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About this book

This book provides topical information on innovative, structural and functional materials and composites with applications in various engineering fields covering the structure, properties, manufacturing process, and applications of these materials. It covers various topics in layered structures and layered materials. It discusses the latest developments in the materials engineering field. This book will be useful for academicians, researchers, and practitioners working in the fields of materials engineering, layered structures, and composite materials.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Natural and Synthetic Layered Fillers as Advanced Matter for Improvement of Composites Performance

In the polymer field, the nanoscience is strongly associated with nanofillers. They are indispensable for preparing nanocomposites. In particular, lamellar fillers are special materials due to their chemical and physical structures. They present feasible properties as catalytic activity, ion exchange capacity, intercalation, ionic conductivity, and so on. Among lamellar fillers, the clay minerals, tetravalent metals phosphate, graphenes, and layered double hydroxides have been used abundantly. Concerning their physical characteristics, it is possible to perform modification on their structural arrangement in order to allow application in nanocomposites. There are several processes involving their surface modification in order to expand their galleries or to change their characteristics from organophobic to organophilic. This chapter discusses the main lamellar fillers applied in preparing nanocomposites, and their surface modification and the implication on nanocomposites properties are reported.
Daniela de França da Silva Freitas, Luis Claudio Mendes

Chapter 2. High Temperature Tribology of Surface Coatings

Surface coatings are widely used as surface modification technique to improve the properties of the base material without causing any microstructural changes in it. They may be applied to improve tribological behavior of a substrate, improve magnetic properties, solderability, electrical properties or simply to improve its surface finish. Their typical applications include bearings and seals, cylinder liners, piston rings, IC engines, compressors, metal working tools, etc. Since surface coatings find wide industrial usage, there is a need to study the various coating techniques along with their research progress. Moreover, nowadays, surface coatings are being considered as candidates for high temperature applications. Therefore, an effort has been made in this chapter to review the different surface coating techniques along with their research progress. The present chapter discusses several coating deposition techniques particularly in reference with their high temperature applicability and the different wear mechanisms observed.
Arkadeb Mukhopadhyay, Tapan Kumar Barman, Prasanta Sahoo

Chapter 3. Aramid Polycarbonate Resin Film Engineered Composite for Ballistic Protection: Engineered Layered Materials

Current study discerns resin-fiber-infusion technique (RFI)-assisted fiber-reinforced layered polycarbonate composite (FRL PC), which has been further assessed for its perforation and penetration attributes against 7.62 mm × 39 mm mild steel core projectile with the velocity of 747 ± 15 m/s. Tomography was utilized to elucidate delamination and other defects related to the layered composite before and after ballistic impact. Polycarbonate and FRL PC composites have been further examined for its thermal stability by thermomechanical techniques including dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TGA), 3-point bend test, and Izod notch impact testing.
Ramdayal Yadav, Minoo Naebe, Xungai Wang, Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian

Chapter 4. Fiber-Reinforced Composites for Restituting Automobile Leaf Spring Suspension System

Leaf springs are employed in automotive suspension systems to absorb vibrations and susceptibility to deflections procreated due to the patchy drive through roads, conjointly providing stability to the vehicle. Steels are widely used for manufacturing of leaf springs as they exhibit high yield strength (~700–1000 MPa); however, they are liable to corrosion and considerably increase the weight of the automobile. Therefore, the industry started pursuing their research on composite materials, which render superior qualities like resistance to corrosion when compared to steels purported for the manufacture of leaves together with showing required strength for bearing the loads. Synthetic fiber composites such as glass fiber-reinforced composites and carbon fiber-reinforced composites have been extensively explored for the leaf spring systems. In this, review gives state of the art of composite and sandwiched-type leaf springs, natural fiber composites, additionally the life cycle assessment (LCA) and finally concludes with the future scope of leaf springs for automotive applications.
M. V. Sarath, Swaroop S. Gharde, Odelu Ojjela, Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian

Chapter 5. Fabrication of Aluminium Metal Matrix Nanocomposites: An Overview

Aluminium alloy-based composites are in huge demand and under continuous research for obtaining novel, tailor-made property combinations required in high-performance applications. Composites reinforced with uniformly dispersed nanoparticles are observed to display much improved properties as compared to microcomposites and monolithic alloys in several studies published in the last two decades. However, wettability, dispersion, agglomeration and particle–matrix interface debonding are the critical issues related specifically to nanocomposite fabrication making it complex and expensive. Several solid-state and liquid-state routes are developed for manufacturing AMMNCs which are overviewed in this paper highlighting associated prominent features and challenges. Powder metallurgy and liquid metallurgy are the mostly used methods for developing aluminium nanocomposites while their modified versions and hybrid combinations have been used in recent times. Ultrasonic stir casting is found to solve the issue of aluminium-ceramic non-wettability and particle agglomeration to great success.
Deepak M. Shinde, Prasanta Sahoo

Chapter 6. Aluminium Hybrid Composites Reinforced with SiC and Fly Ash Particles—Recent Developments

The development of aluminium matrix composite (AMC) continues for growing demand of lightweight materials with high strength. Enhancement of the properties of AMCs has been done by changing the types and sizes of reinforcements, wt%, fabrication route and secondary treatment. This chapter provides an overview on the outcome of previous literatures focusing on silicon carbide (ceramic) and fly ash (industrial waste) reinforced AMCs and HAMCs (hybrid). SiC as reinforcement imparts superior mechanical and tribological behaviour in aluminium alloy. Fly ash addition into Al-matrix also has potential in lowering the production cost and density while improving strength. This chapter also highlights the results of nanoparticle size used over conventional micro-particles in the field of AMC development. The influence of processing parameters, mixing percentage of reinforcements, operating conditions and responsible tribological factors are thoroughly discussed. Finally, conclusions have been drawn to recognize the expandable areas of research on AMCs or HAMCs reinforced with SiC and fly ash.
Bhabani Ranjan Pal, Shouvik Ghosh, Prasanta Sahoo

Chapter 7. Tribological and Corrosion Behavior of Al-TiB2 Metal Matrix Composites—An Overview

The present chapter deals with Al-TiB2 metal matrix composites (MMCs). MMCs are already proved for their superior mechanical properties and tribological behavior when compared with monolithic metal alloys which actually made MMCs suitable for versatile range of applications. Accordingly, mass market products of composite materials are increasing progressively and area of applications are spreading day by day. From solid-to-liquid processing, there are several methods through which reinforcing phases have been incorporated into the metallic phase. A discussion regarding tribological and corrosion behavior of Al–TiB2 composites based on existing literature has been introduced in this chapter. It can be said from overall discussion that Al–TiB2 composites perform very well in tribological aspects. To talk about corrosion resistance, definitely some new approaches should be taken to make it better.
Suswagata Poria

Chapter 8. Mg-WC Nanocomposites—Recent Advances and Perspectives

Present study summarizes various aspects like fabrication route, microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties, tribological properties of Mg nanocomposites. This study yields that fabrication route plays important role to achieve equiaxed distribution of reinforcement in matrix phase. Mg-MMNCs are developed through different production routes, while main distinction is the matrix state. Among different procedures, liquid metallurgy process is widely accepted due to its simplicity, industrial scalability and cost effectiveness. Effect of incorporation of nanoparticles on microstructure, mechanical properties and tribological properties are revealed by discussing literatures. Special emphasis is given on Mg-WC metal matrix nanocomposites. Effect of WC particles on microhardness, rockwell hardness, ultimate tensile strength and yield strength are also discussed in detail. Finally, wear mechanisms related to different experimental conditions are also mentioned.
Sudip Banerjee, Suswagata Poria, Goutam Sutradhar, Prasanta Sahoo

Chapter 9. Understanding Fabrication and Properties of Magnesium Matrix Nanocomposites

Magnesium-based metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) are new class materials which can be used widely in aerospace, biomedical, electronics and automobile industries due to their low density, sustainability, good specific strength and better tribological properties. Performance of MMNCs depends on several factors, i.e., composition and combination of reinforcement, processing methods, etc. Present study tries to review available literatures to discuss about the role of those factors on mechanical properties, tribological properties and corrosion behaviors of magnesium-based MMNCs. In this study, liquid metallurgy-based primary processing methods and secondary methods are discussed in details with the help of available literatures. Roles of ultrasonic treatment, cavitation and acoustic streaming on distribution of nanoparticles are discussed in details. Strengthening mechanisms between particle and matrix metal are also presented. Effects of particles like Al2O3, SiC, WC, TiB2, CNT on mechanical, tribological and corrosion behavior are discussed. Mechanical properties (UTS, YS, microhardness, creep behavior) are mainly discussed and available literatures revealed that the presence of nanoparticles normally enhance these properties. Literature on tribological behavior yielded that nanoparticles help to enhance wear and friction behavior of Mg-MMNCs at room and elevated temperatures. Effects of tribological parameters (load, sliding speed, sliding distance) are also discussed. But researchers are split into two groups about corrosion characteristics of magnesium composites. Some researchers reported that corrosion resistance is decreased due to presence of reinforcement while others concluded that corrosion resistance is enhanced due to reinforcing particles.
Sudip Banerjee, Suswagata Poria, Goutam Sutradhar, Prasanta Sahoo

Chapter 10. Dynamics of Axially Functionally Graded Timoshenko Beams on Linear Elastic Foundation

The chapter presents a detailed study into dynamic behaviour of axially functionally graded (AFG) tapered Timoshenko beam on linear elastic foundation. Geometric nonlinearity is induced in the system through Von Karman strain–displacement expressions, which are inherently nonlinear. The material model is such that it exhibits continuous gradation of material properties along the length of the beam. A set of linear springs is assumed to be attached to the bottom of the beam to mathematically replicate the foundation behaviour. Governing equations of motion are derived through suitable energy principle. The free vibration study is carried out on statically deflected configuration to plot the backbone curves of the system. Forced vibration problem is solved by assuming dynamic equilibrium under maximum amplitude of excitation. Amplitude and frequency of excitation of the external transverse harmonic excitation are the controlling factors of the system response. Frequency response curves pertaining to different combinations of system parameters are furnished as benchmark results.
Hareram Lohar, Anirban Mitra, Sarmila Sahoo

Chapter 11. Dynamic Sensitivity Analysis of Random Impact Behaviour of Hybrid Cylindrical Shells

The present chapter investigates the moment-independent sensitivity analysis for hybrid sandwich structures (having cylindrical shell geometry) subjected to low-velocity impact. These hybrid structures are extensively used in lightweight applications where thermal exposure/resistance is of prime importance. Here, the FG facesheet is placed at the upper layer of core whereas laminated composite facesheet is kept at lower layer so that the structure can sustain high-temperature exposure at reduced weight because of laminated composite facesheet at the inner layer of the core. The probabilistic study is performed for the transient impact response of the structure which in turn utilized to assess the sensitiveness of the parameters. The computational efficiency is achieved by implementing polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) metamodel in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The results illustrate the parameters which significantly affect the transient impact response of the structure.
Vaishali, Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Sudip Dey

Chapter 12. Statistical Energy Analysis Parameters Investigation of Composite Specimens Employing Theoretical and Experimental Approach

Statistical energy analysis (SEA) has been extensively used for predicting the transmission loss of sound and vibration through the complex structural-acoustic systems. The SEA method proved to be an effective tool for analysing the response of such complex systems at early design stage of the product. In the present study, the SEA parameters such as modal density, damping loss factor, and coupling loss factor have been evaluated by a theoretical and experimental approaches. In order to analyse the effect of different material properties on the SEA parameters, conventional materials such as mild steel, stainless steel, aluminium, and glass fibre epoxy composite have been considered. Beside in case of composite plates, the effects of different fibre orientation on the SEA parameters have been studied. The free-free boundary condition is considered for evaluating the SEA parameters.
Avinash Borgaonkar, Maruti Mandale, Shital Potdar, Ch Sri Chaitanya

Chapter 13. Surrogate Model Validation and Verification for Random Failure Analyses of Composites

In the present chapter, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) is explored as a surrogate model in conjunction to Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) to analyse the random first-ply failure loads of graphite–epoxy laminated composite plates. The five failure criteria, namely maximum strain theory, maximum stress theory, Tsai–Hill theory, Tsai–Wu theory, and Hoffman theory, are considered. The numerical validation of deterministic failure load is presented first. Thereafter, a concise investigation is carried out to examine the capability of MARS model for efficiently predicting the first-ply failure loads. Comparative results are presented using scatter plots and probability density function plots to access the prediction capability with respect to direct MCS. The current results portray the successful application of MARS as the surrogate model to achieve computational efficiency and analyse the first-ply failure loads.
Subrata Kushari, Arunasis Chakraborty, Tanmoy Mukhyopadhyay, Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Saiket Ranjan Maity, Sudip Dey

Chapter 14. Iosipescu Shear Test of Glass Fibre/epoxy Composite with Different Delamination Geometries: A Shear Behaviour Study

In recent times, composite material has shown tremendous growth of application in the aerospace and aeronautical industry. In this chapter, shear behaviour of delaminated as well as non-delaminated GFRP specimen is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Iosipescu shear test has been performed on GFRP specimen for understanding the role of delaminations and its geometry on the shear behaviour of the specimen. Specimens with three delamination shapes such as circular, square, and rectangular are considered along with one non-delaminated specimen. The chapter is organized as follows: First, the background of delaminated composite testing and shear behaviour is provided. Then, the fabrication of GFRP specimen using hand layup process and Iosipescu shear test details is provided. The numerical modelling using ABAQUS is provided thereafter. Finally, the results and discussions for numerical and experimental parts are presented followed by summary of the chapter.
Tanmoy Bose, Subhankar Roy, Nudurupati S. V. N. Hanuman

Chapter 15. Parametric Study of Dispersed Laminated Composite Plates

Laminated composite plates with one core layer and two surface layers are simulated in an extensive parametric analysis. The main objective of these simulations is to analyze the load-carrying capacity and how it varies with regard to changing stacking sequences. In total, 7290 unique combinations of the ply thicknesses and fiber orientation angles are simulated using the finite element analysis software Abaqus. The stacking sequences are ranked according to their corresponding buckling loads, and the best performing ones are subjected to a closer analysis. The visualization of the results showed that for any given stack of fiber orientation angles, and the stacking sequence of the ply thicknesses can have a significant impact on the structural performance.
Celal Cakiroglu, Gebrail Bekdaş

Chapter 16. Modeling Fracture in Straight Fiber and Tow-Steered Fiber Laminated Composites—A Phase Field Approach

The phase field approach for simulating fracture has gained significant attention in recent years due to the following salient features: (1) the scalar damage variable is implicitly used to describe the discontinuous surface; (2) the crack initiation and subsequent propagation and branching/coalescence are handled with minimal complexity and (3) can be integrated into any established traditional finite element software. The present work discusses the implementation aspects of the phase field method in an open source finite element package FEniCS for orthotropic materials and constant stiffness and tow-steered composite laminate. The main objectives of this work are: (a) studying the direction of crack propagation, and (b) investigating the fiber-matrix interface’s effect on the crack path. In particular, the emphasis is to explore the role played by the orientation of the fiber, initial crack location, and the inter-fiber spacing on the fracture pattern in the composite.
Hirshikesh, Ratna Kumar Annabattula, Sundararajan Natarajan

Chapter 17. An Iso-Geometric Analysis of Tow-Steered Composite Laminates: Free Vibration, Mechanical Buckling and Linear Flutter Analysis

In this chapter, by employing a basis B-splines based finite element method, the natural frequency, critical buckling load and critical aerodynamic pressure of tow-steered composite laminate is numerically studied. The distinguishing feature of tow-steered composites when compared to conventional laminated composites is that in the former, a spatial variation of the fiber is considered. The plate kinematics accounts for the transverse shear deformations and an artificial shear correction factor is introduced to alleviate the shear locking problem. The effect of plate thickness, spatial variation of the fiber and the boundary conditions are systematically studied.
S. Natarajan, S. M. Dsouza, A. L. N. Pramod, Hirshikesh, D. Adak, K. Kamdi
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