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2022 | Book

Recent Advances in Hybrid and Electric Automotive Technologies

Select Proceedings of HEAT 2021

Editors: Dr. V. Krishna, Dr. K. N. Seetharamu, Dr. Yogendra Kumar Joshi

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series: Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering

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About this book

This book presents the select proceedings of International Conference on Hybrid and Electric Automotive Technologies 2021 (HEAT 2021). It cover recent innovations in electric and hybrid-electric vehicles and autonomous vehicles. Various topics covered in this volume are batteries, battery cooling methodologies, use of nano-coolants, electrified powertrain systems and components, hybridisation infrastructure, energy storage, and many other topics of importance to the industry. The book will be useful for researchers and professionals working in the areas of automobile and vehicle engineering.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Placement Optimization for Field Effect Transistors
Abstract
In this fast-paced world where technology has been established in all aspects of human society, there is a constant demand for higher processing capabilities with smaller packaging which leads to increased power dissipation per unit volume. This warrants innovative and more efficient cooling solutions. A Printed circuit board (PCB) is a layered insulating board that mechanically supports the semiconductor chips and facilitates electrical connection between them through an etched metallic coating (usually copper) laminated on its surface. The components are fastened to the PCB by means of solder. Due to the increasing density and number of heat-producing components, it becomes necessary to decrease the overall temperature of the PCB before installing the cooling system, the heat-producing elements must be optimally placed so as to not be too close to the boundary nor be in the range to thermally interfere with other chips, to prevent localized high-temperature regions which could further damage the PCB. This is done through the process of PCB optimization, where prior data from thermal simulations will be used to generate an optimized layout to minimize the board temperature. In the first phase of our project, we worked on modelling the board, chips and enclosure. We made several approximations to start with and slowly refined the model in successive steps. Our goal is to create a model as close to reality as possible and use this to optimize the placement of the chips and various parameters involved.
Dhrupad Vijay, S. V. Amartya, Babu Rao Ponangi, V. Krishna
A Simplified Thermal Model to Predict Temperature Profile and Heat Generation of Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Cells
Abstract
The cylindrical lithium-ion cells are being considered as one of the preferred energy storage systems in Electric Vehicles (EV). However, they have operational challenges involving temperature that greatly affects its life and performance. If the cell operating temperature exceeds the threshold limit, decomposition of the battery active material may occur which can trigger thermal runaway leading to the explosion in certain conditions. Therefore, a battery thermal model is essential to analyze the thermal response of the cell to design an efficient and effective battery thermal management system. This paper presents a simplified unsteady one-dimensional radial analytical thermal model to predict the temperature profile and heat generation of an isolated cylindrical cell under natural and forced convection. The model treats the cell as homogeneous body with uniform heat generation throughout the cell and the thermo-physical properties of the cell are assumed to be independent of temperature. The prediction of the model on the effect of forced convection cooling on the surface temperature of the cell for different heat transfer coefficient values is quite interesting. It is seen that surface temperature is under 30 °C for heat transfer co-efficient of 100 W/m2 °C. The core and surface temperature non-uniformity across the radius of the cell is nearly 2 °C for different state of charge (SOC).
Pritam Bhat, Mahesh K. Varpe
Mathematical Modeling and Parametric FEM Study on the Thermal Management of a Rectangular Microchannel Heat Sink
Abstract
Due to the fast-paced depletion of natural energy resources such as petroleum, more sustainable alternatives, like Electric Vehicles (EVs) are destined to become the new norm. This new demand has increased the amount of research happening in this field, especially with regard to the controllers of the EV, which act as the brain of the operation. Of all the factors that affect the efficiency and functioning of any power electronic system, temperature is the most important. Thermal management should therefore be considered early in the design process. In this discourse, microchannels are considered to be the cooling mechanism applied on a microchannel heat sink system. A mathematical model is proposed based on Finite Element Methods which simplifies the discretization and assembly of parallel and tapered microchannel systems and validates their rates of cooling against similar models constructed using CFD methods. The goal of the study is to obtain a robust mathematical model that can be used to generate data for all attempts at optimizing the cooling rates using combinations of genetic algorithms.
Ria Ann Zachariah, Neelima Kuttappa Mukkatira, M. Sachin Bharadwaj, V. Krishna, Babu Rao Ponangi
Production of Cotton Seed Biodiesel and Its Usage in a C I Engine with Methyl Ester and A12O3 Additives
Abstract
In this work, cotton seed crude oil was obtained from the dried seeds using mechanical device called expeller. The free fatty acid (FFA) of cotton seed crude oil was found higher so it was subjected to double stage transesterification process. The maximum yield of cotton seed biodiesel was found with optimized variables; catalytic concentration, molar ratio and reaction time. In addition to pure biodiesel usage the methyl ester (neat diesel) and Al2O3 nano particle additives were used to blend the biodiesel in different proportions. The properties of the blend made of 20% cotton seed biodiesel and 80% methyl ester and Al2O3 nanoparticles were found close to pure diesel properties. A single cylinder, four strokes diesel engine was tested at different loads by maintaining constant speed with cotton seed biodiesel and its blends with methyl ester and Al2O3. It is observed that comparatively higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE), lesser brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and higher exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for blend made of 20% cotton seed biodiesel and 80% methyl ester and Al2O3 nanoparticles.
Basavaraj Ganiger, B. Yuvaraj
Tribological and Rheological Studies of Polyolester (POE) Oil and POE + alumina nanolubricant and its effect on the Performance of a Refrigeration System
Abstract
From the previous few years, diverse studies have been taking place at a faster rate by implementing innovative practices so as to improve the performance of lubricating oils and hence the system in which it is used. Using nanolubricants, bio-lubricants are some of the alternative solutions. In the present study, the various properties viz; rheological, tribological, and performance studies of polyol ester (POE) lubricant, a widely used lubricant in household refrigerator compressor, are evaluated by loading it with alumina nanoparticles and compared the results. The mass percentage of nanoparticles used is from 0.05 to 0.15%. The rheological properties were evaluated for the temperature ranges from 25 to 100 °C. High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) is used to perform tribological studies. The results show that the viscosity, viscosity index, improved with the rise in the proportion of alumina nanoparticles and all the proportions of nanolubricant showed Newtonian behaviour. The POE + 0.125%alumina nanolubricant showcased superior performance in tribological studies, in the energy utilization of the R134a refrigerant compressor and COP. Similar studies can also be conducted in various other mechanical systems that require lubrication, in-view of enhancing its performance and durability.
Subramani Narayanasarma, Biju T. Kuzhiveli
Aerodynamic Effect on Lift Characteristics of a Sedan Car Due to Attached Wing
Abstract
The aerodynamic effect plays a major role in the fuel efficiency and stability of the vehicle. The contact patch loads between the tire and road also play a vital role in the stability and fuel efficiency and are directly related to the vehicle load. In this research, lift force generated because of an additional wing attached to the car is studied. While the vehicle moves around 40–130 kmph. Upward vertical lift force produced from aerodynamics reduces the weight of the car virtually. The wing or airfoil is attached to use the gap between the car’s top surfaces to the lower surface of the wing to cause a Venturi-like effect. Lightweight car will be able to make more efficient use of its tires than a heavier car. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses are done with ANSYS Fluent. The validation of airflow characteristics, lift and drag forces from simulations, is done with data from wind tunnel testing. The study was carried out by varying parameters such as height between the upper surface of the car and the lower surface of the wing, and wingspan. The result obtained shows that the weight of the car can be reduced by 11% virtually with the wing forces, and the payload could increase by 11% or improve the fuel efficiency by 10–15%.
Amrutheswara Krishnamurthy, Suresh Nagesh
Modelling and Analysis of Brake Disc with Various Profiles for EN31 Material
Abstract
Disc brakes are the existing brake system in automobiles. The disk plays a vital role in slowing down as well as to stop the vehicle. When brake is applied, at the juncture, friction will be developed between brake pad and disk. Because of this braking effect, there generates a large quantity of heat on the contact area. Different sandwich structures may be designed with the aim that the generated heat can be ventilated during the braking action. The primary objective of this article is to study the thermal characteristics of the sandwich ventilated structures of three different profiles of the brake disc and valuate the obtained results and recommend a better profile. EN31 is chosen as the brake disc material since it has low density and good mechanical and thermal properties. X-core, Corrugated and Round O-core were chosen as the various profiles to be analysed. For the sandwich structures, the heat and the pressure output parameters were found with a condition that one face of a sheet is subjected to heating (constant heat flux) while the other face was cooled (forced air convection). From the analysis, it was found that heat dissipation of the profile depends upon the property (density and the thermal conductivity) of the material utilized. Also, O-core sandwich structure offers comparatively better performance than the other three profiles.
K. Kaviyarasan, R. Soundararajan , R. Abhisheak Richter, K. Siva, S. Purusothaman, S. Shiva Gurunathan
Production of Biodiesel Using Temple Waste Oil
Abstract
Energy need is the main focused area for the overall development of a country; the world’s most widely used fuel is petroleum fuels. Diesel is the primary fuel for transportation and commercial usage, as the days passes the fossil fuel are depleting at alarming range. So in India most of the oils are poured on Hanuman and Shani god idols, based on mythological and religious belief, the oil poured on idols are considered not usable for any other purposes. This oil is called as temple waste oil and same can be used as best source of biodiesel, which is available cheaply at low cost. Temple waste oil biodiesel gives similar physical characteristics as that of diesel. Temple waste oil biodiesel blended with diesel can be used as alternative automobile fuel. In this paper, various blend characteristics are experimented and out of all the blends T25 will give similar properties as that of diesel, the viscosity of T25 is 8.25 cSt at 40 °C, density 830 kg/m3 and Calorific value is 41.6 MJ/kg and can be used in an existing engine. So temple waste oil can be a potential alternative source for diesel engine.
A. Jagadeesh, Basavaraj M. Shrigiri, Omprakash D. Hebbal
Experimental Analysis of a Counter Flow Plate Heat Exchanger by Using Nanofluids at Different Concentrations
Abstract
Heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are improved by increasing the mass flow and inlet temperature. This article is intended to study the rate of transfer heat of nanofluids by counter flow conditions using forced convection mode. A two-step method was used to finalise the alumina nanoparticles. In this experimental analysis as the size of the particle decreases, the rate of heat transfer increases. In this experimental analysis, nanoparticles with a diameter size of 30 nm were used. Distilled water was used as the base fluid to prepare the nanofluids of alumina with different volume concentrations (0.14, 0.28, 0.4 and 0.52%). The experimental results show better thermophysical properties of nanofluid, and also Reynolds number and Prandtl number have been calculated.
Anil Kumar, Amman Jakhar
Design Evaluation in Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS): A Multi-Objective Squirrel Search Algorithm
Abstract
In recent years, the manufacturing situation is considered through the requirement of cost-effectively, coping speedily, in addition customized flexibility toward manage market requirements. These issues should be satisfied by minimizing time, cost, and modularity index. This paper has proposed a Multi-Objective Squirrel Search Algorithm (MOSSA) to optimize the Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) design. To empower the RMS performance, three different objectives are considered such as system cost minimization, system completion time minimization, and system modularity maximization. The main objective of the research is the optimization of RMS machine selection. The optimal selection of machines is modular and observed as solitary of the most essential machineries of RMS. The optimal selection of machines is to generate at a high volume though consuming the capability to process operations otherwise parts within the invention family. The proposed methodology is utilized to select a set of modular machines from a machine and the required set of design that consist these machines. This projected methodology is validated by numerical analysis.
N. Swamy, U. M. Daivagna, A. Thimmana Gouda, R. H. M. Somanath Swamy
Development of Drive Cycle and Resultant Powertrain Calculations of Electric Bicycle
Abstract
To model the powertrain for an electric bicycle, it was observed that the drive cycle was a critical input required to get accurate results. While trying to find a priorly available drive cycle in the past literature, it was observed that there were no good reference points for powertrain calculations of an electric bicycle and the corresponding drive cycle used. Hence, this paper demonstrates the process of creating a drive cycle that is used to then obtain the powertrain requirements of an electric bicycle. The process of creating a drive cycle consists of data collection, analysis, and generation of the final drive cycle. The features of the drive cycle are compared with standard drive cycles like World Motorcycle Drive Cycle (WMTC). This drive cycle is then used as input to a powertrain model which was built. The powertrain model consists of 4 components, namely the chassis, transmission, motor, and battery. The salient features of each individual component are explained briefly. The battery and motor requirements pertaining to our unique inputs are shown and the variation of battery power with respect to bicycle speed is explained graphically.
Tejas Savadi, V. N. Abhilash, Kean Fernandes, Sharanbassappa S. Patil
Dynamic Analysis of Electric Train Bogie Using MATLAB Simulink
Abstract
The dynamic analysis of Railway Bogies is an important field of research in the design of Railcar to improve the ride comfort of the passengers. The Bogie used in this research is Fabric Italina de Automobil Torino, Switzerland (FIAT) Bogie used by Indian Railways. The paper aims at dynamic analysis of the FIAT Bogie under step input condition which simulates the repeated disturbances caused by wheel wear due to fretting. The quarter suspension of the Bogie is modeled as a spring, mass, and damper system with 3 degrees of freedom. The equations of motion are derived for the model, and it is built accordingly in MATLAB Simulink. The parameters and specifications of the FIAT Bogie obtained from the Indian Railway Manual are assigned to the spring, mass and damper system, and it is simulated for a step input. The displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the coach, Bogie frame, and wheel-sets are obtained in time domain. The results show that majority of the vibrations occur in the wheel-sets and the Bogie frame. The suggestion for redesigning of wheel-sets and suspension system is suggested. Suspension system can be redesigned for better ride comfort by the use of hydraulic actuator controlled by PID controller.
C. Prithvi, Surajgouda C. Policepatil, Srinidhi Ramachandracharya
Design and Development of Electric Powertrain for a Proposed Three-Wheel Personal Mobility Vehicle
Abstract
This paper presents the design and development of the powertrain for a three-wheeled electric vehicle having a tadpole configuration with rear wheel drive. This three-wheeler, aimed at personal mobility, is designed for a top speed of 50 kmph with a range of 20–25 km per charge fueled by highly efficient Lithium-ion batteries with a reduction ratio of 6.2:1 split into two stages and powered by a 6 kW electric motor. Tractive force simulations for the prescribed vehicle parameters were carried out using the QSS toolbox of MATLAB-Simulink by choosing the appropriate drive cycle post the drive cycle analysis. Motor Sizing and Battery Sizing procedures along with suitable reduction ratio ensured the perfect selection of motor and battery pack combination for the required performance parameters and efficient output of the system. Following sizing procedures, the various components of the drivetrain were checked for interference and finally integrated on the swing-arm of the vehicle post analysis of all the components involved.
Arvind Srivatsan Varadharajan, R. Shreekara, Suman Emmanuel Salins, Sharanabassappa S. Patil
Artificial Intelligence-Based Trajectory Planning for Driverless Vehicles—A Review
Abstract
One of the hurdles in implementing self-driving automobiles is their precise decision-making in uncertain traffic conditions. The paper reviews various Artificial Intelligence-based trajectory planning algorithms addressing this issue. The review focuses on lane changing, trajectory selection, and safety to model a Level-5 autonomous vehicle. The prominent algorithms are discussed in terms of their features, status, and scope. The algorithms are analysed in the increasing order of levels of automation. As the trajectory planning algorithm mimics human intelligence, it is more probable to develop the characteristics of a trustworthy self-driving vehicle capable of making accurate decisions in extreme road or traffic circumstances. In addition to the major traffic elements, pedestrian interaction, vehicle dynamics, and the usage of an adaptive controller can ensure more promising results to achieve safe lane changing/selection.
Aathira G. Menon, S. Bindu
An Automatic Indian Traffic Signs Detection and Recognition System Using OpenCV
Abstract
The main objective of this research is to develop an automatic Indian traffic signs detection and recognition (TSDR) system which is fast and efficient for real-time implementation in autonomous vehicles. A TSDR system is an essential component of autonomous vehicles and a fast algorithm is necessary for its implementation in a real-time environment. This paper presents a TSDR system developed using Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) which includes two working stages: traffic sign detection and traffic sign recognition. A robust shape and colour-based approach is adapted for the detection of traffic signs. Image processing techniques such as image thresholding, Gaussian filter, contour detection and RGB color segmentation have been applied for traffic sign detection. The detected traffic signs are classified based on the shape and color properties of the Indian traffic signs and recognized by region of interest (ROI) segmentation based on feature matching. The developed technique is efficient in detecting and recognizing traffic signs with complex natural backgrounds under various lighting conditions and requires a low processing time of 0.30 s, allowing for real-time applications.
Chinmay Srinivas, Sharanbassappa S. Patil
A Waypoint Tracking Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Using CARLA Simulator
Abstract
The main objective of this work is the development and testing of a waypoint tracking controller for autonomous vehicles. The waypoint tracking controller is developed in Python and tested using CARLA Simulator, an open-source simulator for autonomous driving research. The waypoint tracking controller is developed by implementing a PID controller for longitudinal control and a pure pursuit controller for lateral control. The PID gains are tuned to precisely track the reference speed profile. The pure pursuit controller is implemented to accurately follow the desired path. The developed controller is tested in CARLA Simulator and the simulation results indicate that the vehicle tracks 100% of the waypoints specified in the trajectory. The waypoint tracking controller also performs well in closely tracking the reference speed profile. The developed waypoint tracking controller is precise and suitable for application in autonomous vehicles for urban driving environments
Chinmay Srinivas, Sharanbassappa S. Patil
An Economic Feasibility Study of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in India
Abstract
To address the ever-increasing issue of greenhouse gas emissions, reduce dependence on crude oil, and increase in fuel prices in the Indian context, electric vehicles (EV) are considered a possible solution in a long run. With incentive schemes initiated by the Government of India (GoI), the adoption of EVs is happening on a large scale. A core requirement for the mass adoption of EVs is the availability of charging infrastructure at an affordable rate and without intermittency to relieve range anxiety. However, the deficiency of public charging infrastructure is considered a major hindrance to a wide-scale adoption of EVs. This paper elaborates on factors affecting the location of charging infrastructure and highlights the existing EV charging standards in India. Also, the economic feasibility of establishing an electric vehicle charging station (EVCS) as per the standards and guidelines prescribed by the government is carried out using the net present value (NPV) method. With careful planning, establishing slow as well as fast EVCSs at existing parking stations with nominal parking fees at retail spaces, workplaces, street parking areas, and along highways can encourage extensive use of EVs, leading to a profitable business opportunity.
Sajan Jerome, M. Udayakumar
Liquid Cooled Battery Thermal Management System for 3S2P Li-Ion Battery Configuration
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are the future of the automotive industry. Due to their zero-emission technology, lithium-ion powered electric vehicles are hyped as the power source of the future. However, one of the main drawbacks of the cell is its high heat generation, which, in turn, affects the performance of the vehicle. Currently, research is being conducted into developing an efficient battery thermal management system (BTMS). The present study will be looking into developing a liquid battery thermal management system. To determine the efficiency of the cooling system, heat generation on a smaller battery pack was modelled with the help of the MSMD model on Ansys fluent. A smaller battery pack of a 3s2p configuration was selected to validate the results. The parameters of the cell were available on the datasheet. Materials were selected based on the data present on Ansys fluent. The simulation was conducted for two discharge rates 1C and 2C. As a result, it was observed that for the 3s2p configuration, the maximum temperatures go up to 320 K and 335 K for a discharge rate of 1C and 2C, respectively. After this, the battery pack is subjected to a liquid thermal management system. The effect of various mass flow rate on temperature are as follows at flow rate of 1e-5 the maximum temperature decreases by 5.31%, whereas the maximum temperatures at 1e-4 and 1e-3 flowrate decreases by 5.93% and 6.01% respectively at 1C discharge rate. In case of 2C discharge rate, at the mass flow rate of 1e-5, the maximum temperature decrease is by 8.65%, whereas for 1e-4 and 1e-3, the maximum temperature decrease is by 9.85% and 10.14%, respectively. A crossflow design is adopted and was compared with the normal flow; it is observed that there is no significant effect of flow direction on temperature.
Divya D. Shetty, Aditya Nair, Rishab Agarwal, Kshitij Gupta
Implementation of Multi-carrier Modulation Techniques to Increase Image Quality for Underwater Sonar Image Transmission
Abstract
Sonar image transmission is very important for undersea expeditions as it has many applications in real world but it is very tough due to the limited bandwidth and multi-path fading. Therefore, to improve the quality of multi-carrier modulation for the purpose of sonar image transmission, various techniques are implemented. Dual-tree complex wavelet transform-based OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), discrete wavelet transform-based OFDM, and conventional OFDM are implemented. The results show that DTCWT-OWDM and DWT-OFDM perform much better than conventional OFDM with improved Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Peak-to-Average Power Ratio(PAPR).
Rishav Kumar Kedia, Aditi Goyal, Rohan Vashishtha, G. Swetha
Design and Analysis of Skateboard Chassis
Abstract
Due to rising fuel prices and pollution, the focus of this research is on electric vehicles. The Tata Ace engine chassis is being used as a model for the skateboard chassis that will be created. The main aim of this work is to design a skateboard chassis for the Tata Ace that is lighter than the current Tata Ace engine chassis. The skateboard chassis will be created with CATIA V5, and the structural analysis will be completed with Ansys software. The modal analysis is used to examine the mode shapes of the skateboard at the chassis at various frequencies ranging from 18.34 to 84.98 Hz, as well as the tradeoff between deformation rate and mode shape. Finally, the findings are compared to the engine chassis based on total deformation, geometric mass, and stress intensity, indicating a weight reduction of 15.72%, which will reduce the vehicle's weight, resulting in lower energy consumption and manufacturing costs.
N. Sharath Chandra, R. Vikas
Electro-Thermal Model for Field Effective Transistors
Abstract
This paper describes an electro-thermal model, which gives the real-time junction temperature of the MOSFET. The thermal model is obtained from the thermal impedance curve given in the datasheet of the selected MOSFET (IAUT260N10S5N019). The RC network models are obtained from the thermal impedance curve given in the MOSFET datasheet. The resistance and capacitance values for the thermal network are obtained after curve fitting the thermal impedance curve. The obtained thermal network model is then validated on MATLAB Simulink. The simulations are carried out on MATLAB Simulink, the software results were validated using NEXPERIA application note experiments, and the results conclude the validity of the Simulink model. The simulations were run by constructing a thermal network from the obtained resistance and capacitance values and supplying power of a predetermined value through the thermal network to obtain the thermal impedance. This is then compared with the thermal impedance curve in the datasheet of the MOSFET. The comparison shows that the results obtained from the thermal network are similar to the thermal impedance curve of the MOSFET.
Allen Denny, Neelkanth Kirloskar, Babu Rao Ponangi, Rex Joseph, V. Krishna
A Parametric CFD Study on the Cooling Capability of a Rectangular Channel Heat Sink
Abstract
This paper is focused on the study to determine an effective method for the thermal management and cooling of power electronic packages used in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). It has been carried out with the help of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). After extensive study, one such method chosen for the cooling application is the use of fluid-cooled heat sinks. Modeling and simulation have been carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. Validation of the CFD results from the research paper by Quadir et al. was performed. Building upon the validation, a simple rectangular channeled heat sink was built for analysis. Furthermore, a parametric analysis was carried out by varying the channel height and channel width of the heat sink to study their effects on cooling. It was determined that an increase in the height and width together leads to a decrease in the outlet temperature and also a decrease in heat transfer coefficient.
Akhilesh Danesh Jatti, Mayur Chetan Shanbhag, D. S. Shashwath, Babu Rao Ponangi, V. Krishna
Estimation of Tire Scaling Coefficients and Simulation of On-Road Vehicle Behaviour
Abstract
The paper aims at estimating the tire scaling coefficients to predict the on-road handling behaviour of a car. The effect of amplified tire forces due to the constant deposition of tire rubber on the tire testing belt can be compensated by the tire scaling coefficient. Scaling coefficients along with the tire force coefficients can be helpful in estimating the on-road tire forces and moments. The tire’s lateral scaling coefficients were evaluated using the data from tire testing and the on-road tests. A full car model was developed using VI-CarRealTime considering parameters from different subsystems like vehicle body/frame, power-train, suspension, steering, tires, brakes and wheels. Skid-pad simulations were followed by skid-pad tests to validate the full car model.
H S Nandish, P Prajwal, S S Patil
Multivariable Load Prediction Using LSTM
Abstract
Power supply regulation and load forecast are important factors in electric power distribution systems. The advent and ever-expanding adoption of renewables and distributed energy resources in the energy sector have introduced a lot of complexity into the day-to-day operations and maintenance of a wide-area power grid. Implementation of big data analysis and deep learning tools in power distribution systems has enabled predictive maintenance, grid health monitoring, demand forecasting, and reliability analysis, and also provided a host of other features for overall improvement of grid operations. A thorough analysis reflecting presents and future patterns can aid in critical decisions regarding generation capacity, transmission, and distribution systems for a successful load flow system planning. The focus of this paper is on ways to estimate load using the deep learning technique Long short-term memory (implemented by Python programming language).
G. Satya Rohan, V. Sailaja, K. Deepa, Abhijith Prakash
Metadata
Title
Recent Advances in Hybrid and Electric Automotive Technologies
Editors
Dr. V. Krishna
Dr. K. N. Seetharamu
Dr. Yogendra Kumar Joshi
Copyright Year
2022
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-2091-2
Print ISBN
978-981-19-2093-6
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2091-2

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