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About this book

This book presents select proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Sustainable Technologies (ICAST 2020), organized by Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India. The topics covered in this book are multidisciplinary in nature. The primary topics included in the book are from the domains of automobile engineering, mechatronics, material science and engineering, aerospace engineering, bio-mechanics, biomedical instrumentation, mathematical techniques, agricultural engineering, nuclear engineering, physics, biodynamic modelling and ergonomics etc. The contents of this book will be beneficial for beginners, researchers, and professionals alike.

Table of Contents


An Exploratory Study on Various Properties of Graphite–Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites Fabricated Through Powder Metallurgy Route

Authors tried to investigate in detail about the effect of incorporating graphite as reinforcement into aluminium matrix with fabricating graphite–aluminium metal matrix composites prepared through powder metallurgy route. In graphite–aluminium metal matrix composites, graphite content has varied from 1.5 to 9% (based on wt%). Various phases after sintering have identified with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surface morphology of fabricated composites has studied based on the image obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, optimized materials have found out based on various physical, mechanical and chemical properties into seawater atmosphere.

Rajib Gupta, Sourav Debnath, Akshay Kumar Pramanick

Cost Optimization for Transportation Using Linear Programming

Transportation plays a vital role in every manufacturing industry as it is one of the major activities that binds the whole supply chain and accounts for customer satisfaction with the right delivery time. Hence, bringing in an optimized transport routing on the grounds of time taken and cost of transportation is very important. In this paper, a cost optimization model for transportation of goods of a flavors and fragrance company is presented. The problem was a linear programming problem and was solved using an EXCEL solver. A savings of Rs. 765,000 per annum was estimated comparing the cost of transportation in the new model to that of the previous model.

A. Vamsikrishna, Vigneshwar Raj, S. G. Divya Sharma

Experimental Investigation of Semi-elliptical Arc Groves on Piston Crown of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Apricot Oil

The performance and emissions of direct injection diesel engine are mainly depending on the crown of the piston head. The shapes on the piston crown increase the turbulence in the combustion chamber. This paper discusses increasing the performance and reducing the emission of diesel engine by adding semi-elliptical shape arc grooves on piston crown; again, it is also increased by using apricot seed oil as biodiesel. In this papers 2, 3 and 5, elliptical shapes are added on piston crown along with biodiesel. Apricot seed oil is used as biodiesel to decrease the HC and NOx emissions. Finally concluded that 3 elliptical groove piston crown with biodiesel has better performance and less emissions.

Sk. Mohammad Shareef, A. L. N. Arun Kumar, T. Venkatesh

Hydrogen Storage Techniques for Stationary and Mobile Applications: A Review

With the rapid increase of global warming and CO2 emissions from conventional fuels, the world is seeking an international commitment from all-dominating countries for an emission cut down of about 55–60% till 2050. Molecular hydrogen is the most-favored chemical fuel alternative for both stationary and mobile applications. Hydrogen is the most efficient energy carrier known to us with the highest heating value per mass, i.e., 120–142 MJ/kg of all chemical fuels. Hydrogen also has the highest gross calorific value being 141.7 MJ/kg significantly higher than petrol 46.4 MJ/kg and diesel 45.6 MJ/kg for 0 °C at 1 bar. The production of hydrogen gas is a challenge itself. Water being the only by-product of the energy generation and zero emissions, hydrogen is regenerative and eco friendly. Gravimetric density and volumetric density are crucial for stationary and mobile applications. In this paper, the storage methods reviewed were high-pressure cylinder (upto 800 bars) using different metals and lightweight composite materials, storage of hydrogen in a liquid state using cryogenic tanks at 21 K, storage of hydrogen using the metal–organic framework and solid materials, chemical storage using covalent and ionic compounds, storage using selective few metals which possess property to absorb hydrogen excessively in large amount, storage that uses nanostructured based metal hydrides and absorption of hydrogen using carbon-based materials like Graphene. Hydrogen can also be stored indirectly in reactive metals using metal hydrides and chemisorptive techniques in Li, Na, Al, or Zn and other alkali elements.

Aasim Akif Dafedar, Shivam Sudarshan Verma, Aman Yadav

Design and Development of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tank Using Glass Fiber as the Stress Bearing Component

The spread of hydrogen energy usage has been majorly checked by issues concerning its storage. May it be stationary storage, locomotive storage, or vehicular storage. Most prominently used hydrogen storage methods such as compressed form, cryogenic form, and chemical methods hydrogen storage still lack behind in meeting the gravimetric density and volumetric density targets set by US Department of Energy. Prominently preferred multilayer composite design which utilizes carbon fiber as its stress bearing component is still under development and has its own merits and demerits such as high cost and thick cylinder walls. This study focuses to take an alternative approach toward the design aspect of these high pressure storage tanks along with the selection of new materials. It compares various properties such as material density and tensile strength of extensively used carbon fiber with proposed tank materials used for this study, i.e., S-glass fiber as well as silicon carbide. The combination of these two new materials provides desired properties to the tank. To study and analyze, various identical models of the tanks were crafted using CAD software and numerical analysis was performed in Ansys Workbench version 16.0. Obtained results in the form of safety factor, highest directional deformation, and equivalent stress were studied and presented under the application of 700 bar pressure.

Aman Yadav, Shivam Sudarshan Verma, Aasim Akif Dafedar

Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow Through a Sudden Expansion Channel: Comparison Between Three Models

The current work presents the numerical simulation of turbulent water flow through a two-dimensional sudden expansion channel for expansion ratio 3. The governing equations have been solved by SIMPLE algorithm. The present study analyzes the velocity profile, normalized vortex length, and velocity streamlines to understand the flow behavior. Three turbulence models (Standard k-ε, Realized k-ε, SST k-ω) have been employed to study the characteristics of flow dynamics, and the results have been compared between three models. Moreover, the profile of normalized vortex length has been presented for different values of Reynolds number. Furthermore, from the whole analysis it is ensured that SST k-ω model provides better accuracy than the Standard k-ε and Realizable k-ε models.

Sandip Saha

Tractor-Trailer Gap Optimization of a Truck for Reduction of Aerodynamic Drag

The major target of automotive industries in the production of vehicles is achieving vehicle fuel consumption. The resources of fossil fuels getting depleted and the prices are increasing. Sino truck is one of the successful vehicles being used in the transportation of goods. There is a need to develop fuel-efficient Sino truck. There are many fuel-saving technologies are tried by researchers and engineers. Out of which designing of the aerodynamic shape of a vehicle for reduction of drag is observed to an important method for fuel be saving. An effort is made for reducing the aerodynamic drag of Sino truck model-321 by modifying the tractor-trailer gap with an aerodynamic shape. The modified Sino truck with different tractor-trailer gap shapes is analyzed using CFD to find their influence on the flow around Sino truck. Also, the analysis was done to identify the critical zones where the drag is more. CFD analysis was done on modified Sino truck by varying trailer and tractor gap, varying the height of the trailer concerning cab, varying the shape of the roof of the trailer and with under trailer coverage. The analysis was done at different speeds from 64 to 96 kmph with 12 m/s crosswinds. Out of all these, it is observed that undercarriage coverage has a great influence in the reduction of drag resistance. Modifications on the rear side of the trailer helped in reducing the separation of the flow separation and in the reduction of drag.

Merga Deraro, Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Seshu Kishan Nallamothu, Anantha Kamal Nallamothu, Sewagegn Zewudie

Design Improvement of MacPherson Strut Suspension System for Lighter Vehicle

This paper presents a design of a MacPherson strut suspension system for Bajaj Qute four-wheeler small vehicles. Data collection was done using different methods. Then, CAD modelling of the structure was made by using the data recorded from the existing vehicle suspension system. Then, the design of each component of MacPherson strut and existing suspension system was made using CATIA V5 software. Also, an analytical analysis was performed for analysis of the improved suspension system for the required results and FEA was done with ANSYS. The new models become safe than the existing in all aspects. So, the problem in the lateral direction which is flexible camber curve is solved, because the MacPherson suspension system has good camber curve not as flexible as other suspension system and also the stress in the existing system leads the system to have flexible camber; this is corrected in the new model. Also, the steering arm position is corrected to the middle of the knuckle to balance the steering force distribution. The vehicle also has lower ground clearance which is 180 mm when the vehicle is unloaded; with this ground clearance, it is difficult to drive in unpaved road. So, in this design, the ground clearance of the vehicle is increased to 220 mm. Therefore, the vehicle can be driven in all road conditions. It is found that as per the analysis done, the newly designed MacPherson suspension system is safe and performing better than the existing system.

Yonas Hailemariam Alemayohu, Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Anantha Kamal Nallamothu, Seshu Kishan Nallamothu

Design and Analysis of Composite Drive Shaft for Rear-Wheel-Drive Vehicle

These days, lightweight materials are in huge demand. One of the promising solutions for meeting this rising demand is looking for fibre-reinforced polymer composites. Fibre composite materials due to their nature of lightweight, they are gaining attention for preparation of products and appliances in the fields of medicine, household appliances, automotive, sports goods, aerospace etc. This research work aims to replace a metallic drive shaft by a two-piece composite drive shaft. Drive shaft plays a key role in the transmission of power in an automobile. In this research work, an effort is made to replace two-piece drive shaft made of steel with a single-piece drive shaft made of E-glass fibre/epoxy composite. Material behaviour is considered as linear isotropic for metals and orthotropic for the composite shaft. Reduction of weight of an automobile, with no compromise in cost, reliability and quality, is the main target of automobile manufacturers. Reduction in the weight of drive shaft also contributes to the overall reduction in weight of the vehicle. Fuel consumption of the vehicle is directly dependent on vehicle weight. In urban drive, fuel consumption increases considerably with an increase in the vehicle. The drive shaft of a vehicle can be designed with composite materials, to reduce its weight and increase the first mode of natural frequency reducing fuel consumption and avoiding resonance failure. In the process of drive shaft design, various stacking sequences can be used for reducing the bending stresses during its operation. The drive shaft model is prepared by CATIA and analysed using ANSYS. Given the amount of torque transmission, the dimensions of the drive shaft were calculated. The result had shown a mass reduction of 46%. In conclusion, the two-piece drive shaft can be replaced by single-piece composite made resulted in weight reduction which can also eliminate part complexity. Drive shaft optimum design with composite materials is achieved, which contributed to the reduction of fuel consumption without compromising the strength of the component.

Lelisa Gezu, Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Seshu Kishan Nallamothu, Anantha Kamal Nallamothu, Dawit Tafesse

Improvement of Structure and Body of Three-Wheeler Vehicle

Three-wheeler vehicles are used as one of the major public transportation systems in Ethiopia society. They have played a very important role in a short-distance transport system in Ethiopia especially in city and town. The purpose of this research is to improve the design of the body and structure of three-wheeler vehicles to bring significant change in their overall activity. To fulfil the objectives of this study, the following main activities were performed. CAD model was prepared by using CATIA V5R19 software; structure analysis was done by using finite element analysis (FEA) with ANSYS 16.0 software. Also, for impact analysis such as frontal and rollover static impact analysis, finite element analysis software was used. Designing the overall body and structure improves vehicle stability and handling. This rollover impact simulation is used to bring a great change to protect occupants from rollover accidents.

Bekele Eromo, Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Anantha Kamal Nallamothu, Seshu Kishan Nallamothu

Aerodynamic Analysis of Body of Passenger Bus for CO2 Reduction and Fuel Saving

In modern society, the automotive manufacturers more concerned about how to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle for saving energy and reduce the emissions from the vehicles to protect the environment. Aerodynamic drag, which is a wind resistance force acting on the body of vehicle against the forward motion of vehicle causing higher fuel usage. The aerodynamic drag has a direct link to fuel consumption of the vehicle. This work was done with the main aim of improving the aerodynamic outer body shape of ISUZU bus, a famous bus, being manufactured and famously used in Ethiopia. CFD analysis was done on the selected bus model for estimation of the drag force. The results obtained with CFD analysis done on modified bus outer body shape were compared with the aerodynamic drag acting on the existing shape of the vehicle. The fuel consumption and the related CO2 emissions were also estimated. Bus body models with modifications were prepared using CATIA and CFD analysis was done with Pheonix software. The selected speed range for analysis was from 80 to 120 kmph. From this work, it is observed that there is a great scope of reducing drag, fuel consumption and related CO2 emissions by modifying the shape of Isuzu bus. When compared to model 1, model 2, at a speed of 120 kmph registered great benefits, with saving of the fuel 5.17 L/h and 52.1 tons of CO2 emission reduction per year. The CFD results show that varying the pressure and velocity over rear and front side of vehicle got a great influence on the total drag acting on the vehicle.

Dawit Tafesse, Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Anantha Kamal Nallamothu, Seshu Kishan Nallamothu, Lelisa Gezu, Bekele Eromo

Computational Evaluation of Aerodynamic Performance of Isuzu Midi Bus Body

Many of these buses are available in Ethiopia with a poor aerodynamic shape, which appears to be rectangular blunt, which has a high drag resistance force, leading to increased fuel consumption. Isuzu Midi Bus is one of Ethiopia's most available buses; its external exterior body is locally constructed with a poor aerodynamic shape. In this work, carbon dioxide emissions and fuel consumptions were reduced by aerodynamic improvement of the external body shape of Isuzu midi bus. Analyses were performed numerically using the computational fluid dynamic/ANSYS Fluent modelling of the realizable k-epsilon turbulence. The standard model of the bus modelled on SolidWorks with a scale of 1:20 was investigated at different speeds, and a drag coefficient was observed. It is also tried to reduce the drag coefficient by improving the rear spoiler. Four models have been developed, such as model I, model II, model III and model IV. The drag coefficient was later converted into a quantifiable fuel efficiency performance parameter. The improvement in the aerodynamic configuration of model IV decreased the drag coefficient by 54.35%, leading to a decrease of 32.61% of fuel consumption. This decline in fuel consumption has a major environmental effect.

Natnael Bekele, Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Engidayehu Wotango, Surafel Kebede, Seshu Kishan Nallamothu, Anantha Kamal Nallamothu

Wear Characteristics of Aluminum Composite Reinforced by Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

Nanoaluminum composites are finding a large area of application in aerospace, marine, and automotive industries. They have been proven as a suitable candidate for replacing iron and its alloy in these industries because of their good strength-to-weight ratio and other enhanced properties. Carbon nanotubes are in the eye of many researchers and scientists for fabricating nanocomposites because of their marvelous mechanical, electrical, tribological, and thermal properties. Many researchers have fabricated Al-CNT composite through different solid and liquid processing, and they have demonstrated this composite suitable for functional and structural industrial solicitations. This paper represents the synthesis of Al-CNT composites through stir casting technique to study their wear behavior. Composites were prepared by reinforcing different ratios of multiwall carbon nanotubes in Al matrix. Outcome of the study and investigations revealed that the composite containing 0.2 wt%CNT showed the best result with approximately 7% improvement in wear resistance.

Sunil Kumar Tiwari, Ankit Dasgotra, Vishal Kumar Singh, Akula Umamaheswararao, Jitendra Kumar Pandey

Advancement in Digital Flight Control System

In a commercial aircraft, the control surfaces are controlled and actuated using hydraulic or pneumatic or servo actuators. These actuators may fail to give the expected actuation due to aerodynamic loading and presence of any other obstacles. So, it is required to develop an aircraft which gives the expected actuation by overcoming aerodynamic loading and presence of any other obstacles. In the analysis, digital control system is used and merged with the light intensity in the control surface actuation. The main control console unit includes microcontroller, stepper motor, DC gear motor, relays and voltage regulators light source, and receiver. Comparator is used in the feedback unit. The required actuation is not obtained due to the aerodynamic disturbances, and so, the actual actuation in the control surfaces introduces overloading in the stepper motor resulting in the requirement of additional voltage for actuation. This additional voltage is obtained from the comparator and feedback to the stepper motor. The entire system is interfaced with computer so that the entire control unit is managed by a special VB program written on .NET platform.

J. V. Muruga Lal Jeyan, Akhila Rupesh, Sabiha Parveen, Ajith Kumar

An Approach to Acquire Vibration Signals for Gear Fault Detection

The vibration transmission path introduces complexity to the existing modulated vibration signals making gear fault diagnosis difficult. This manuscript proposes a new arrangement to acquire gear vibrations thereby highlighting the effect of transmission path on gear vibrations. In proposed arrangement, an accelerometer is mounted on a gear, near to the location of gear meshing, such that the vibrations of non-rotating parts will be least recorded. The approach of acquiring gear vibrations is demonstrated by an experimental investigation, and an attempt to detect gear faults has been made. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is shown by comparing the responses of two accelometers located inside and outside of gearbox. Further, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was computed for all the recorded signals to analyze the signal strength of gear vibrations. It was noted that accelerometer mounted internally depicts the faults more prominently as compared to the accelometer mounted conventionally. Increased SNR values and increased amplitude of sidebands around gear mesh frequency and its harmonics depicts the capability of the proposed approach. Furthermore, FM0 and sideband energy ratio were used to analyze the signals statistically, validating the effectiveness of proposed new approach.

Vikas Sharma, Anand Parey

Review on Emerging Trends and Future Perspectives of Green Roof Buildings

Green rooftop innovation is as a rule logically used to expand the vitality and natural proficiency of structures and appears to be an attractive option for sustainable design as it may offer specific benefits to the building. The thermal comfort, which shows the satisfaction of the inhabitants, is one of the key factors in energy usage in buildings. Roofs add about 20–25% of the overall metropolitan environment, and they may have a huge effect on the size of the structure and the atmosphere. Nevertheless, typically dynamic models implemented for the simulation of green roof efficiency involve the awareness of certain parameters, which are frequently challenging to predict, to better describe the thermal interactions with the exterior world. The clarification of the warm conduct of green rooftops, be that as it may, is confounded because it depends on a few factors and relies upon nuanced marvels. The upsides of green rooftops innovation are broadly talked about in writing: protection and cooling impacts, disposal of urban warmth islands, sun retention, sound assimilation, checking, and upkeep of precipitation, and seepage of water are just a couple. Nonetheless, there is an absence of prerequisites for the assurance of a few of these favorable circumstances and, specifically, for the estimation of warm obstruction of the expanding media and the seepage layer. The main aim of this article is to study the current trend of materials used for the formation of different layers of green roofs, future perspectives for the discovery of novel materials for using in each layer with significant properties, eco-friendly, cost-effective, etc., and proposed many things which show beneficial results using in different layers.

Swarn Veer Singh Jaral, Manpreet Singh

PCCI Combustion for Better Emissions in Diesel Engines

Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) mode of combustion is one of the advanced combustion concepts under low-temperature combustion (LTC) which has been found out in resulting acceptable emission results in internal combustion engines particularly in reducing particle matter and oxides of nitrogen altogether. Various experimental, as well as simulation works, were done on IC engines on PCCI mode of combustion. Performance and emission results from these works were compared with the conventional IC engine mode of combustion, and better results were obtained. Studies also indicated that through fuel modifications for having different properties helps to get optimized load range operations and emissions under PCCI mode of operation. Tuning the EGR at different load ranges were also found very important in PCCI mode of combustion. Researchers found out the existing uncontrolled fluctuation of soot with that of oxides of nitrogen in the common diesel engine operation could be managed by PCCI, which is a low-temperature combustion strategy usually used for diesel-like fuels. PCCI mode showed results of thermal efficiencies close to diesel engines and also provides means of minimizing particle matter and oxides of nitrogen at the same time. Such findings used the conventional direct injection compression ignition engines with minor medications and low costs of operations. Various investigations also showed that further investigations should be done in making PCCI combustion more efficient for less NOx, HC, CO and better load limit ranges through the optimized matching of EGR level, time of injection and also blends of the fuel. The review aims in describing PCCI mode of combustion and basic parameters affecting this advanced combustion concept and also to summarize the results obtained from PCCI mode of combustion as a scheme to reduce emissions.

Getachew Alemayehu, Deresse Firew, Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Sung Kyu Kang

Design and Analysis of Front Axle of Truck at Different Driving Conditions

A beam axle is used as a central shaft in which the wheel will rotate. In addition to supporting the front part of the vehicle, the axle enables steering and absorbs shock from road irregularities. It is crucial to analyze the front axle which can operate at several load conditions as the failure will lead to a serious problem. The paper focuses on the analysis of the front axle of the truck at different loading conditions due to the variation of the road surface. The study is carried out by considering vertical loads produced at the front due to the weight of the vehicle and load transfer as the vehicle travels on different road conditions. The assembly of the kingpin stub axle supports the weight of the vehicle, by linking with other linkages. The research approach followed in this research work is divided into two stages. First, the analytic calculation of the load on the axle at different driving conditions (uphill downhill and level road) was carried out. For this vehicle specification, its gross weight dimensions and maximum acceleration have been considered. Then, the front axle was modeled in CAD software and imported into ANSYS software to determine the stress and deformation of the beam.

Daniel Hambissa Datti, Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Gamachisa Mitiku, Adem Siraj, Getachew Fentaw

Spectroscopic and Structural Investigation of Graphene Oxide Synthesized via Hummers’ Method

Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted immense attention in many research fields owing to its outstanding structural, physical, and electrical properties. Herein, the high-quality GO is synthesized through the conventional Hummers’ method. The optical, structural, and morphological properties of GO are studied using UV–visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The UV–visible absorption spectrum of GO shows a blue-shifted peak compared to pristine graphene, which corresponds to the opening of bandgap energy in GO. The absorption peak is found at 228 nm because of the transition from π-π* in sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. From Tauc’s plot, optical energy gaps are found to be 3.43 eV and 4.08 eV, respectively. The PL spectra shows a broad emission peak at 433 nm, which corresponds to an emission energy ~2.86 eV. Also, the PL spectra in the visible region confirm the appearance of defect states in GO. From the structural analysis such as XRD, the interlayer spacing of GO is estimated from Bragg’s law, and it is calculated to be 8.93 Ȧ. The characteristics peak in the XRD spectrum confirms the successful formation of GO with no traces of unreacted graphite components. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image exhibits that the synthesized GO consists of crumpled morphology.

Nipom Sekhar Das, Koustav Kashyap Gogoi, Suma Das, Avijit Chowdhury

IOT-Based Online FIR Assistance System with Two-Way Security Using Image Processing

Nowadays, technology has touched many citizens living in India and abroad. Technology is in industry, education, social interactions and preservation human relations, in sales, in agriculture and in banking, communication, and just about any aspect of our life. This technology interference has supported the work in many of these areas and has been helpful, saving time and effort. On the other hand, the rising in crime rates all across the globe is one of the serious concerns for all the governments. However, to tackle this problem, a vending teller machine-based FIR online registration system is proposed in this research work. This will assuredly help people in registering the crimes and will remove the fear of going to police station to lodge the complaint. Furthermore, this machine can be installed at various public places for the ease of access. This machine authenticates the user first and then allowed to lodge the complaint again the crime. In the proposed system, wavelet-based image processing has implemented for the better authentication of the person registering the complaint. The verification of the person is carried out by Haar cascade-based image processing technique, and it has been found that the results are 92% in real time. The further extension in this machine can be customized for in case of no action the report may be sent to the Chief Minister’s office.

Sandeep Singh, Manpreet Singh

Experimental Investigation of Sound-Absorbing Material of Different Surface Shapes on Noise Reduction Performance of an Acoustic Enclosure

The control of transmission of airborne noise radiated from the cutting tools during machining is one of the challenging tasks in the factory workspace and industrial environment. The intense noise surroundings not only affect the worker's health psychologically but also suffer from hearing damage, high fatigue, and impaired efficiency at the workplace. Therefore, an adequate design of the cutting tool enclosure is essential from the acoustical point of view. The implementation of acoustic absorbing material inside the enclosure is an appropriate way for controlling the noise effectively. However, the effects of geometry and different shapes of absorbing materials are seldom studied. In the present paper, therefore, an experimental study is presented for investigating the influence of acoustic absorbing material of different surface shapes on the acoustical performance of an enclosure. The 1/3 octave analysis is performed to study the effect of various shapes of acoustic material in the different frequency bands.

Pavan Gupta, Anand Parey

A Comparative Numerical Study of Transient Thermal Behaviour of Water-Cooled Metallic Plates

Transient heat transfer behaviour of SS 316 and aluminium alloy 6061 thick metallic plates has been investigated and compared in the present study. These materials for the study are chosen due to their wide applications in underwater machinery. LISA software has been used to simulate the water-cooling behaviour of metallic plates. Very less computational time has been observed during transient thermal simulation process using LISA software. It has been observed that aluminium 6061 is more thermal effective compared to SS 316 when used as a plate. Gradual cooling is observed for aluminium alloy. For stainless steel, the cooling rate is found to be very fast initially at the plate surface and its intensity decreases afterwards. Heat flux for SS 316 is observed to be very low compared to aluminium 6061.

Sunil Kumar, Gurdyal Singh, Gaurav Jain, Sachin Bhogal

Comparative Analysis of Tensile Strength for Corroded and Un-corroded Friction Stir Processed Aluminum Alloy Surface Composites

Friction stir processing is a promising technique to fabricate surface composites without surface defects. In the present work, aluminium alloy surface composites were fabricated using boron carbide (B4C) particles and were tested for tensile test under corroded and non-corroded conditions. Tensile strength of the friction stir processed specimen was found to be lesser by 35% as compared to base material. The tensile strength was found to decrease with increasing speed due to large sized grains at high rpm.

A. Nihal, Piyush Gulati, Jaiinder Preet Singh, Manpreet Singh, Rajeev Kumar, Harpinder Singh

Wear Analysis of Friction Stir Processed Aluminium Alloy Surface Composites

Friction stir processing is evolved as an effective technique to develop surface composites with reinforcements. The surface composites find its major applications in the area where improved surface properties such as hardness and wear resistance are desired. In the present work, aluminium alloy surface composites were fabricated using B4C particles and were tested for wear properties under corroded and non-corroded conditions. Higher rpm during friction stir processing showed better wear resistance properties.

Piyush Gulati, A. Nihal, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, Jaiinder Preet Singh, Harpinder Singh, Gurveen Singh

A Survey on Flow Phenomena and Heat Transfer Through Expansion Geometry

For researchers, flow through expansion geometry has become interesting in last four decades in various applications such as cooling equipment, mixing vessels, and many heat exchanger models. In this topic, lots of numerical as well as experimental works have been performed by many authors. This paper provides a detail review of flow phenomena and transfer of heat through expansion geometry. The current survey presents the solving techniques and methodologies which used to determine the flow characteristics and heat transfer on various expansion geometry with some modification. Moreover, different types of bifurcation (symmetry breaking and Hopf bifurcation) have been analyzed for different values of Recr (critical Reynolds number).

Sandip Saha

Biolubricants Based on Non-edible Oil: A Review

The petroleum-based lubricants cause harmful effect on environment because they are non-degradable and highly toxic. The shortage of mineral oil reserves leads to finding an alternative for petroleum and its product. Existing studies include the development of a biolubricant from non-edible plant. The main purpose of this current study is to provide the collective summary of the recent use of inedible plant for the production of biolubricant. This study includes the review of latest published research literatures on use of different inedible plant oil for the production of biolubricant. These studies did not conclude that biolubricant obtained with the application of nanoparticles and modification has greater tribological properties together with thermal stability and oxidation stability. There is a need of production of a flexible environmental-friendly nanolubricant having excellent rheological, tribological properties and antioxidant properties which will be suitable in automotive application.

Sagar Galgat, Ankit Kotia

Effect of Nanoparticles on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Operated with Different Fuels

Thermal efficiency and fuel economy of diesel engines are better. Despite the fact, due to the depletion of world petroleum reserve and hazardous pollutant emission to the environment, there is a need to research on the improvement of performance and reduction of environmental pollution. Utilization of biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel is a solution to substitute petro-diesel and reduce pollution. The low calorific value of biofuels makes them to have lesser performance values compared to neat diesel. To improve the performance and reduce emission, strategies of fuel modification consisting of modifying fuel characteristics to improve combustion, which leads to better engine performance, less exhaust emissions, and higher fuel economy, are required. Addition of biofuels such as ethanol to petro-diesel lowers the calorific value and the cetane number of the emulsified fuel which reduces the performance of the engine and increase fuel consumption. Adding nanoparicles in base fuel is a promising way of improving fuel properties to improve performance and decrease pollution. In this review work, the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of different nanoparticles such as CNT, MoO3, Al2O3, TiO2 ZnO, CeO2, and GQD in different base fuels are covered. The study indicated that the highest brake thermal efficiency is reported for CNT and Al2O3 nanoparticles. Al2O3, GQD, and TiO2 nanoparticles resulted in a very significant reduction of HC and CO emission. Regarding NOx emission, inconsistent reports are seen from the papers covered in this review. Majority of the research indicated there is a reduction of NOx emission; however, some of the reports which are done by CNT, Al2O3, GQD showed increasing NOx emission relative to the base fuel.

Deresse Firew, Getachew Alemayehu, Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Sung Kyu Kang

Analysis of Hypersonic Flow Over Pin Protrusions on a Blunt Body

The steady-state analysis of hypersonic flow over a blunt body with protrusions is done using ANSYS Fluent, with k-omega turbulent model. The heat flux and pressure variations over the blunt body are compared with and without protrusions. The analysis is done to study the pressure distribution, separation length, and the heat flux data. Four different heights of pin protrusions are considered. The distance from the protrusion where the flow separation occurs increases with the height of protrusion. Due to the presence of protrusion there is considerable increase in the pressure and heat flux values in the flow field. The peak pressure and heat flux occurs on the surface of the protrusion for all cases considered except for short protrusion with H = 0.1D. The heat flux, at the location of the protrusion, is about 2.7 to 5 times that without protrusion. The peak heat flux on the protrusion is about 0.72 to 2.2 times the heat flux at the stagnation point.

N. Akshay, S. R. Nagaraja

Design and Analysis of Zero Turning Radius Steering System for Light Vehicles (Bajaj QUTE)

In this work, a two-mode steering system which has minimum turning and zero turning configurations has been modelled and simulated in CATIA V5 and analysed in ANSYS 18.1. A detailed conceptual design process was done which helps to evaluate a variety of concept variants and select the appropriate and efficient design path for the developed mechanism which has the two modes in a single car. In this study, different assumptions were made appropriately using the data by visiting different websites as well as by measuring directly from the car. To check the strength of the components of the designed steering system, static structural analysis and eigenvalue buckling analysis were done with proper mesh size. In addition to this, the kinematic analysis of the assembled system was carried out using CATIA DMU kinematics to see how the motion of the mechanism look like and to check whether it can move as required or not. In this work, it is found that the turning radius of the benchmark vehicle (Bajaj QUTE) is minimized from 3.5 to 1.13 m which results in a decrement of 62.4% in minimum turning configuration, and it has a 100% reduction in zero turning radius mode. That means, using zero turning radius mode, the minimum area required to rotate the vehicle 3600 is only 7.3 m2 which can be available everywhere and helps the driver to manoeuvre easily and drive in the required direction. While reducing the turning radius of a vehicle, it is obvious that the critical speed will become less during negotiating a curve due to load transfer. Hence, the critical speed during the application of minimum turning configuration is about 43 km/h, and it is 31 km/h when the driver uses a zero turning mode.

Getachew Fentaw, Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Anantha Kamal Nallamothu, Seshu Kishan Nallamothu, Daniel Hambissa Datti

Nanostructures as High Absorption Energy Materials—A Review

Plasmonics has produced enormous exhilaration because of its peculiar ability to convert sunlight into heat efficiently. It finds applications in solar steam generation, photodetection, light-harvesting, catalysis, sensing and solar desalination. In this present review paper, different types of nanostructures are discussed along with their optical properties. The first one is aluminium plasmon-enhanced nanostructure prepared by self-assembly of aluminium (Al) nanoparticles (NPs) into a 3-D porous membrane. The second was the Au-NP/AAM prepared in a similar way to that of the first one. The third one is an HfN/AAM nanostructure. The first three nanostructures are prepared using AAM. Next, the nanostructures prepared from wood, Au-NP’s, copper piece and carbon are discussed. In general, all the nanostructures could able to absorb above 80% of light with a significant solar steam generation efficiency of ~90%. The maximum solar steam generation efficiency of 97.6% was produced by plasmonic wooden flower under 1 sun illumination.

Shaik Afzal Mohiuddin, Ajay Kumar Kaviti, T. Srinivasa Rao

Improving Frontal Body Shape of Locally Built FSR Isuzu Bus for Reduction of Aerodynamic Resistance

Several researchers tried to study the behavior of the air around vehicles and strained to discover how to control the air attitude for improving vehicle performance by altering the shape of the vehicle. The present study highlighted the reduction of aerodynamic resistance, and to improve the frontal body shape of locally built FSR Isuzu bus. Currently, computational fluid dynamic tools are very widely used to study the drag force. In this work, the aerodynamics effect on the FSR Isuzu bus is presented. The study includes modeling, meshing, and estimating drag force reduction, emission reduction, and a fuel-saving of FSR Isuzu bus. The modified shapes are have been analyzed and simulated using CFD to find the best aerodynamically performing shape. In the process of improving the aerodynamic performance of the FSR Isuzu bus, CFD analysis is done on four different models and the obtained results like a drag, lift, fuel consumption, and emission are recorded. There is a reduction of drag coefficient from 0.5451 for the baseline model to 0.4141 for model four, thus the reduction in Cd is 24.03% at an average velocity of 80 kmph. Subsequently, there is a reduction of drag force from 581.07 N to 441.43 N, thus reducing the power requirement by 3447.56 kW (17.87% Reduction). Model 4 is having lesser CO2 emissions by 17.87% on average due to reduced fuel consumption (0.256296 gal/hr.). Finally, the study indicates that modifications made have reduced drag by streamlining the frontal body shape and the addition of the drag reduction-curved device on the front indicated no more reduction on drag force.

Bahiru Belachew, Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Seshu Kishan Nallamothu, Anantha Kamal Nallamothu
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