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About this book

This book comprises select proceedings of the International Conference on Latest Innovations in Materials Engineering and Technology (ICLIET 2018). The book focuses on diverse engineering materials, their design and applications. The materials in discussion include those related to coatings, polymers, composites, tribology, acoustic insulators, lubricants, and cryogenics. The book also highlights emerging nano and micro materials, bio engineering materials, as well as new energy materials for solar cells and photovoltaic cells. This book will serve as an useful reference for students, researchers, and professionals working in the field of materials science and engineering.

Table of Contents


Materials Science and Engineering


Chapter 1. Experimental Investigations on Heat Sink Circular Pin Fins and Conical Spines Subjected to Natural Convection

Experiments had been accomplished on natural convection heat transfer from circular pin fin heat sinks subjected to the effect of its geometry, heat flux and orientation. Pin fin or spines cooling configurations have long been of interest within the vicinity of cooling of turbines, automobile engines and different devices because of their doubtlessly excessive heat transfer characteristics and excessive surface area density, in addition to their structural benefits. The pin fins or spines function as tabulators to provide excessive heat transfer rate; however, their geometric association has to be optimized to avoid excessive friction loss. Experimental checks had been carried out to investigate the consequences heat transfer rate and overall heat transfer rate for sideward orientation and upward orientation of heat sink with circular pin fin array and conical spine array.

Satish Pujari, Polayya Chintada, Anil Kumar Inkulu, G. Gnana Deepa

Chapter 2. Analysis of Mechanical and Thermal Behavior of Sisal Fiber Composites: Review

Modern-day researchers and scientists indulge to develop green and biodegradable composites for causing a minimal impact on the environment. This progression ascertained the use of natural fiber composites, which are biodegradable, low cost, and less impact on the environment over the inorganic fiber composites. Sisal fiber is one of the natural fibers which are extracted from the leaf of the sisal plant. Sisal fibers are abundantly grown in the tropical and subtropical regions of coastal Andhra Pradesh, India. In this present study, the author explains the effect of mechanical behavior of the sisal fiber composites reinforced with different polymers. The influence of treatment of the fibers and its hybridization on the mechanical behavior and thermal behavior of composites is also explained.

V. Rambabu, A. Lakshumu Naidu, Srinivas Kona

Chapter 3. Effect of Machining Variables on Cutting Temperature While Rotary Milling of Inconel 625

In the metal cutting process, the cutting temperature is a serious problem in the aerospace industry while machining of aerospace materials like nickel-based superalloys, titanium alloys, and structural composites. The cutting temperature plays an important role in metal cutting processes. The cutting temperature influences the tool life and surface roughness. Many researchers are focusing on the reduction of the cutting temperature. There are more techniques available to reduce the cutting temperature like flood coolant, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and nanocoolants. In this work, the cutting temperature was reduced by a new technique that is the self-propelled rotary tool (SPRT) with MQL and nanocoolants. The cutting temperature was measured using the infrared thermometer. The effect of cutting parameters on the cutting temperature was studied. The effect of the inclination angle in rotary milling was also analyzed. The results were obtained while machining of Inconel 625, a nickel-based superalloy using a self-propelled rotary face milling tool.

Gopala Rao Thellaputta, P. S. C. Bose, C. S. P. Rao, C. S. Raju

Chapter 4. Experimental Investigation of Active Flux Coatings on AA-6082 Using A-TIG Welding Process

Metal joining process is an emerging technique in the manufacturing stream. Welding is the most preferred joining process in making similar or dissimilar metal joints. Many researchers helped in improving the characteristics of weldments. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is an arc-based welding process and continues to be one of the major welding processes used in the industry for high-quality joints. Lack of penetration is a major drawback for this GTAW, improving this may result in a wide range of applications. Activated TIG is a solution for producing deeper penetrations. This is achieved through the application of a thin coating of activating flux material onto the workpiece surface prior to welding. This work studies the influence of flux coatings in producing better deeper penetrations by applying A-TIG welding on Al-6082 and studies the joint strength and topology of weldments.

M. Pradeep Kumar, V. Krishna Kanth, A. Ramki, K. E. Jagadish

Chapter 5. Influence of Tool Geometry of Friction Stir Weldments on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of AA2014-T6 Aluminium Alloy

In this friction stir welding (FSW), the investigation has been made to study the effect of tool geometry for mechanical properties and microstructure of friction stir weld AA2014-T6 weldments. Five different types of tool pin profiles (straight cylindrical and tapered cylindrical pin profiles) with varying radius of curvature used to fabricate the joints. The mechanical properties of AA2014-T6 weldments were evaluated, and microstructures at the weld centre of all the joints were studied using optical microscope. By the results, it is noticed that joints fabricated by straight cylindrical tool pin profile with radius of curvature R2 exhibited better mechanical properties as compared to all other joints. Mechanical properties are correlated with microstructures.

M. Venkatesh, A. Johnson, K. Srikanth, K. K. Guduru

Chapter 6. Influence of CO2 Laser Beam Welding Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Alloy AISI 4130 Steel Welded Joints

Laser Technology is gaining importance in manufacturing/production industries/medical field. Hence, metal joining by welding of similar or dissimilar metals is an important process. Thus, the design of the joints and their strength conditions play a greater role. Therefore, the present study concentrates on the experimental investigation of alloy AISI 4130 steel series by CO2 Laser Beam Welding (LBW) with the objective of analyzing its effects on mechanical properties of joints. The experimental investigation consists of three stages—(i) Determination of minimum number of experiments to be conducted using Taguchi’s technique, (ii) Joining of two similar metals by LBW and (iii) Estimation of the effect of each parameter with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Whale optimization algorithm so as to obtain a best combination of process parameters, namely—laser power, welding speed, incident angle, focal position and focal length. The results indicate that the process parameters influence to obtain good mechanical properties, good surface with a remarkable decrease in fusion zone, and an acceptable weld profile with higher weld depth to width ratio.

B. Narayana Reddy, P. Hema, G. Padmanabhan

Chapter 7. Mechanical and Welding Properties of A6082–SiC–ZrO2 Hybrid Composite Fabricated by Stir and Squeeze Casting

Aluminium metal matrix composites are having lightweight, high strength, good corrosive resistance and toughness. Aluminium A6082 alloy has good mechanical properties and is mainly used in structural applications. The reinforcement particles SiC and ZrO2 have high strength. In this work, A6082/SiC/ZrO2 hybrid composites are fabricated with different wt% of reinforcement materials (0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt% ZrO2 and SiC constant for all composites) by using stir and squeeze casting process. A6082 alloy and A6082/SiC/ZrO2 hybrid composites are prepared for mechanical and welding properties like hardness, impact, compression, welded tensile test and welded hardness test. SEM microstructures of A6082/SiC/ZrO2 hybrid composites have shown uniform distribution of ceramic particles. The hardness is increased for A6082 alloy and hybrid composite with increasing reinforcement up to 1 wt% ZrO2. Hybrid composite reinforced with 1 wt% ZrO2 is 18.6% more than the base alloy. The compression strength is increased in A6082 alloy reinforced with 1 wt% SiC and 1 wt% ZrO2, which is 20% more than the A6082 base alloy. The Charpy impact strength of the composite materials is increased with the addition of 1 wt% ZrO2, which is 60% compared to base alloy. “As-cast” A6082 aluminium and composites are joined by friction stir welding process with similar materials. Tensile test and hardness are performed on welded plates. The ultimate tensile strength is increased up to 33% at 0.5 wt% ZrO2 compared to welded base alloy. The UTS of 1 and 1.5 wt% ZrO2 decreased and showed brittle failure. The SEM fractography of welded tensile fracture surface showed more dimples in 1 wt% SiC and 0.5 wt% of ZrO2 reinforced composite, and less dimples and more cleavages are shown in higher wt% ZrO2. The hardness strength is increased to welded composites of 1 wt% SiC and 1 wt% ZrO2, and the hardness is increased up to 17% compared to base alloy.

Gudla Jayachandra, Joga Venkata Sandeep, K. Sekar

Chapter 8. Effect of Crack Location and Crack Depth on Natural Frequencies of Fixed Beam Using Experimental Modal Analysis

In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of fixed beam with and without crack are observed. A basic flexible aluminum fixed beam with surface crack at various locations is considered for the dynamic investigation. The crack dimensions and its location are the principle parameters to portray the well-being state of beams. Modal analysis is commonly well thought-out as an effective tool to obtain the intrinsic characteristics of structures including resonant frequencies and mode shapes. These are significant indicators for monitoring the health status of engineering beam like structures. Damage of beam deeply changes its natural frequencies and its mode shapes at various crack locations and depths are observed numerically and experimentally. Finite element modal analysis (FEMA) was performed on damaged and intact beam using ANSYS workbench. An experimental setup was developed for fixed beam with crack was excited by an impulse hammer, and the response was obtained by PCB accelerometer through data acquisition system (DAQ) using NI LabVIEW software. From frequency response functions (FRFs), natural frequencies and mode shapes are extracted and validated with FEMA results.

Siva Sankara Babu Chinka, Balakrishna Adavi, Srinivasa Rao Putti

Chapter 9. Effect of Cryogenic Coolant on Mechanical Properties and Micrographs of Solid State Welding of 2014 Al Plates

Solid (Friction) stir welding (FSW) is a moderately new welding practice, and it is a widely adopted process used to join metallic alloys. It is a fad in automobile, aerospace, and further manufacturing concern for linking complex geometry of joints. The present research paper, the influence of cryogenic cool (dry ice and liquid nitrogen) on grain refining and tensile and microhardness property of 2014 Al FSWed is demonstrated. Cryogenic coolant process was employed in friction stir welding to reduce the grain size that observed by using an optical microscope as 2–4 µm (average size) and to improve the mechanical properties which are obtained higher properties with tool shoulder diameter of 24 mm, taper cylindrical thread pin profile at a rotational speed of 900 rpm, and a welding speed of 60 mm/min due to equiaxed grains of FSWed 2014 aluminum alloy. By cryogenic process, it is observed that mechanical properties are enormously improved. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) helps for the quality and high-resolution fractography analysis of a cryogenic-processed FSWed Al 2014 plates.

Shaik Ansar Ali Ahamed, Aruri Devaraju, K. V. Narasimha Rao

Chapter 10. Prediction of Surface Roughness in Turning of EN19 Steel Using Acoustic Emission

Finding surface roughness of a turned product involves taking the product from the machine and measuring the surface roughness separately, which involves downtime during the machining process. This paper covers a new method of predicting the surface roughness, which involves recording the sound generated during machining and analyzing the sound level versus frequency graph for patterns specific to a particular condition, i.e., if the surface roughness produced during machining is high, it produces distinctive graph when compared to graph generated during machining of the product which got less surface roughness values. If a correlation is done for specific patterns in the graphs generated and surface roughness values, the process can be automated such that the sound generated during the machining is analyzed and checked for predetermined correlated conditions and surface roughness can be estimated during the machining process itself without removing the workpiece. EN19 (AISI 4140) steel round stock is taken and is turned at different speeds, feeds and depths of cut parameters combination. The surface roughness values of the turned workpieces were measured separately. Sound generated during the machining processes is recorded by using a sound recorder. The recorded sound is processed in audio-editing software to remove any ambient noises and to eliminate the sound generated due to chips from the machining sound. Frequencies versus sound level graphs are generated and peak amplitude values are noted. Prediction conditions were framed by analyzing graphs generated between experiment number—peak amplitude and experiment number—surface roughness. Confirmation experiments were performed and the sound recorded was analyzed and surface roughness was predicted within a close range and the surface roughness was later measured by a profilometer showed the predicted surface roughness values were true.

S. Veerendra Prasad, B. V. R. Ravi Kumar, V. V. Subba Rao

Chapter 11. A Study of Tribological Behavior of AL2014, AL2024 and AL7075 Alloys

Aluminum is one of the abundant metals available on earth, by adding precise percentage of suitable alloying elements the aluminum alloy can exhibit properties nearer to pure metals but at lesser weight which enables them to be used in wide number of engineering applications. These works discuss the properties through results obtained from tensile tests conducted on UTM, and wears tests are conducted by pin-on-disk apparatus on the AL2014, AL2024, AL7075 specimens with different parameters like speed of the disk and temperatures for wear and for hardness. From analyzing the experimental results, we can say that for severe wear conditions, the workpiece displayed high amount of wear rate, friction coefficient, and we can also observe that the wear behavior of the aluminum alloy is largely influenced by the applied load. One should be aware of the presence of a critical load and if the load is applied beyond this load, it could have an unfavorable effect on the wear resistance of the aluminum alloy. The present work is proposed to optimize the experimental analysis by using Taguchi L9 method, which helps by reducing the number of experiments to be done from twenty-seven to nine, and then, the tensile test was conducted on the workpieces which are resized according to ASTME standards.

Ravi Varma Penmetsa, S. Madhavarao, Ch. Ramabhadri Raju, G. S. V. Seshu Kumar

Chapter 12. Surface Modification of AA 6351 for Improvement of Mechanical Properties Using Friction Stir Processing

Friction stir processing (FSP) is originated from friction stir welding (FSW); this technique produced by “The Welding Institute” of UK. FSP is a new method to change the microstructure and properties of workmetal by using frictional power, and it has become a powerful tool for homogenizing the structure, grain refinement and the mechanical properties improvement. In the present investigation, SiC particles were merged in workmetals ALUMINIUM ALLOY6351(AA6351) by using FSP, to create surface layers of the particulate composite. The effects of rotational speed and traverse speeds on particle distribution and microstructures were studied. Observations were carried out by using optical microscopy of the modified surface for microstructure. Mechanical properties like tensile strength and microhardness were also assessed. The result displayed that increasing the rotational speed improved the uniform distribution of SiC particles. The hardness of the introduced composite surface was also improved. The produced composite surface has high tensile strength compared to unprocessed base workmetal.

Mane Venkatrao, G. Ranga Janardana, U. Satish Naidu, S. Venkatesh

Chapter 13. Ultimate Load Behaviour of Segmental Composite Slabs at Different Shear Connectors

As India is developing country infrastructure plays major role to be kept in view of infrastructure requirements, to keep down road transport interference and speedy establishment of way overs by using prefabricated concrete with in situ concrete composite construction, i.e., prefabricated slab proceeds like a support to affix with in situ reinforced concrete using shear connectors. To increase the strength of composite slab by using different types of shear connectors. Numerical modelling and analysis of composite one-way and two-way slabs under flexure with truss-type, lattice-type and dual-steel-type shear connectors are used to find the efficiency, comparatively and percentage integrity with solid slab.

N. R. Gowthami, K. Ramanjaneyulu, K. Ajaykumar Reddy

Chapter 14. Regression Model Developed Using RSM for Predicting Withstanding Pressure of HDPE Pipe During Extrusion Process

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe is most popularly used in numerous applications such as domestic appliances, electrical, and agriculture, appliances because of their high density and water hammer characteristic. HDPE pipe is produced through extrusion technique using various molding processes. During this process, controlling parameters such as dimmer speed die head temperature and pushing zone temperature can play a vital role to enhance the quality of the pipe. The quality parameter considered here is withstanding the pressure of pipe during flow of fluid at different working conditions. In the present work, a regression model was developed using RSM to predict proper withstanding pressure by considering selected control parameters as an input factor and predicted withstanding pressure is an output response factor of the blow-molding process. Finally, the results of regression model were compared with experimental outcome and found to be in good agreement. The results of the predicted model can be used as selected control parameters to ensure the desired quality of HDPE pipe.

S. Krishna Madhavi, N. S. V. N. Hanuman, R. Umamaheswara Rao

Chapter 15. Experimental Investigations on Mould Dilation Characteristics of Synthetic Greensand Systems Using Factorial Design

Greensand systems are known to suffer in the problem of mould dilation which results in dimensional inaccuracy and unsoundness of casting. The problems involved in the manufacture of dimensionally accurate casting have received constant attention of both the scientific investigators as well as the engineers actually facing the problem in the industry. It still remains a living problem in spite of many strides already made towards its solution. In the present study, it is planned to investigate the mould dilation characteristics of river bed sand. Higher compression strength of moulded sand implies higher stiffness or rigidity of mould wall which resists mould dilation better. Binders and additives which improve the mechanical properties of moulds also help to decrease mould wall movement. In order to obtain practically a relationship between mould dilation and mechanical properties of the sand system, the bentonite as a binder is employed in different amounts. The experimental investigations are determined to obtain the optimum range of mould hardness, compressive strength, bulk density, permeability and grain-size distribution which have a greater influence on minimizing the mould wall movement of the moulds prepared by selected sand. Factorial design methodology has been followed in order to obtain the significance of optimum parameters on mould dilation which is monitored by the volume of shrinkage pipe formed on castings. Further, the developed relationship was validated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique.

P. V. Hariprasad Rao, D. Srinivasa Rao, B. Sreenivasulu, Pradeep Gutla

Chapter 16. Influence of Titanium Dioxide on the Mechanical Properties of Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Nylon 66

The main objective of this paper is to enhance the mechanical properties of polymer composites by using nanoreinforcement. The high-temperature sustainability of TiO2 reinforced throughout in nylon 66 to improve the mechanical properties of polymer composites. The present work aims at improving the mechanical properties of polymer composites by varying the volume percentage of TiO2 and addition of the small volume fraction of glass fibers so as to improve the dispersion bonding between nylon 66 and TiO2. Characterization of these composite is carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The effect of TiO2 content and functionalization methods on tensile strength, tensile modulus, and flexural strength are evaluated.

P. N. E. Naveen, T. Mukesh Kumar, P. Naga Raju

Chapter 17. Experimental Testing and Evaluation of Coconut Coir/Rice Husk Fiber Reinforced with Polymer Composites

Coconut coir fiber blended with rice husk reinforced in polyester composites manufactured by hand layup method shows better properties than the other natural fibers and extended many applications due to their low weight, high strength, and anti-corrosive nature. In this paper, the effect of chemically treated fibers (silane) on mechanical properties with different volume fractions 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% is reported. Chemically treated natural fibers show better mechanical properties than the untreated fibers due to removal of the waxy layer on the fiber and improvement of the interfacial bond between the fibers and polyester; after conducting all the treatments, it is proved that silane-treated fibers give better results than the other chemical treatments. The mechanical performance of the composite under dry and wet conditions and water absorption behavior of the composite are investigated by using computerized universal testing machine. The results finally concluded that 5% volume fraction composites play the best performance than the other ones because of their bonding strength and dispersion in the structure of the matrix.

P. N. E. Naveen, R. V. Prasad, D. Rajendra

Chapter 18. Fabrication and Corrosion Behaviour of Aluminium Hybrid and Non-hybrid MMCs Reinforced with B4C and Gr Additions by Powder Metallurgy Technique

In this tentative study, aluminium metal matrix composites (AMMCs) and aluminium metal matrix hybrid composites (AMMHCs) were fabricated by using powder metallurgy method. In this work, boron carbide (B4C) and graphite (Gr) are the two types of reinforcements used in the fabrication of the composites, and these are added to the base aluminium alloy Al2024 used as matrix. The used reinforcements, in which one is a ceramic harder material boron carbide (B4C) added in AMMCs and the other element is a softer material Graphite (Gr) is added in AMMHCs along with same B4C. In the initial stage, various weight-based aluminium metal matrix composites (AMMCs) are fabricated by choosing Al 2024 as the matrix and are reinforced with the hard ceramic material which is boron carbide (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15%). In the lateral stage, aluminium metal matrix hybrid composites (AMMHCs) are also being fabricated by using same aluminium used as matrix and are reinforced with fixed percentage of soft solid lubricant Gr (3%) along with varying percentages of B4C (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15%). All these composites are fabricated by using powder metallurgy technique; FESEM and microstructural analysis shows the presence and uniform distribution of reinforced particles in aluminium alloy. Corrosion test was carried out as per ASTM 59 standards for a definite time interval on all the fabricated specimens by using potential dynamic polarization technique in aerated 3.5% NaCl solutions with PH adjusted to 10 by adding potassium hydroxide. After the test, corrosion behaviour of all the samples is analysed by Tafel extrapolation technique. The surface morphology of the specimen before and after corrosion was studied using the FESEM and microstructure images.

K. Sunil Ratna Kumar, Ch. Ratnam, Ch. Ramakrishna, Ch. Lakshmi Poornima

Chapter 19. Optimization of Turning Process Parameters Using PSI-Based Desirability-Grey Analysis

The present work is to explore the effect of process parameters on the multiple responses of material removal rate and surface roughness concurrently. The speed, feed, depth of cut and nose radius are taken as the controllable process parameters, and the Taguchi standard L16 orthogonal array has been followed for conducting the experiments on medium carbon steel EN24. A hybrid multi-criteria decision-making approach called preference selection index (PSI) method coupled with desirability-grey analysis and ANOVA are employed for the optimization. From the results, the optimal combination of process parameters is obtained at 1500 rpm, 0.05 mm/rev, 0.3 and 0.4 mm of speed, feed, depth of cut and nose radius, respectively.

Ch. Maheswara Rao, P. Srinivasa Reddy, D. Suresh, R. Jagadeesh Kumar

Chapter 20. Effect of Chemical Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Okra-Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites

The aim of this paper is to investigate chemical modification and mechanical characterization of okra fiber reinforced with epoxy LY556 as matrix material using hand layup technique. Composites are fabricated with different wt% of fibers as reinforcement and pre-calculated weight of the resin. Tensile flexural and impact test specimen are prepared according to ASTM standards. Tensile testing has been carried out on 5-ton universal testing machine. Three-point bend test has been adopted for flexural strength estimation. Impact strength has been estimated through Izod test setup. The results are compared with treated and untreated fiber-reinforced composites, and treated fiber composite exhibits good mechanical properties.

T. N. V. Ashok Kumar, J. Madhu Kiran, S. Madhusudan, J. Subash Kumar

Chapter 21. Experimental Investigations in Turning of Steel Alloy Under Different Lubrication Conditions

The present paper reports the experimental study of using vegetable oil as cutting fluid in machining of EN 353 Steel alloy in order to minimize the cutting temperature under different lubrication conditions, i.e., dry, flooded, and minimum quantity lubrication conditions. The performance characteristics are studied by considering different input parameters—cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, type of tool, and different lubrication conditions at three levels. The cutting fluid used in machining is vegetable oil based, prepared with the composition of coconut oil, oleic acid, and triethanolamine. The experiments are performed based on Taguchi’s robust design methodology and after machining, the results were compared among the dry, flooded, and MQL conditions. From the experiment results, it is concluded that the optimal and best combination for minimizing cutting temperature are cutting speed at 700 rpm, feed rate at 0.2 mm/rev, depth of cut at 0.5 mm, and PVD-coated tool. Machining under the flooded condition is found to be better than dry and MQL condition, but a very small difference in the results are observed between MQL and flooded condition, hence it can be stated that MQL is advantageous compared to flooded as it reduces the flow of lubricant in terms of ml to l. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) suggests that the selected factors found to be significant and the corresponding interactions, i.e., type of lubrication conditions with cutting speed (rpm), feed rate (mm/rev), depth of cut (mm), and type of tool coated are also found to be significant. It is also concluded that the effect of lubrication condition is more followed by depth of cut, cutting speed, feed rate, and type of tool.

A. Venkata Vishnu, P. Jamaleswara Kumar

Chapter 22. Design and Analysis of Car Hood Made with Natural Fibers

In automobile designing, the pedestrian safe design has become one of the key points in the automobile manufacturing sector in order to reduce the injuries occurring during accidents. In general, pedestrians’ head has a maximum tendency to get subjected due to impact force during collisions. Thus, the impact force will be varying based on the hood structure and the materials used to manufacture hood also play a vital role in energy absorption during collisions. In this research, the comparison between conventional fibers and natural fibers is done among glass fiber, carbon fiber, and kenaf natural fiber in layered composition to apply hood structure. Secondly, in this research, another case study is done by varying the structures of the inner panel of the car hood. Thus, In this case study, conical and plane inner panel are analyzed using the static structural method of analysis and later, explicit dynamic analysis is done to understand the behavior of the car hood in case of conical, rectangular, and triangular-framed structure of the inner panel. In this research study it is observed that conical had is stiffer when compared to conventional structure and comparatively it high deformation when compared to triangular and rectangular structures, it is observed that the energy absorption capacity of conical head structure in inner panel of car hood reduces injury during collision. In this project, first, different parts of hood are taken from the literature review that is designed using Creo parametric 2.0. So, there is a need for design optimization without compromising on the strength. Design optimization is done on various hood designs to reduce weight. Due to this optimization, the weight of the body is radically reduced for natural fibers. Static structural analysis is done on the model after optimization using Ansys 16.2 software. Finally, static structural analysis has been carried on the optimized body and the result showed that the pedestrian is safe.

Jillella Rajeev Kumar, Kappa Shanmukhi, Sri G. Satyanarayana

Chapter 23. Contact Stress Analysis of Structural Steel Gears Under Misalignment of Shafts

Contact stress analysis of gear drives has been a subject of intensive research since last few years. Contact stresses were first analyzed by Hertz, and he developed analytical correlations for determining them. Contact stresses are strongly dependent on the types of gears, friction at the point of contact, velocities of rotation, loads, etc. It also depends on the accuracy of mounting, bearings, shaft deflection, and workmanship of gears. In the present report, contact stresses in spur gear pairs have been taken for study. The analysis is conducted using ANSYS software. The study of variation of contact stresses with a varying inclination of the shafts is the main objective of this work. The axis of the gear shafts can shift due to wear and tear of the bearings or due to any other external causes. It is observed that the contact stresses do vary with the variations in the axes of the gear shaft. The stresses show an increasing trend with an increase in the inclination of the axis of the gear shaft, and the minimum value is observed when both the shafts are parallel to inclination zero.

S. Phani Kumar, K. N. S. Suman, B. Nagaraju, S. Ramanjaneyulu

Chapter 24. Elemental Analysis of Indian Natural Chrysoberyl Gemstones by PIXE Technique

A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats’ natural Chrysoberyl gemstones were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. Sixteen elements, including Al, Cr, Ti, V, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mo, La and Ce, were identified in these Chrysoberyl gemstones and may be helpful in interpreting the various geochemical circumstances and the probable cause of their origin in the Eastern Ghats. The PIXE technique is an attractive method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a material. The PIXE measurements were performed at the Ion Beam Laboratory, Institute of Physics (IOP), Bhubaneswar, using 3 MV tandem accelerator. The well-collimated 3 meV proton beam of 2 mm diameter was employed to irradiate the gemstone samples. Moreover, preliminary XRD studies of different Chrysoberyl patterns were performed and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. The chemical constituents of Chrysoberyl gemstones from Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India, were analysed, and gemological studies were performed. Thus, in the present study, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE system for research in geo-scientific methodology particularly in gemology are established.

S. Siva Jyothi, G. Padmaja Rani, P. Venkateswarulu, R. Venkateswara Rao, T. R. Rautray

Chapter 25. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Phenol–Formaldehyde Composites Reinforced With Feather Fibre

Chicken feather boards were made with phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin as adhesive using hot compression moulding. Boards were tested for tensile, flexural and impact strengths. Water absorbency test was also conducted. Tensile strength of 13.23 MPa and flexural strength of 91.89 MPa were achieved for the plain feather board. However, the impact properties were poor. Also, vinyl laminated feather board and PVC laminated feather board exhibited superior properties compared to plain feather board. Feather fibre could be a promising alternative for making particle boards.

R. B. Choudary, V. Babu Ravipati

Chapter 26. Study of Mechanical Properties of Glass–Jute-Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Composites by Varying Its Fiber Orientation and Resins

The present study deals with the fabrication and investigation of mechanical properties of new class FRP (glass–jute reinforced fibers). Among various fibers, jute is the most widely used natural fiber due to its advantages like easy availability, low density, and satisfactory mechanical properties. Composite materials having different mechanical properties are based on its fiber content, orientation of fiber, types of resins, length, etc. To know the effects of fibers for different conditions, we are taking two attempts those are orientation of fiber and type of resin. We study those two attempts on how they can affect the mechanical behavior of glass–jute-fiber-reinforced hybrid composites. In this study, three reinforcement materials, namely general purpose, epoxy, and isophthalic resin. For the orientation of fiber, we are taking three angular orientations 0°, 30°, and 60°, respectively. For optimizing the results, we are taking these three angular positions, and hand layup technique is used to fabricate the composite. The fiber content is varied on the basis of volume fraction. The first sample was made with 0° orientation by varying the three different resins, and similarly for 30° and 60°, fiber orientations are also made. And the mechanical properties like tensile and flexural strengths were investigated for the samples. The specimen fabricated by using ISO resin with 0° fiber orientation is having high tensile strength value, and the specimen fabricated by using ISO resin with 60° fiber orientation is having high flexural strength.

R. Hari Kishore, M. Thambi Babu, M. Pandu Ranga Rao, G. Sasidhar

Chapter 27. PIXE Analysis of Indian Natural Lead–Zinc Ores and Rocks

A number of Indian natural Pb–Zn ores and rocks have been studied by using complementary and non-destructive proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. Sixteen elements including Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Fe, Mn, and Pb were established in these ores and rocks, which may be useful to interpret the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in rock matrix. PIXE technique is a powerful method for fast determination of variable multi-elemental analyses. The advantage of this technique is that one can obtain all major and minor elements present at once in pure concentration. The chemical constituents of Pb–Zn ores and ultrabasic rocks of Zawar, Udaipur district of Rajasthan State, India, were analyzed by using PIXE technique. The present work, thus, establishes the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology, particularly in ore matrix and rock mechanics.

P. Easwaraji, G. Padmaja Rani, P. Venkateswarulu, R. Venkateswara Rao, T. R. Rautray

Chapter 28. Rice Husk Ash Blended M30 Grade Concrete Exposed to Acidic Environment

Present trend in concrete technology was to use industrial, agricultural wastes as supplementary cementations materials for the advancement of blended cement concretes. RHA is one of the wastes from the agricultural industry. In the present appraisal, Rice Husk Ash (RHA) partly replaced with cement in the proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to compose M30 grade concrete. Concrete cubes were divulged hydrochloric and sulfuric acids in concentrations of 1, 3, and 5% for the perpetuation of 28, 60, and 90 days. The experimental data demonstrate that RHA improved the counteraction to acid attack on concrete with RHA when compared with concrete without RHA.

P. V. Rambabu, G. V. Rama Rao

Chapter 29. Simulation and Analysis of Residual Stresses in a Laminated Graphite/Epoxy Composite Plate Using HyperMesh

Composite plate structures find numerous applications in the automotive, military and aerospace industries. The residual stresses simulation and analysis are very important in composites design as the material strength is estimated based on residual stresses also. Hence, an accurate understanding of design, simulation, and analysis of residual stresses is required to estimate structural behavior of laminated composite. The arrangement of ply is one of the key roles to check the residual stresses in a laminated composite plate. In the present work, a number of finite element analyses have been carried out to estimate residual stresses in composite plate and simulate with HyperMesh for validation. The location of plies in laminated composites and its effects on residual stresses subjected to uniformly distributed load are analyzed. Results show the residual stresses behavior with the angle location of plies in the graphite/epoxy composite plate.

Ch. Siva Rama Krishna, K. V. Subba Rao, Saineelkamal Arji

Chapter 30. Study of Mechanical Properties of Banana-Fiber-Reinforced Vinyl Ester Resin Composites

In this work, naturally available banana fiber has been used as reinforcement in vinyl ester resin matrix. Hand layup method is used to fabricate the composites. Mechanical properties were investigated, and the results have shown an increase in strength as compared to virgin resin matrix (non-reinforced matrix). Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) image of fractured surface has shown pullout of microfibrils at failure and accompanied by tearing of cell walls. This indicated more ductile nature with less plastic deformation. With an increase in mechanical properties, it can be deduced that banana fiber can be reliably reinforced in vinyl ester resin matrix which can be used in engineering utilities.

Rajesh Ghosh, K. V. Narasimham, M. Pydi Kalyan

Chapter 31. Flexural Stress Analysis on Three-Point Bending of Aluminum Matrix Composite

Aerospace and automobile industries are using aluminum matrix composites (AMC’s) in vast applications. The reason in using the AMCs to the maximum is these materials are giving more performance, economic advantages, and environmental benefits owing to properties like reduced weight, low cost, and high strength to weight ratio. Sand casting technique is one of the cheaper and conventional routes for manufacturing the particulate composites. For the applications of aircraft, turbines, and other structural components, the composite material is to be tested for flexural rigidity test using a three-point bending equipment. The present study is done to find the effective composition of aluminum and amount of reinforcement of the particulate material. 200 mesh micron-sized boron carbide is chosen as reinforcement material and aluminum is taken as the matrix material.

K. S. Raghuram, Savitri Vemireddi, Shanthi Swaroopini Alamanda

Chapter 32. Optimization of Process Parameters in WEDM on Inconel 600 Using Central Composite Design and Grey Relational Analysis

Wire electric discharge machining [WEDM] is a method of cutting materials which are electrically conductive in nature by following a well-defined programmed path according to the requirement. Inconel 600 is a nickel–chromium alloy generally used where corrosion and high temperature resistance are in utmost demand. The present work demonstrates the optimization of WEDM process parameters of Inconel 600 with multiple performance characteristics such as material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR) and kerf width (K). The process parameters considered in this research work are peak current, servo voltage, pulse on time and pulse off time. Face-centred central composite design (FCCCD) is used to conduct the experiments on WEDM. Grey relational analysis (GRA) has been used to optimize the process parameters.

Chinta Naga Satya Kirti, M. V. Jagannadha Raju

Chapter 33. Optimization of Process Parameters on Performance Measures of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Niobium C-103 Using Taguchi Method

The requirement for high accomplishment, lightweight, space propulsion systems has prompted rapid investigation of refractory metals that are capable of withstanding high stress levels at elevated temperatures. It also has a low ductile-to-brittle transition temperature for withstanding high-frequency vibrations at cryogenic temperatures. Metals which demonstrate these requirements are the niobium-based alloys. C-103 was selected to satisfy initial design requirements because of its excellent fabric ability. As of human nature which wants continuous improvement, we need such materials which have lesser density and high melting temperature than superalloys. Refractory metals and the alloys are the only alternative to meet the properties which are more superior to super alloys. These have high melting temperature above 2000 °C and low density compared to superalloys. Among these refractory metals, niobium is least dense. Due to this, alloy of niobium like C-103 is gaining popularity in aerospace industry and rocket engines. In the present study, the effect of input parameters, pulse-on time TON, pulse-off time TOFF, peak current IP and servo voltage SV on output parameters surface roughness SR, and metal removal rate MRR are studied while machining with brass and Zn-coated brass wires in WEDM. TON is the most significant parameter to influence SR, and peak current is most significant parameter for MRR. Zn-coated brass wire is giving less SR and more MRR as compared to brass wire.

C. Naresh, Kavindra Pant, P. S. C. Bose, C. S. P. Rao

Chapter 34. Multi-Response Optimization of Variable Compression Ratio CI Engine Using Grey–Taguchi Method

The quest for the development of alternative fuels as an economical and efficient substitute for fossil fuels has become the need of the hour. This work presents multi-response optimization of process parameters in variable VCR CI engine powered by various blends of plastic pyrolysis oil, an alternative fuel under study. Brake power, BSFC, exhaust temperature and brake thermal efficiency are studied by varying compression ratio, load and blend. The experiments were conducted using Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, and the multi-performance characteristics were used in generating Grey relational grade. The optimized combination that results in higher brake power, higher brake thermal efficiency, lower SFC and lower exhaust temperature is obtained and verified through a confirmation test. The validation showed an improvement in Grey relational grade by 0.2768. The results from ANOVA revealed that Grey relational grade is mostly influenced by load (65.71%) followed by compression ratio (19.01%) and blend (6.87%).

G. Kartheek, K. Lakshmiprasad, K. V. Viswanadh, Y. Sudhakar, Ch. Polayya

Chapter 35. Mechanical Behavioural Aspects of Al-356 Under the Influence of Boron Carbide and Magnesium

There has been a significant advancement in the study of AHMMC in recent years due is vast applications in the field of aerospace, defence as well as automobile industries because of their high strength-to-weight ratio. The current work is based on the study of mechanical and wears characteristics of aluminium (Al-356) under the influence of B4C, Mg with varying weight percentage which was prepared by stir casting process. A systematic study of Al-356 and AHMMC’s was done to evaluate the same. The results of the tensile test, compressive test, hardness test, impact test, wear test were analysed. It has been observed that with the addition of 2% magnesium along with 3% boron carbide there has been a significant increase in the mechanical behaviour of Al-356. Further increase in the composition of B4C would cause the decrease in the trend. ASTM standards have been followed to facilitate the authentication of mechanical properties and wear performance.

M. Daniel Silas Kumar, P. Jagadamba, S. Srikiran, Satish Pujari

Chapter 36. Investigations on Mechanical Properties of Human Hair with Blast Furnace Slag Biocomposites

Natural fiber composites are playing a vital role in variety of applications, because of their recyclability, high definite strength, and corrosion resistance. Several natural fibers are already being used in the industry as composites. This work highlights the test that explains the use of biodegradable human hair composite as natural fiber and concludes that human hair natural fibers are a tremendous substitute to the synthetic fibers in terms of reinforcement properties for the polymers. The present work is to study the mechanical properties of human hair-reinforced polyester composites with blast furnace slag variation. The impact of fiber loading on mechanical properties of composites is examined like flexural strength, tensile strength, and hardness. Tests were conducted on human hair composites with different weight percentages of blast furnace slag, i.e., 0, 5, 10, and 15%. By conducting tests of composites, it has been observed that there is major influence of blast furnace slag on the mechanical behavior of human hair composites.

Srinivasa Rao Darimireddi, S. Santhosh Kumar, Satish Pujari, P. Kalyani

Chapter 37. Fabrication and Testing of Vetiver Fiber-Reinforced Composite

Composite materials have excellent design requirement with significant weight saving and good strength-to-weight ratio compared to conventional materials. They have proved to be a good alternative material as compared to other traditional materials even in the high pressure and sustain in any environment circumstances. Composition materials exhibit good fatigue performance and good temperature resistance and are having good wear resistance, especially in industrial sectors. Composite materials are a combination of two or more materials arranged in the form of layers by using binding materials through some prescribed methods. Natural fiber composite materials are plays an importent role as fiber reinforcement materials. In the vetiver fiber composite, the polyester iso resin is used as a binding material, in which one layer is polyester iso resin and another layer is vetiver fiber powder and E-glass fiber. By using hand layup method with different arrangements of layers prepared by using the resin mixture, vetiver powder, and E-glass fiber. After the preparation of composite, the composite is prepared into specimen as per ASTM standards to conduct various tests such as tensile, hardness, and thermal conductivity to know their mechanical and thermal properties. From the test results, it is concluded that the vetiver fiber powder with E-glass is having more properties.

Srinivasa Rao Darimireddi, S. Venkatesh, S. Santhosh Kumar, R. Ramakrishna

Chapter 38. The Impact of SiC Powder Additive on Parameters of EDM: A Review

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is an outstanding present-day machining process used to manufacture geometrically complex shapes, process hard materials that are to a great degree hard to machine by conventional machining forms. Lately, looks into have accentuated on expanding machining execution of EDM with novel techniques. Powder blended electric release machining (PMEDM) is an ongoing advancement where a conductive powder is blended to the dielectric liquid for improving capacities of electric release machining toward this path. This chapter exhibits the exploration work completed in the advancement of PMEDM in the present situation for the change of machining attributes, for example, material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR), and surface roughness (SR) for different process parameters like pinnacle current, duty factor, and heartbeat on time, workpiece material, powder compose, powder fixation with different dielectric liquids and powder materials. This chapter likewise introduces different improvement strategies embraced to investigate the test comes about. The last piece of this chapter diagrams the future research toward PMEDM.

K. Ch. Sekhar, G. R. Selokar

Chapter 39. Fabrication and Testing of Natural Fibre-Reinforced Hybrid Composite Plate with Hemp and Pineapple

This paper presents an experimental report on the fabrication of natural fibre composite material. Natural fibres Hemp and Pineapple were used as reinforcement and epoxy resin and hardener mixed in 10:1 ratio, respectively, was used as matrix. Mechanical properties like tensile, breaking load, elongation, and impact strengths were studied for composites made of these natural fibres. Retting and manual process were used to extract the natural fibres. Hybrid composites were prepared using Hemp/Pineapple fibres of 0/40, 15/25, 20/20, 25/15, and 40/0 Weight fraction ratios, while overall weight of the epoxy resin was considered as 60% of total weight, and fibre weight fraction was fixed as 40% of total weight. The fabricated specimens were made and tested as per ASTM standards for finding the mechanical properties.

Dharmala Venkata Padmaja, Ch. Uma Chaitanya, Tankala Ravi Teja, S. Srikiran

Chapter 40. Novel Effects of Phytogenic Bulk Graphene on Germination and Growth of Monocots and Dicots

Recent years have witnessed many breakthroughs in graphene including mass production of this material. Most of the work focused on the synthesis and study of the properties of graphene. Herein, we first reported on a successful procedure for the reduction of graphite using Stevia leaf extract which resulted in two-dimensional carbon atomic crystals, graphene. This phytogenic graphene (PG) was characterized by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic light scattering technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) micrographs showed the variations in surface morphology of the formed graphene which has a stable single-layer structure and was significantly water soluble. AFM data reveals two different sizes 24.9 (G1) and 71.7 nm (G2) of PG. The germination percentage was 19% higher with G1 and G2 treatments than control in peanut a dicot plant, whereas in monocotyledonous plants (rice and maize) the G1 treatment exhibited germination percentage of 50% in maize and 100% in rice. Size-dependent behavior of PG was not noticed in the growth and development of dicot plant (peanut), whereas in monocot plants (maize and rice) size-dependent effects were noticed. These results point to the use of carbonaceous materials in agriculture as bio-efficient plant growth promoting agents.

T. N. V. K. V. Prasad, S. Adam, P. Visweswara Rao, Venkata Subbaiah Kotakadi, P. Sudhakar, B. Ravindra Reddy, B. Bhaskar, T. Giridhara Krishna

Nano Technology


Chapter 41. Fabrication and Characterization of CNT-Based Hybrid Composite

A hybrid laminate of carbon nanotubes effects on mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, and hardness) by changing the fiber orientation. In the present paper, fabrication of glass fiber reinforced of 1% CNT-based laminated composite with varying the orientation of reinforced fiber were prepared by hand layup technique on percentage of volume. Three different samples were fabricated by varying the orientation of woven-roving glass mat in parallel to fiber orientation, with angle 45° and with angle 135° to fiber direction. The study used to compare the effect of mechanical properties among the different orientations of fiber in order to improve the strength and toughness, fabrication is done by using E glass fiber of woven roving. The results of tensile strength, percentage of elongation, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and hardness of the composite were compared by statistical results and found to be in good agreement. However, the highest values, respectively, suggesting fiber orientation for effective and maximum stress transfer in laminated composite.

G. Satish, K. Ashok Kumar, N. Srinivasa Rao

Chapter 42. Experimental Investigation of Nano-Graphite Cutting Fluid on EN-8 Steel Using Eco-friendly Oils with MQL Process

Nowadays, in industries cutting fluids are widely used for reduction of friction between tool and workpiece. During dry cutting, the workpiece is machined under the influence of dry condition in which air surrounding the workpiece will act as the cooling agent. Since air has a low thermal conductivity, it behaves as a poor coolant. In wet cutting, the workpiece is under wet condition. The most cutting fluid constitutes 95% of water and 5% of coolant. Due to the usage of cutting fluid, they will give a notable change in various properties like thermal, surface roughness, tool wear, and tool and workpiece temperatures. The prudent properties of such type of fluids are to inflate heat transfer, lubrication, and removal of chips from machining zone. Eco-friendly oils are mainly used in metal working fluids to reduce the various unwanted risks like health and wastage of money. Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) is a process in which hackneyed of cutting fluids is avoided and excellent surface integrity obtained by dry machining. It only needs a fluid with properties like large heat-carrying capacity and inflate lubricating characteristics. The present work investigates the usage of nano-graphite with eco-friendly oils like coconut oil, sesame oil, mustard oil, and soluble coolant oil as cutting fluid in the machining. Various characteristics like tool wear, tool temperature, nature of chip produced, and surface roughness characteristics for various oils are investigated. MQL is environment friendly machining and enhances machinability characteristics of EN8 steel.

G. Siva Karuna, M. Gangadhar Rao, M. Naresh Kumar

Chapter 43. Synthesis and Characterization Studies of Ag-Nps for Endodontics

In present scenario, nanoscience and nanotechnology are gaining tremendous popularity in various fields including biomedical applications. As we are familiar to know that maintaining the good health of oral tissues is an ultimate goal in dentistry. But, limitations of dental materials, procedures and methods alert a prevention in goal achievement. The nanotechnology had paved a path in overcoming those limitations. For centuries, silver had been used in medicine because of its antimicrobial properties. In this research paper, the use of silver nanoparticles in dental practice acts as a useful tool for root canal treatments. The Ag-Nps are the potential bodies in the medical field, particularly for the dental applications. These silver nanoparticles were prepared by using chemical reduction technique from which Ag-Nps is extracted from silver ions gel with reducing agents like AgNO3 or C6H5Na3O7·2H2O or NaBH4. The synthesis and characterization of Ag-Nps are made from UV-VIS spectrophotometry and particle size analyzer. And the study had been made for evaluating the antibacterial activity of dental cements modified by silver nanoparticles and tooth strength.

Roopsandeep Bammidi, K. Siva Prasad, B. Nagaraju

Chapter 44. Structural Studies on the Trivalent Gadolinium Substituted Ni–Zn Ferrite System

In this study, nano-crystalline ferrite powders with the composition of Ni0.5Zn0.5GdxFe2−xO4 with the values of x ranging x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10 were prepared through citrate gel auto-combustion method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). By increasing the composition of Gd, we observed that lattice parameter increases. From XRD, we observed that crystallite size is maximum at x = 0.10 and strain is negative. From FTIR, we observed that force constants were found to vary with sintering temperature and reporting a cation redistribution and modification in the spinel ferrite unit cell.

M. Srikanth, G. V. Nagesh, K. V. Ramesh

Chapter 45. Effect of Amalgamation of Al2O3 and Mustard Oil Nanofluids in the Machining of EN8

Modern machining industries are facing a challenge to attain of high worth in terms of work piece, surface finish, high production rate, tool wear, chip formation, the economy in machining based on cutting fluids and type of work material. It is crucial to establish most favourable cutting fluids to attain in elevation superiority products under machining under various cutting parameters like spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, type of cutting fluids, chip morphology, tool–chip interface which depends on cutting parameters and cutting fluids. Some problems are occurring during usage of various fluids in machining such as pollution, sound, health, manufacturing and maintenance price which are to be considerable and essential to overcome problems obtaining during machining and for these reasons need to develop hybrid fluids. Within this experimental study, an attempt has been made to examine the machining distinctiveness on EN8 steel using amalgamation of Al2O3 and mustard oil nanocoolants. EN8 material is commonly used in the automobile applications. In this study examining the influence of cutting fluids, the cutting parameters on chip formation develop during machining, cutting tool temperature, work piece temperature, tool wear and surface roughness during the machining of EN8 material. Within the present work, initially amalgamation of Al2O3 and mustard oil nanofluids has been prepared through magnetic stirring process with varying weight percentages, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4% of Al2O3, and the prepared fluids have been tested for their fluid and thermal properties. The machining operations were performed using conventional lathe machine and cutting operations done by using HSS cutting tool and operating conditions taken as spindle speed (n) of 190 rpm, feed rate (f) of 0.4 rev/min and 0.6 rev/min and cutting depth taken from 1 to 2 mm. The obtained results conclude that there is a reduction of 15% in tool tip and 19% in work piece temperatures for fluid composition of 1% Al2O3 and mustard oil amalgamation compared to pure mustard oil, and also there is a reduction in tool wear rate with 16% and enhancement in surface roughness with 16% for fluid composition of 2% Al2O3 and mustard oil amalgamation compared to pure mustard oil.

S. Ramanjaneyulu, K. N. S. Suman, S. Srikiran, S. Phani Kumar

Chapter 46. Experimental Investigation of Physical and Chemical Properties of the Biodiesel and Diesel Blended with Al2O3 Nanoparticles

Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic with environmentally friendly emissions profile and is readily biodegradable. The biodiesel is derived from the vegetable oils or animal fat. The main source of vegetable oils such as coconut oil, cottonseed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, castor oil, jathropha oil, sesame oil, and palm oil. Using biodiesel in diesel engines as fuel. It has reduced the harmful greenhouse emissions and pollutants including Nox, HC and CO emissions. The addition of nanoparticles enhance the properties such as viscosity, density, calorific value, flash point, fire point of biodiesel, and also the emissions are reduced. It is also proved that nanoadditives improve the combustion efficiency and emissions. In this work, experimental investigation of the physical and chemical properties of biodiesel prepared from cottonseeds and prepared B20 (80% biodiesel + 20% diesel) and B50 (50% biodiesel + 50% diesel) blended with nanoadditives such as Al2O3 in various proportions such as 50 and 100 ppm. Viscosity, flash point, calorific value, fire point, and densities of blended samples are analyzed. It is found the calorific value is increased of diesel blends compared to pure biodiesel due to addition of Al2O3 nanoadditives and also increased in viscosity of tested fuels compared to diesel.

Kakala Sanjeeverarao, P. N. L. Pavani

Chapter 47. Study of Bismuth Ferrite-Silver Ferrite Nanocomposite About Structure, Characterization, Magnetic Properties and Band Gap Evaluation

Multiferroic materials are novel multifunctional materials which possess both ferroelectric and magnetic properties. These materials have a variety of applications from semiconductors to sensors. A novel nanocomposite is made of equimolar perovskite-rhombohedral bismuth ferrite-silver ferrite composite through chemical route by blending of nano-bismuth ferrite as the second phase in nanosilver ferrite and left for soaking for 1 and 4 h and then heated at 500 °C. The phases and planes are analyzed and the particle sizes are calculated by X-ray diffraction method and SEM studies indicate features of interconnected agglomeration with spherical in rhombohedral synthesized nanocomposite. The transmission electron microscopy images also correlate the experimental observations from XRD analysis and the band gap is calculated by UV-visible spectra. From Tauc relation, the band gaps are found as 2.84, 2.65 eV, respectively, for 1 and 4 h soaking periods. These values are close to the semiconducting material. It also indicates the increase of soaking time, the band gap is found to be decreased. The VSM analysis of the synthesized nanocomposite at 500 °C for 4 h is determined. M-H curve indicates nanocomposite closer to superparamagnetic nature. These properties are interesting characteristics suitable for photo, magnetic, optoelectronic and other electronic applications.

T. Kondala Rao, I. V. Kasi Viswanath, Y. L. N. Murthy

Chapter 48. Effect of Nd3+ Doped on Structural and Physical Properties of Nanocrystalline Ni–Zn Ferrites

The structural and physical properties of Nd3+ doped in nanocrystalline Ni–Zn ferrites (Ni0.5Zn0.5 NdxFe2−xO4) with ‘x’ is ranging (x = 00, 0.05 and 0.10) have been synthesized by the nitrate citrate gel autocombustion method. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction were conceded with Cu–Kr (wavelength—1.5406 Å) radiation. An XRD result shows that all the samples have spinel cubic structure. The lattice constant (a) increases with the increase of the constriction of Nd3+ ion. The crystallite size and strain can be calcite from Williamson-Hall method, the cation distribution, X-ray density and the structural and physical properties of the (Ni0.5Zn0.5 NdxFe2−xO4) samples are determined such as the hopping length of A and B site, oxygen positional parameter, octahedral bound length, tetrahedral edge length, etc.

Venkata Nagesh Ganti, M. Srikanth, K. V. Ramesh

Chapter 49. Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Rate by CuO Nanofluid with Twisted-Tape Inserts

This research focused on the experimental investigation of heat transfer rate with water-based CuO nanofluid in a tube with twisted-tape inserts has been studied. The main aim is to study the convective heat transfer rate of CuO nanofluid flowing in a tube under constant heat flux rate with different volume concentration and with different twist ratio of inserts. One of the most effective way to achieve high heat transfer rate in a heat exchanger is by using twisted-tape inserts which causes turbulence in flow through the pipe. The amount of pressure drop increases slightly due to the decrease in twist ratio was found to be negligible. Thermal conductivity of the fluid is increased by increasing nanopowder mix in the base fluid. It is observed that the temperature difference (∆t) increased from 13 to 26 °C with increasing in volume concentration of nanofluid by 0.1–0.5% and decrease in twist ratio from 10 to 2.5. Therefore by decreasing twist ratio (TR) of insert, turbulence increases through the pipe which results in more heat transfer rate.

Zafar Anwar, K. K. Guduru, MD. Afzal Ali, M. V. Satish Kumar, R. Venumadhav

Chapter 50. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Characterization of Nanoclay-Reinforced Banana Fiber/E-Glass/Epoxy Resin Hybrid Nanocomposite

Nowadays, natural fiber is widely popular in numerous applications of engineering like aircraft components (wings, fuselages, tails, propellers), scull hulls and boat, racing car bodies, and bicycle frames. It is recommended in various applications due to having enhanced strength-to-weight ratio, and it also minimizes the cost of the essential manufacturing product and decreases the environmental pollution. The current research work investigates the mechanical characteristics (like flexura, impact and tensile strength) of the functionalized hybrid nanocomposite made up of nanoclay-reinforced banana fiber/E-glass/epoxy resin. The banana fiber is extracted from the local sources and a bidirectional mat is prepared, and it is treated with NaOH and distilled water solution to increase the strength. Commercially available E-glass fiber, Nano clay powder and functionalized banana fibers were reinforced in epoxy resin for the fabrication of hybrid laminated nano composite testing specimens for testing as per ASTM standards. Tests were conducted on testing specimens using Instron 8801 testing machine, investigating the tensile, impact and flexural strength of the laminated hybrid nanocomposite specimens. It was observed that the reinforcement of nanoclay inclusions to the functionalized hybrid composite enhances the tensile, impact and flexural properties.

K. Sankara Narayana, K. N. S. Suman, A. Ravindra

Chapter 51. Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Applicability as Fuel Catalyst

Ceria is an important rare earth material due to its versatile properties, and it has several applications in the field of engineering and science. In this work, the cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles were prepared using co-precipitation method. The cerium nitrate (Ce(NO3)3) was used as chemical precursor for the synthesis of CeO2 nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence intensity, UV absorption, and transmission characterization studies are used to investigate optical properties of nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticle was confirmed as ~200 nm. The cerium oxide nanoparticles have wide range of applications, among that one important application is a performance and emission effect of fuel using as catalyst. From the literature survey, the researchers suggested that CeO2 nanoparticle plays a key role to enhance the performance of an internal combustion (IC) engine by reducing the pollution. Further, CeO2 nanoparticles added to calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester with concentration of 10 and 25 ppm which enhanced the performance of an IC engine through marginal reduction in emissions.

R. Sam Sukumar, M. Muralidhara Rao, A. Gopala Krishna

Chapter 52. Influence of Milling and Heat Treatment on Phase Evolution and Microstructural Characteristics of Silicon Carbide Powders

The influence of milling and of heat treatment on the silicon carbide (SiC) powders is investigated. The size of as-received silicon carbide particles is reduced from 44 μm to ~50 nm by ball milling for 60 h. Both the as-received and nanosize silicon carbide particles were subjected to heat treatment in nitrogen atmosphere at 900 and 1200 °C for 3 h. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated significant amorphization in SiC powders heat-treated at 1200 °C.

V. M. Rajavel Muthaiah, B. Venkata Manoj Kumar, S. R. Meka

Chapter 53. Experimental Investigations on the Tribological Properties of Jatropha Oil by the Addition of Graphite Nanoparticles

In view of environmental problems due to mineral-based lubricants, the use of biodegradable vegetable-based oils as automobile lubricants is being used as an alternative for the chemical oils. The use of nanoparticles is being investigated as performance improvers for the traditionally used anti-friction and anti-wear additives for the last few years. Some of the reasons for their use as performance improvers are their size, shape and other tribological properties. Tribological tests on jatropha oil mixed with nanoparticles of graphite are conducted using a pin-on-disc tribometer in the present work in order to check its usability as a lubricant. A graphite nanoparticle of size (15–30 nm) is mixed in jatropha oil on weight-percentage basis such as 0.25 and 0.5%, and the variation of its friction-reduction and anti-wear properties is analysed. The experiment was carried out for 5 min under 5 and 10 kg load at 1000 and 1500 rpm. The tribological properties such as kinematic viscosity, coefficient of friction, anti-wear, flash point and fire point properties were analysed. It is observed that the coefficient of friction and the specific wear rate of the tested lubricant at a particular optimum concentration were the lowest. By the addition of nanoparticles in jatropha oil, the viscosity increased and the fire point increased. However, the flash point remained constant. However, with the addition of nanoparticles above the optimum level, the coefficient of friction and wear rate seem to increase.

Fathimunnisa Begum, N. Ravi Kumar, V. Ramachandra Raju

Chapter 54. Characterization of Banana Natural Fiber Nanocomposites by Thermal Analysis

In nanocomposite materials’ research, the development of polymer nanocomposites is quickly emerging as a multidisciplinary research field that could broaden the applications of polymers to many different smart materials. The nanobanana fiber powders are characterized by high aspect ratios. Polymer matrices are related to thermoplastics and thermosets that have been reinforced with small amounts of nano-sized powders. Thermal analysis is a useful tool for a wide variety of properties of polymers, and it can be also applied to polymer nanocomposite in order to gain further understanding of their structure. This review illustrates the able to do many different understanding applications of thermal analysis methods in the newly visible field of polymer nanomaterial research, presenting the applications of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for the description of nanocomposite materials.

P. Surya Nagendra, V. V. S. Prasad, K. T. Balaram Padal, S. Srikiran

Chapter 55. Effect of H3BO3 (nm) and TiO2 (µm) Mixture on Minimum Quantity Lubrication Machining of EN 24 Steel

In manufacturing industries, the metal evacuation is one of the procedures where efficiency is dictated by the cutting forces and temperature. Lubrication is a methodology received to diminish the cutting forces and temperature with a specific end goal to enhance the surface completely, while expanding the cutting apparatus life expectancy. In the present work, the impact of nanomeasured solid lubricant (boric acid) with smaller-scale estimated titanium dioxide particles in the turn machining of EN24 steel utilizing tungsten carbide device is researched. Estimations of the cutting forces, tool temperatures, and surface roughness were performed, and a prescient model was created utilizing regression analysis. Investigations demonstrate that the H3BO3–TiO2 mix has a sensational impact in enhancing the machining execution. They help diminish the forces and the temperature to build the instrument life. The prediction (utilizing regression analysis) of cutting forces, tool temperatures, and surface roughness adjust well to the trial comes about for all experiments, less than 5%, suggesting that the model can be used for estimation of the machining parameters thus facilitating the research work and reducing the lead time involved in the study.

P. Shreenivasa Rao, P. V. J. Mohan Rao, G. Surya Chandra Swamy, R. K. Avvari

Bio Materials


Chapter 56. Polyurethane Elastomer—A Low-Cost Artificial Epidermal Skin

The biggest challenge the surgeons are facing today is the immediate restoration of skin at the burnt part. In third-degree burns, the entire epidermal and dermal layers of the skin are damaged. Immediate restoration of skin is necessary to prevent infection at the burnt part. However, in some cases wherein a large percentage of the body is burnt, presently used grafting technique fails, which led to the development of a synthetic substitute for skin. Integra, the widely used artificial skin substitute, has two layers as of healthy skin—epidermal layer made of silastic and dermal layer. The disadvantage with silastic is that it loses its edges upon loading, leading to infection and subsequent death. This paper deals with suggesting an alternative material to silastic with sufficient strength and low cost. Dermal layer is kept as it is. Coupled field analysis for two compressive loads of 0.5 and 1.25 N and outside environment temperatures of 25 and 60 °C has been carried out on various materials which include butyl rubber, neoprene rubber, isoprene rubber, and polyurethane elastomer. The maximum stress for these materials under the above-said conditions is calculated. Then, the factor of safety is calculated for all the materials. On comparison of the factor of safety, it is observed that the polyurethane elastomer has the highest factor of safety under the considered working conditions. Subsequently, the cost analysis is also done for these materials, and it is observed that the polyurethane elastomer has 48.3% lower cost than silastic. These results suggest polyurethane elastomer as the best low-cost alternative for silastic.

Praveen Kalla, Srikar Boppud, S. Adinarayana, M. Anil Prakash

Chapter 58. Biodiesel Production Using Second-Generation Feedstocks: A Review

Continuous use of petroleum intensifies air pollution, which increases global warming. As per environmental stringency, crude oil prices, and depletion of fossil fuels (like petroleum, coal, and natural gas), many researchers are looking forward to find an alternative source of renewable energy. Biodiesel is a promising renewable source from the feedstocks like vegetable oils, animal fats, and fried cooking oil, prepared by a common and most satisfactory way for producing maximum yield at low cost through the transesterification process. In general, vegetable oils are of two types. They are edible and non-edible oils. Out of all varieties of oils, waste cooking oil and non-edible oils (second-generation feedstocks) are more preferably considered for the biodiesel production without diminishing useful resource for mankind and to minimize fuel cost. The major parameters for producing the biodiesel using the transesterification process depend on free fatty acids (FFAs) content, molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and moisture content. Biodiesel is derived from mono-alkyl esters of free fatty acids produced from animal fats or vegetable oils with small chain alcohols in the presence of catalyst. This review concerns about the factors affecting the biodiesel production and various methods of its production using second-generation feedstocks.

Bikkavolu Jogarao, A. Swarna Kumari

Chapter 58. Analysis on CI Engine with Thermal Barrier Coating and Biodiesel Blends

An experimental investigation was done on a two-cylinder CI engine using a thermal barrier coating using methyl ester blends of sunflower oil. The blends, SFO 15 (15% sunflower methyl ester + 85% diesel fuel), SFO 30 (30% sunflower methyl ester + 70% diesel fuel), SFO 45 (45% sunflower methyl ester + 55% diesel fuel), SFO 90 (90% sunflower oil methyl ester + 10% methanol) and SFO 95 (95% sunflower oil methyl ester + 5% methanol), were tested on the engine at constant speed by varying the brake loads. The investigational results revealed that the performance of the CI engine was improved with the methanol additive in biodiesel, especially in comparison with the biodiesel blends with thermal coating barrier. The exhaust emission profile of thermal-coated engine was improved. The HC and CO emissions are lower at the medium loads for fuel additives as well as thermal-coated engine, but the CO2 emissions are slightly higher for diesel.

Chiranjeeva Rao Seela, Neelaiah Gade, M. Srinivasa Rao

Batteries and Energy Materials


Chapter 59. Design and Simulation of Thermoelectric Heat Pump

This chapter discusses an analytical procedure for optimal design of thermoelectric heat pump. Two models are explained and compared: (1) standard model and (2) Seebeck–Thomson model. The optimization criteria were to (a) satisfy the heating load, (b) maximize the COP, (c) reduce the material volume and thus cost and (d) reduce the number of electrical junctions. From the analytical method, the optimal values of leg length, area, number of legs and current are obtained. The results of analytical method show that the performance of THP depends upon three simple ratios obtained by the combination of optimal parameters only, if the temperature range and heat load are known for a particular TE material. So by keeping these ratios constant, we can have infinite possible combinations of THP design. The selection of a THP for a particular application can be selected with the help of standard design charts. Simulation is done using AZTEC for a 10 W THP operating between 290 and 350 K. Experimental results available in the literature are compared.

Venkata Sandeep Joga, Sundar R. Nath, K. Ravi Kumar, G. Pramod Kumar, Jayaraj Simon

Chapter 60. Design and Analysis on Structure of a Solar Tree for 3 kW Capacity

Nowadays with the growing population, energy demand is increased. Sunlight is often estimated as the only energy profusion and truly free energy resources. Among all the techniques available to utilize the solar energy, the utmost popular and matured technology is the photovoltaic conversion of sunlight into electricity. Even with its advantages, solar PV technology has issues with land requirement (less space), capture efficiency, and public perception. So, this should be taken as an advantage of such an energy which requires a very less amount of space to provide effectively with graceful. In this position, structure of the solar tree is the best option for us. To evade this problem, we can install a solar tree in malice of a number of solar panels which require a very small space. In this project, first different parts of structure of the solar tree which are taken from the literature review are designed using Creo Parametric 2.0 whose weight is 630 kg, which is very high. So, there is a need for design optimization without compromising the strength. Design optimization is done on the various components of the structure of the solar tree, i.e., trunk, base plates, and middle plates, stems, and also gussets in order to reduce the weight and to increase the production of power. Due to this optimization, the weight of the body radically reduced, and finally, it is 373 kg for structural steel. Static structural analysis is done on the model before optimization and after optimization using ANSYS 16.2 software. The results showed that stress is 90.45 MPa and deformation is 5.45, and the factor of safety is more than 10 for the model before optimization and the results of the model after optimization showed that stress and deformation are within limits and the factor of safety is 2.02, i.e., for structural steel, and the weight is reduced. In this work, design of the structure of the solar tree (without panels) is proposed with structural Steel is to calculate the displacement, stress, strains, due to external loads and its self-weight.

Kappa Shanmukhi, Jillella Rajeev Kumar, N. V. S. S. Siva Prasad, M. Kannam Naidu, S. Srinivasa Rao

Chapter 61. Estimation of Power and Delay in CMOS Circuits Using Leakage Control Transistors

With a rapid growth in semiconductor industry, complex applications are being implemented using small-sized chips, with the aid of complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS). With the introduction of new integrated circuit (IC) technology, the speed of the circuits has been increased by around 30%. But it was observed that for every two years, the power dissipation of a circuit doubles. The main reason for this power dissipation is leakage currents in the circuit. To reduce these leakage currents, we can reduce the width of the device. In addition to this, we can use lector techniques that use leakage control transistors (LCTs) and high threshold leakage control transistors (HTLCTs). In this paper, we present a circuit technique that uses 130 nm CMOS VLSI circuits that use two extra transistors to mitigate the leakage currents. The estimation of power and delay will be discussed using LCTs and HTLCTs.

Aylapogu Pramod Kumar, B. L. V. S. S. Aditya, G. Sony, Ch. Prasanna, A. Satish

Chapter 62. Structural and Electrical Conductivity Studies of Ce and Zn Substituted LiMn2O4 Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

The spinel structured LiCexZnyMn2−x−yO4 is prepared by sol-gel process which is assisted by citric acid. The structural measurements of these cathode materials are determined from XRD, SEM with EDX and FT-IR along with the conductivity (EIS) measurements to study the physical and conductivity properties. The structure of the crystal is spinel, belonging to Fd-3m cubic space group with no traces of impurities as revealed from the pattern of X-ray diffraction. The morphological features of the phase and distribution of the size of the particles are in the range of 200–250 nm as reflected from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The spinel structure built of MnO6 octahedra and LiO6 tetrahedra are shown by FT-IR spectroscopy. The impedance, dielectric, dielectric loss (tanδ) and modulus studies are carried out to analyze the variations of different parameters with frequency for different temperatures to have the adequate information about the conduction mechanisms.

S. J. Margarette, N. Murali, S. Sirisharani, V. Veeraiah, M. Indira Devi
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