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About this book

Gathering the proceedings of the conference MeTrApp 2019, this book covers topics such as mechanism and machinery design, parallel manipulators, robotics and mechatronics, control applications, mechanical transmissions, cam and gear mechanisms, and dynamics of machinery. MeTrApp 2019 provided researchers, scientists, industry experts, and graduate students from around the globe with a platform to share their cutting-edge work on mechanisms, transmissions, and their applications. The proceedings extend this platform to all researchers, scientists, industry experts, and students interested in these fields.

Table of Contents


Linkage Synthesis


Optimized Design of an RSSR Mechanism for an Unpowered Assistive Aid

This paper proposes the use of RSSR space four-bar mechanism to realize the motion and power transmission of a non-powered assistive aid. A three-dimensional modeling, mathematical model analysis and solution function image combination method was proposed to design and analyze the RSSR space four-bar transmission mechanism in this accessory, and the key parameters such as length and rotation angle was optimized. The RSSR mechanism prototype was produced and demonstrated. The results show that the designed RSSR mechanism can effectively transmit the change of the angle of motion to the follower and achieve a better torque transmission effect.

Juewei He, Guangshun Liang, Zhi Lan, Zhixiu Hao

Dimensional Synthesis of Non-periodic Function Generation of a Spatial RSSR Mechanism Using a Numerical Atlas Method

In this paper, a wavelet feature parameters method is proposed for non-periodic function generation of a spatial Revolute-Spherical-Spherical-Revolute (RSSR) mechanism. The mathematical model for the output function of an RSSR mechanism is established. The wavelet coefficients, including wavelet approximations and wavelet details, are extracted from the output function curve using a Daubechies wavelet. Based on the geometric significance of the wavelet coefficients, the wavelet details are used to describe the output function of an RSSR mechanism to eliminate the influence of translations of output function curve. The level of wavelet feature parameters is determined according to the relationship between the original output function curves and the reconstruction curves generated by wavelet coefficients. A numerical atlas database is established, which contains more than ten million groups of basic dimensional types. Based on a fuzzy reorganization method, the desired RSSR mechanism can be obtained. The non-periodic function synthesis of the RSSR mechanism is realized. An example is presented to demonstrate the efficacy and practicality of the proposed theory.

Wenrui Liu, Jianwei Sun, Jinkui Chu

Kinematic Acquisition of Quadratic Curve Constraints for Finite Position Generation of Planar Mechanisms

This paper presents a quadratic constraint acquisition method to address the problem of finite position generation of planar mechanisms, with the benefit of simultaneous determination of type and dimensions. The key to this approach is the development of general mathematical formulations of quadratic curve constraints that are not directly dependent on the complete choice of a planar mechanism type. The Homotopy algorithm is applied to extract the geometric constraints and then the type and dimensions of their corresponding 1-DOF mechanisms can be obtained. Two examples are provided at the end of the paper to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

Hao Lv, Ke Shi, Xiangyun Li

Path Synthesis of Crank-Rocker Mechanism Using Fourier Descriptors Based Neural Network

In this paper, the first five harmonics components of Fourier descriptors are used to describe the desired coupler curve with a high precision. Neural network is trained with the normalized Fourier descriptors of the coupler angle functions of relative length four-bar mechanisms and corresponding linkages lengths in the established database. Trained neural network is used to predict the relative linkage lengths of desired crank-rocker mechanism with the normalized Fourier descriptors of the desired coupler curve. With the inner connection between harmonics components of the desired coupler curve and the coupler angle function of predicted relative lengths of four-bar mechanism, the linkage lengths, coupler and configuration parameters of the desired mechanism are calculated. A group of desired coupler trajectories with known mechanism configurations are generated randomly and are used to test the proposed method. The results show that with generated neural network, a high precision four-bar mechanism can be obtained without searching the whole database.

Xiaojuan Mo, Wenjie Ge, Donglai Zhao, Yaqing Zhang

Function Generation Synthesis with Planar 4-Bar Linkage as a Mixed Problem of Correlation of Crank Angles and Dead-Center Design

The function generation synthesis of planar four-bar linkage is formulated as a mixed problem of correlation or crank angles and dead-center design. The synthesis is based on three desired configurations of the linkage, where the input and output joint angles are specified for two of the configurations and the coupler link is folded upon the output link for the third configuration. The formulation results in a set of nonlinear equations which can be solved analytically. The formulations are tested with numerical examples and similar mixed function generation problems are briefly discussed.

Gökhan Kiper, Melih Erez

Mechanical Transmission


Contact Analysis for Spiral Bevel Gear Based on Machine Parameters

In traditional machining process, the calculation of machine tool adjustment parameters only focuses on calculating the middle point of tooth surface, so it will lead to contact defects such as root contact or diagonal contact of spiral bevel gears. It is necessary to carry out multiple hobbing checks on gear pairs and adjust the setting parameters of machine tools to meet the applying requirements. Based on the above problems, the mathematical model of the machine and the cutter is proposed by studying the adjustment parameters and the processing principle of the spiral bevel gear machine. According to the kinematic relationship between the parts of machine tools and the meshing principle of gears, the tooth surface equation is established. The meshing method is used to discretize the tooth surface. The calculation method of initial value of cutting depth and rotation angle of cutter spindle is studied, and the tooth surface equation is analyzed and solved. Based on the tooth surface equation and gears assembly model, the contact equation is established to calculate the contact path and transmission error. The influence of machine tool adjustment parameters on contact path and transmission error is investigated.

Yongqiang Zhao, Xiangyang Liu, Ming Liu

Dimensional Synthesis of the Drawing-In Mechanism in an Automatic Warp Tying Machine

This paper deals with the dimensional synthesis of a cam-follower based drawing-in mechanism for the automatic warp tying machine. The drawing-in mechanism is modeled and introduced. The corresponding drawing-in processes in the textile products is depicted in 4-5-6-7 polynomial equation. The approach of the kinematic geometry is adopted to design the cam profile and a comparison among three design cases is discussed. The comparison results show a suitable design to allow the smooth motion of the drawing-in mechanism.

Guanglei Wu, Shimin Chen, Ji Li

Transmission Design and Experimental Research of a Non-contact Nutation Reducer

Robot joint reducer is the most basic and important part of industrial automation. At present, the commonly used joint reducers are harmonic reducers, RV reducers and so on, which exist the disadvantages of large weight, large shape size, poor bearing capacity and limited service life. In view of these shortcomings, a non-contact nutation reducer is proposed based on the principle of nutation and the principle of magnetic drive. The reducer has the advantages of large transmission ratio, smooth transmission and low noise, and is more suitable for use in robot joint reducer. In this paper, the working principle, structure design, manufacture, assembly and experiment of the reducer are studied, and the experimental results under different input speeds and different output loads are obtained and discussed. The experiment verifies the advantages of the transmission ratio of the nutation reducer, and the transmission is very stable under high speed and load conditions.

Jiaxin Ding, Ligang Yao, Yongwu Cai, Xiaqi Shan, Jun Zhang

Releasable Locking Mechanism Using Friction and a Cuneus for Holding a Posture

Maintaining the posture of the upper limbs for a long time without any support is hard work. Physical strain can be reduced by holding the joint of a part of the body; however fixing it rigidly can be dangerous. This study proposes a releasable locking mechanism to hold a posture using friction and a cuneus. Moreover, we verify that the maximum torque applied to the instrument is controllable, both by theoretical calculations and experiments.

Koji Makino, Tatsuya Kaneko, Kenji Matsumura, Hidetsugu Terada

Optimization Design of Flange Connection Bolt Set in Large-Scale Rolling Bearings Under Complicated Working Conditions

This paper presents an optimal design method for flange connection bolt set under complicated working conditions in large-scale rolling bearings. In this method, the minimum mass of bolt set is used as optimization objective, and the diameter, length of bolt and the number of bolts are used as optimization variables. The reliability and installation space of bolts are taken as constraints, and the final solution is realized by genetic algorithm. Using this method, the flange connection bolt set for a pitch bearing in a wind turbine with consideration of the fatigue load and ultimate load is optimized. Comparing the optimization result with the bolt set originally used in the pitch bearing, it shows that the method can greatly reduce the mass of bolt set.

Huimin Dong, Jing Wang, Delun Wang

Modal Analysis of Nutation Drive with Double Circular Arc Spiral Bevel Gear

Nutation gear transmission combines nutation drive mode with double arc tooth profile, which has the advantage of large deceleration ratio and solves various problems in the traditional involute gear profile transmission. In his pa-per, the numerical solution and MATLAB software are used to solve the free vibration equation of the nutation system. And the undamped free vibration natural characteristics of the nutation transmission system of bevel gears are obtained. Then it reveals the influence of different physical parameters on the natural frequency of the system. The study and analysis mode shape of double circular spiral bevel gears under the natural frequency are carried out by using finite element software ANSYS. The natural frequencies of the system and each double circular arc bevel gear are compared and analyzed. After it the natural frequencies of the nutation drive system with 150%, 200% and 250% average meshing stiffness and 150%, 200% and 250% nutation gear support stiffness are calculated and compared. At last chapter, we get the orders vibration pattern and know the 7th order is the most influential one by finite element analysis in the ANASY. The natural frequencies of the system and each double arc bevel gear are compared and analyzed.

Simin Ouyang, Ligang Yao, Yongwu Cai, Jun Zhang, Zhiyu Xie

Engineering Applications


Simulation Analysis on Key Mechanisms of the Automatic Tobacco Harvester Based on ADAMS

Tobacco is widely cultivated in many countries. However, manual harvesting of tobacco leaves cannot meet the requirements of modern agriculture. Therefore, it is essential to develop the mechanized tobacco harvester. In this paper, an automatic tobacco harvester was designed and analyzed. The virtual prototype model was established using ADAMS. The traveling performance of the automatic tobacco harvester was analyzed using ADAMS/Tire. It can be found that the harvester work well on a flat sandy loam soil road. In addition, kinematic and dynamic simulation analysis on lifting mechanisms of the automatic tobacco harvester based on ADAMS were carried out. The results showed that the kinematic trajectory can meet the design requirements. Meanwhile, the dynamic parameters of key mechanisms were obtained, which would provide basic parameters for the design of the subsequent hydraulic system.

Jie Yu, Jinkui Chu, Yang Li

Design and Analysis of a Novel Primary and Secondary Embedded Deployable Offshore Cage

Cage aquaculture is an important strategic direction for marine aquaculture, which plays an important role in expanding aquaculture space and protecting the offshore ecological environment. First, based on the concept of embedded deployable mechanisms, a novel embedded deployable offshore cage driven by cables is proposed. Over-constrained spatial mechanisms and planar compliant mechanisms are respectively adopted as the primary and secondary cages while the secondary cages are embedded in the primary cage. A closed-loop cable-driven module is designed to deploy the cage through the pull and release of the cable. Then, due to the kinematic characteristics of threefold-symmetric Bricard mechanism with three symmetric planes intersecting at a determined line, the determined line is regarded as the central line of the driven mechanism. Finally, the relationship between the input angle and the output angle is obtained from the kinematic equations of the primary cage frame, then the relationship between the driven angle and corresponding open state of the cage frame can be derived by geometric projection.

Zi-Yu Liu, Lu-Bin Hang, Le-Le Bai, Xiao-Bo Huang, Peng-Cheng Zhang, Su-Long Li, Shi-Sen Lin, Jun-Rong Chen, Ming-Yuan Wang

An Active/Passive Joint for Reconfiguration Applications

In this paper, an active/passive reconfigurable 2R joint is presented. Direct and inverse kinematic problems and the force transmission are considered. The advantages of the current design show its superiority with respect to previous designs. A prototype of the joint was built and tested, proving the viability of the concept. The proposed joint can be applied in reconfigurable manipulators, serial robot arm wrists, humanoid robot shoulder and waist, where 2R active joints are required.

Mykhailo Riabtsev, Victor Petuya, Aitor Riera, Mónica Urízar

Kinematics Analysis and Dynamics Simulation Optimization of Lower Limb Rehabilitation Robot for the Stroke

For a new type of lower limb rehabilitation robot for the stroke with 4 degrees of freedom(DOF), the D-H method was used to analyze the kinematics, the kinematic equations were established, and the workspace of the rehabilitation robot was simulated. Based on the Lagrange equations, the dynamic equations of the rehabilitation robot were deduced and the torque of each joint was simulated. Finally, the gravity compensation mechanism was designed to optimize the starting torque and maximum torque of the flexion and extension joint of hip, the sum of which was reduced by 72.51%.

Li Dong, Lu Li, Shouqi Chen

A Configuration Synthesis Method of Deployable Mechanism Cells Used for Large Supporting Structures in Space

More large payloads will be launched with the development of the aerospace industry, which means supporting structures for large payloads are also needed. Meanwhile, deployable supporting structures that can be synchronously packaged and deployed have been studied. However, if much larger or more complex structures are needed, building structures with identical deployable cells in space could be another choice. Therefore, we synthesize deployed configurations of deployable mechanism cells for large supporting structures in space with the help of finding the basic unit for a certain three-dimensional array. Then we present several examples of deployable mechanism cells based on the synthesized deployed configurations.

Chenhan Guang, Zilu Chen, Yang Yang

Parameter Analysis and Optimal Design of Energy Storage Device for Non-powered Walking Aid

This paper optimizes the energy storage device of a non-powered walking aid. Through the use of gait analysis and linear fitting method, we have found the approximate relationship and specific values between the hip rotation angle and the hip rotation torque. Through the method of mechanical analysis, we find out how the geometric parameters of the cam and spring affect the relationship between the torque of hip joint and its angle. Furthermore, all suitable design parameters are obtained by polar coordinate operation and quadratic polynomial fitting analysis of cam profile. Finally, a 3D model is designed and the actual device is assembled.

Fanyu Meng, Wenxiang Zhao, Rui Wang, Zhixiu Hao

The Design and Analysis of Autonomous Underwater Pipeline Inspection Robots

In recent years, some research institutes have proposed the use of cable-free autonomous underwater vehicle-manipulator system (UVMS) for pipeline inspection. However, there are still some problems in applying conventional UVMS to the pipeline inspection and maintenance. According to the requirements of pipeline inspection mission, we have proposed a novel UVMS with adsorption capacity. Compared with the conventional UVMS, the UVMS can be adapted to a pipeline having a diameter of Φ500–1000 mm when adsorbed, so the end effector has higher operational precision compared to the floating state. Furthermore, the kinematics and the dynamic models of UVMS are established. Among them, the dynamic model of UVMS is established by the SimMechanics toolbox under MATLAB/Simulink, which overcomes the complexity of high-dimensional and dynamic interactions of UVMS.

Fujie Yu, Yuan Chen

Novel Solution for the Mechanism Used in the Actuation of Intelligent Roof Windows

The window roofs are available in the variants top-hung and center pivot roof window with actuation based on rack or chain mechanisms. The new solution proposed for center pivot roof windows is based on a geared linkage. Its scheme is explained and its analysis is performed in order to get functional parameters. The CAD model was generated and used to simulate the kinematic behavior, then a prototype was assembled to test the practical functioning. The mechanical system is actuated by an intelligent control system, which includes an Arduino board and sensors for light, temperature, pressure and humidity.

Carmen Sticlaru, Petrisor Laurentiu Tuca, Erwin-Christian Lovasz, Corina-Mihaela Gruescu, Inocenţiu Maniu, Cristian Emil Moldovan

Design and Kinematic Analysis of a Novel Wire-Driven Spherical Scissors Mechanism

A novel wire-driven shoulder exoskeleton is presented. The exoskeleton is designed with spherical scissors mechanism to achieve a compact and light weight design. Wire-driven approach is adopted to actuate the mechanism effectively without increasing its weight and size. Kinematic simulation verifies the feasibility of the wire-driven system. The structural stiffness is evaluated through FEA.

Ruiqin Li, Ziwei Liu, Wenbo Mi, Shaoping Bai, Jianwei Zhang

Machinery Dynamics


Numerical Simulations of the Dynamic Pressure Oil-Gas Separator

The movement of fluid in oil-gas separator and its separation efficiency were investigated by the computational fluid dynamics method. The results show that the fluid velocity is decreasing along a helical trajectory and axis direction in the oil-gas separator. The central velocity is a backward motion tendency. The velocity vector moves from the bottom of the separator to overflow gate owing to the effects of the strongly inner swirling flow. The rotating center shape of the inner swirling flow is similar to the tornado. The rotation direction of the velocity vector is same as the outer swirling flow in central region. In the central region of the separator, there is the subatmospheric pressure which results in the inner swirling flow. The gas bubbles do downward helical movement, and gradually move the center of the separator, the last overflow the entire flow field from the inner fluid level. The gas bubbles diameter and inlet velocity have remarkable effects on separation efficiency. This study has revealed the flow mechanism of oil-gas separators.

Yutao Yan, Yao Yu, Zhili Sun, Xulei Su

A New Dynamic Model to Predict Vibration of Cylindrical Roller Bearings with Clearance and Off-Sized Roller Defects

In this paper, a new dynamic model to predict the vibration of cylindrical roller bearings with clearance and off-size roller defects is presented. The contact between rollers and rings is modeled as gap-activated non-linear spring-damper elements. The motion equations of a bearing are established by means of Newton’s Second Law with consideration of the nonlinear contact forces. The solvable algebraic equations in time domain are derived by Newmark scheme. With a simple transformation, the equations can be converted into a set of linear complimentary equations. By employing Lemke algorithm, the accurate results can be obtained. Case studies, a 10-roller cylindrical bearing of having various clearance and single off-size roller defects, show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

Huimin Dong, Kui Zhang, Chu Zhang

The Analysis for Stress Intensity Factor of Three-Dimensional Crack Under Combined Action of Friction Force and Tension

The active system model was established under dry sliding friction in reciprocating motion, and the three-dimensional crack was established in the friction surface center of cuboid model. The characteristics of stress intensity factors were investigated by fracture mechanics and finite element method. The variation regulations of the stress intensity factors were obtained under different contact pressure, friction coefficient, ellipse shape ratio and ellipse parameter angle. The stress intensity factor KI increases with increasing of contact pressure in away from crack, and decreases with increasing of contact pressure in near crack. The stress intensity factor KII increases with increasing of contact pressure during a working cycle. During sliding block moving toward crack, the KI decreases with increasing of friction coefficient. The KI increases with increasing of friction coefficient during sliding block moving away from crack. The influences of friction coefficient on variation of KII nearly coincide with contact pressure. The KI and KII increase with increasing of ellipse shape ratio. The KI decreases, and then increases, the average value KII decreases with increasing of ellipse parameter angle. The fatigue cracks are mainly mode I-II composite cracks. The squeeze or tear effects generated by combined action of friction force and tension have obvious influences on the KI. The influences of the relative sliding between crack faces generated by contact pressure on the KII are dominant.

Yutao Yan, Yibo Zhang, Xin Wu, Wendong Li

A Directly Coupled Finite Element – Meshless Method with Varying Dilation Parameter

Compliant mechanisms are flexible mechanisms that can transfer input forces or displacements through elastic body deformation. Thus, large deformation of structural analysis is necessary, especially for the topology optimization-based design. The meshless method has more advantages in simulating large deformation structural analysis, but the calculation is more expensive than the finite element method. Thus, a directly coupled method of finite element (FE) method and element-free Galerkin (EFG) method is presented in this study. A smooth cosine weight function is proposed to establish continuous shape functions in the whole design domain. To retain the feature of EFG method, a continuous varying dilation parameter is developed in the coupling domain to connect FE and EFG domains. Several benchmark problems are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Comparing with some other coupling methods, the proposal is quite succinct and tractable, shows higher precision or cost less computation comparing with other methods.

Yaqing Zhang, Wenjie Ge, Ziang Zhang, Xiaojuan Mo, Yonghong Zhang

Parallel Manipulators


Kinematics and Dynamics Simulation Analysis of a 3-DOF Parallel Mechanism for Application in Hybrid Machine

A novel parallel mechanism with one translational and two rotational coupling degrees of freedom, which can be utilized as the main body module for application in hybrid kinematic machine, is proposed. The inverse kinematics is systematically established based on the closed-loop vector method. In terms of the principle of virtual work and d’Alembert’s formulation, the dynamics formulation is deduced in sequence. Finally, the illustrative simulation example is conducted to demonstrate the analytic results of the kinematics and dynamics, and the analytical solutions are verified by Simulink and Recurdyn collaborative simulation. Simultaneously, the dynamic dexterity is further conducted to evaluate the performance, and the results show that the proposed parallel mechanism has greater dynamic performance, which can be demonstrated practically by the alternative application of the parallel kinematic module for the hybrid machine tool.

Haiqiang Zhang, Hairong Fang, Dan Zhang, Xueling Luo, Fuqun Zhao

Kinematics and Singularity Analysis of a Novel Uncoupled 2-DOF Rotational Parallel Mechanism

The paper presents a novel uncoupled rotational parallel mechanism with two degrees of freedom (DOFs), which consists of a moving platform connected to a fixed base by two kinematical limbs. Based on the position and orientation characteristics method, kinematic output characteristics and mobility of the mechanism are analyzed and calculated. Mathematical models of the orientation and angular velocity of the mechanism are established in terms of the actuated wrench screw theory and the closed vector approach. Singularity analysis is performed in terms of the linear dependence of the kinematic screw system and constraint screw system, respectively, and all singular configurations are given as well.

Keming Wang, Yanbin Zhang, Xianling Jing

Performance Analysis and Comparison of Three Planar Parallel Manipulators

This work presents a comprehensive performance evaluation and comparison of three planar parallel manipulators with PPR limbs. The kinematic model of the redundant 4-PPR planar parallel manipulator is established, upon which the inverse position model and singularity are analyzed. Then, the evaluations of dexterity, velocity and stiffness performance are achieved. Performance comparison between the redundant manipulator and another two non-redundant 3-PPR planar parallel manipulators, one with Δ-shape structure and the other with U-shape structure, is presented. Simulation results reveal that the U-shape manipulator owns the greatest velocity performance. Moreover, the redundant one possesses the best dexterity and stiffness performance.

Xiaoyong Wu, Ran Yan, Zhaowei Xiang, Fangyan Zheng, Rulong Tan

Singularity Loci of a New Four-Limb Parallel Schönflies-Motion Generator

This paper studies the singularities of a four-limb parallel Schönflies-motion generator. The end-effector design adopts a planetary gear train as the amplification mechanism to realize the full-circle rotation. The singularity is analyzed by means of Jacobian-based method, which are applicable for the singularity identification graphically and numerically. Moreover, the constraint singularity loci are analyzed for avoidance. Based upon the singularity analysis, this robot admits a super-ellipsoidal workspace with the full-circle rotation of the end-effector, suitable for pick-and-place operations.

Guanglei Wu, Huiping Shen, Wenkang Zhao, Zirong Lin

Kinematics and Multi-mode Application of a Novel Self-assembling Robot with Parallel Structure

A self-assembling robot system, which combines four deployable manipulators with an operation object, is proposed in this paper. The manipulators can be stacked in a designated area and move independently from each other before being connected to an object. After the connection with the object, the connect units which located at the end of each manipulator ensure that the manipulators can remain connection with the object for operation. The connection can be realized through a vacuum cup or an electromagnet. The resulting robot system, formed by the four deployable manipulators and the operation object, is similar to a kinematic structure of parallel mechanism. The Robot is able to achieve manipulation of objects with 2R1T by actuating exactly three joints in each mode. Each mode is formed by different three manipulators and the object. Kinematics performance and application were demonstrated in this paper. Such a manipulator–object combination possesses some advantages over existing grippers and manipulation robot. It has the repetitive and reconstruction ability with different work mode than existing grippers and manipulation robot with fixed structure parameters.

Fuqun Zhao, Sheng Guo, Xiangyang Wang, Majun Song

Design and Analysis of a New 5-DOF Hybrid Serial-Parallel Manipulator

In this paper, a 2R1T (two rotations and one translation) over-constrained parallel mechanism R(2RPR)R/SP with two ordered continuous rotational axes is proposed, which contains fewer joints, by concatenating a 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF) RR tilting head with orientation-adjusting capability, a novel 5-DOF hybrid manipulator is constructed. On this basis, optimize the sizes with the best performance of the motion/force transmissibility as the optimization target, and the design dimensions that meet the requirements of the workspace are obtained and the structural design is carried out. The static stiffness of the manipulator are analyzed, and the analysis results are verified by simulation and compared with the products that have been successfully applied in foreign countries. An iterative searching method is used to determine the workspace of the manipulator, and evaluate whether the workspace of the hybrid manipulator meets the requirements.

Yundou Xu, Zhenghe Xu, Fan Yang, Youen Mei, Yi Yue, Yulin Zhou, Jiantao Yao, Yongsheng Zhao

Kinematics Research of Chewing Robot Based on Six-Axis Parallel Mechanism

Instruments widely used in food texture detection are different from human oral environment and chewing movement parameters, which results in inconsistent detection data and taste. Experts’ sensory evaluation of food also has the shortcomings of expensive, inefficient and difficult to standardize. The development and research of bionic chewing robots is regarded as a new direction to solve problems in this field. This paper presents the basic structure of a chewing robot based on six-axis parallel mechanism and establishes its kinematics model. By using the inverse kinematics method, the expressions of the position and velocity relationship between the prismatic pair driven by the motor and the moving platform were obtained through theoretical analysis. Referring to human chewing action, a set of moving platform trajectories were designed. At the same time, the displacement and velocity curves of each prismatic pair under the predetermined trajectory of the moving platform were obtained by kinematics simulation. This research will provide a basis for the motion control of chewing robots, and also contribute to the development of food texture inspection equipment.

Xingyu Zhou, Jinghu Yu

Dynamic Model and Simulation Analysis of a 3-DOF Parallel Mechanism

For the design requirements of heavy-duty robots, a 3-degrees of freedom 3UPS-UP parallel mechanism was used as the main feed mechanism of heavy-duty robots. The kinematics analysis of the parallel mechanism was carried out, and the complete homogeneous dimensional Jacobian matrix of the mechanism was solved. Based on the kinetic energy and potential energy of each component of the mechanism, the dynamic equation was established by used the Lagrangian method, and the dynamic example simulation was performed.

Jiaxun Li, Jian Liu, Hongjuan Hou, Liyong Huang

U-Joint Induced Torsional Instabilities of a Family of 3-DOF Partially-Decoupled Spherical Parallel Manipulators

This paper deals with the dynamic torsional stability problem of a family of partially-decoupled spherical parallel manipulators. The linearized equations of motion of the mechanical system are established to analyze the stability of the U-joint mechanism, resorting to the Floquet theory. Parametric stability charts of misalignment angles versus rotating speeds of the driving shaft are constructed to identify the unstable regions and critical shaft speeds, together with the effect of the parameters onto the manipulator stability. As a consequence, some criteria for the design and the operational speed of the manipulator, in terms of dynamic stability, are introduced.

Guanglei Wu, Stéphane Caro

Conceptual Design of a 2-DoF Planar High-Speed Industrial Parallel Manipulator

This study focuses on conceptual design alternatives for a planar high-speed/high-precision manipulator in terms of mechanism structure, control strategy, and drive system selection. These concepts are investigated specifically for planar 5-bar based parallel linkages. An over-constrained 6-bar linkage with parallelogram loops and its simply constrained version are selected for detailed design. In addition, a model-based control strategy including a stiffness model is discussed for future studies. Alternative drive systems are evaluated. Finally a prototype is presented.

Emre Uzunoğlu, Merve Özkahya, Erkan Paksoy, Barış Taner, M. İ. Can Dede, Gökhan Kiper

Compliant Mechanism


Design of a Controlled-Stiffness Flexure Mechanism Based on the FACT Method

In complex environments such as minimally invasive surgery, mine disaster and earthquake relief, compared with the traditional rigid mechanism, variable stiffness mechanism has tremendous advantages. In this paper, a novel controlled-stiffness mechanism based on flexure element and structural constraints is proposed. The mechanism is a parallel mechanism with two branches, one of which contains a flexure element. The stiffness control of the mechanism is realized by controlling the functional direction of the flexible element. Using the traditional Grubler-Kutzbach (G-K) formula to calculate the degree of freedom (DOF) of the mechanism is difficult. In this paper, a method of freedom and constraint topology (FACT) method is introduced. This method has the advantages of visualization, simplicity, rapidity and is suitable for the analysis of DOF and motion ability of complex mechanisms. The analysis results show that the structure can realize the desired form of motion.

Kaiyu Wu, Fan Zhang, Minhua Zheng, Hecheng Li, Jing Sun

Compliant Mechanism Based Backbones for Continuous Manipulators and Robots

The key part of a continuous backbone manipulator or robot is the backbone. A backbone is composed of several backbone modules that are assembled together in series. This paper proposes a new simple backbone module, which is a compliant mechanism. Compliant mechanisms are employed here due to their advantages over rigid body mechanisms. The compliant mechanism based backbone module is referred to as the basic compliant backbone module. An analytical model of the basic compliant backbone module is derived, showing that the stiffness of the basic compliant backbone module along and about the backbone axis is much higher than the others. The analytical model proofs the desired degrees of freedom of the basic compliant backbone module. Some other symmetric compliant backbone modules, designed by combining several copies of the basic backbone module in parallel, are also introduced in this paper. Continuous backbones, built by the proposed compliant backbone modules, enable not only to bend apart from the backbone axis but also to transmit force and torque about the backbone axis. Additionally, an application example of a proposed compliant backbone module is introduced.

Haiyang Li, Qiaoling Meng, Guangbo Hao, Shujun Li, Yunpeng Gong, Yong Zhao

Modelling and Prediction of Lifetime of Metal Rubber Isolator Under Random Vibration

Through fatigue experiments of ring-like metal rubber (MR) isolator under random vibration load, the effects of parameters, including relative preload of metal rubber isolator, wire diameter and relative density, on isolator’s lifetime are investigated. The models to describe the relationship between the lifetime and these parameters are proposed to predict the lifetime of MR isolators. An orthogonal experimental design is proceeded to evaluate the contribution of these parameters to the fatigue life of isolators, and the coefficients and functions related to the multi-parameter model are achieved experimentally. The conclusions derived from the experiments provide a new way for designer to predict the working lifetime for the MR isolators in application.

Hongrui Ao, Yong Ma, Xianbiao Wang, Hongyuan Jiang

A Recursive Integral-Based Dynamic Stiffness Matrix for Notch Flexure Hinges Used in Compliant Mechanisms

Accurate dynamic analysis of flexure-hinge-based compliant mechanisms are difficult due to their complicated governing differential equations. Given that concern, this paper presents an exact dynamic stiffness matrix for free vibration analysis of notch flexure hinges based on a recursive integral without approximation. Starting from the longitudinal and transverse governing differential equations of vibration, modal functions of arbitrary notch flexure hinges are derived using a recursive integral in power series of angular frequency but not the traditional way in the well-known Frobenious method; then, the exact dynamic stiffness matrix in a general form is built. The proposed method is applied to solve the natural frequencies of flexure-hinge-based compliant mechanisms with high-precision solutions.

Mingxiang Ling

Control Application


Passivity-Based Force/Position Active Disturbance Rejection Control of Dual-Arm Space Robot Clamping Capture Spacecraft

The impact effect and post-capture passivity-based force/position active disturbance rejection control of dual-arm free-floating space robot clamping capture non-cooperative spacecraft are studied. First, the dynamic models of the dual-arm space robot and the target spacecraft before capture are obtained by multi rigid body dynamics method. After that, based on the law of conservation of momentum, the constraints of kinematics and the law of force transfer, the impact effect caused by collision of capture process is analyzed. Finally, the integrated dynamic model of the closed chain composite system is derived. On the basis, a force/position active disturbance rejection control scheme based on passivity theory is proposed for post-capture closed chain composite system with consider actuator saturation, joint friction and external disturbance, which can achieve the coordinated control of the internal force and position of the target spacecraft. The method uses the extended state observer to realize the dynamic estimation of the disturbance, then combine with passivity theory to compensate it, which can improve disturbance rejection ability for the impact effect of capture effectively. The numerical simulation results verify the effectiveness of the control scheme.

Ai Haiping, Chen Li, Yu Xiaoyan

Motion Planning of a 5-DOF Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm Under ROS Environment

This paper deals with motion planning of a 5-DOF anthropomorphic robotic arm. The CAD model of the robot is built and converted into a URDF file for the simulation with the ROS platform. Sequentially, the motion planning of the manipulator is completed through the MoveIt! Package. The motion process is observed in RViz, with the planned result being transmitted to the servo controller to drive the real robotic arm to reach to the target point. Moreover, the extraction and matching of key feature points based on SIFT algorithm is studied for object detection to obtain the coordinates of the targeted object, in order to realize the pick-and-place operation for the material handling.

Sida Zhang, Zirong Lin, Guanglei Wu

T-S Fuzzy Compensation Based Sliding Mode Control for a Free-Floating Space Manipulator

A fuzzy sliding mode control with simple structure and fast response is proposed for the trajectory tracking in joint space of free-floating space manipulators with uncertainties such as friction, external disturbance and unmodeled dynamics. In this fuzzy sliding mode controller, the feedback linearization method is used to equivalent the known part of the dynamics, then a sliding mode control part is addressed to eliminate the uncertainties of the system, finally a T-S fuzzy compensation is proposed to simplify the controller to reduce the computational burden and speed up system response. The system stability under this fuzzy sliding mode controller is proved by Lyapunov theory. The simulation comparison with nominal model based robust sliding mode control shows the superiority of the proposed control method in convergence speed, response speed and the performance of chattering elimination.

Zihao Chen, Xiaoyan Yu, Li Chen

Controlling Strategy of Rail Grinding Mechanism for the Constant Working Power

The rail grinding mechanism comprises grinding subsystem and pressing subsystem. The grinding subsystem, in which the grinding wheel is directly driven by a motor, is mounted to a platform whose posture is adjusted by three pressing cylinders. The platform and pressing cylinders compose the pressing subsystem. The two subsystems are dynamically coupled but actuated separately. This paper focuses on design of controlling system for rail grinding mechanism to realizing constant grinding power. To this end, two controllers are designed to control the subsystems respectively. For the grinding subsystem, PI controller is employed to keep the grinding angular velocity of the motor to be constant. And for the pressing subsystem, two Active Disturbance Rejection Controllers (ADRC) are used to control the pressure in the rear end and the displacement of proportional decompressing valve element respectively, it insures that the pressing force, furthermore, the grinding torque is constant. The effectiveness of the controller is demonstrated by the results of simulation.

Jin Xie, Zhongqing Yi, Zhaohui Liu

Terminal Sliding Mode Adaptive Fuzzy Controller of a Free-Floating Space Manipulator Based on Time Delay Estimation

A time delay estimation based terminal sliding mode adaptive fuzzy control for trajectory tracking control of free-floating robot manipulators is presented. This controller consisted of a time delay estimation element, a terminal sliding mode and an adaptive fuzzy system. Based on time delay estimation technology, which can estimate most unknowns of the system for reducing the negative impact of uncertainty on stability caused by system inertia parameter, a terminal sliding mode adaptive fuzzy controller is designed. A nonlinear error dynamic model is established by terminal sliding mode, which can also make actual trajectory track the desired trajectory well in a short time. The adaptive fuzzy system would compensate for the error caused by the delay estimation technique and suppresses the chattering problem caused by the terminal sliding mode. It is proved that the tracking errors converge into zero asymptotically by using Lyapunov stability theory. Last numerical simulation shows that the controller has good tracking performance.

Jianyu Zhang, Xiaoyan Yu, Li Chen

Robots and Mechatronics


Dimensional Synthesis for the Chang’e-Type Legged Mobile Lander Based on Performance Atlas

Legged mobile lander (LML) possesses both landing and walking functions with the promising application prospect in extraterrestrial exploration. There are three challenges on the dimensional synthesis method for the LML, including the derivation of the performance criteria for both landing and walking behaviors, the establishment of the dimensional optimization design model, and the demonstration and expression method for dimensional synthesis. To solve these problems, the paper will firstly introduce the mechanism topology of the proposed Chang’e-Type LML; then, derive the optimization parameters and the optimization criteria; thereafter, implement the non-dimensional optimization process for both single leg and overall robot respectively by the performance atlas approach; finally, obtain the dimensional global optimum solution. The study can help one understand the relationship between different dimensions and the corresponding performances, and obtain the global optimum dimensions for the Chang’e-Type LML.

Youcheng Han, Weizhong Guo

Kinematic Modeling and Simulation of a Leg-Wheel Robot for Unexplored Rough Terrain Environment

A quadruped leg-wheel robot over rough terrain is proposed for planetary exploration. The closed-form solution for the inverse displacement model is developed, and then the forward displacement equations are also obtained. The Jacobian matrix is derived from the displacement model. Using kinematic equations, the co-simulation model is established, and the motion planning and dynamic simulation are performed in MATLAB and UG software, respectively. After that, a typical climbing simulation has been carried out based on the co-simulation model. Accordingly, the driving torques of all joints are obtained, which can be used for the design of prototype.

Xu Cai, Jun He, Feng Gao

Mechanism Design and Leg Kinematics Analysis of Four-Legged Robot

Aiming at the shortcomings of serial quadruped robot, such as small load/dead weight ratio and large moment of inertia of the legs, a new quadruped robot with serial-parallel coupling mechanism is designed. The hybrid leg mechanism can realize the change in rotating pair to moving pair through redundant drive, and has the characteristics of stable movement, large work space range, strong bearing capacity and large stiffness. Firstly, the degree of freedom of the mechanism is analyzed, and its position and velocity kinematics are analyzed. The foot position of the leg was analyzed by positive and negative kinematics solutions. MATLAB and SOILDWORKS software are used for theory and simulation verification of the foot movement space; the kinematics simulation of the leg mechanism is carried out by ADAMS software, and the displacement, velocity and acceleration curves of the foot end are obtained. The results show that the motion speed of the mechanism is stable and there is no obvious mutation. This study has important guiding significance for the dynamics and gait planning of the follow-up leg mechanism.

G. M. Wang, G. Y. Ma, Y. L. Yao, R. C. Liu

Optimization Design and Analysis of an Adaptive Variable Magnetic Adsorption Climbing Robot

In order to improve the efficiency of magnetic energy utilization, this paper proposes a non-contact variable magnetic adsorption device that can automatically adapt to different diameter changes. Firstly, the kinematics model of the mechanism is established by D-H parameter method and the motion variation characteristics of the magnetic adsorption unit are obtained. The feasibility of the approximate circular arc mechanism motion and the correctness of the mathematical model are verified by ADAMS simulation analysis. Then through MAXWELL, the magnetic field distribution characteristics of the magnetic adsorption unit and the variation characteristics of the magnetic adsorption force are simulated and analyzed, which proves that the mechanism can effectively improve the magnetic adsorption force and provides an effective method for further optimizing the efficiency of magnetic energy utilization.

Denghui Guo, Yuan Chen

The Design of a Kind of Two-Joint Mechanical Fish

Bionic mechanical fishes mainly involve single-joint mechanical fishes and multi-joint mechanical fishes. Although the motions of multi-joint mechanical fishes are more similar with those of fishes in nature, micro servos, whose torques are limited, are chosen as the driving mechanism in multi-joint mechanical fishes, and the movement speed of such mechanical fishes are not high. In contrast, DC motors with greater power and torques can be used as the driving mechanism in single-joint mechanical fishes, which is simple in structure but has higher oscillation frequency and can achieve faster forward speed. Therefore, a new type of two-joint caudal fin propulsion bionic robotic fish is designed. It has a novel tail structure that uses one DC motor to drive two tail joints so that it can achieve a higher tail fin swing frequency than most of the traditional multi-joints mechanical fish. 3D modeling is carried out for the mechanical fish, and then dynamics analysis and strength analysis are done by ADAMS and ANSYS Workbench. The result shows that the design is feasible and reasonable.

Hui-hui You, Chang-tang You, Xiao-yan Yu, Chang-ling Zhang, Kai-long Wang

Research on Knowledge Template Technology for Body Design of Transfer Robot

In order to investigate the problems of low knowledge reuse rate and long product design cycle in the body design process of transfer robot, knowledge template system architecture and main knowledge template structures are established based on knowledge engineering theory and template technology. The knowledge template system is hierarchical, which are divided into integral transfer robot product family template of top level, the diverse transfer robot product template of middle level, and the functional block templates of lower level. The transfer robot product family template, the wrist template and the arm template structures are given. An intelligent design system framework for transfer robot body design based on the design templates is presented, which is composed of interactive interface, application design module, inference engine module, three-dimensional parametric design module, knowledge base and management module. An intelligent design prototype system is developed by using object-oriented technology and the knowledge template technology, and the mechanism configuration design, structural design of functional blocks are implemented in the system. The research results provide the basis for establishing a more integrated design system and the template technology is promising for speeding the design process.

Wei Wang, Wenlin Gao, Hongmin Yu

Kinematics Analysis and Reconfiguration Planning of the Reconfigurable Robot

Though the unknown environment can be dangerous, people are always interested in it. However, the problem is that current robots cannot adapt to work in an unknown environment. This paper designs a reconfigurable robot that can perform tasks in unknown environments. The robot has four different configurations. And they contain a six legs configuration, a two wheels configuration, a three wheels configuration, and a star shape configuration. Four different configurations can be transformed to each other. This paper mainly introduces the kinematics of the reconfigurable robot and the schemes of the transformations according to the kinematics model. Finally, in order to verify the feasibility of the simulation reconfiguration schemes, experiments are carried out.

Bin Ye, Feng Gao, Weixing Chen

Development of Robotic Wiping System for Piezo Components

In order to clean the oxide layer and contaminations on the surface of piezoelectric ceramic sheets and solder rings, an automatic wiping system based on the cooperative robot UR3 is designed. The wiping system takes UR3 robot as the moving unit, and employs the micro force sensor to detect the wiping force. The end effector of the robot is designed according to the size and shape of the parts. Vacuum adsorption stages for fixed piezoelectric components were designed, in which silicon wafer etched by MEMS process was served as the adsorption head for fixing solder rings. The vacuum generator is selected according to the stress of piezo components. Finally, the feasibility of the adsorption device was proved by experiments, and the actual vacuum adsorption force under different exhaust pressures was measured. The device completes the surface cleaning of the piezoelectric ceramic sheets and the solder rings, thereby improving the reliability of subsequent soldering.

Lulu Chu, Yi Luo, Xiaodong Wang

Position and Pose Optimization of Work Piece Based on Image Processing Data

This paper presents a position and pose optimization method of work piece based on image processing data, in which the minimum distribution error of the processing allowance is as the optimization objective, the position and pose of the work piece relative to the center hole as optimal variables. According to the work piece data obtained by image processing of the rough casting, the center position of circular is firstly determined from coordinate transformation. An optimization model of the work piece position and pose is then established based on the requirement of the processing process and the work piece margin data. An example is conducted by the method presented in this paper. The result shows that the method can deal very well with casting defects existing on the blank work piece contour, and replace the traditional process effectively, which will promote the development of processing automation.

Feng Qian, Sichen Cai, Huimin Dong

Development of Conductive Hydrogel Driven Dielectric Elastomer

Conductive hydrogel-based dielectric elastomer drives can perform flexible motion under high voltages (in kV) stimulus. Such a drive is typically comprised of a dielectric elastomer layer sandwiched by two conductive hydrogel layers as electrodes. The high voltage applied between the electrodes leads to an attraction force within the two due to Maxwell effects, which squeezes the elastomer in the middle and causes remarkable lateral expansions. Contrast to the conventional rigid metal electrodes, the flexible properties of hydrogel electrodes make them suitable for dielectric elastomers that can sustain large deformations. Researches on hydrogel based dielectric elastomer drives in the recent decade have achieved intriguing outcomes and sparked numerous applications in various fields such as material science, electrical engineering, biomedical and bioengineering. This review covers the most recent developments of hydrogel based dielectric elastomers, with emphases on the materials compositions, mechano-electrical properties, adhesive capabilities and structural stabilities. Comparisons of the key features and functions of different drives are listed, and typical applications of these drives are given. Finally, the review provides a perspective of the possible practical usages of this promising device in the not-so-distant future.

Xiaoru Niu, Jianzhong Shang, Zirong Luo, Tao Jiang

Kangaroo-Inspired Jumping Robot with Controllable Takeoff

Kangaroo-inspired continuous jumping robot “Zbot”, with two degrees of freedom (DOFs) and three joints, is proposed. The robotic knee and ankle joints of “Zbot” are coupled using a geared five-bar (GFB) mechanism, in which the parameters are optimized in order to mimic the locomotion of kangaroo hind legs. The hip and knee joints are actuated by two hydraulic cylinders individually. The robot can adjust the takeoff velocity and angle, which is called controllable takeoff. The kinematic and dynamic simulation show that the robot has a good jumping performance and bionic characteristic during takeoff, and the experiments demonstrate that “Zbot” can make controllable jumping, including varied takeoff angles and velocities.

Yonghong Zhang, Sizhe Liu, Lei Zheng, Xiaojuan Mo, Wenjie Ge

Hydrodynamic Coefficients Calculation of Complex-Shaped AUV Based on Lattice Boltzmann Method

The lattice Boltzmann method is a new computational fluid dynamics method, which can simulate several kinds of fluid problems. In this paper, a part of hydrodynamic coefficients of an AUV with a complex shape were obtained by a numerical simulation in CFD software based on lattice Boltzmann method. The pure pitch and pure heave motion of PMM experiment were conducted in CFD software Xflow and corresponding resistance and resistance moment were measured. The Wall-Adapting Local Eddy (WALE) viscosity model was employed to stabilize the simulation. In order to obtain the corresponding hydrodynamic coefficients, Response spectrum analysis was performed on the results derived from CFD simulation. The complex work of meshing is avoided and the workload of numerical simulation is significantly reduced.

Yinpo Yan, Yuan Chen

Study on the Development of Toner Xerography Digital Printing Technology

Xerography digital printing technology is one of the main technologies of digital printing. Among them, toner xerography technology plays an important role in the invention and development of xerography digital printing technology. In order to study the origin and development of toner xerography technology, from the social needs Departing, on behalf of patented technology and representative products, by search of US patents related to toner xerography technology from 1938 to 2019 on the “State Intellectual Property Office” patent search platform and the research on technology and product development history of the manufacture of toner xerography digital printing equipment manufacturers, on the basis of analyzing the technology of patented and representative products of toner xerography, summarized the development history of toner xerography digital printing technology.

Gaosheng He, Yan Li

Education on Theory of Mechanisms and Machines


Project-Oriented Learning/Teaching Applied to Theory of Mechanisms and Machines

This paper deals with the experience of the learning/teaching on Theory of Mechanisms and Machines carried out in Dalian University of Technology (DUT, China) for the undergraduates in Mechanical Engineering. The project-based learning methodology is adopted, and the learning/teaching approach of DUT is briefly presented. The education aspects, for instance, the textbook, the projects, the learning/teaching mode, multimedia, evaluation, are depicted. Results acquired from the learning/teaching on Theory of Mechanisms and Machines are discussed to show the effectiveness.

Guanglei Wu, Delun Wang, Huimin Dong, Yuan Gao, Feng Qian

APP Based Teaching/Learning Mode and Quality Evaluation of MMT Course

With the development and popularization of internet and cellphone, Internet + education has become a trend for the teaching/learning mode reform. To improve teaching/learning quality and efficiency of mechanism and machine theory (MMT) course, an APP teaching/learning mode and quality evaluation approach are presented in this paper, aiming at cultivating excellent engineers in the new era. Based on APP network platform, the function of the APP teaching/learning, data tracking and analyzing are designed, by means of which an interaction and discussion teaching/learning environment for teacher-student and student-student is provided. Thus, the APP intelligent interactive teaching/learning mode with teaching strategy adapting, student-centered autonomous learning and cooperative learning, and the quality evaluation approach of learning process assessment are established. The teaching/learning of MMT course of ME major in Dalian University of Technology shows that stimulating students’ initiative in learning and improving teaching quality embodies the feasibility and practicability of application-based teaching mode and evaluation method, which facilitate teachers to master students’ learning situation and adjust teaching strategies.

Huimin Dong, Delun Wang, Yuan Gao, Feng Qian, Guanglei Wu

Experimental Study on Mechanical System Dynamics Performance

This paper deals with the teaching-oriented experiments of Theory of Mechanisms and Machines carried out in Dalian University of Technology (DUT, China) for the undergraduates in Mechanical Engineering. Complying with the teaching concept on Theory of Mechanisms and Machines, i.e., taking engineering case as traction and using comprehensive performance test as the mean to cultivate students’ comprehensive design ability, a series of comprehensive experimental platforms for mechanical system dynamics have been developed to set up experiments, including mechanical system dynamics performance experiment, flywheel speed regulation and energy saving experiment, mechanism balance design experiment. Research-based, design-based and comprehensive experiments are implemented to cultivate students’ ability of solving complex issues in modern engineering design.

Yuan Gao, Hong Zhang, Delun Wang, Huimin Dong, Cong Chen

Construction of Golden Course Group for the Innovative Talent Cultivation in New Engineering of Machinery

The main task of the new engineering construction is to cultivate innovative talents for the new economic development characterized by new technologies, new industries, new formats and new models, and the course is the core element of talent cultivation. Considering that design courses play an important role in the training of mechanical undergraduate talents and industrial needs, the comprehensive ability and innovation ability of students can be improved to solve complex mechanical design problems through the construction of “golden course group of “Design Principles and Methods” project for the innovative talent cultivation in new engineering of machinery”.

Kedong Bi, Yajing Kan, Ruiming Qian, Guodong Yin, Zhonghua Ni

Exploration and Practice of Project-Based Teaching in the Course Theory of Machine Design and Mechanism

In order to qualify Emerging Engineering talents for the ability of the mechanism type selection and design of modern mechanical products, the exploration and practice of project-based teaching is carried out in the course Theory of Machine Design and Mechanism. The project-based teaching encourages students to involve in engineering design and practical projects for sharping students practice ability based on the characteristics of the course. The method integrates the basic knowledge, the basic theory and the methodology of mechanism innovation design. The teaching boundary has been redesigned and the training on innovative thinking and engineering design ability is emphasized. Consequently, teaching outcome is obviously enhanced that students have greatly improve their ability of work independently and problem-solving through the actual design of the project.

Yuanxiong Cheng, Jiajun Yang, Jianfeng Xu, Kuanmin Mao

Project-Based Teaching Skills for University Course of Mechanism and Machine Science

The Mechanism and Machine Science (MMS) course is a fundamental engineering course to enable undergraduates to understand the analysis, design and operation principle of modern machines evolving rapidly nowadays. Modern machines are mechatronic instead of purely mechanical. However, the current course teaching basically focuses on the knowledge of the mechanisms merely instead of the whole machines. A gap exists between the knowledge of the mechanisms and that of real machines for the students that calls a change of the course teaching. To overcome the problems, a Project-based Teaching (PBT) way is investigated with Marathon and Twin-timeline models and Mini research-based training skill for the MMS course aiming to assist students to have both a full image of modern machines and deep understanding of mechanisms.

Weizhong Guo

An Approach to Foster Student Creative Thinking Ability in the Lectures of Mechanical Principles

The module of Mechanical Principles aims to foster students’ abilities both of mechanical design and creative thinking, by providing students with a foundation in the knowledge and principles of mechanical mechanisms. Focusing on the teaching and learning of the design and analysis of linkage mechanisms in the module, this paper proposes a new linkage mechanism with controllable linkage length. The new linkage mechanism is synthesized by adding length-control electromechanical components on the traditional linkage mechanisms with constant linkage length. The motion characteristics of the new linkage mechanism is verified by experimental testing and Matlab simulations. The new linkage mechanism is employ as an experimental setup in the lectures of Mechanical Principles, and the application can foster student creative thinking ability to meet the requirements of the New Engineering education.

Yunpeng Gong, Shujun Li, Zhang Yu, Haiyang Li, Cuiling Li, Yu Guo


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