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2022 | Book

Recent Advances in Manufacturing Modelling and Optimization

Select Proceedings of RAM 2021

Editors: Prof. Shailendra Kumar, Prof. J. Ramkumar, Prof. Panagiotis Kyratsis

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series: Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering

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About this book

This book presents the selected proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Manufacturing (RAM 2021). The book provides insights to current research trends and opportunities in modelling and optimization of manufacturing processes and systems. The topics covered include modelling analysis, computing and simulation, traditional and non-traditional optimization techniques, surface coating methods, additive manufacturing processes, CAD/CAM, robotics and automation, welding and joining processes, supply chain management and CAE and reverse engineering. This book will be a good reference for beginners, researchers and professionals interested in modelling and optimization related to manufacturing engineering and related fields.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
CFD Analysis and 3D Printing of Venturi for Vacuum-Assisted LDPE Grain Flow System

Product designing procedures are enhancing in this modern era. Rapid prototyping has become an inseparable element of this design procedure. This rapid prototyping is emerging as a rapid manufacturing process. 3D printing is the most widely used method of rapid prototyping. In this paper, the research is carried on the venturi through Computational Fluid Dynamics. This venturi model was 3D printed using a custom build 3D printer having a print volume of 100 mm × 100 mm × 150 mm and 0.4 mm of nozzle diameter. This 3D printed venturi was integrated with vacuum-assisted grain flow system used for transferring (loading) LDPE grains in a small-scale Roto-Moulding Unit. The venturi creates the vacuum which draws the grains and causes the grains to flow along the air stream. This system resulted in the discharge of 2 kg/min of LDPE grains. 3D printed venturi completely served the purpose in vacuum-assisted grain flow system proving 3D printed parts are reliable.

Yash R. Katkar, Aditya R. Vernekar, Anirudha K. Jahagirdar, Yash C. Waghmare, Bhagyesh B. Deshmukh
Numerical Investigation of the Dimension Factor of Hairpin Coil for Sustainable Induction Heating

The planar induction heating process has been widely adopted, particularly in surface treatment, e.g. surface hardening and line heating. The induction heating process is a non-contact sustainable heating process involving complex electromagnetic phenomena having a heating pattern replicating the coil design. It also has a low labour cost, easy maintenance, and the capability of automation without producing any environmental hazard. However, this process induces a challenge to select a proper coil configuration with appropriate parameters for efficient heating. Further, planar induction involves an external hung type coil facing the workpiece surface, and the effectiveness is less compared to conventional warp around type coil. The research concentrates on selecting the best hairpin coil configuration by studying the influence of various coil cross-sections, the adjacent coil gap, and the coil frequency on the surface heating of a planar workpiece using finite element method. In addition, the effect of the magnetic flux concentrator on the temperature distribution pattern has been established.

Sunil Kumar Biswal, Sukhomay Pal
Numerical Modelling of Plastic Behaviour and Temperature Distribution During FSW Process

Friction stir welding (FSW) is widely used to weld those materials that are difficult to weld through conventional welding processes. Present study employs coupled thermo-mechanical model to study the temperature profile and plastic deformation behaviour during FSW process by using a finite element analysis software, DEFORM-3D. Conventional and stepped FSW tools made of tool steel were used to butt-weld two thin plates of AA7075 for a comparison. The workpiece and tool are modelled as viscoplastic and rigid, respectively. Temperature-dependent thermal properties of the plate were used. Results showed that the highest temperatures were generated on the upper surface of the workpiece. Also, it was observed that use of stepped FSW tool resulted in high strain and temperature during FSW process that ultimately helped in improvement in weld joint.

N. Kumar, M. Z. Ansari, H. Singh
Double Arrowhead Auxetic Structures: A Numerical Investigation Under Compressive Loading

A new class of metamaterials known as auxetic/negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) structures has wide applications in fields where high energy absorption and stiffness are required. The present work is focused on numerical investigation of double arrowhead (DAH) auxetic structures of polylactic acid (PLA) material under compressive loading. Deformation mechanism of DAH auxetic structures is studied for different configurations by varying geometrical parameters, namely first angle (θ1), second angle (θ2) and half-length (l). Nonlinear finite element models are developed for compressive loading and responses namely strength, modulus and specific energy absorption (SEA) are measured. It is found that all geometrical parameters significantly influence the responses of DAH auxetic structures. With increase in first angle, strength and modulus increase while SEA decreases. Responses increase with rise in second angle and reduction in half-length of unit cell of DAH auxetic structure.

Shailendra Kumar, Swapnil Vyavahare, Harika Bogala
Simulation Study on Effect of Drill Tool Geometry on Strength and Deformation

In drilling operation, selection of type of drill bit and its material are very important for the procedure. In the present work, the considered twist drill bit made up of different materials and having different parameters such as helix angle, point angle, and diameter and performing simulation on all of the drill bit. Modelling of drill bit is done on SOLIDWORKS 2019, and the analysis is being performed on the ANSYS workbench 2021 R1. AISI Type M2 molybdenum high-speed tool steel which is most commonly used for manufacturing drill bits is compared with tungsten carbide drills, HSS drill bit, and SS drill bit. This research concludes that by increasing the helix angle, there is an increase in stress formation and decrease in deformation; while increasing the point angle, the stress formation on drill bit increases, but it starts to decrease after 120° and there is an increase in deformation.

Sehjad J. Memon, Poojan V. Fuletra, Nilay K. Degadwala, Chandresh B. Kumbhani, Rahul Sinha
Numerical Modeling of Die-sinking EDM for Evaluation of Material Removal Rate and Surface Roughness

The electrical discharge machining or die-sinking EDM has a great impact over the study of material removal process. The die-sinking EDM plays a significant role in material removal of conducting materials in a very precise manner. This study accounts for the development of a thermo-numerical model using finite element method (FEM) analysis to specifically predict the rate at which material is removed and the roughness of surface which is produced due to machining. Two-dimensional domain of axisymmetric nature has been modeled for analyzing the effect of a single spark discharge with a variation in the values of current. This study is focused on applying the heat flux as a function of Gaussian distribution and for a more realistic prediction of the output parameters. The model which is developed calculates the distribution of temperature within the workpiece by utilizing COMSOL Multiphysics software (Version 5.5), and then, the amount of material removed per unit time and roughness of the surface are calculated from the distribution of temperature over the work domain. The shape of crater formed is evaluated by eliminating the number of elements with higher degree of melting point temperature. Results acquired from the simulation indicate that the surge in the values of current affects the radius and depth of the crater formed.

B. M. Barua, S. Chang, E. Shylla, V. S. Chauhan, P. Kumar, M. Rahang, D. K. Sarma
Numerical Analysis of Tool Material in Ultrasonic Machining Process

The hard and fragile materials like glass, ceramic, titanium-aluminium composites can be machined by ultrasonic machining process. This process is influenced by various parameters such as types of abrasives, types of tool and workpiece materials, different types of horn and tool geometries, frequency, amplitude. The tool is one of the foremost components used in the USM process. The present study is considered the design of a stepped tool using dissimilar materials (tungsten carbide, stainless steel, and titanium) in dynamic conditions. A commercial software, COMSOL Multiphysics, is utilized to analyse the influence of materials on the tool performance. In the modal analysis, there are six different axial and non-axial modes generated for all the tool materials. The preferred mode at which axial mode of vibration is generated at the sixth mode for all the tool materials. The maximum eigen frequency (i.e. 1.3418E5 Hz) is generated in the ultrasonic tool which is made of tungsten carbide. In the harmonic analysis, the maximum von Mises stress is generated in the tool which is made of stainless steel, i.e. 233 MPa. No significant variation is observed for the proposed tool materials through harmonic analysis. Tungsten carbide is one of the appropriate materials for tool design followed by stainless steel and titanium due to its high axial mode of vibration.

M. M. Mirad, B. Das
Investigation of Gear Profile Deviations in Gear Planning Process Through CAD-Based Simulation

Manufacturing high precision gears can be realized with a series of methods. The correct selection of the manufacturing process is crucial for achieving a final geometry that conforms to the specifications given while at the same time provides a cost-effective solution. One of the traditional processes for manufacturing gears is the gear planning process. This paper presents a novel simulation model that is able to model the material removal process and predict the non-deformed chip geometry as well as the geometry of the produced gear in the gear planning process.

Nikolaos Tapoglou, Panagiotis Kyratsis
Numerical Investigation and Comparison of Stress Concentration Factor in Threaded Bolts

Threaded fasteners are widely used elements in machines and structural assemblies for temporary joints (fasteners). They play an essential role in restricting the motion of individual machine elements as per the requirement in the assembly. The design of threaded fasteners is crucial because its failure can cause the entire assembly to fail. In threaded fasteners, the stress concentration due to unequal and fluctuating loads can cause the failure of the threads. Hence, it is necessary to avoid such failure for safe and reliable operation of the machines. This work focuses on a quantitative comparative study between various threaded fasteners, namely buttress, metric, square, and ACME threads. The threads are modeled using SolidWorks software. The finite element analysis is carried out using ANSYS software so as to determine the stress concentration factor of each type of threaded fasteners. The different design variants that focus on reducing the stress concentration factors are also considered for analysis. Comparing the stress concentration factors of various threaded bolts, the best bolt and its design variant can be determined.

Athul Vijay, Manas P. Vinayan, A. Hafsana, T. Jagadeesha
Comparative Analysis and Simulation of Routing Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a highly evolved field in communications. WSN consists of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) as one of its special branches. WBAN deals with small sensors deployed on human body to monitor its vitals. Today, the demand to improve the life expectancy among people is rapidly increasing. Detection and diagnosis of diseases becomes an area of utmost importance in this process. This includes real time health monitoring which has given rise to remote patient monitoring. Remote patient monitoring is a huge field of study in modern world which demands patient mobility and the same can be realized using WBAN. This paper gives a brief introduction of WBAN, its architecture, challenges and issues, applications and routing protocols used in WBAN technology. Finally, simulation using MATLAB is carried out and the SIMPLE WBAN routing protocol is found to be more effective based on the parameters under consideration.

Rounak A. Patil, Maneetkumar R. Dhanvijay, Sudhir Madhav Patil, Mrinai M. Dhanvijay
Numerical Investigations of Mixing Performance in Split and Recombine Micromixer

The micromixers are one of the significant elements in microfluidic applications, especially in lab-on-chip devices. In this paper, four split and recombine type micromixers are designed by altering the shape of the wall boundaries and inside grooves. The pressure drop and mixing of fluids in each micromixer are numerically analyzed, and results are compared for Reynolds number from 0.1 to 1. The mixing index is the maximum at Re = 0.1, and the value is almost the same for all the geometry. Results reveal that with the increase in Re, the mixing index decreases, and the pressure drop increases in each micromixer. Although micromixer with square inner grooves and triangular outer wall boundaries (SiTo) provides the best mixing, the associated pressure drop is also the highest. Thus, TiTo (micromixer with triangular inner and outer grooves) is recommended for mixing purposes. It provides second-highest mixing with comparatively lowest pressure drop than SiTo irrespective of the Reynolds number.

Ekta Tripathi, Promod Kumar Patowari, Sukumar Pati
FEA Investigation of Repaired Composite Under Low Velocity Impact

The material properties degradation of the internal scarf repaired samples under the low velocity impact was investigated through FE-simulation results. In the FE model, Hashin failure criteria was used in order to recognize the damage and material properties degradation. In this research work the range of scarf repair was tested under out-plane load for each scarf angle FE model was created and impact energy was employed to it. The FE result revealed that the contact force, impact time and absorbed energy increase with rising of scarf angle.

Punita Kumari, Ashraf Alam, Saahil, Jihui Wang
Mapping Uncertain Surface Roughness of Inconel 718 in WEDM

Wire EDM process has gained popularity in the industry due to its potential of producing complex miniaturized geometry with accuracy. Besides, WEDM is a burr-free machining process with minimal chances of tool failure which provides it an edge over conventional machining processes. However, the fluctuation in the pulse power supply, uncertain frictional and other forces acting on the wire, control actions, dynamic gap state, and interaction between the process variables during the WEDM process tend to randomize the process parameters and cause fluctuation of the performance parameters a lot. Thus, this paper quantifies the effect of parametric uncertainty on the WEDM performance feature. To carry out the analyses, a multiple linear regression (MLR) model is constructed and further validated with the help of a scatter plot. The model exhibits appreciable prediction capability, i.e., a high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.89) and a low root mean squared error (RMSE = 0.41). With adequate confidence in the constructed multiple linear regression (MLR) model, the model is further employed to predict the response quantity for 10,000 samples generated using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) to quantify the uncertainty. The effect of both individual and compound variations of process parameters, including the wire tension, discharge current, wire speed, and pulse on time on the crucial output quantity of interest (QoI), i.e., the arithmetic mean roughness (AMR), is portrayed. Further, sensitivity analysis depicts that discharge current (I) is the most predominant stochastic parameter affecting the response quantity. Wire speed (WS), pulse on time (Ton), and wire tension (WT) are equally sensitive.

S. Saha, S. R. Maity, S. Dey
Damage Identification in Composite Structure Using Machine Learning Techniques Based on Acoustic Emission Waveforms

The demands for glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites are commonly perceived in lightweight applications because of their high specific strength and stiffness. When those structures are subjected to mechanical loading which lead to crack initiation and failure of structures. The most common damages in GFRP composites are matrix cracking (MC), fibre-matrix debonding (FMD), delamination (DL), and fibre breakage (FB). To predict those damages in the GFRP composite structure, acoustic emission (AE) signal features such as amplitude and time are taken from research that was already done by Choudany et al. Furthermore, using unsupervised machine learning (ML) algorithms such as k-means++ clustering and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), the obtained AE features are classified into different clusters. Those algorithms grouped different composite damages based on characteristics of AE waveforms in different clusters. A supervised ML technique k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) is used to predict the accuracy and reliability of k-means++ and AHC algorithms based on obtained confusion matrix.

Pankaj Chaupal, R. Prakash
An Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Approach for Modeling of Droplet Frequency in E-Jet-Based Micro-additive Manufacturing

Electrohydrodynamic inkjet printing-based micro-additive manufacturing technology is a nano-manufacturing process using fluid jet printing, influenced by an electric field through nano-scale nozzles. This method helps to achieve higher resolution and control which is way better than that of traditional processes. This paper focuses on a fuzzy logic-based neural networking system, also known as ANFIS which has been used to predict and model the output parameter, i.e., droplet frequency for three controllable processes like nozzle-substrate gap, ink flow rate, and applied voltage. Since it is difficult to maintain constant operating conditions, the jet frequency and droplet diameter fluctuate. In order to stabilize this fluctuating jet frequency, a second-order non-linear regression equation has been implemented. In the proposed adaptive neuro-fuzzy predictive system, hybridization and backpropagation were used to predict the values. To do a comparative study in the accuracy of prediction of the characteristics of the deposited droplet, triangular, Gaussian and bell-shaped membership functions have been considered after a careful study. The comparative study indicates that, for predicting the droplet frequency, the optimal data base and the rule base of the expert system can be designed by the proposed methodology.

Adrija Biswas, Ananya Nath, Shibendu Shekhar Roy
Significance of Machine Learning in Industry 4.0 Scenario—A Review

Machine learning is a set of algorithms that are used to automatically detect the hidden knowledge in the given data set either for making predictions or for making decisions under uncertainties. Machine learning may also be defined as exploring knowledge from a given data set for making future decisions/predictions. Machine learning is applicable in different domains, viz. manufacturing, agriculture, food processing, pharma companies, space applications, etc. In this research work, machine learning is studied as applied to manufacturing. The intent of conducting the current research work is to comprehensively study the machine learning technology, its associated algorithms to find their strengths and weakness, application area, identify challenges in their implementation, as applied to manufacturing and explore the research gaps and come out with directions for further research. The outcome of this research work is highly beneficial to the academicians and researchers interested in pursuing research in the area of machine learning.

M. B. Kiran
Accelerated Defective Product Inspection on the Edge Using Deep Learning

A common problem in casting products is the defects and the unwanted irregularities that may occur in the manufacturing process. Quality control is an important step, as it ensures that clients receive products free from such defects. It is often a time-consuming yet important task that detains the production chain. As the technology evolves, machine vision and deep learning algorithms can provide a significant benefit to industries. In this paper, we present a hardware accelerated deep learning approach for detecting irregularities on casting products via visual inspection. Several optimizations have been made to achieve high-end performance on an embedded scale. A proof of concept, that we specifically designed for industrial use, achieves 99.72% classification accuracy, is able to inspect up to 136 units per second and draws about 28 W of power on peak. The proposed embedded system can be seamlessly integrated into the assembly lines of factories.

Dimitris Tsiktsiris, Theodora Sanida, Argyrios Sideris, Minas Dasygenis
Machine Learning and Real-Time Signal Features Integration for Strength Modelling in Friction Stir Welding Process

The current research focuses on integrating real-time signal features and artificial intelligent technique to model the tensile strength of the welded joints produced through friction stir welding. Vertical force signals are acquired in real time during the experiments and processed in the time domain to compute the statistical features from the signals. The useful feature domain is generated and integrated with influencing process parameters in the welding process. The data pool created is used for developing the machine learning model to predict joint strength. In the investigation, it is revealed that the integration of signal features in the strength modelling results in better prediction accuracy compared to the result obtained without integration of the signal features in the strength modelling. Strength prediction increases to 99%, with signal features. The proposed method can be effective in an automated platform for effective process monitoring and control in the friction stir welding process.

B. Das, Jasper Ramon
Machine Learning Application for Prediction of Surface Roughness of Milled Surface

The traditional methods of measuring surface roughness make use of a stylus-based instrument. Accuracy of this instrument depends upon the roughness in the surface and is an indirect method that involves down time. Machine vision techniques have attracted researchers in the area of machining including analysis of surface quality. Grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is the most widely used statistical technique for feature extraction of machined surfaces. As surface roughness is a widely accepted measure of quality of the machined component, this work aims at prediction of surface roughness value of milled surface using a regression model. The surface roughness values of milled images were found by mechanical means. These images were then subjected to feature extraction by GLCM and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Based on the available data of images, a multiple linear regression model was developed to predict the surface roughness value of the machined surface without actual measurement. The proposed model is tested on various milled surface images and it predicts an accuracy of 84.18% for freshly milled surfaces.

Chaitanya Palande, Rajhdiwakar Nadar, Prashant Ambadekar, Karthick Sridhar, Tapas Vashistha
Predictive Maintenance Control and Automation in Plastic Injection Molding Machine

In this paper, the control system for the injection molding machine is designed with the help of PLC and SCADA. The main control part of the machine is the molding and clamping unit. At first, a polymer is inserted with the help of a screw and then heated at temperature 275 ℃ with a heater and for measurement of temperature K-Type thermocouple is used. The molted polymer then pressurized with a screw passed through the nozzle at high pressure. The melted polymer is fed into the clamping unit then the material comes into its shape and with cold water material is cool down then discharge from the clamping unit. We analyzed the process using SCADA. We also focus on the application and procedure for predictive maintenance based on the “mean time to failure statistic” to decrease production losses due to machine breakdown. The “5-Why” study method is used to know the machine condition and main issues.

Anmol Bhagat, Sneh Soni
Selection of Passenger Car Using TOPSIS Method

The car is one of the basic needs in today’s world for transportation of the passengers, and selection of car is a very crucial task for the customer. The quality of the car varies with respect to the attributes. The customers are in search of a car which is best in attributes. The present work gives the selection procedure for selection of best car using multi-attribute decision-making method viz: technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution method based upon different attribute. There are five alternatives and five attributes considered like cost, mileage, safety rating, transmission and brake horsepower for the selection of car and the ranks are obtained. The proposed method is helped to evaluate and rank the cars.

S. Y. Borole, P. U. Malu, A. G. Kamble
Design, Fatigue Analysis, and Optimization of Propeller Shafts Using Finite Element Analysis

The propeller shaft is a component that transmits torque from the gearbox to the wheels. The complexity in manufacturing the propeller shaft lies in transmitting the torque from the gearbox to wheels in a reliable and vibration-free package. Two major design parameters to be taken into consideration are the weight and strength of the propeller shaft. Reduction in weight without compromising strength is of primary importance. This research paper aims at providing a comparative study on the design and analysis of solid and hollow propeller shafts. The drive system of a car used for SAEINDIA SUPRA is taken into consideration. The study also focuses on propeller shafts manufactured with composite materials, providing better strength and weight reduction. Solidworks are used for designing the parts, and analysis is carried out using Finite Element Methods in ANSYS Workbench. The Fatigue Tool in ANSYS Workbench software is used to analyze its strength, factor of safety, and fatigue life. The results are compared with results obtained by analytical methods. It is concluded that the hollow propeller shaft has a better fatigue factor of safety compared to the solid shaft.

Athul Vijay, Manas P. Vinayan, A. Hafsana, T. Jagadeesha
Topological Optimization of Spiral Springs

Storage of energy and disposal of energy according to the requirement are essential during periods of fluctuations in the energy demand. An effective energy storage mechanism is inevitable, as it plays a crucial role in the functionality and development of the modern power grid system. The application of mechanical springs has been one of the conventional and reliable mechanisms to store energy. Although springs were initially used for motion control, it has emerged widely as an energy storage reservoir for elastic potential energy. The mechanical elastic energy storage technology in a flat spiral spring is a novel technology employed in various machineries. This research focuses on studying spiral springs by analyzing four kinds of structures and shapes of flat spiral springs. The springs are modeled in SolidWorks software, and finite element analysis is carried out using ANSYS software. The study aims to determine the total deformation of the springs, energy stored per unit mass, and conduct pure topology optimization using ANSYS software. The outcomes of this research provide promising insights into the development of structural design and dynamic analysis in the future.

Athul Vijay, Manas P. Vinayan, A. Hafsana, T. Jagadeesha
The Lean-Based DMAIC Methodology for Optimization of Product Development Process (PDP)

The current market scenario is that every company/customer wants to produce/buy best in class products at record cost and time without compromising quality. As a result, every business setup closely monitors and controls three major parameters named time, cost, and quality. If any organization optimizes all three mentioned, then it can gain a competitive advantage. Many companies that “Make-to-Order” have longer lead-time and time required to design and develop the product is the crucial reason behind it. So, companies want to minimize that time as much as possible and this can be achieved with the lean approach, which focuses on eliminating waste in product development. The article proposes a lean-based DMAIC methodology, which has been tested and verified in one of India’s automotive part supplier companies. The proposed methodology helped in identifying the problems and helped to address problems by actions or solutions that can be implemented.

Nikhil V. Patil, S. Komala, Snehal Nayakawade, Jayant S. Karajagikar
Multi-response Optimization for Sustainable Turning of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Using Taguchi-DEAR Methodology

This investigation aims to study the sustainable turning of Ti–6Al–4V alloy imposes the process to be energy-efficient having a longer tool life, greater surface integrity, and excellent quality with maximized productivity. The turning operation is associated not only with one input but it has the effect of a vast variety of performance parameters. The integration of the multiple higher cognitive processes is important for optimizing the method of characterization. The present work includes the Ti–6Al–4V bar turning experiments with uncoated Al2O3–ZrO2 ceramic insert in the dry machining environment for investigating the ideal machining parameters. Several experimental runs were administrated and conducted as Taguchi-based L16 orthogonal array. The effect of the different levels of input machining parameters which were analyzed as depth of cut, speed of cutting, insert tool nose radius, and feed rate for optimizing of four response parameters: force used for cutting, life of tool, surface roughness and material removal rate. Taguchi-DEAR based multi response decision making integrated approach was adopted to enhance the performance measures by developing a multi-criteria decision optimization objective function. The experimental outcome shows that cutting speed has the foremost influence on determining the performance characterization. As per ANOVA, cutting speed was found to be the parameter having the highest degree significant followed by the depth of cut, feed rate, and nose radius respectively in terms of overall contribution. The optimal values were avowing by a confirmation of test with a range of deviation with 1.2% value from the average MRPI value.

Hariketan Patel, Jignesh Patel, Daksh Tandel, Jhanbux Variava
Comparative Study of Estimated Surface Roughness Using GA and PSO Techniques for Milling of Thin-Walled Structures

Thin-walled structures, due to their lightweight, have found significant applications in the aerospace industry. For the manufacturing of any component, its surface quality index is of prime importance. A very well-known measure of this surface quality is surface roughness. For a product of high quality, the surface roughness value is often desired to be minimum. However, the machining parameters for the production of such surfaces often rely on the engineer's experience and expertise, which always do not lead to the best possible results. In this study, a neural network was first created for surface roughness estimation, then evolutionary algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization were used to minimize the surface roughness value. During this process, the impact of milling parameters such as rake angle, nose radius, and approach angle on the surface roughness value was also studied with the aid of surface plots of surface roughness developed by taking two parameters at a time and holding the third parameter constant.

Shivang Shekhar, Tufan Chandra Bera
Optimization of EDM Process Parameter for Inconel 925 by Using Taguchi Method

Machining of Inconel alloys is a big challenge for manufacturing industries. The objective of this experimental investigation is to optimize process performance of electrical discharge machining (EDM) of Inconel 925. In today’s scenario, Inconel alloy is widely used in high-temperature application. In this work, peak current (Ip), pulse on time (Ton), duty cycle and voltage (V) are selected as process parameters. Taguchi method was applied to create design of experiment matrix for input variables. In this experimental investigation, effect of various process parameters on responses such as MRR, TWR and SR was investigated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the influences of Ip, Ton, duty cycle and V on MRR, TWR and SR. Peak current is most significant process parameter for MRR, TWR and SR.

Avadh Kumar, Rahul Vishwakarma, S. K. Yadav
Use of Analytic Hierarchy Process Methodology for Analyzing Existing Motorcycle Helmet Design Concepts

Wearing a helmet reduces the potential for severe brain injury drastically. Despite it, most motorcycle riders are not opting for using a helmet. It is important to identify the requirements of the helmet users. There are many helmet design concepts, some of them already exist and some of them are in the initial development phase, which offers different benefits. The study reported in this paper refers to published relevant literature and feedback from the field to understand reasons for not using helmets by motorcycle riders. Also, requirements/needs which motorcycle helmet needs to fulfill are analyzed using the Kano model. Different helmet design concepts are studied for safety, comfort, the field of vision, hearing ability while using a helmet. Analytical Hierarchy Process tool used for ranking these four helmet design concepts and recommend possible changes to accommodate sustainability aspects in selected Airbag helmet design.

S. R. Bajare, A. K. Bewoor, H. P. Jagtap
Optimization of Electrodischarge Machining Parameters Using Non-traditional Optimization Techniques

Electrodischarge machining (EDM) is a popular non-conventional material removal process because it can machine conducting materials. EDM processing conditions are vital for the response parameters such as overcut and surface roughness. Various EDM parameters that are important are voltage, current, spark frequency, spark gap, pulse duration and machining time. However, the selection of EDM processing parameters for better machining of a workpiece is challenging as the variation of some process parameters can decrease the overcut, but at the same time, it will lead to higher surface roughness. Therefore, the selection of an optimum combination of EDM process parameters is essential. For achieving the best level of process parameters, an effective optimization technique is very vital. An optimization algorithm is an iterative technique that compares different solutions until an optimum, or satisfactory solution is found. Nowadays, these optimization techniques are solely dependent on computerized programs. Particle swarm optimization (PSO), teaching learning-based algorithm (TLBO), Rao algorithm (RA), Jaya algorithm (JA) and firefly are some of the non-traditional optimization techniques. In the present work, an attempt is made to study the non-traditional optimization techniques and use the same to attain single and multiple objective optimizations of surface roughness and overcut values. In addition to that, the performance of different optimization techniques in terms of prediction accuracy and convergence characteristics is compared.

Kaushik Agarwal, Shishir Joshi, Divyansh Asudani, Dixit Savani, Deep Patel, Ashish R. Prajapati, Keyur P. Desai, Harshit K. Dave
Performance Improvement in Construction Industry by Using TOPSIS Method for Brick Material Supplier Selection

The process of selection of most suitable supplier for construction material can decide the success of any civil engineering project. This research paper deals with selection of supplier for bricks required for construction purpose. The selection of brick is crucial decision as it determines a project's durability and appearance, and results in a creating a good impression of the construction quality. Data were collected by consulting field experts and from the test results that were available. A real-time example having five suppliers with six criteria related to brick quality is considered, i.e., cost, compressive strength, flexural strength, volume, density, and class of brick. TOPSIS method is used for evaluation of supplier alternative in the given situation. CRITIC and entropy methods are used to determine the weights of various criterions. MCDM(Multi Criteria Decision Making) methods can be used to get an idea about the importance of criterias on a relative scale.

Sanket D. Alone, Pramod Naik, V. M. Athawale, D. N. Raut
Analyze and Optimize Thinning and Forming Force in Single Point Incremental Forming on AA6061-T6 Using the Finite Element Method

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a novel sheet metal forming process. Complex prototype sheet metal parts can be formed through simple generic hemispheric tool which is controlled by CNC machine single point incremental formation (SPIF) is a versatile sheet metal forming process. A simple generic hemispheric tool operated by a CNC machine may shape complex prototype sheet metal parts. When appropriate plans are highlighted about the relationship between input parameters and responses in the process, SPIF applicability can be verified on an industrial scale. The aim of this paper is to optimize the thinning and forming force of parts formed by single point incremental forming (SPIF) process simulation for AA6061-T6 sheet. The explicit nonlinear ABAQUS software is used for simulation of SPIF process. First, the FE model is validated with published literature of formed part thinning, and then further simulations are presented. The simulation’s runs are selected by considering a standard orthogonal array (OA) L18 based on Taguchi’s design. The influential process parameters for the thinning and forming forces have been studied with the help of analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results show that the wall angle is the most significant factor (69.5% influences) on thinning and followed by step size, tool radius, speed, and feed of the total variability. In the case of forming force, the most significant factor is sheet thickness (which has a 95% influence), followed by tool radius, feed, step size, and wall angle in this same order. The confirmation simulations were carried out of optimum parameters for validation.

Vinod D. Golakiya, Mahesh K. Chudasama, Harit K. Raval
PSO-Based Single Objective Optimization of WEDM Process on SKD 11 Material

The reason for the current investigation is to build precision, profitability, and diminish the expense of wire EDM machining of high chromium high carbon SKD 11. The feed rate of wire, pulse off time, tension of wire, servo voltage, and pulse on time were considered input-controlled parameters for performing the experimental work designed by response surface methodology as DoE techniques. Regardless, the determination of machining conditions for effective machining of material is exceptionally troublesome. Therefore, a problem of single objective optimization for maximizing the material removal rate of the WEDM process has been developed and solved by the particle swarm optimization technique. The result shows that feed rate of wire, servo voltage, and pulse on time are the most critical parameters to affect the material removal rate. Ton-118 mu, Toff-52 mu, IP-190 A, WT-6 mu, SV-20 V, WF-8 m/min, and MRR9.4234 mm3/min, the best global result obtained by using the PSO relates to the favorable consequences of MRR.

Sandip S. Patel, J. M. Prajapati
Slurry Abrasion Wear Assessment of Hybrid-Reinforced Polymer Composite Using Comparative Taguchi Gray Relational Analysis

This work aims to examine the slurry abrasion wear behavior of granite dust/titania-filled E-glass fiber-reinforced vinyl ester-based polymer composites. A multi-performance characteristic gray relational approach is also introduced to optimize the tribological behavior of the fabricated hybrid polymer composite material manufactured using conventional hand lay-up technique. The granite dust and titania weight fraction is varied from 5 to 15% while keeping bi-directional E-glass fiber weight fraction as constant, i.e., 30%. The slurry abrasive wear assessment of the manufactured composite specimen was evaluated under various operating conditions. As far as incorporation of granite dust as well as titania particulate is concerned, the slurry wear resistance of the material increases significantly. The optimal levels of input parameters such as wheel speed, erodent size, filler percentages, and normal loads are selected from the response table and graphs of the gray relation grade. ANOVA is used to examine the meaning of wear parameters in the slurry abrasive wear assessment of fabricated polymer composites.

Vikash Gautam, Aakash Sharma, Amar Patnaik, M. J. Pawar, Ashiwani Kumar, Vikas Kukshal
Experimental Investigation and Optimization of PM-EDM by Using Al Powder on Tungsten Carbide

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is an upgraded version of traditional EDM process; however, the material removal rate (MRR) is very less. To get better of this, an innovative machining process known as powder-mixed EDM (PM-EDM) is used, which helps to enhance not only surface finish but also MRR and productivity. In this study, the alliance between input parameters and output parameters with improved efficiency of the process in particular with the material removal rate (MRR) and tool wear rate (TWR) of PM-EDM is studied. The vital input parameters, like as gap voltage, pulse on time and peak current on material removal rate, tool removal rate, and surface finish of PM-EDM are studied in this experimentation. Tungsten carbide is used as workpiece material as it covers an ample range of applications in many industries, like as drilling and milling tools, industrial gear making, radiation shielding material applications, commercial construction applications, jewelry, surgical tools. Tungsten carbide has wide potential because of their excellent conductivity, resistant to heat, rust, scratches, pitting, incredible hardness, and resistance to wear and tear. For the machining of tungsten carbide components, electrical discharge machining (EDM) is used due to its difficult machinability and specific material properties. In this study, design of experiment (DOE) using full factorial method and optimization has been done by using gray relational analysis. Peak current and pulse on time are the most significant characteristics that determine the MRR and TWR, according to the analysis of variance.

Shubham Najan, B. Rajiv
Experimental Study and Optimization of Tribological Properties of Blended Biodiesel

The contemporary study focuses on the examination of the friction and wear properties of bio-diesel extracted from the vegetable oils, Palm and Mahua by using Pin on Disk wear testing machine. The vegetable oils at various proportions are mixed and tested to rate the wear characteristics. The finest combination is contemplated to prepare the bio-diesel. The bio-diesel (prepared by blended vegetable oils) is synthesized and collated with the tribological results of bio-diesels prepared by using Palm and Mahua vegetable oils. The tribological properties of AISI1040 Steel disc specimen with Aluminium pins are studied under different bio-lubricant environments. In the course of experimentation, it is noticed that abrasive, adhesive wear are crucial wear mechanisms that are present during the trials. The consequences of study exhibit that the comprehensive wear of the trial pieces for bio-diesel prepared at 90% Mahua (M) and 10% Palm (P) oil mixture is spotted to be small. The ANOVA results indicate that the Wear and frictional force are influenced by the input parameter normal load, whereas Frictional coefficient by track diameter.

Naga Lakshmi Pavani Puvvada, Polarao Ronanki, Srikiran Satuluri
Evaluation of Alternate Material of a Bush for Reducing Fretting Wear Damage in a Bush-Pin Joint

A flyer is a textile machinery component used for spinning thread and is mounted on a roving frame. A roving frame normally consists of around two hundred flyers. This paper deals with the investigation of failure of the bush and pin joint in the presser of the flyer. This failure is serious as it results in production downtime of the roving frame and involves considerable replacement cost. It is present practice to use bush made of polyamide (blended with 10% graphite). Alternative bush material considered is polyamide (blended with 15% graphite and 10% Teflon). The dynamic simulation is performed to find the variation of presser force and reaction at bush with bobbin diameter. The loss in wear volume is evaluated by means of finite element analysis (FEA), and semi-analytical approach is adopted for calculating the wear depth. The results are in confirmation with actual wear life with polyamide (blended with 10% graphite). The comparison of wear life reveals that bush made from polyamide (blended with 15% graphite and 10% Teflon) results in approximately double life as compared to that made from polyamide (blended with 10% graphite). Hence, it is recommended to use bush made from polyamide (blended with 15% graphite and 10% Teflon).

T. Sawant, S. J. Joshi, D. V. Patel, D. B. Shah, V. M. Bhojawala
Design and Analysis of Independent Suspension System of a FSAE Vehicle

In Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (FSAE) the design of suspension system is one of the most important area on which performance of vehicle depends. Present study proposes the procedure in designing a double wishbone independent suspension system for FSAE cars. This paper details the procedure utilized for design and analysis of mechanical systems which can be utilized within the FSAE vehicle norms. Suspension geometry is specified on basis of FSAE guidelines, packaging constraints and desired performance parameters. Forces are calculated based on weight of vehicle and weight transfer while riding. Suspension geometry is designed and linear Static Stress analysis on the suspension system is done considering forces, space availability and safety aspects for optimum performance.

Sanjay Lohar, Vaishnavi Patil, Sahil Save, Rakeshkumar Thakur
Experimental Investigations on the Machining of the Circular Profile Using Hermite and NURBS Interpolators by MACRO Programming Method

CNC machines are required to enhance the quality of a product at a reasonable cost. Profiles like turbine blades, dies, car bodies, aerofoil models and vanes are usually to be machined on a CNC machine. Preparatory codes on CNC machines provide automation but restricted with a capacity to machine linear and circular interpolators (G01 and G02 or G03). Hence, due to the non-availability of appropriate preparatory function, CNC machining of these curved shape components causes difficulty. The CAD/CAM systems divide the profile into the numbers of small linear segments. The transmission of the linear segments is subjected to errors between CAD/CAM and CNC systems. It results in lost data and noise. The discontinuity of the curved toolpath deteriorates the surface quality and shape accuracy due to linear segments. To reduce the deviation of the toolpath, the numbers of linear segments are to be increased. Each linear segment to be machine is adding a single block in the part program. It will lengthen the part program and add to the program memory size at the cost of the surface quality. To achieve better shape accuracy, parametric interpolation (i.e. MACRO programming) is required. In the present work, NURBS, as well as Hermite interpolators, is attempted to machine regular axis-symmetrical profile (i.e. circle) using explicit functions. The curved profiles machined by MACRO and conventional programming methods are examined to measure surface quality using surface roughness tester (i.e. Mitutoyo SJ-210®), while toolpath deviation is examined with the actual profile plotted with CAD software (i.e. AutoCAD®).

P. V. Savalia, B. B. Kuchhadiya
Analyzing Risk Factors of Reconfigurable Manufacturing System in Context of Industry 4.0 Using ISM-MICMAC Analysis

In the era of Industry 4.0, manufacturing organizations are compelled to adopt technologies and manufacturing systems that can meet the needs like better quality products, flexibility in manufacturing, and better productivity. Because reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) can meet the majority of the needs of a dynamic market, it is necessary to identify the risk factors of its implementation so that practitioners can take care of them to improve the adoption and success of the manufacturing system. The purpose of this paper is to identify the risk factors of RMS implementation through an extensive literature review and model them using a hybrid ISM-MICMAC analysis method. The ISM method is used to obtain the structural framework of RMS risk factors while taking into account the challenges of the Industry 4.0 era, whereas the MICMAC analysis is used to obtain the driving and dependence power of risk factors so that risk factor interdependencies can be analyzed. The findings show that the risk of unsupportive management, employee resistance risk, and risk of financial loss have the maximum driving power, whereas the risk of delays and risk of inadequate product quality/flexibility have the maximum dependence power. The authors believe that this will assist RMS and Industry 4.0 practitioners in identifying implementation risks at specific stages of implementation to avoid implementation delays. This could be a first attempt to identify RMS risk factors in the context of Industry 4.0, including their modeling using a hybrid ISM-MICMAC approach.

Rajesh Pansare, Manoj Palsodkar, Madhukar Nagare
Aerodynamic Drag Reductions of an Indian Tractor–Trailer Truck

One of its key problems in the automobile business is the conservation of energy, the protection of the global environment and the decrease in fuel use. The major goal of this research is to investigate the possibilities of improving the aerodynamic performance of trucks in order to increase fuel economy through the optimal design of supplemental components. This will be accomplished through the use of an integrated computational fluid dynamic. To achieve this, the effects of various supplemental devices and configurations are added to the area between the cabin and the cargo compartment in order to stabilize the vortex and reduce the drag resistance force. A belly of trailer sides with convergent divergent style of pattern and a modified backside with wedge shape is also proposed on Tata Signa 5530S tractor–trailer truck model in this study. The results shows, by adding all supplementary parts at their optimized positions, 26% drag reduction is obtained compared to the base model.

Umangi Pathak, Mihir Solanki
Analysis of Bending Abilities of Soft Pneumatic Actuator

Pneumatic gripper uses compressed air to operate its actuators (fingers). Unlike the conventional metallic gripper, soft pneumatic actuator (SPA) can be used for relocating fragile objects. An added advantage for this gripper is that the pressure exerted on the object can be varied by changing the dimensions of the air chambers and also by number of chambers. SPAs have many benefits over the conventional robots in military and medical fields because of their compliance nature and are easily produced using 3D printing process. In the paper, SPA is proposed to perform pick and place task. A design was developed for the actuators which is convenient for gripping any fragile objects. Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is used for 3D printing of the actuators. The actuator model behaves differently as the parameters such as its chamber height and number of chambers change. A detailed FEM model of the actuator is drafted for different pressure inputs using ABAQUS CAE software, and safe loading pressure range is found.

Shreyas Chigurupati, Jeevan Balaji
A Design for Assembly Framework Based on Subassembly Detection Method

The advances in the computer-assisted manufacturing processes promote the product designers to choose complex configurations in order to reduce the part count, which significantly influences the assembly time and assembly cost. In this paper, a framework is proposed to generate stable assembly subsets, further verified for the material compatibility and functional requirement validation in order to merge the components. The entire process is integrated with assembly sequence planning (ASP) in order to validate the geometric feasibility of the modified components. The proposed methodology is implemented on a real-time product and found successful in generating an optimal assembly sequence plan with possible part count reduction.

V. S. S. Prasad, Anil Kumar Gulivindala, Sudhakar Uppada, Vykunta Rao Matta, M. V. A. Raju Bahubalendruni, B. B. Biswal
Image Hashing Based on SHA-3 Implemented on FPGA

In recent years, in our digital world, images play an essential part in everyday's communication or in remote sensing, so techniques to validate the integrity and correctness of the transmission are required. The most popular technique is hashing. In this article, we focus on the SHA-3 (Keccak) algorithm for hashing images. We use the images of dimensions 256 × 256 pixel for our implementations based on the VHDL. Our implementations were performed on the Intel Arria 10 GX field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and Nios II processor. Also, experimental results such as entropy, number of pixel changing rate (NPCR), and unified averaged changed intensity (UACI), metrics show that the SHA-3 (Keccak) algorithm is reliable, secure and has a high application potential for hashing images. The proposed design aims to improve the criteria of efficiency, security, and throughput. Finally, we augmented our design using the Floating Point Hardware 2 (FPH2) IP Block and we compared the results of our research with other existing architectures.

Argyrios Sideris, Theodora Sanida, Dimitris Tsiktsiris, Minas Dasygenis
A Mechatronic Robotic Design to Aid Educational Learning Objectives in Primary and Secondary Schools

Educational robotics plays a significant role in modern society. Teachers increasingly use technological tools to study Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, Mathematics (STEAM) and other fields, such as problem-solving, environment, teamwork, and language learning. The design of an educational robot is the key to make this tool more interesting for students and more efficient for teachers. Dimensions, stability, sensors, and generally, the philosophy of the design process is the base of the robot’s success. This paper presents an innovative educational robot that is designed for utilizing empathy.

Dimitris Ziouzios, Antonios Chatzisavvas, Nikolaos Baras, Dimitrios Apostolou, Minas Dasygenis
Irrigation Pumping Scheme Based on Solar PV and Zeta Converters with PMBLDC Motor

This paper proposes the concept of developing and implementing an energy-efficient, inexpensive, efficient, and pollution-free water pumping scheme for irrigation application, leveraging the advantages of a Zeta converter and PMBLDC motor, which would assist farmers in reducing their contemporary farming hurdles, thus improving productivity and quality of life. It presents an excellent device that consists of a PMBLDC motor fed from a renewable source, specifically a PV array with a Zeta converter used to achieve the total power output from the installed PV array through MPPT. This unique arrangement does away with phase current sensors and replaces them with VSI fundamental frequency switching, which in turn helps to prevent power failure due to high-frequency switching. The PMBLDC motor does not need any circuitry to operate. It is regulated by the VSI's variable DC connection voltage. It also introduces a novel concept for entirely eliminating the DC-connected capacitor, which resulted in unnecessary bulky and increase in the motor's cost. However, this removal causes torque ripple at the motor's output. A ceramic capacitor and switch have been used instead of a conventional DC component capacitor to reduce torque ripple subsequently. The findings of the MATLAB simulation model have been demonstrated periodically with the required illustration.

Ayan Banik, Anubrata Sengupta
Design, Development and Control of SCARA for Manufacturing Processes

The Selective Compliance Articulated Robot Arm (SCARA) is widely used for picking and placing and assembly tasks in mechanical and electronics manufacturing industries. SCARA manipulators are less dexterous than other manipulators, but their speed and precision are exceptional. This research work deals with the development of SCARA to be used in different manufacturing processes. The goal of this research is to design a budget-friendly SCARA manipulator, which can be used in various manufacturing processes like welding, drilling, 3D printing and electrical discharge machining (EDM). The computer-aided design (CAD) approach is used to design and virtually simulate the manipulator. Structural analysis on the link of the manipulator is carried out before developing the working model. Stepper motors and Arduino are used to control SCARA. Inverse kinematics has been used to determine the required angle of the links. The cost of the robotic manipulator is prime focus throughout the process of making it, to ensure great quality robot at affordable price for automating small-scale work. The arm is designed specifically that various attachments can be attached as an end effector to the arm, depending on the requirement. The constructed SCARA is able to navigate to a single point and continuously navigate between two points with high accuracy and precision.

Harshit K. Dave, Mihir D. Chanpura, Sanket J. Kathrotiya, Dixit D. Patolia, Dhaval D. Dodiya, Paresh S. Kharva
Design and Development of Dewatering Screw Press

With time, dewatering waste has always been a very crucial step in waste management. Several techniques have been developed and are still being developed for efficient dewatering of sludge. Dewatering of sludge is important in several aspects to dispose or reuse the sludge. Sludge management not only creates potential savings of economic resources but is also destined for public health, especially to treat waterborne diseases and also reduction of chemical use of fertilizer for crop production. Public and private sectors need to dispose of sludge in a manner that is approved by regulatory agencies. It is usually found that the sludge is just air dried, disposed of or discharged without any treatment, which is harmful to the human body, plant, air and soil. The growing demand in both urban and rural areas for sustainable waste management system was identified as a motivation for the design of a compact screw press dewatering system. The concept involves the principle of compression and filtration in different stages to attain the maximum efficiency of dewatered sludge as the output. To support the concept, we have used three-dimensional modelling and FEA analysis to support our mathematical calculations. We aim to derive a concept of dewatering screw press for solid–liquid separation of cow dung. Cow dung is the bulk material that we have referred to depict the concept of sludge dewatering for its abundance availably and the vast significance of its uses in various industries.

P. G. Chitte, Prajwal Tapsi, Bhagyesh B. Deshmukh
Moving Object Tracking in 2D Using State Estimation

This paper demonstrates the tracking of moving object in 2D using a state estimation algorithm. The proposed work covers the state estimation, its importance, applications, and different algorithms from which this paper mainly focuses on the Kalman filter algorithm and the Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) algorithm. The explanation begins with the need for state estimation, types of the system models, and state estimation for deterministic and stochastic systems. There is a fundamental description of the Kalman filter algorithm and Moving Horizon Estimation algorithm. The paper describes the whole tracking process and also the implementation of a state estimation algorithm for object tracking using image process tools. The outcome of object tracking using the Kalman filter algorithm is presented using MATLAB software.

Bhavika G. Balani, Bansari B. Nayak, Sneh Soni
CMS Implementation Framework Development and Validation for the Manufacturing Industry

In today’s intense competition, industries are implementing efficient production systems to ensure their practical survival. Cellular manufacturing systems (CMS) are widely used in industries with multiple products because they enable the management of cells and thus the flexibility of the production system. The transition to CMS necessitates radical change, including a complete reshaping of the organization’s layout, system, and culture. A robust theoretical framework was developed in this study. The framework is validated by industry and academic experts using SWOT analysis. The proposed framework is intended to increase practitioners’ understanding of transition and minimize the conflicts associated with CMS implementation.

Vikrant Sharma, B. D. Gidwani
Design of Water Pumping System with Off-Grid Connected Solar PV Array Driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Energy generation from non-renewable sources has high cost and affects the environmental by releasing huge amount carbon-dioxide and also its overall efficiency is around 51%. So, due to above disadvantages the whole world look around renewable source of energy generation since past decade back. Among them solar and wind energy generation both can beat the energy generation from non-renewable energy resources. Here in this work we use solar power generation to drive water pumping system with less conversion stages for improving overall system performance and improve efficiency. This system uses a solar PV array to generate electricity, which is then put into a voltage source inverter, which drives the PMSM, which is connected to a pump. The following strategies are employed to increase system performance: ‘MODIFIED VECTOR CONTROL,’ which improves torque response and reduces the strain on the PMSM speed controller and The goal of the ‘variable step size incremental conductance’ is to increase the solar module unit's ability to monitor the maximum power point quickly.

Mahadasyam Naveen, Rajiv Kumar Sharma
Experimental and Flow Simulation Study of VARTM Process

In contemporary scenario, vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) has become a dominating technique for the manufacturing of large composite structures having high fiber volume fraction. In this research, Basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) flat laminate has been manufactured using VARTM process. To understand the effect of different process parameters of VARTM, simulation model has been developed using CFD simulation solver FLUENT. This two-phase flow model used to simulate the resin pressure distribution and track the flow front with time-dependent approach. The simulation results were compared with the data obtained during resin infusion in the actual experiment. As a result of which, the predicted resin flow patterns and mold filling time by CFD simulation model are found well agreed with measured flow sequence obtained during the manufacturing of BFRP composite.

Maulik V. Shah, Vijaykumar P. Chaudhary
Electrically Operated Hygiene Bin to Simplify the Initial Stage of Diaper Composting

The proposed study is to make a compact electrically operated hygiene bin to reduce the waste generated by the sanitary products like diapers contributing to land pollution. The bin is capable of extracting the biodegradable inner cellulose from the inner layer which is usually made up of polymers. As the disposed diaper takes long time to degrade and thus contributing to land pollution. The proposed machine can tear off the inner layer of diaper and exposes the inner trapped cellulose which will make the composting easy and is applicable for all kinds of sanitary products. This will give new ideas for the generation of biogas and manure. This will result in the reduction of the unwanted generated sanitary waste which could take several years to get degraded if disposed in landfills and can contribute adversely if incinerated that is contributing to the air pollution. Thus, this model could contribute to sustainable development.

Dipti N. Kashyap, Rounak Choudhury, Pranav Thete, Savita Baviskar, Pravesh Khatwani
Evaluation of Criteria for Developing Renewable Energy Sources in India

The adoption of renewable energy to fulfill the required need of energy will be the best solution to overcome the issue of global warming and climate changes, but the availability of renewable energy is restricted to the geography of a particular location. Hence, the selection of a particular renewable energy sources is a challenging task which requires rigorous efforts. The aim of this research is to prioritize the available criteria for the selection of appropriate renewable energy sources in India. The Shannon entropy weighing method is adopted in this study to build a tool to help in selecting best available renewable energy sources. The result shows that the financial perspective is having highest relative importance followed by technical perspective, environmental perspective, and social perspective. Also, CO2 emission followed by electric cost, land requirement, operation and maintenance cost, capacity factor, useful life, capital cost, efficiency, employment, and installed grid power capacity are the prioritized criteria in descending order of their weights obtained.

Himanshu Prajapati, Ravi Kant, Chirag Solanki
Modelling and Analysis of PCB Vibration

Automobiles are subjected to varied harmonic vibration loads that are generated by the engine at various RPM levels within the operating condition. Facing resonant frequencies of PCB within the operating frequency range can cause damage to PCB due to large amplitudes generated. To avoid the resonance situation, either external excitation frequency should be changed or natural frequency of the component. Normally, we do not have any control over external excitation frequency and hence the practical approach is to alter/change the natural frequency. Natural frequency according to the formula depends on the mass (inversely proportional) and stiffness (directly proportional). In practical situations, the natural frequency is altered by changing the stiffness rather than mass. This can be done by changing the boundary conditions (support), the addition of ribs/stiffeners, change in thickness of stiffeners, or by using stiffer material, etc. More accurate results can be observed by achieving convergence in meshing and accurate modelling of PCB. This paper demonstrates free flexural vibrations analysis of a stiffened PCB investigated by using finite element analysis (FEA). The PCB considered for analysis is inside the engine electronic control unit (ECU) of an automobile which is mounted near the engine. The reason to consider this PCB is that maximum vibrations are encountered here.

Vinay Shewale, Surbhi Razdan
A Review on Multi-stage Incremental Sheet Forming

The present article describes a comprehensive literature review on multi-stage single point incremental forming (MSPIF). Multi-stage single point incremental forming is an advance metal forming process used to form sheet metal parts with steep wall angles. In MSPIF, overall deformation is distributed in intermediate stages. MSPIF provides better thickness distribution, geometrical accuracy and formability than single point incremental forming (SPIF) process. In the present literature review, research papers published during 2000–2021 are critically reviewed. Literature review is categorized in three major sections—geometrical accuracy, numerical simulation and surface roughness. Influence of various process parameters, forming conditions on responses, is studied and presented. Based on the literature review, future scope is also discussed.

Nikhil Bari, Shailendra Kumar
Realization of a Compliant Mechanism-Based Compensation Technique for Multiplexer Filter of Communication Space Payload

Multiplexer is a space payload system used in the communication satellites to combine radio frequency signals. The task of development of multiplexer is multi-disciplinary and involves dissimilar materials. This paper presents the design, development and realization of the compliant mechanism for multiplexer filters adopting CAD involving multi-disciplinary domains used to make the design robust enough to fit into the applications requirements. Compensating the effects of the expansion is a common practice and is widely reported in the literature on the subject. Many of the compensating solutions which are in use in the literature are heavy, involving dissimilar materials introducing further joint stress, cumbersome assembly procedures, difficult to manufacture and end up in generating insufficient compensation effect. This approach eliminates all the problems associated with the conventional techniques. The optimized design is realized using fusion deposition methods and conventional manufacturing techniques. Measurements performed on the prototype show nearly matching results with the simulated results and enabled a viable solution for the compensation of multiplexers.

Krunal J. Shah, A. R. Srinivas
Characteristic Features Developed After Sheet Metal Processing of ARMCO Iron Using Constrained Groove Pressing Process

In this study, ARMCO Fe sheet was processed to sixteen pressings while undergoing constrained groove pressing process. Various peculiar features were observed in this deformed metal sheet, categorized as macroscopic and microscopic observations. To identify and understand one of those features, micrographs were studied using optical microscopy. Such appearances may affect the performance of the well-fabricated sheet in terms of engineering applications. Therefore, possibilities are also discussed which may help reduce the impact of some of these resultant observations.

Vindala Poojitha, T. Raghu, V. Pandurangadu
Design and Analysis of Piston Comparing Different Materials

The present work describes the comparative study made by the finite element analysis (FEA) of pistons of three different materials. In addition, it attempts to find out whether or not, the material used by the supercar piston can be used in motorcycles. The simulation parameters are piston pressure, the temperature of the piston and properties of the material. For studying these pistons, the specifications taken into consideration belong to a four-stroke Bajaj Pulsar 220 cc single-cylinder motor. The analysis of two aluminium alloys and a titanium alloy pyramid is illustrated in this project. A 3D model of the piston is made in CAD Software named SOLIDWORKS. The use of ANSYS Software is made for static structural and thermal stress analyses. Results of the present work foresee the critical area of the FEA pistons and maximum stress. On the basis of results, the optimum or better material is chosen for the piston.

Ankitkumar Rajpurohit, Krunalkumar Patel, Jimitkumar Naik, Meet Bhatt, Mukund Sondagar, Sagarsingh Kushwah
Application of 7-Step Problem-Solving Methodology for Defect Elimination: A Case Study in an Automotive Industry

Quality of products and processes plays a vital role in the automotive industry. To become more efficient and effective in the global market, approaches for failure diagnosis using standardized methodologies such as 7-Step Problem-Solving Methodology (7SPSM), along with 8D, PDCA, DMAIC, and Six Sigma are adopted. The present paper discusses a successful case of 7SPSM in the automotive industry. The tools used in all seven phases contribute majorly toward an effective and complete understanding of the problem considering all the underlying factors. From the results experienced, it can be concluded that 7SPSM provides an effective methodology not only for solving problems but also for continual improvement by elimination of recurrences of product failure.

A. K. Bewoor, Mitali U. Kharul, Saloni G. Gosavi, Tanvi J. Kuray
Ergonomic Risk Assessment of Rubber Tappers Using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)

Natural rubber is a global commodity of great importance. It is harvested from tree species whose latex contains a significant amount of rubber by a process called rubber tapping, a physically demanding work activity in which rubber tapping workers cut the rubber tree bark, causing the latex to exude from the inner layer. While performing rubber tapping, workers have to adopt ergonomically awkward postures involving flexion and/or extension, lateral bending and twisting in the wrists, arms, trunk and neck. Since tappers usually tap more than 300 trees in a day, they are repeatedly exposed to these awkward postures and thereby subjected to varying levels of risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). A study was conducted among twenty-five rubber tappers, mainly in the northern district of Kozhikode in Kerala, India. The rubber tapping activity of each worker was observed directly and also recorded on video. The working postures were analysed based on the recorded videos using the ergonomic assessment tool, REBA. This study implemented REBA for posture analysis of rubber tappers to assess the risk levels of MSDs prevalent among them. It was found that a vast majority of workers (84%) were at a medium level of risk of MSDs, whereas the remaining 16% of the participants were at a high risk, needing corrective actions to be taken soon.

Abi Varghese, Vinay V. Panicker, Jeffry Abraham, Jobin Gimmi, Judson Tom, Kevin Desini
Influence of Solvent Content in Screen Printing Inks for Plastics on Rubbing Fastness Properties

Solvent-based screen printing inks are used for printing on all kinds of thermoplastics, like polymethacrylates, PVC, cellulose acetobutyrate, various types of polystyrene, and polycarbonate. Depending on the substrate and printing conditions, they achieve ready-to-print consistency by addition of certain percentage of the solvent to thin the ink. Besides this solvent also partly dissolves the surface of the substrate, thus providing better bond between the ink and the substrate. As the printed products are usually exposed to mechanical damage, such as rubbing, achieving better bond between the ink and substrate could increase its quality. On the other hand, higher content of solvents in ink composition means that less color pigment will be deposited on the printing substrate. Also viscosity of the ink is changing which can influence amount of the ink passing through screen printing mesh. This paper aims to determine how rubbing fastness of printed plastics is influenced by varying four levels of solvent content in screen printing inks, three different screen printing mesh count, and two different substrates.

G. Vladic, N. Kasikovic, G. Bosnjakovic, D. Novakovic, B. Banjanin
An ISM Framework for Agile New Product Development Process Risk Elements: Industry 4.0 Perspective

The current global market, as well as customers’ inclination for innovative products, makes new product development (NPD) activities more uncertain. In the era of Industry 4.0, organizations are being forced to adopt new approaches, such as agile new product development (ANPD). This approach has recently been identified as essential for innovative physical product development and aims for reducing both time-to-market and the resources required for the NPD. Hence, it is necessary to identify the dominant risk elements associated with agile new product development so that practitioners can ensure the approach's successful adoption. The goal of this research article is to identify risk elements through literature review along with expert opinion and then develop a framework using ISM-MICMAC analysis. Bearing in mind the Industry 4.0 scenario, the framework was created using ISM methodology, and ten short-listed risk elements were classified using their driving as well as dependence power. The analytical results demonstrate risk element “corporate incompatibility risk” has the greatest driving power, while the risk elements “supply chain management (SCM) risk”, “NPD process risk”, “advanced technology risk”, and “delay risk” have the greatest dependency power. The authors believe that this document will serve as a guide for ANPD and Industry 4.0 practitioners in identifying and mitigating adoption risks in advance. This could be the first attempt to identify ANPD risk elements in the background of Industry 4.0 and model them using the ISM-MICMAC methodology.

Manoj Palsodkar, Rajesh Pansare, Madhukar Nagare
Application of Polymer Composite for Weight Reduction in the Automobile Sector Toward a Sustainable Development

In recent years, co-relation of sustainable development with the the growth of the industries, these questions have been a hot topic for research. The increasing awareness, greater restrictions on emission control, and its long-term environmental impact have led to an urgent need to develop lightweight and fuel-efficient vehicles in the global automobile industry. Polymer composites due to their lightweight and recyclability have been largely used in the automotive sector. This has led to a constant need to research and develop high-performance polymer composites in the automobile industry. This paper aims to explore the use of polymer composite for weight reduction as an alternative option toward the sustainable development of the automobile industry. Specific applications of polymer composites in the automotive sector are explained in correlation with achieved weight reduction. A comparison between the performances of different fiber-reinforced polymer composite has been done, from which a gradual increasing trend in the usage of natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite was observed. This paper helps in identifying potential polymer composites for weight reduction. Weight reduction using reinforced polymer composite as a lightweight material proves to be a valid alternative toward sustainable development that satisfies social, environmental, and economic conditions. The use of natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites has been seen to further enhance sustainability, thus highlighting potential gaps in the research of the natural fiber polymer composite and its application.

Anand S. Baldota, Vishal J. Dulange, Shahrukh S. Patel, Manoj W. Bhalwankar
Predicting Remaining Useful Life of Capping and Filling Machine Using Exponential Degradation Model with Web Server Deployment

This paper demonstrates the deployment of predictive maintenance algorithm for capping and filling machine. The proposed work covers the predictive maintenance algorithm, machine operations, data analytics, user interface, and its implementation on the capping and filling machine. The explanation begins from fetching the sensor data stored in PLC, saving it to a SQL database via OPC server, and performing prognostics analysis on this data by extracting features, ranking those features, performing principal component analysis, and feeding obtained health indicator matrix to the exponential degradation model. As a result, the remaining useful life of the system is derived and plotted in the form of a probability distribution function along with the model itself. Real-time machine parameters along with plots are presented to the user in the form of a graphical user interface built as a MATLAB application, which is further deployed on a Web app server demonstrating the ease of local user accessibility in the form of a Web site.

Devang J. Gajjar, Shrey A. Shah, Sneh Soni
Performance Assessment of Internet of Things Implementation in Fleet Management Project—Schedule of Rate: An Oil Marketing Company Case Study

This paper describes the IoT implementation in the ABC schedule of rate project. ABC is an Oil Marketing Company (OMC) and has around 15,000 fuel filling stations in India. The prices of fuel are decided by OMCs and need to be updated on all the filling stations on daily basis. This change of price took place by establishing the connection in-between all the fuel filling stations with the Host of Server (HoS) of ABC. The term Retail Sale Price (RSP), i.e., the price change, is the key parameter that needs to achieve 100% on daily basis. This could not achieve, and the research drives more into the investigation of the factors affecting the RSP, which were ultimately a hindrance in IoT implementation. After daily observation over 85 days in between 6th January 2021 and 12th May 2021, the factors were found and classified under intermediate connectivity, no connectivity, hardware operational issues. Regression analysis was used to calculate and find the dominance of the factor affecting RSP not happening the intermediate connectivity was the most prominent factor affecting the RSP. And this problem was taken care upgrading the fuel filling station by incorporating new wireless automation by XYZ company to increase the RSP of ABC OMC.

Anudeep G. Chandak, D. N. Raut, Gunjan Yadav
Design Enhancement and Vibration Analysis of Bladeless Wind Turbine

Now a day’s energy has the most important input for the growth of any country. Generally, vibration is seen as a drawback in any machinery or component, people are working on reducing the effect of it. As it is known vibration has capabilities of producing immense amount of force/energy, so this drawback can be utilized into an opportunity. Considering this issue, present study focussed on analysis of innovative design of bladeless wind turbine to utilize the vibration caused by wind to produce electrical power. Working is based on vortex induced vibration and electromagnetic induction. To enhance the performance of turbine low density polymer nylon is used. This novel design wind turbine is cost effective and gives better performance. The natural frequencies of this state-of-the-art wind turbine was analysed in modal analysis using ANSYS.

Japagna N. Agnihotri, Monil M. Bhamare, Mihir H. Amin, Kishan D. Patel, Dattatraya G. Subhedar
Evaluating the Barriers of Circular Supply Chain Implementation Using Pythagorean Fuzzy DEMATEL Method

In recent times, the notion of circular supply chain (CSC) has received much attention from the research communities across the globe due to the issues of resource scarceness, waste generation and environmental degradation. The CSC combines the circular economy (CE) into the supply chain of business organizations. It acts as a sustainable solution approach to the linear supply chain model. The significant sustainable benefits the organizations can achieve after its successful implementation. However, from past literature, it can be seen that, very less attention has been given on CSC implementation in perspectives of developing economies, especially in India. The developing economies are facing several barriers in adopting CSC practices in manufacturing organizations. Therefore, this research aims to recognize and evaluates the barriers of CSC adoption. This research proposes the Pythagorean fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (PF-DEMATEL) technique to assess the interrelationship and determines the causal dependency of selected CSC barriers. The Indian case organization is considered in this study for demonstration of effectiveness of the proposed method. This research finding reveals that “lack of support and commitment from top management of an organization towards CSC implementation” is the most significant barrier, and “lack of economic benefits in short run” is the least important barrier to CSC adoption. This research outcome helps the industrial practitioners to formulate and develop the effective strategies for effective implementation of CSC management.

Swapnil Lahane, Ravi Kant
Disruptions in Indian Supply Chain Due to COVID-19

Supply chain processes (SCM) encompass a wide spectrum of functions that facilitate the flow of a raw material till its finished product stage. The most vital aim of SCM lies in establishing a link between all the facilities of a company such as manufacturing, transporting, channelizing and delivering goods and enhancing business processes by making them more flexible, more agile and, consequently, more competitive. This unpleasant coronavirus pandemic has adversely affected almost all supply chain networks around the globe and has highlighted the shortcomings of the existing supply chains. This research study makes an attempt to find the disruptions in supply chain caused by COVID-19 by using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) and provides a few solutions for the same.

Parthiv V. Shah, Bhavin J. Prajapati, Jitesh J. Panchal, Shivangi Thakker
Reverse Logistics Performance Metrics: An Evaluation by Pythagorean Fuzzy Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory Method

Reverse logistics has gained attention in the recent years due to increased waste generation, shorter product life and high returns but the study on its performance is scarce. The context of this research is to identify the reverse logistics performance metrics (RLPM), to find its relative importance and to find the causal relationship between them. The Pythagorean fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (PFDEMATEL) is used to build and analyse the structural model. The most important RLPM according to the result is reverse logistics network with volume flexibility. The result from cause–effect diagram shows seven RLPMs each in cause and effect groups. The importance and causal relationship of RLPM addresses a significant advance in embracing a coordinated and exhaustive way to deal with reverse logistics performance.

Himanshu Prajapati, Ravi Kant
Project Scheduling Using Linear Programming, CPM and Crashing Time Technique

Project scheduling is a method by which we can shorten the duration of the project or crash the duration of a project at the expense of certain added cost to meet the specified project deadline. The project might lag behind the given schedule for many numbers of reasons, and this situation may call for measures like crashing some activities by appointing extra resources. This crashing of activities is generally done by trial-and-error method which is not very productive and incurs extra costs. The crashing of activity is to be done in such a way that the project should be completed within the given deadline with minimum additional costs. In this paper, methods like linear programming and critical path methods are used to create a trade-off between time and cost in real-time project of construction of Pune Metro Rail Project (PMRP). Data was collected about PMRP construction, and activities were tabulated along with time, cost and precedencies. After implementing the critical path method (CPM), a linear programming model was created for the PMRP construction, method was given to solve this problem, and finally LINDO software was used to give the final solution. The purpose of the linear programming model is to minimize the total project cost subjected to various project constrains. The time of project was decreased by 22.22% with an increase in cost of project of 4.56%. This is a simple method easy to implement and works on large network projects.

Takshay V. Sayre, Keshav Kumar, Divyansh A. Waghmare, Yash S. Deshpande, Vishal A. Bhosale
Experimental Study of Effect of Process Parameters on Surface Roughness and Dimensional Accuracy of Parts Fabricated by Fused Deposition Modelling

The present paper focuses on experimental study of effect of process parameters on surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of parts fabricated by fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique of additive manufacturing (AM). The fabricated polylactic acid (PLA) parts have curved surfaces with hexagonal faces and circular shape at centre. Influence of process parameters, namely layer thickness, build orientation, extrusion temperature and raster width, is studied on responses, namely surface roughness and dimensional accuracy. Comprehensive experimental work is carried out using Taguchi’s orthogonal array to find effect of parameters on responses of curved surfaces. From the results, it is observed that layer thickness and build orientation majorly affect the surface roughness of parts. Surface roughness increases with layer height. It first decreases, then increases as built orientation increases. Dimensional accuracy in width direction is mostly influenced by layer height, build orientation and extrusion temperature. With increase in layer height the dimension deviation initially decreases and then increases. With increase in part orientation, dimension deviation firstly increases and then decreases. It initially decreases, then increases with extrusion temperature.

Shailendra Kumar, Swapnil Vyavahare, Jyothi Kootikuppala
Metadata
Title
Recent Advances in Manufacturing Modelling and Optimization
Editors
Prof. Shailendra Kumar
Prof. J. Ramkumar
Prof. Panagiotis Kyratsis
Copyright Year
2022
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-16-9952-8
Print ISBN
978-981-16-9951-1
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-9952-8

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