved using the active disturbance rejection control. The MATLAB–SIMULINK environment is used to evaluate the theoretical study and to compare the results of the new control strategy with the one obtained by the classical PI controller.
Imad Aboudrar, Soumia El Hani, Hamza Mediouni, Ahmed Aghmadi

Sliding Mode Control of a Cascade Boost Converter for Fuel Cell Energy Generation System

In recent years, the renewable energy sources are used as an electric source to reduce energy demand and environmental pollution which occurred using fossil fuels. Fuel cell which is one of the renewable energy sources, and especially Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a good candidate to solve this problem because it has low emission, high efficiency, perfect part-load performance, and wide size range. This paper deals with the problem of controlling a DC–DC cascade boost converter which is used as a power block for energy conversion system of fuel cell electric vehicle. Using a sliding mode technique, the power converter is controlled in order to achieve two objectives: (i) tight regulation of DC voltage and (ii) asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system. It is worth noting that the nonlinearity of the PEMFC characteristic is taken into account in this work by considering a polynomial approximation of the V–I curve. Moreover, the dynamic model of DC–DC cascade boost converter is analyzed and simulated. It is shown using theoretical analysis and simulations that the controlled system satisfies all the objectives.
Fatima Zahra Belhaj, Hassan El Fadil, Abdelouahad Tahri, Khawla Gaouzi, Aziz Rachid, Fouad Giri

Improvement of Power Quality Using Backstepping Control Strategy for a Transformerless Dual-Stage Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System

A nonlinear control of the active and reactive power for a photovoltaic system is presented in this paper. The generated power is injected into the electrical grid via transformerless single-phase voltage source inverter. The conception of the proposed controller is based on the backstepping approach to develop the inverter control laws. Additionally, the global asymptotic stability of the system is guaranteed using the Lyapunov stability approach. In order to examine the performance of the proposed controller, a comparative study has been established between the obtained results and those of the conventional linear controller under irradiance variation. As a result, the proposed controller presents better reference tracking and provides unity power factor. Moreover, the harmonic analysis demonstrates that the injected power into the electrical grid has an improved quality using the backstepping control approach.
K. Chigane, M. Ouassaid

A Multi-Modelling Approach and Optimal Control of Greenhouse Climate

The objective of greenhouse climate control is to improve the cultural development and to minimize the production costs. In this paper, we propose a comparison between two approaches to modelling and control greenhouse’s inside climate. This one is defined by internal temperature and hygrometry. The classical approach is based on a single linear model to describe the dynamic of greenhouse internal climate and using a strategy control to regulate the microclimate inside the greenhouse. The multi-modelling approach aims to reduce the complexity of the system in terms of variables to take into account in modelling and controllers design. Therefore, we have developed two linear models for representing the greenhouse inside climate in two different durations. Those diurnal and nocturnal phases. For the control of greenhouse inside climate based on finite-horizon optimal control, we present two methods. The first one is a classical method and consists of controlling the internal climate by using a single controller for all days. The other one is based on two models and two controllers for nocturnal and diurnal phases. For the needs of simulation purpose, we have used a nonlinear model to describe more effectively the behaviour of greenhouse dynamic climate. A successful feasibility study of the proposed controller is presented and simulation results show good performances despite the high interaction between the process internal and external variables. The comparison results confirm the superiority of a multi-modelling approach.
Ayoub Moufid, Najib Bennis
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