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About this book

This book presents the selected peer-reviewed papers from the National Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering (NCAME 2019), held at the National Institute of Technology Delhi, India. The book covers different areas of mechanical engineering from design engineering to manufacturing engineering. A wide range of topics are discussed such as CAD/CAM, additive manufacturing, fluid dynamics, materials science and engineering, simulation and modeling, finite element analysis, applied mechanics to name a few. The contents provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in mechanical engineering research in the country. Given the scope of the topics covered, the book will be of interest for students, researchers and professionals working in mechanical engineering.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Recent Development in Virtual Cellular Manufacturing System

Virtual cellular manufacturing has been known to a way to overcome the difficulties of both cellular manufacturing system and functional layout system. With virtual cellular manufacturing system, groups of resources are dedicated to the manufacturing of a part family, but these cells are not real in the manufacturing system. In virtual cellular manufacturing system, machines remain in their original layout, and the machine cells are instead formed in the planning and control system and remain virtual in nature. In the present work, different models for the formation of virtual cell have been discussed. Factors that may affect the efficiency of manufacturing system have also been discussed.

P. K. Arora, Abid Haleem, Harish Kumar, Shahroz A. Khan

IoT Integration in Industry—A Literature Review

The paper attempts to enlighten the managerial perspective of the Internet collaborative framework called as Internet of Things (IoT) which interlinks the fundamental concept of cyber computing to the available advanced manufacturing methods for an agile and truly wireless communication to carry out operations in the industrial sector. The correlation between developing a wireless domain framework to facilitate smart manufacturing is outlined in the paper with a channelized concentration on the latest innovation in the same pool along with the barriers and possible evolution of Supply Chain Management (SCM) in the future which will unite the manufacturing methods with a framework developed to facilitate the processes in real time along with a greater equipment control over the existing devices. The paper showcases the findings of various research authors in the field of IoT, and it propagates to the fundamentals of Industry Internet of Things (IIoT) and also collaborative manufacturing. The research also highlights the nature of the evolution and the vision for the future development of the IoT services which could seamlessly control the industrial operations with fluidity and minimum latency by integrating the elements of IoT into the elements of SCM.

Bhavesh Chandrayan, Ravinder Kumar

Defect Reduction in Manufacturing Industry Using Lean Six Sigma Approach

In today’s competitive environment, customer’s requirement is zero defect. This threatens each supplier to reduce nonconformance, maintain market share, and improve profitability. This paper aims to deploy the Lean Six Sigma methodology for reducing defects and improving profitability and bottom-line results of an automotive glass manufacturing industry. Lean Six Sigma methodology is widely used in industries as compared to other management practices and process improvement approaches. It is a data-driven, fact-based philosophy which improves quality and reduces variation in the process with the help of statistics. It also helps to find out the root causes of quality issues and controlling the process parameters. The define–measure–analyze–improve–control (DMAIC) approach used to reduce the defects in the glass bending process by optimizing the process parameters and finding the root cause of the problem. The process yield increased to 99.10 from 97.33% in six months by using this approach. This study begins with the identification of causes through cause and effect diagram (C and E diagram) and root cause analysis of defective products. This objective of this paper is to present a solution development methodology for improving the process in an automotive glass manufacturing industry in India by using the Lean Six Sigma approach.

Narottam, K. Mathiyazhagan, Vikas Sharma

Modeling the Interrelationship of Critical Success Factors Adoption of Sustainable Lean Manufacturing Using DEMATEL Approach

The aim of the study was to modeling the interrelation of critical success factors (CSFs) for sustainable lean manufacturing in Indian small and medium-scale enterprises. In the competitive era, small and medium-scale industries have partial resources and façade huge competition. Based on literature review, 10 critical success factors were extracted which suggested by experts. Same was followed by interviewing the ground leaders, and key managers have expertise in sustainable lean manufacturing. The decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method was used to analyze the interrelationship of critical success factors for sustainable lean manufacturing adoption in Indian industries. CSFs’ interrelationship has been identified and expended in industries through experts. This study proposes the key interrelationship of critical success factors to challenge obstacles in sustainable lean implementation in Indian industries. For sustainable lean manufacturing implementation, effectiveness, innovative technology usage, management review, agile manufacturing processes, teamwork, govt. regulations and follow-ups considered as critical success factors. Innovations are considered as input for sustainability and performance measured in economic, operational, environmental and CSR activities. Researcher focused on goal setting through bench marking in identical clusters. The findings may be helpful for industries’ consultants and manager facing difficulties in implementing sustainable lean manufacturing in Indian industries. The study also suggests qualitative approach for improvement action to develop loss-making small and medium-scale enterprises in a reputed industry. This may help managers to prioritize resources allocation toward sustainability in process and organization’s systems. The importance of presenting interrelationship of CSFs might helpful for new business practitioner to survive in competitive scenario.

Naveen Kumar, K. Mathiyazhagan

Green Supply Chain Management: Evolution of the Concept, Practices and Trends

Companies are increasingly addressed toward sustainability, due to internal agents as senior management and employees and external stakeholders, such as national and international regulations, society and the market, to mitigate and/or eliminate impacts to the environment. To do this, companies establishing control strategies and mitigation of environmental impact and cleaner production, as green procurement or green supply chain management. The latter is a management approach that integrates the design stages, manufacturing, purchasing, distribution and logistics through practices that involve the entire supply chain, seeking to achieve the TBL (triple bottom line) to maximize the environmental, economic and social benefit. A literature review was proposed in Scopus bibliographic manager and Springer Link, from Boolean operators to analyze the evolution of the concept, practices that compose and trends on the field. It was found that even the concept of GSCM is under construction and there are altogether 231 articles that raise various trends and approaches GSCM, most of them focused on the automotive and construction.

J. Martínez, K. Mathiyazhagan

Human Upper Limb Joint Torque Minimization Using Genetic Algorithm

Minimization of joint torque has been a keen interest of researchers to predict the trajectory to achieve the desired position. Dynamic equations are used to define objective function and range of motions of human upper limb joints are set as constraints. MATLAB genetic algorithm (GA) toolbox is used to minimize the joint torques. Desired position is defined as a nonlinear constraint. Optimization problem consists of eleven objectives and thirty-one variables. Torques at joints are fed as objective function such that the magnitude of the torque is minimized. Variables used may be broadly classified into four groups: angular displacements, angular velocities, and angular accelerations comprising 10 sets each. One more variable is added as time of rotation. GA parameters are required to be predicted for the developed objective function. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach is used to determine the GA parameters. The results obtained are satisfactory.

Anil Kumar Gillawat, Hemant Jayantilal Nagarsheth

A Low-Cost Cold Chain Suggestion for Indian Fruit and Vegetable

India produces a massive amount of fruit and vegetables. However, the contemporary fruit and vegetable cold chain are not as per the requirements, which lead to a high decay rate and significant constraint for the fruit and vegetable industry. Fruit and vegetables cold chain are a special supply chain, must keep the appropriate low temperature during the processing, storage, transportation, distribution and retail for maintaining the quality and reduce the loss as far as possible. Temperature management is an essential factor to improve the shelf life of perishable products. This paper tries to study the issues faced by the Indian cold chain of fruits and vegetables and further gives low-cost solutions to maintain the low temperature at different stages of the cold chain. The paper discusses different low-cost techniques for controlling the temperature like pre-cooling, ice cooling and free cooling techniques. These are the methods applied to maintain the temperature of food lower than ambient to improve the shelf life.

Vardan Parashar, Abid Haleem, J. A. Usmani

Optimization of Cutting Parameters of Machinability Aspects During Dry Turning

New research and development in the field of difficult to machine materials and high speed machining for less time manufacturing require optimization. The presented study deals with an application of Taguchi parameter and regression analysis for optimizing machining parameters during turning of AISI D3 steel alloy. L9[OA] orthogonal array with three parameters (speed, feed and depth of cut) has been used during performing experiments in dry machining condition. Machinability aspects like coefficient of friction, machining time and cutting temperature have been evaluated for optimization on S/N ratio as lower the better characteristic. Analysis of variance ANOVA is used for determining the effect of contribution in terms of percentage regarding each machining parameter with error. Predicted values have been verified by performing confirmation experimental run. The values evaluated are within error limits. Chip thickness has been measured for calculating chip compression ratio. The chips have been found continuous, long and coiled.

Anurag Sharma, R. C. Singh, Ranganath M. Singari

Total Interpretive Structural Modelling of Critical Factors of Sustainable-Oriented Innovation for Indian Manufacturing MSMEs

The global integration of markets, rapid changes in technology and reduced lifecycles for product and technology have made the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) to focus on sustainability measures while considering innovation as an essential aspect to attain benefit in sustainable competition. Thus, the present study contributes to the empirical literature by finding out relationships between the critical factors which enhance the sustainable-oriented innovation for Indian manufacturing MSMEs. To this end, an exhaustive review of the literature and the opinion of the experts is taken, and a model is prepared using TISM technique to find the relationship between the factors. The outcome of the present study after applying total interpretive structural modelling technique is a framework which depicts the relationship between the factors influencing sustainable-oriented innovation for Indian manufacturing MSMEs.

Sonal Khurana, Bisma Mannan, Abid Haleem

Cloud Computing in Industries: A Review

Cloud computing is a new paradigm with a lot of promise. This paper provides a glimpse of how far this technology has come in implementation in industries and what the future holds. The basic concepts of cloud computing and its features have been explained here. A wide variety of industries have been considered. With everything being connected, industries are not far behind. This paper attempts to answer the question whether cloud computing can make industries more interconnected. A survey of 29 papers was carried out with focus on implementation in industries. Some aspects of computer science have also been discussed.

Zareef Askary, Ravinder Kumar

Evaluation of High Temperature Tribological Behaviour of Nickel Coating Using LRT

This study aimed to investigate the effects of temperature, load and frequency on the wear and friction behaviour of the cast iron and nickel-coated tribosurface on mild steel. The experiments were performed at three different levels of loads (10, 20, 30 N), frequency (24, 30, 36 Strokes/s) and temperature (40, 80, 120 ℃) using a linear reciprocating tribometer. An L9 orthogonal array as per the Taguchi technique was used to analyze the specific wear rate (SWR) and coefficient of friction (COF). The coated surface showed better tribological behaviour as compared to cast iron. The temperature had maximum influence on the tribological behaviour followed by load and frequency.

S. Chaudhary, R. C. Singh, Rajiv Chaudhary, Sonia

Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Film Cooling Performance of Trench Model Embedded with Compound Angle Film Hole Jets

The Trench film cooling is a cooling technique where film cooling holes are embedded within a cut slot made on the surface with the application of thermal barrier coatings. The goal of the present investigation is to compare the cooling effectiveness of trench model embedded with compound angled film hole viz. 45°, 90°, 135° through numerical and experimental investigation at two different blowing ratios. The width and depth of trench are maintained at 2D and 0.7D, respectively, with D as the hole diameter. Results of the study show that trench model embedded with 90° compound angled film hole delivered highest cooling effectiveness for two tested ratios of blowing between coolant and mainstream flows. Experimental results on film cooling effectiveness produced good agreement with computational results.

V. G. Krishna Anand, K. M. Parammasivam

Identifying and Modelling of Constructs for Innovation Management of MSMEs: An ISM Approach

Both MSMEs and large organizations show the evidence that innovation is not only the result of technological knowledge and change, moreover, it also severely relies on the managerial aspect of innovation which is known as ‘Innovation Management’. Although innovation management is recognized as the most important driving force for competitiveness, the available literature in the innovation management area is still highly fragmented. Thus, in this paper, we endeavour to do a systematic review and identify constructs for innovation management from perspectives of MSMEs and develop an ISM model. So, this paper helps in learning and understanding constructs that influence innovation management in MSMEs.

Bisma Mannan, Sonal Khurana, Abid Haleem

Investigation of Drivers Towards Adoption of Circular Economy: A DEMATEL Approach

The increased population, scarcity of resources and environmental consciousness put the tremendous stress on the organisations to fulfil the demand in sustainable way. The current linear model is based on the take-make-use-destroy model, which has many limitations in terms of resource utilisation and environmental impact. To overcome such limitation, circular economy is proposed. The main aim of circular economy is to create a circular system that maximises the resource value and enhances the material and product. However, the adoption of the circular economy is challenging and required some essential/motivational factor. This study is identifying the ten major drivers towards the adoption of circular economy. Further, these drivers are categorised into two groups utilising the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL). The result of this study explored that most influential drivers are ‘government policies for cleaner production’ and ‘urbanisation’, while ‘enhanced material and energy efficiency’ and ‘improving product quality’ are the most influenced. This study can support the policy makers to develop the strategies in the adoption of circular economy.

Annayath Maqbool, Shahbaz Khan, Abid Haleem, Mohd Imran Khan

Simulation-Based Analysis of Performance Parameters of Thrust Pad Bearing Under Thin Film Lubrication with Chamfered Inlet

An elastohydrodynamic numerical simulation of a thrust pad bearing with chamfering at inlet has been studied in this paper. To model the problem, a one-dimensional Reynolds equation along with elastic deformation equation in non-dimensional form has been discretized using finite difference method and solved iteratively by using an improved method. On chamfering at inlet of the bearing pad, a pressure peak gets generated near the inlet zone. This pressure peak, which is absent in non-chamfered pad, ultimately increases the load-carrying capacity of the thrust pad bearing at lower value of film thickness ratios and small film thickness. At large value of film thickness, the load capacity decreases at all film thickness ratios when chamfering is done on the bearing pad. On increasing minimum film thickness, the load capacity and coefficient of friction show more sensitivity at low value of film thickness ratios. At very high value of film thickness ratio, the change in load capacity and coefficient of friction with increasing film thickness ratios become almost negligible.

Poonam Kumari, Mohammad Sikandar Azam

Workplace Safety Improvement Through Quality Control Circle Approach in Heavy Engineering Industry

The heavy engineering industrial environment is one of the most critical working environments because of its job nature. This case study presents the quality control circle (QCC) approach for workplace safety improvement in the heavy engineering industry. This approach focuses on changing unsafe work environment into a safe work environment by using quality control concepts. The aim of this study was to examine and define safety culture through quality control circles by exploring worker’s experiences and perceptions of safety and risks. A quality control circle team was formed in the heavy engineering industry, and the situation of workplace safety was deliberated with problem-solving techniques. The team identified the work-related problems and that problems are analysed through various QC tools and techniques with systematic steps. The efforts of the QCC approach reduced workplace hazard situation which paved the way to a reduction in injuries and reportable incidents.

D. Dinagaran, K. R. Balasubramanian, S. P. Sivapirakasam, Kuruva Gopanna

A Bio-inspired Climbing Robot: Dynamic Modelling and Prototype Development

The utilization of bio-inspired robots on various growing issues has turned into an interesting subject. This paper presents a novel bio-inspired climbing robot which imitates the locomotion of an inchworm. The robot contains four indistinguishable modules associated with three revolute joints. At present, the climbing environment is confined to a ferromagnetic flat plane by providing switchable electromagnets to the front and rear modules. The dynamic analysis is performed using both Lagrange model and bond graph model, and a comparative study is carried out. The results obtained from the dynamic analysis are further used to estimate the essential joint torques required for actuator sizing. Finally, the prototype has been developed and the predefined inchworm gait is successfully implemented.

Asesh Patra, Meet Patel, Priyabrata Chattopadhyay, Anubhab Majumder, Sanjoy Kumar Ghoshal

Effect of Electrochemical Micromachining Process Parameters on Surface Roughness and Dimensional Deviation of Ti6Al4V by Tungsten Electrode

The electrochemical micromachining (ECMM) is a special form of conventional ECM process in which the tool electrode is at micro-level used to produce micro-features. This article aims to determine the parametric influence of process parameters in ECMM using Taguchi’s experimental design and ANOVA. The objective variables are surface roughness (SR) and dimensional deviation (DD). Experiments were designed as per Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array (OA) by considering applied voltage (V), duty cycle (DC), feed rate (F) and frequency (f) as input parameters. Experiments carried on Ti6Al4V using sodium chloride (NaCl) salt solution with concentration 20 g/lt by producing blind holes of depth 250 µm. Surface roughness is measured with non-contact surface roughness tester Talysurf CCI (coherence correlation interferometry) having < 0.01 nm as least count and dimensional deviation is measured with vision measuring machine. ANOVA technique is performed to get percentage influence of each process parameter on performance characteristics, and it is observed that duty cycle has more influence on surface roughness and applied voltage has more influence on dimensional deviation.

Venkatasreenivasula Reddy Perla, Subbarama Kousik Suraparaju, K. J. RathanRaj, A. Sreenivasulu Reddy

Transmissibility Along Human Segments When Exposed to Vibration

Human body suffers from maximum effect of vibration while travelling and driving. So, it becomes important to study the response of human body when excitations are transferred while travelling. A realistic Indian male human body has converted into 3-D CAD model using anthropometric data available in existing literature. Transmissibility is from seat to lower torso, seat to upper torso and seat to head in frequency range of 0–20 Hz using finite element method. It has been found that maximum effect of vibration is noticeable at lower torso and head as compared to other human body segments. The results obtained using this study will be useful in designing seats and other components of tractor.

Arvinder Singh, Harkirat Singh, Ishbir Singh, Sachin Kalsi

A Comprehensive Review on Microfluidics Technology and its Applications

In modern fields of science, the urge for analysing the characterization of fluid flow as well as fabricating micro level devices to facilitate fluid flow is increasing noticeably. The technology that provides detailed information about the aforesaid concepts is referred to as microfluidics. Microfluidics, in substance, considers the flow in the microchannels. It proved its mettle exclusively in the field of medical diagnostics. In this paper, the prerequisites such as molecular analysis, biodefence, molecular biology and microelectronics which emphasized the need for microfluidic technology are reported, and the microfluidics technology is reviewed in view of materials used fabrication methodologies and applications. This review article finally intends to look out for the alternative material such as biocompatible metal rather than plastics, to have a better production rate. In recent times, the research works on microfluidics are increasing significantly, and this article will be useful for future research work on microfluidics area.

Su. Venkatesan, J. Jerald, P. Asokan, R. Prabakaran

Drilling Process Improvements in EN31 Steel Under Different Environments

Drilling is an important manufacturing process. This process is difficult and becomes complex in drilling of the high strength materials like EN31 steel, which finds wide industrial applications due to its favourable mechanical properties. The present work is the experimental investigations in drilling of EN31 steel under different drilling environments. The number of experimental runs has been decided using the Box-Behnken design methodology. The experiments have been performed under dry and wet conditions using soluble oil as drilling medium. Initially, the work is focused on the improvement in drilling characteristics under wet drilling as compared to the dry drilling. Later on, the effect of drilling input parameters while drilling of EN31 steel on output responses for has been studied using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The finding has been studied based on the main effect and interaction plots. Regression models in actual form for the output responses have been presented using ANOVA analysis for dry and wet drilling conditions separately. Mean surface roughness values under dry and wet drilling are also shown. From this work, it can be concluded that the wet drilling is better suited for drilling of high strength materials like EN31 steel owing to its better cooling the lubricating nature of the drilling medium used.

Manoj Kumar Sinha, Jamil Ahmad, Harish Kumar, Ranganath M. Singari

A New 3D Benchmarking Artifact to Evaluate Dimensional Accuracy and Geometric Tolerancing of Additive Manufacturing Technique

A variety of additive manufacturing (AM) techniques is available commercially based on a different principle. Benchmarking is a technique to investigate the overall performance of manufacturing technique with the aid of benchmark artifact. This paper aims to propose a new 3D artifact to check dimensional accuracy and geometric tolerancing in all three dimensions. The artifact can predict the effect of machine movement on variation in dimensional accuracy of artifact in a respective direction. Thus, the design of artifact covers maximum geometrical allowance. The artifact can be used to examine the dimensional accuracy and geometric tolerancing of single AM technique or for comparing two different AM techniques along the three dimensions.

Md Qamar Tanveer, Mohd Suhaib, Abid Haleem

Effect of 3D-Printed Ankle Foot Orthosis During Walking of Foot Deformities Patients

Lower leg foot orthoses are orthotic contraptions that help the decline leg joint and are suitable for a few pathologies, for the most part those that enhance the foot drop situation, that is by virtue of a lower leg joint inadequacy. In the common works of art, a specially crafted rendition of lower leg foot orthosis connected as a piece of the human casing has been made. Additive manufacturing frameworks have been used to make the decline leg foot orthosis (selective laser sintering technology). Kinematic estimations were gotten in a walk lab from foot drop sufferers, with and without 3D plastic-printed decline leg foot orthoses on unmarried feet. The results were given shown that with the orthoses, the lower leg joint conduct is kind of an immediately torsional spring, without a hysteresis. With an objective to test the adequacy of the AFO, clinical gait analysis of foot drop patients has been finished. Altered 3D distributed ankle foot orthosis has been mounted to give better gait cycle execution. The effects of this research exhibited that the patients in foot drop sufferers with 3D appropriated lower leg foot orthosis is assessed through Clinical Gait assessment.

Harish Kumar Banga, Parveen Kalra, Rajendra M. Belokar, Rajesh Kumar

Robust Taguchi Based Optimization of Surface Finish During Hard Turning EN 31 with Carbon Nanotubes-Based Nano-Coated Tip

In this paper, we report development of carbon nanotubes-based nanocoating on turning tooltip. Then the same tooltip was used in hard turning of EN-31 steel 48HRC. Taguchi optimization methodology was utilized in optimizing the most important machining indicator or output viz. surface finish. The input machining parameters taken in this study were a type of cutting tool, cutting conditions, cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. Taguchi orthogonal array L27 (OA) was selected for design of experiments. ANOVA and S/N ratio ‘smaller the better’ was used for analysis of recorded observations. The primary findings of this research were the effectiveness of the carbon nanotubes-based nanocoating as predicted by results. Depth of cut, cutting speed, cutting conditions, type of coating, and feed rate in the given order had a role in determining the surface finish. The characterization of carbon nanotubes-based nanocoating was done using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Tunnel Electron Microscopy.

Navriti Gupta, R. S. Walia, A. K. Agrawal

Convection of Viscoplastic Fluid in U-Tube Bends

Viscoplastic fluids are found among both man-made and natural materials frequently. They are characterized by the presence of yield stress, which results in complex fluid rheology. During heat treatment, such materials undergo convection. The convection patterns are expected to be complex due to the presence of yield stress and delayed fluid movement. In this work, heat transfer and flow characteristics of viscoplastic fluid in a square duct with 180° sharp bend have been studied numerically. The duct is filled with viscoplastic fluid obeying Herschel–Bulkley model. The flow is assumed to be two dimensional, laminar and steady. Finite volume-based scheme is used to obtain the flow domain behavior. The effects of Reynolds number, input height to output height ratio (IOR), Yield number and power law index on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the viscoplastic fluid have been investigated. Results are presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms and velocities under different heating conditions. Yielded and unyielded regions in the flow domain have been identified. It has been found that vortices are emanating near the sharp corner. A strong correlation of the size of vortices, reattachment length and heat flow with variable parameters has been obtained.

N. H. Khan, M. K. Paswan, M. A. Hassan

Performance Analysis of Temperature and MRR Using High-Speed Micro-Drilling on Incoloy 800 Superalloy

Micro-drilling is one of the advanced levels of metal cutting processes in the manufacturing and assembly industry, thereby producing micro-holes with higher depth, greater surface finish and better-quality of roundness. In this research work, micro-drilling has been done on Incoloy 800 which is an iron-based superalloy which has good resistance to corrosion, oxidation at higher temperature and is used in various equipments like superheaters, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, etc. The temperature and material removal rate (MRR) are analysed by varying the processes parameters like diameter of the tool, spindle speed and feed as per Taguchi L27 orthogonal array design. From this experiment, it is found that MRR and temperature increase with the increase in feed and speed of spindle. The results obtained by the experiments are optimized by using grey relational analysis (GRA).

T. Venkatesan, J. Jerald, P. Asokan

Design and Development of Zirconia-Dolerite Ball Plate for Error Mapping of Probe-Type Coordinate Measuring Machine

Improved zirconia-dolerite ball plate is produced and calibrated depicting higher compactness, higher flexural strength, less weight with possibility of manual movement, enabling maximum parameter evaluation with respect to measuring volume periodic and interim checks at considerable lesser time. The manufactured ball plate shows considerable stability even at higher operating temperature of 24 °C with a maximum deviation of 4.1 µm with an average stability of 1.503 µm within the distinct-placed zirconia balls.

Vinay A. Kulkarni, B. B. Ahuja

Application of Industrial Internet of Things for Online Monitoring of Bearings

This paper discusses the application of an industrial internet of things (IIoT) based system which can be used to online monitor the acceleration based responses of a shaft and bearings assembly. The experimental set-up includes one shaft, two ball bearings (for supporting the shaft), one coupling (for connecting shaft to the motor), one electric motor (for providing input torque), one table (on which the complete set-up is mounted), one accelerometer (for measuring acceleration) and one mobile (as receiver for receiving the warning or preventive maintenance schedule based message). The system is developed in such a way that the accelerometer acquires the time domain vibration signal produced by the bearing. This signal is then sent further to SIM900A-based IIoT system for online data monitoring and transmission. In the event of any vibration response going away from the permissible range, it is considered as a fault in the system. In such cases of possible failure, the system offers an early warning to the operator on personal mobile of the end-user regarding high vibration levels. Use of this type of IIoT-based system helps in avoiding unwanted and unplanned system shutdowns due to failure of the bearings.

Saroj Kumar, Parminder Singh, Shankar Sehgal, Harmesh Kumar, Naveen Aggarwal, Sarbjeet Singh, Deepam Goyal

Acquisition of Jugular Venous Pulse Waveform by a Non-invasive Technique

In this paper, a non-invasive technique has been proposed for the acquisition of jugular venous pulse (JVP) waveform using an accelerometer sensor. Waveform is obtained from the vibrations measured using the accelerometer sensor. The vibration signals present in the jugular vein regions are due to pressure created during the hemodynamic event of cardiac cycle. This pressure created during the cardiac cycle is measured using the sensor and is further processed. Finally, the JVP pattern is obtained by applying a suitable computation method. The JVP wave is obtained along with electrocardiogram (ECG) signal which is measured with the help of ECG electrodes. These collected signals from accelerometer sensor and electrodes are made to run in real time with the help of a DAQ system and a computer. The obtained pattern is compared with the electrocardiogram, and changes in JVP waveform’s amplitude are correlated with heart activity during cardiac cycle.

S. Bagyaraj, M. Ragumathulla, D. Vaithiyanathan

Condition Monitoring of Induction Motor Using Internet of Things (IoT)

In the era of globalization, manufacturing industries are facing intense pressure to prevent unexpected breakdowns, reduce maintenance cost and increase plant availability. Due to increasing trend of Internet of things (IoT), numerous sensors deployed around the world are developing at a rapid pace. In this paper, an IoT-based wireless control and monitoring system has been presented for determining the health of induction motor (IM). A module of sensors has been employed to monitor the different parameters, viz. current, voltage, temperature, and speed which were processed using microcontroller for analysis and display purposes. Further, the Ethernet module has been used for sending the information from the microcontroller to cloud (Cayenne) database for wireless remote monitoring and controlling of induction motor. The system has been implemented to monitor and control various parameters in real time, and also improving the detectability of different faults due to over limiting of the current, voltage, temperature, and speed values. The proposed system has significant potential in industrial environment with complex systems to economically monitor the condition of machine safely in real time.

Anurag Choudhary, Shefali Jamwal, Deepam Goyal, Rajeev Kumar Dang, Shankar Sehgal

Development of Aluminium-Yttrium Oxide Metal Matrix Composite Foam Through FSP

Nowadays safety is the most important concern in the automobile industries. The safety can enhance by applying high-strength materials, but in general high-strength material is heavy and reduces the fuel economy of the automobiles. Thus, there is a requirement of such a material which have high strength to weight ratio. One such type of material is aluminium foam having high strength to weight ratio and also has very good impact-absorbing capability. The friction stir processing (FSP) opens a new route for developing aluminium foam. Also, if it is possible to develop the foams by light metal matrix composite (MMC) materials, then it added more features into it. Thus in present work, aluminium-yttrium oxide (Al–Y2O3) MMC foam is developed by using FSP technique by adding TiH2 and pure aluminium powder. The result shows proper foam is developed by using FSP route. The pores are uniform and equally distributed into the aluminium matrix. The compressive strength of the foam decreases with increasing the amount of TiH2 (Titanium hydride) into the metal matrix. This is because of the increase in size of the pores which increases the distance between load-bearing matrix.

Sachin Rathore, Ratnesh Kumar Raj Singh, K. L. A. Khan

Model-Based Adaptive Prognosis of a Hydraulic System

Fault diagnostic and prognostic methods are the extensive topics of condition-based maintenance system. These publications include a wide range of statistical approaches for model-based approaches. Uncertainty in prediction cannot be avoided; therefore, algorithms are working to help manage these uncertainties. Remaining useful lives (RUL) are regularly updated through adaptive degradation models identified by using the concept of sampling importance resampling (SIR) filter. The SIR filter algorithm has become a popular choice for model-based progressive system. As a matter of study, we consider a hydraulic system and develop a detailed physics-based model and use extensive simulations to describe our prehistoric science approach and to evaluate its effectiveness and strength.

Sawan Kumar, Sumanta Kumar Dutta, Sanjoy Kumar Ghoshal, J. Das

Effect of Intercritical Heat Treatment and Volume Fraction on the Morphological Properties, Mechanical Properties, and Work Hardening Behaviour of Dual-Phase Steel

An investigation aimed at determining the importance of carbon percentage in the microstructure development of dual-phase steel is carried out by intercritically annealing the different samples of low-carbon steels which consists of different percentage of carbon (0.16, 0.18, and 0.20%). The samples are heated in muffle furnace to above Ac3 temperature (920 °C), soaked the sample for 30 min and quenched in ice brine solution to get complete martensitic structure. Later the samples are intercritically annealed at 740, 760, 780, 800, and 820 °C (between Ac1 and Ac3) for 60 min and quenched in oil at room temperature. Microstructure examination revealed that steel containing 0.18%C yields a better microstructure which consists of around 46% martensite and remaining ferrite and minute amount of retained austenite, which is a good combination of strength and toughness. The uniaxial tensile test results show that at specimen containing 0.18%C with 46% martensite content yielded maximum tensile strength with comparatively higher toughness. Microhardness test shows that hardness increases with increasing carbon percentage and has higher values at 0.18%C.

Shubham Sharma, Jujhar Singh, N. Jayarambabu, Chander Prakash, Sunpreet Singh, Abhinav Sharma, Harish Kumar

Rheological Characterization and Finishing Performance Evaluation of Vegetable Oil-Based Bi-dispersed Magnetorheological Finishing Fluid

Magnetorheological (MR) finishing fluids are the backbone of MR finishing technology. The abrading forces acting on a workpiece surface can be controlled flexibly and the fine finishing with close tolerances can be obtained by using proper machining conditions and MR finishing fluid compositions. The structure of MR finishing fluid under applied magnetic field provides useful rheological properties which are helpful during finishing operation. The rheological properties of fluid sample can be improved by the addition of magnetic nanoparticles which fills the structural micro-cavities of fluid sample. In the present work, iron oxide nanoparticles are used for preparation of bi-dispersed MR finishing fluid samples. Rheological properties and finishing performance of both mono-dispersed and bi-dispersed fluid samples are compared.

Vikas Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Harmesh Kumar

Experimental Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Brass–Iron Joined by TIG Welding Process

Brass is widely used as engineering material in marine and process industry in light of its high quality, corrosion resistance, electrical, and high warm conductivity. It is easily shaped and possesses a gratifying appearance. Notwithstanding, it is hard to weld brass. The principal issue with brass alloy while welding is dissipation of zinc. Subsequent to welding, the weld area and warmth influenced zone end up permeable, since the measure of zinc in the metal combination is diminished because of vanishing, and it loses the physical and compound properties which it typically has. In this paper, a brass–iron, which is widely used in marine and process industries, is taken and welding is done with Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding process with different parameters such as root gap, flow rate, diameter of electrode, and flow of current. The principal target of this paper was to determine mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, hardness, and microstructure of TIG welded brass joints. Weld zone and heat-affected zones of brass welded test are seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to decide zinc dissipation in 2D pictures. Tensile strength and hardness tests are performed by utilizing universal testing machine (UTM) and Vickers hardness testing machine separately according to ASTM principles. Tensile strength of brass weld tests was found in the range of 27.102–263.62 N/mm2, level of elongation was found in the range 0.72–3.80% and hardness of brass weld test was found in the range 85.9–160.33 HV. How evaporation of zinc is decreased in metal weld test is seen at weld zone (WZ), heat-affected zone 1 (HAZ1), and heat-affected zone 2 (HAZ2).

J. Nithin Kumar, M. Devaiah, P. Sandeep kumar, P. Sudheer Rao

Finite Element Modeling and Simulation of Projectile Impact on Ductile Target

The present study discusses the finite element modeling and simulation strategy of projectile impact on thin ductile target like aluminum. Ogive nose projectile was chosen to impact on aluminum target normally by velocities at and above the ballistic limit of the plate. Abaqus/Explicit finite element code was used to model the problem. To define the thermo-viscoplastic behavior of the metal target, Johnson-Cook flow stress was used in conjunction with damage initiation criterion to predict the complete perforation process. Further, Hillerborg’s damage evolution proposal, based on stress-displacement response, was followed to observe the damage response after the failure has initiated in the material. Various parameters, like choice of element size, hourglassing, aspect ratio of elements, etc. which plays an important role in the simulation, have been studied. The result obtained with the presented model is compared with the results from the literature, and good agreement between them was found.

Sanan H. Khan, Servesh K. Agnihotri, Ateeb A. Khan, Afsar Husain

Characterization and Mechanical Properties of 2024/Y2O3 Composite Developed by Stir Rheocasting

Semi-solid cast 2024 matrix composites reinforced with 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 wt% Y2O3 particles were developed using vertical muffle furnace equipped with a mechanical stirrer. The composites were successfully developed, and their morphological investigation showed reinforcement particles distribution was fair. The properties of the developed composites improved significantly with an increase in the Y2O3 particles in the alloy. The highest ultimate tensile and yield strengths achieved were 294 MPa and 178 MPa respectively corresponding to the 2024/1.5 wt% Y2O3 composite. 34 and 45% increments in ultimate tensile and yield strengths were achieved for the 2024/1.5 wt% Y2O3 composite compared to the stirred rheocast sample without reinforcement. A decrease in the percentage elongation was observed with an increase in the amount of the yttria particles due to the particle agglomeration and porosity.

Semegn Cheneke Lemessa, D. Benny Karunakar

Conversion and Utilization of Gravitational Potential Energy for Hydraulic Excavator

Considering the loss of high throttling loss for open-circuit hydrostatic transmission at present, hydraulic excavation energy saving is important for removing the source of deficiency and protecting the environment. This paper deals with closed circuit gravitational potential energy recovery system (GPERS) based on energy storage element such as an accumulator, along with the generator. An estimated 16% total energy consumption is reduced when a system using accumulator-motor-generator system is used as compared to the simple motor system. The simulation result is carried out with Automation Studio and MATLAB/Simulink. At last, the paper put forward the future development of GPERS.

Tushar Kanti Saha, Abhinav Kr. Singh, Mohit Bhola, Sumanta Kumar Dutta, Sanjoy Kumar Ghoshal

Microstructure and Wear Study of Al 7075-T6/Eggshell/SiC/Al2O3 Hybrid Composites

In present experimental investigation, hybrid aluminium metal matrix composites were fabricated using stir casting technique by infusing eggshell particles (0.5, 1 wt%), SiC particles (1, 1.5 wt%) and Al2O3 particles (1.5, 2.5 wt%) into Al 7075-T6 metal matrix. The developed composites were further characterized for microstructures using FESEM, X-ray diffractometry and EDS techniques. Tribological behaviour investigations were carried out using a pin-on-disk tribometer for comparative study between as-cast Al 7075-T6 alloy and Al-7075-T6/Eggshell/SiC/Al2O3 composites. During dry sliding wear test at room temperature, there was a decrease of 33% in wear rate, 20% in coefficient of friction and 20% in frictional force of composites, whereas in presence of lubricant, the developed composites exhibited maximum reduction of 85% in wear rate, 46% in coefficient of friction and 46% in frictional force as compared to their unreinforced counterparts. Due to augmented tribological properties, fabricated hybrid composites can reasonably be used for lightweight wear-resistant applications.

Girija Moona, Vikas Rastogi, R. S. Walia, Rina Sharma

Determination of the Degradation Pattern of Pump Using Two-Phase Diagnostic Bond Graph

A bond graph-based approach has been applied for failure prognosis in the hydraulic circuit. The degradation function of a fault in the system is determined using a two-phase diagnostic bond graph model (DBG). By intentionally imparting a time-varying fault in the pump displacement, the capability of the DBG model is exhibited. The analytical redundancy relations (ARRs) evaluated from the first DBG helps to discern the manifestation of fault. Making use of ARRs of the first phase, the second DBG delivers the degradation pattern of the fault enabling the determination of remaining useful life (RUL) of the system.

Sumanta Kumar Dutta, Sawan Kumar, Tushar Kanti Saha, Sanjoy Kumar Ghoshal

Ballistic Performance of Thin Aluminium Cylindrical and Hemispherical Shells

The objective of study was to carry out the numerical simulation to compare the ballistic resistance failure mode and energy-dispersed characteristic of Al-H1100 thin hemispherical shell and cylindrical shell. Span diameter (200 mm), thickness (0.7 and 1 mm) and mass of hemispherical and cylindrical shells kept constant for direct comparison. Ogive-nosed projectiles of 19 mm diameter, 50.8 mm length and 52 mass were impacted at tip of the both shells target. Finite element modelling was carried out by using Abaqus explicit solver. Numerical result of cylindrical shell was elucidated against experimental result of hemispherical shell. The response of both the targets was compared in terms of global deformation, residual velocity, ballistic limit, failure mode and energy dispersed in plastic deformation. Result shows that the cylindrical shell outperformed than the hemispherical shell due to the large global deformation. Also both the cylindrical and hemispherical target failed by hole enlargement with petal formation.

Nikhil Khaire, G. Tiwari

Experimental Study on PCM-Based External Wall Cladding for Energy Efficient Buildings

The present work reports the experimental investigation of the phase change material (PCM) incorporated into the external wall claddings for achieving energy conservation in building through a passive cooling application. Three types of wall claddings of size 458 mm × 458 mm (1.5 ft × 1.5 ft) in dimension were developed in this experimental study. Lauric acid was utilized as the PCM to be incorporated into the wall claddings. Experimental results suggest that the lauric acid exhibited good latent heat potential, congruent phase change processes, and was thermally stable within operating temperature ranges. Furthermore, it was concluded that out of three cladding types being tested, the percentage drop of air temperature was more in composite wall cladding and the percentage drop of heat flux was more in aluminum box cladding with PCM and coarse aggregate. In total, the cladding incorporated with the PCM was found to be the potential candidate for the enhancement of energy efficiency in building through passive thermal storage and cooling load reduction.

Kolli Sravani, R. Parameshwaran, V. Vinayaka Ram

The Machining Characteristics of the Al7075-B4C Nanocomposites Developed Using Ultrasonic Liquid Processor

The nanocomposites discover many applications in various manufacturing sectors due to their noticeable improvement in the mechanical strength compared to the parent alloy. The present research work was concentrated on the machining of the boron carbide (B4C)-filled nanocomposites. The ultrasonic liquid processor along with stir casting machine is used for the development of the nanocomposites. The microstructure of the developed composites is studied under the microscope and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The CNC turning center is used to machining behavior of the nanocomposite material. The turning experiments are performed by varying cutting speed, depth of cut, feed rate, and fillers percentage (%). The cutting force and surface roughness are the output responses. Taguchi L9 orthogonal is used for finding the optimum combinations of variables. The machining tests are carried out in dry conditions at cutting speed (100, 150 and 200 m/min), feed rate (0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mm/rev), depth of cut (0.15, 0.35 and 0.55), and percentage reinforcement (0.75, 1.50 and 2.25). The optimal parametric combination for responses is found to be A3-B1-C1-D1.

Surender Kumar, P. K. Sood

Influence of Alloying Compositions on the Properties of Nickel-Based Superalloys: A Review

Superalloys were initially intended to take care of the demand in the materials execution prerequisites of space vehicles, turbo chargers, supplies of heat treatments, turbine motors of aircrafts and numerous others. Among the iron, nickel and cobalt-based superalloys, Ni as primary constituent is gaining lot of significance because of the presence of good mechanical properties including oxidation resistance at high temperatures, and also resistance to creep with precipitation strengthening. Nickel-based alloys also offer repetitivity to strengthen the phases either by solid solutioning or by hardening precipitated phase which enhances strength at peak temperatures. Also, the nature of solid solutions, pressures and environments, phase stability at different temperatures, grain shape, size and distribution are the important parameters for the study of superalloys based on nickel. The performance of these will largely depend on the composition of the elements used for alloying. To impart all the required characteristics for a particular application, alloying elements should be considered in appropriate proportions. With this review, future research endeavour might focus on the modelling and development of nickel-based superalloys for high-temperature applications along with the characterization studies of these superalloys with optimum composition of the constituent elements for better performance.

Dileep Kumar Ganji, G. Rajyalakshmi

Patient Pulse Rate Monitoring System Using LabVIEW

In this article, the authors have attempted to design a LabVIEW-based health monitoring system, which measures the human body temperature and continuous pulse monitoring with the help of ECG electrodes. The LabVIEW helps to create a user-friendly GUI which can graphically show the continuous pulse or heartbeat rate. This system is suitable where the doctor will monitor the patient’s condition without being present physically. This system also helps the doctor by producing medical test and previous records of the patient when the doctor is present physically. This system uses various sensors, like, temperature sensor, heartbeat rate, and ECG electrodes. This system allows the doctor to diagnose the patient’s condition and allows the doctor to suggest suitable treatment. The sensors are interfaced in LabVIEW to provide a graphical user interface-based monitoring systems.

A. R. Krishnan, S. Jayanth, R. Janani

War Field Spy and Fighter Robot

Knowing the forthcoming generation is all about the Internet so why it can not be used for decreasing the casualties in the war field. Keeping in mind the value of an individual in the war field this latest trend Internet of things (IoT) will be the gift for the Indian army. As this idea is very much helpful for spying in war field and as further development is possible that the author thinks to make this robot as a clone of humans which can fight in the war field without any casualties and injuries.

Manisha Bharti, Ayush Kumar Agrawal

Erosive Wear Study of Nitrogen-Containing 23-8-N Austenitic Stainless Steel and Bead on Plate Weld Using ER2209 Stainless Steel Filler Wire

Jet-type slurry erosion testing of the nitrogen-containing austenitic stainless steel 23-8-N in as-received, heat-treated (950 °C and 1150 °C temperatures) and bead on plate weld have been carried out with less than 500 µm size of erodent silica sand. The bead on plate weld is performed with ER2209 filler wire with gas metal arc welding. Erosion resistance of base metal increases at higher heat treatment temperature but there is no effect on weld bead erosion resistance. Weld has higher cumulative weight loss as compared to base metal.

Naveen Kumar, Navneet Arora, S. K. Goel

Calcium Fluoride a Potential Solid Lubricant for Green Tribology and Sustainability

Development of materials has been of great concern for scientists and researchers since ancient times. Lubrication is one such area where lot of work has been carried out by many researchers, especially in the area of solid lubrication. The emergence of solid lubricants has increased the lubrication potential of liquid lubricants many fold times. The term self-lubricating composites have been coined due to the association of solid lubricants with many base materials such as ceramics and metals. Various solid lubricants such as graphite, molybdenum disulphide and boron nitride have been tried by researchers, and amongst these lubricants, fluorides hold an important place. This paper presents a brief overview of solid lubricants along with a detailed description of calcium fluoride and their usage as solid lubricants in various materials, especially in metals and ceramics.

Sanjay Mohan, Ankush Anand, Mir Irfan Ul Haq, Ankush Raina, Rajiv Kumar

Friction and Wear Behaviour of AA2024/ZrO2 Composites: Effect of Graphite

The aim of the paper was to study the tribological behaviour of a novel self-lubricating AA2024–ZrO2–Gr hybrid composite. A hybrid composite AA2024–ZrO2–Gr is fabricated with 6 wt% zirconia (ZrO2) reinforcement and varying the percentage from 0 to 4.5% by weight of graphite powder. Unidirectional friction/wear tests were carried out on a tribometer using pin-on-disc configuration. The results revealed that composites with 4.5 wt% of graphite exhibited minimum coefficient of friction (COF), whereas the composite with 3 wt% graphite showed minimum wear loss.

Smridh Slathia, Rahul Anand, Mir Irfan Ul Haq, Ankush Raina, Sanjay Mohan, Rajiv Kumar, Ankush Anand

A Fractographic Study of PE, PP Self-reinforced Composites in Quasi-static Loading Conditions

This study is an attempt to fill the gap in the fractographic studies conducted in various quasi-static mechanical tests to recognize the failure mechanisms and their correlation with its properties of self-reinforced polymer composite materials (SRC). SRCs are the class of composite materials developed by combining the same family of materials as constituent matrix and reinforcement. Thermoplastic linear aliphatic olefins like polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) are the systems analysed here for the purpose of deep understanding of their microstructural properties and correlations with the structural properties. Tension, in-plane shear and flexural parameters are tested, evaluated and correlated with corresponding fractographic features revealed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Selecting three different systems for this analysis also assisted in comparative study of various failure mechanisms and variations in fractographic features of SRCs with different chemical structure under quasi-static loading conditions. Fractography revealed failure mechanisms like matrix cracking, categories of fibre failures under different types of loading, effect of interface in bonding as well as fracture, shear flow patterns of matrix, phenomena like brooming, effect of coating in interface and fracture under quasi-static loading and behaviour matrix and reinforcement under various quasi-static loading.

M. Sharan Chandran, K. Padmanabhan

Analysis of a Double-Stage Thermoelectric Refrigerator

In the present work, a two-stage thermoelectric refrigerator that consists of 50 elements has been analyzed on the basis of the laws of thermodynamics. The elements are arranged as there are 49 elements on hotter side and only one element on colder side. A non-dimensional parameter ‘x’ has been considered that represents the ratio of number of elements on hot surface and that on cold surface. Refrigeration effect and coefficient of performance have been calculated to evaluate the operating performance of the double-stage thermoelectric refrigerator with x = 49. Refrigeration effect or rate of refrigeration and coefficient of performance both are the desirable performance measuring parameters of a refrigerating device. This work obtains the value of current input at which both the desirable parameters have the maximum value, therefore, the best performance of the device with this configuration.

Sudhanshu Sharma, Vijay Kumar Dwivedi

A Review on Solar Energy-Based Smart Greenhouse

Greenhouse farming system has so many advantages, such as the easiness to grow plants in cold climate and enhance the production, quality, and the overall output of the products. On the other hand, this arrangement requires additional input that increases the cost of production. The main function of a greenhouse is to trap the heat of the sunlight and provide additional energy for photosynthesis. In greenhouse growing, the stabilization of temperature swings is the primary challenge. This can be done by the people to adopt the conventional which can provide the additional energy via heating or cooling systems into the greenhouse. Solar energy is a very important source, directly connected to the greenhouse as a power supply. The smart and sustainable method to establish a stable greenhouse environment is to harness the additional surplus solar energy collected during the day time after that store that energy and then consume it during night or during unfavorable weather conditions.

Padma Wangmo, Vinay Kumar Jadoun, Anshul Agarwal

Analysis of Firm-Level Innovativeness Indicators

The article is aimed at developing a clearer understanding of the causal relationships among the major indicators of innovativeness in manufacturing firms. The key innovativeness indicators are identified from literature and are then validated by experts through structured questionnaire and follow up interview. The Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) technique is then used to analyze the causal relationships among the indicators. The framework indicates that the ‘cause group’ factors viz. behavioral and strategic innovations are the most important factors for the innovativeness enhancement in manufacturing enterprises. The product, process, and marketing innovations fall under ‘effect’ group. The study provides a visual demonstration through Impact-Relations Map (IRM) which can be used by the decision-makers to plan and organize their own actions. The article provides useful insights into the interplay and dynamics of innovativeness indicators to the practitioners, researchers, and consultants.

Sanjay Kumar, Abid Haleem, Sushil, Mohd. Asim Qadri

Comparative Study of Basin Type Double Slope Active Solar Stills Based on Energy Metrics

Water is one of the crucial components for the existence of life on our planet. This gift of nature has several usages and applications. One can see a clear implication of water availability on industries, civilization, livelihood, etc. Though a plethora of water is available, however, not all of it is of direct use; only 2.6% of total available water is freshwater and of that only 1% is in human reach. Unfortunately, that little amount is also prone to several impurities, mainly because of human activities. Indian ministry of water resources, United Nations, UNICEF and several other organizations reported on the ignorance of environmental norms pertaining to water discharge by many industries and organizations. All such ignorance somehow enhances water scarcity. The investigation of active solar desalination system working in dynamic mode is one of the best considerations to lessen the water scarcity problem. This work focuses on energy metrics scrutiny of basin type double slope active solar desalination systems, and these solar desalination systems have been judged against each other on the grounds of energy metrics.

Abhishek Sharma, Vijay Kumar Dwivedi, Desh Bandhu Singh
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