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About this book

This book comprises select peer-reviewed proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Developments in Sustainable Infrastructure (ICRDSI) 2019. The topics span over all major disciplines of civil engineering with regard to sustainable development of infrastructure and innovation in construction materials, especially concrete. The book covers numerical and analytical studies on various topics such as composite and sandwiched structures, green building, groundwater modeling, rainwater harvesting, soil dynamics, seismic resistance and control of structures, waste management, structural health monitoring, and geo-environmental engineering. This book will be useful for students, researchers and professionals working in sustainable technologies in civil engineering.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Recent Developments in Geotechnical Engineering

Frontmatter

Different Techniques Used for Well Foundation Construction Focused on Pneumatic Cassion Technique: A Review

Well foundation is a kind of deep foundation that is conventionally allocated beneath the water plane for bridges. Different techniques that are used for the construction of well foundation and well sinking are horizontal drilling by divers, grabbing method, jet air method, jet water method, jack-down technique, vertical cutting edge method, pneumatic caisson technique, etc. The objective of the present study is to review different types of well foundation construction techniques with a case study of pneumatic caisson technique. Pneumatic caisson techniques are mainly used in hilly and rocky areas. Pneumatic caisson is a kind of caisson which is shut at the top and revealed at the bottom when in construction. The water is ceased from the caisson cell or chamber by dint of consolidated air. Pneumatic caisson mainly holds control over the work and preparation of the foundation in the rocky area for the sinking of caisson. Only with an absolute attentive observation, the caisson can be imperiled in a supine position. The bottom of the cell should be closed adequately with concrete as it may have chances to be placed on dry bottom. The excavation takes place, under the very high pressure and worker can go inside for inspection of work, and some kind of health hazard may occur for this method. There are many advantages as well as disadvantages for all the above techniques used for well foundation.

Rudrani Das, Amit Ganguly, Purnachandra Saha

Strengthening of Soil Subgrade Using Bio-Enzyme

Soil stabilization is frequently used in construction. In recent years, bio-enzyme base soil stabilization has been promoted by various enzyme manufacturers. These manufacturers are claiming the high increase in soil shear strength, reduction in soil liquid limits, and swelling properties. In this paper, a review as well as experimental study was carried out on the use of bio-enzyme in soil stabilization. Various studies suggest the use of bio-enzyme and indeed increase the soil shear strength properties up to 35% for clay. The strength gaining of bio-enzyme treated soil is very slow. Few other studies suggest that bio-enzyme not increases enough shear strength and it may not be useable to all kind of clay minerals.

T. Shil, R. Pradhan, Satyajeet Nanda, Benu Gopal Mohapatra

Analysis of Seepage from a Triangular Furrow with Negligible Freeboard Considering Soil Capillarity Using Inverse Hodograph and Conformal Mapping Technique

Furrow irrigation is a conventional method of irrigation. It has lower application efficiency in comparison to drip irrigation. The obvious reasons for lower efficiency are (i) excess seepage losses and (ii) inappropriate furrow spacing. Close spacing of the furrows leads to unwise use of land resources, whereas wide spacing leads to non-availability of irrigation water to crops grown in the central part of the furrow ridge. In furrow irrigation method, generally a freeboard is provided to prevent overtopping of water during irrigation water supply. Overtopping for a small period is not harmful to plants. But a freeboard of considerable height would lead to loss of cropping area. In this study, the seepage analysis is carried out for a furrow which has negligible freeboard or ridge height considering uniform soil capillarity. For such a section, the stream line originating at the water surface level in the furrow moves close to the horizontal ground surface before becoming a parabolic surface. The locus of the phreatic line is found for different side slopes of the furrow section. There is a need to find the seepage loss and the loci of the phreatic lines, and hence appropriate spacing of the furrows was found out. The analysis has been carried out considering the symmetry of the flow domain while solving using inverse hodograph method. In this study, seepage analysis is carried out for a triangular furrow which has negligible freeboard considering uniform soil capillarity. It was found that the seepage loss and the lateral spreading vary quasi-linearly with capillary suction head and due to capillary action, first water moves in horizontal direction and then after moving certain distance follows a parabolic path.

Kshyana Prava Samal, G. C. Mishra, Nayan Sharma

Bearing Capacity Analysis Based on Optimization of Single Layer Depth of Reinforcement Below Rectangular Footing

This paper presents a study based on laboratory model tests conducted with rectangular footing on unreinforced and geosynthetics reinforced crusher dust. The test was conducted at loose (RD = 29%) and medium dense (RD = 64%) state of crusher dust taking the variation of single layer depth of geosynthetic placed below foundation to find the maximum ultimate bearing capacity. The single layer depth was varied at a depth of 0.2, 0.25, 0.3 and 0.35B for loose state of crusher dust and for medium dense state, it was varied with 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5B (where B is the width of the footing). Also geogrid along with geosynthetic (stagged one above another) was used below footing at the optimum depth to find their combined effect. It has been observed that the inclusion of reinforcement at various depths provided below footing gives higher ultimate bearing capacity compared to unreinforced condition at both relative density states. For loose state, the optimum single layer depth of geosynthetic was found out to be 0.3B and for medium dense state, it was found to be 0.4B. The percentage variation of ultimate bearing capacity of reinforced crusher dust with respect to unreinforced at loose state (0.3B) was 112.56% and for medium dense state (0.4B) was 71.15%. Increase in relative density along with addition of reinforcement layer to the crusher dust has great impact on the bearing capacity of footing. At both the reinforced and unreinforced conditions, higher density produced higher result than the loose dense state of the material. Combination of geosynthetic and geogrid used as a single layer below footing at optimum depth for RD 29% and RD 64% resulted in higher ultimate bearing capacity compared to the single reinforcement and the percentage variation with respect to unreinforced condition, it is found out to be 121.85% at RD 29% and 74.46% at RD 64%.

Bandita Paikaray, Sarat Kumar Das, Benu Gopal Mohapatra, Sahil Pritam Swain, Sabyasachi Swain

Decolorization of Congo Red Using Synthesized Titanate Nanotubes (TNTs)

Congo red (CR, λmax = 497 nm, C32H22N6Na2O6S2) removal efficiency from aqueous media was evaluated on synthesized titanate nanotubes (TNTs). TNTs were synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by SEM/EDX and XRD. The as-prepared TNTs were applied on Congo red to adsorb and/or photodegrade. Adsorption, in the absence of light, followed by photodegradation using UV irradiation (UV-C, 360 nm) was conducted. The results of the adsorption experiments suggested that a dose of 4 g/L TNTs could adsorb ~86% CR with a shaking speed of 520–540 rpm within 45 min at room temperature and pH ~6.8 ± 0.2 (pH of de-ionized water), when the initial CR concentration was kept at 6 mg/L. Under the same experimental conditions, the UV light was allowed to irradiate the same experimental suspension for another 5 h to achieve the maximum CR removal efficiency ~98%. The adsorptive behavior of TNTs was evaluated using Langmuir isotherm and was found to be 12.04 mg/g. The feasibility of adsorption was understood by D–R isotherm. Adsorption is followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms in a close proximity. Positive free energy change value, ΔG0, suggests the process to be non-spontaneous and RL (dimensionless equilibrium parameter) value implies the favorability of adsorption process.

Saismrutiranjan Mohanty, Sanjib Moulick, Sanjoy Maji

A Case Study of Geotechnical Investigations for Soft Lateritic Soil Site in South Goa

All civil engineering structures require foundation to rest on sufficiently strong soil or rock strata. Lateritic soils have been encountered in abundance in most of the parts of Goa and are considered to be one of the problematic soils. These soils are highly porous, permeable and slightly acidic with low pH values. In the present study, a site for G+3 RCC structure located at the village Cacora Curchorem in South Goa is selected where the construction was in progress for Part A and B of the building which was resting on the rock/hard soil. However, during the excavation work for the part C, a very soft lateritic soil was encountered for the depths exceeding 10 m. The present paper discusses the geotechnical investigations and plate load tests conducted on the site to ascertain the safe bearing capacity of the soil and the suitable ground improvement technique for the ongoing construction work at the site.

Priyanka Bhadke, Purnanand P. Savoikar

Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Rocks in North Goa

Laterite rock is rich in iron and aluminium and is thought to have formed in tropical warm and humid regions like Goa. Generally, all laterites are of rusty-red colouration due to high content of iron oxide. Owing to difficulties in construction of foundations on the lateritic strata, geotechnical investigations of such areas has drawn considerable attention. In the present study, samples of laterite rock were obtained from boreholes at Dona Paula and Porvorim Goa sites. All these sites are closer to the coastal belt in North Goa. Various tests were conducted on these rock samples to study the geotechnical properties of the lateritic rocks in Goa and also the geology of laterites in Goa. These tests include, UCS, unit weight, water absorption test, etc. were also studied. Correlation is obtained about variation of UCS with L/D ratio for the sites under consideration.

Mrudula Ingale, Purnanand P. Savoikar

Monitoring, Control and Mapping of Landslides in Goa

Natural disasters like earthquakes, landslips, avalanches, floods, cyclones, droughts and volcanic eruptions have been distressing mankind since the commencement of civilization which credit up to 4% of total yearly deaths. Worldwide, landslides are assessed to cause about 1000 deaths annually apart from destructing resources worth millions of dollars. Landslides are one of the many natural disasters causing immense destruction and loss of lives civil structure, communication routes, agricultural and forestland across the earth. Approximately 15% of the land area of India is susceptible to landslide out of which 0.09 million sq. km come under Western Ghats and Konkan hills including Goa. Goa contains hilly mountainous terrain, in combination with sandy coastal plains. Being one of the most beautiful places, it is now facing serious scarcity of land to be used for residential purpose. Construction activity on hilly areas has been exploiting the scenic view which has also led to a number of landslides during rains. Slopes have been cut for many recent developments in the state which can pose a great threat to inhabitants living there due to lack of stability checks of the slopes. Landslide countermeasure is a strong issue hence there is crucial need for enhanced and modern techniques for steadying slopes and to avert landslides which serve the drive for this study. In the present study, various slopes in the state are being examined. Literature have been reviewed on various landslide related topics. In the present work, the stability of landslide-prone sites in Goa is studied. The work presents mapping of various landslides that occurred in Goa which is not mentioned in the Geological survey of India.

Mandira Faldesai, Purnanand P. Savoikar

State of Art on Load-Carrying Capacity and Settlements of Stone Columns

Construction of structures over a soft clay deposit is probably the most challenging task for a geotechnical engineer. Structures built over the soft soil experience a huge settlement, which may become the main cause of failure. Thus, for any construction, improvement of the soft clay properties is necessary. Stone columns are frequently used to improve the soft soil nowadays. Stone columns speed up the rate of consolidation of the soft soil and thereby increase the load-carrying capacity and lower the settlement value. A lot of studies have been reported on the behavior of soft clay reinforced with stone columns; many theories have also been developed. An Indian Standard is also available to determine the bearing capacity and the settlement behavior of stone columns. However, the theories are not well accepted because of wide variations of results. The present study includes a review of published theories and a comparison of results based on a typical problem.

Manita Das, Ashim Kanti Dey

Performance Study of Single Helix Embedded in Cohesionless Soil Under Pull-Out Load

In this investigation, an endeavour is made to understand the pull-out behaviour of single helix anchor embedded in cohesion less deposit. Physical tests were conducted using a laboratory-scale model tests tank of size 800 mm × 800 mm × 800 mm. A total of 18 tests were conducted in laboratory in which helix anchor was installed in loose and medium dense dry sand. A single model helix anchor made of steel was subjected to vertical pull-out load in a test tank with dry sand. Various parameters like diameter of helix were varied as 75 mm, 100 mm and 125 mm, embedment ratio was varied as 2, 4, 6 and relative density of sand was varied as 30 and 60% to understand their influence on the pull-out behaviour. A series of load uplift curves were drawn to understand the pull-out behaviour. It was observed that the pull-out capacity significantly varied with embedment ratio as well as the diameter of helix. But the increase in uplift capacity of helix anchor is less affected by increase in relative density in comparison to diameter of helix as well as embedment ratio. The results of the experimental investigation were validated using a numerical study based on PLAXIS 2D software. When the uplift load was varied with displacement from the PLAXIS examinations demonstrated commonly great concurrence with the physical modelling acquired from the exploratory outcomes.

Neha Nasreen, Ashok Kumar Khan, Sitam Suvam Jena

Soft Clay Stabilization with Steel Slag

Steel slag is a waste material generated from steel industry. Millions of tonnes of steel slag are generated in each year throughout the world. Substantial portions of steel slag are accumulated each year due to un-utilization. The accumulation of steel slag not only occupies a huge area of land, but it also pollutes the surface water as well as groundwater. Bulk utilization of steel slag is the need of the hour. Soil stabilization is an area where bulk utilization of steel slag is possible. In this paper, an attempt has been made to utilize the steel slag in improving the geotechnical strength characteristics of soft clayey soil. In this study, the steel slag has been diluted with soft clayey soil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% of dry weight. Sieve analysis, Atterberg’s limits, free swell index (SI), specific gravity, compaction, unconfined compressive strength and triaxial test were conducted on the virgin soil as well as on blended soil. UCS tests were performed at 0, 7, 14 and 28 days of curing. The strength characteristic of the blended soil was found to be improved with the increase in percentage of steel slag and curing period.

Ankit Kumar, Sumon Saha, Rana Chattaraj

Review on Study of Soil Stabilization by Application of Microorganisms

In recent years when there is a scarcity of desired land sites to satisfy the rapid development of infrastructures in metro cities, the engineers are facing great challenge of improving the properties of the soil which are going to carry the transferred load from the superstructure, ex: different types of buildings, bridges and roadways. The soil improvement techniques nowadays are emerging by the implementation of various significant ways to enhance the mechanical engineering properties of different soil types, like different types of expansive soils and minerally active soils. The soil treatment methods with chemical and cement grout are used increasingly by the engineers. The chemicals and cement used as a soil stabilizing material affect the natural environmental properties of the soil, hence, hindering the groundwater flow. To overcome their ill effect on soil and underground water, more sustainable method is the need of the time. Hence, engineers now are using the most readily available microorganisms and biochemical processes which are naturally active in subgrade soils to enhance the mechanical parameters of earth in survivable and cost-effective way. The main purpose of this kind of implementation is to improve both physical and engineering parameters of soil to use and reuse the soil when needed. The most important uses bio-clogging and bio-cementation are introduced. Bio-clogging is the process which produces the void clogging materials through biological activity which affects the pore spaces and permeability of soil. Bio-cementation, the process in which particle linking materials are generated because of the biological methods in situ for which the resisting capacity of the earth increases significantly. Bacteria which can grow in absence of oxygen and microaerophilic are the most eligible bacteria for the bioremediation of the soil.

Sourya Snigdha Mohapatra, P. K. Pradhan

Parametric Study on Foundation Retrofitting Using Micro-piles

Improvement in techniques of building construction has led to the incorporation of new ideas to ease the lifestyle of the new generation at minimal cost. Thus, this paper aims to determine the effect of additional floors added to the existing strucutre, which further leads to the increase in load on the building's foundation. The effect of additional superimposed load on the settlement characteristics of foundation modified through micro-pile-based retrofitting is studied. Initially, a three-storey building with isolated footing is considered for the analysis and a few additional storeys are incorporated to the existing structure which increases the superimposed load on the foundation. Commercially available FE softwares such as STAAD Pro. and PLAXIS-3D were used for the determination of load on foundation of the building and then modeling of footing, respectively. Four layers of soils containing clay, lean clay crust, soft lean clay, and soft fat clay are considered in the first model, whereas soil layers of soft clay and hard clay are taken for the second model. Diameters and the number of piles are different in different footings (designed as per superimposed load) of the building model. Results of the study revealed that reduction in settlement by nearly about 34, 58, and 66% are obtained for addition of fourth, fifth, and sixth-floor loading, respectively for the first model, and for the second model, the settlement is reduced by nearly about 30, 50, 62, and 67% for the addition of third, fourth, fifth, and sixth-floor loading with micro-piles when compared to the respective model without micro-piles.

Vishal Singh, Benu Gopal Mohapatra

Stabilization of Clayey Soil with Marble Dust

In this study the effectiveness of marble dust to improve the mechanical properties of clayey soil has been studied. Marble has high lime content, which acts as the main factor for soil stabilization. 25–30% marble dust (MD) is generated during marble quarries and stones are cut as a block. In this study marble dust was added in the range of 0–30% to the virgin soil by weight. Various tests like Atterberg’s limits, compaction test, and strength tests were performed on untreated soil as well as on treated soil. The results obtained in case of treated soil were compared with the results obtained from the untreated soil. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were performed at different curing intervals. It was found that the soil strength increased with the increase in marble powder content and curing periods.

Arnab Debnath, Sumon Saha, Rana Chattaraj

Recent Developments in Structural Engineering

Frontmatter

Seismic Performance of Polynomial Friction Pendulum Isolator (PFPI) on Benchmark Cable-Stayed Bridge

The performance of polynomial friction pendulum isolator (PFPI) applied to the benchmark cable-stayed bridge is explored. Seismic performance of the PFPI is evaluated with the basic friction pendulum system (FPS) based on the evaluation criteria stated in the phase I benchmark problem. The surface curvature of the PFPI is varied using a polynomial function to alleviate the drawbacks of FPS whose surface is spherical. The energy-absorbing capacity and the horizontal flexibility during friction are the two important parameters developed in the PFPI system. A parametric study has been done to determine the optimum value of the PFPI key parameters. The numerical outcome designated that the PFPI system is seismically superior to that of the conventional FPS isolated system because of its variable curvature corresponding to the ground motion excitation. It is also noticed that a maximum deck displacement along longitudinal direction has been significantly reduced by PFPI than FPS.

Pratik Sen, Purnachandra Saha

Limit State Design and Factor of Safety: An Overview

An attempt is made to look into various aspects of limit state design of steelworks in buildings and the relevance of Indian Standards (IS: 800-1984 [14]) to such a design. Provisions of British Code (BS: 5950-1985 [7]) are kept in view while reviewing the other international standards. Various design provisions in IS: 800-84 are examined and discussed. The anatomy of global factor of safety consisting of partial safety factors imposed on characteristic loads and characteristic strengths are critically examined with statistical backgrounds (Borges and Gastanheta 1971 [5]) and compared with various international recommendations. The so-called characteristic imposed and wind loads stipulated in Indian Standards (IS: 875-1987 [15]) have been compared with those proposed in British Code (CP-3-1972/BS: 6399-1984 [10]) and the American Code (ANSI: A58.1-1982 [3]). The observed discrepancies in the loading standards, affecting the overall factor of safety of the structure, have been highlighted.

B. Jena

Yield Behaviour of Three Edge Simply Supported Two-Way Slab Under Concentrated Loading

Failure of slab takes place forming a specific mechanism with flat facets between linear plastic hinges at which relative rotation occurs, called yield-line ring. The present study has made an attempt to study the behaviour of two-way RCC slab of size 1 m × 1 m of thickness 0.1 m at failure, simply supported on three sides and fourth side being free, under a centrally applied concentrated load. In total three-slab specimens having compressive strength of concrete, percentage of reinforcement and grade of reinforcement being kept constant are tested as an explorative test. Formation of yield lines is observed and collapse load has been determined. Johansen’s yield-line theory has been adopted to predict the upper-bound collapse load of the slabs. The theoretical prediction is compared with the experimental values. Certain discrepancy between theoretical and experimental values is observed. The load deflection relationship has been observed till the collapse of the slab.

Sushree Sangeeta Panda, Subham Ghosh, Bhagabat Jena

Torsional Buckling Analysis of a Bar Member

During buckling of column, it is assumed that the column would buckle as the cross section bends in the plane of symmetry. But in some problems of buckling failures of column, it would be either due to twisting or due to combined effect of bending and twisting. Such a combined effect of bending and twisting in a structure is known as torsional buckling. In the present work, a thin-walled bar of cross section (b × t) with the length ‘l’ is studied by applying uniform axial compression. The differential equation for the deflection curve and the differential equation for torsional buckling are presented. The expressions for total moment, torque and torque per unit length are derived and finally the expressions for the critical stresses and critical load for torsional buckling failure are derived. A numerical example is solved. The critical stress and critical load are calculated.

Lovely Sabat, Chinmay Kumar Kundu

Design and Analysis of Transmission Tower Under Wind Loading

Transmission towers play an important role in power sector and in human life. Structural design of lattice transmission tower is a crucial topic among the civil engineers. Various researches have been done on steel tower response to wind loading. Wind loads are randomly applied dynamic loads which are a major concern in case of transmission towers which are at high altitude from the ground level. In this paper, a 33 kV double circuit transmission tower with a height of 21 m has been modeled. The tower is designed having a square base width of 6 m situated in wind zone—IV having a basic wind speed of 50 m/s. The model has been analyzed manually as per the IS code. The design of the steel structure is based on the Indian Standard Code IS 800-2007 under limit state design which is the revised version of the code. The design wind force on each component of the tower has been calculated according to IS 875 (Part 3): 1987. In this paper, the analysis method used for calculation of axial forces is considered to be linear in behavior with two-dimensional approaches and the structure is considered to be determinate by ignoring the horizontal members. The results obtained have been further validated using STAAD-Pro v8i software in order to compute the accuracy of calculation. Temperature load is an important parameter in the design of transmission tower which has been considered. The sag tension for different ambient temperatures has been determined under different sag scenarios of the conductors.

Swabarna Roy, Chinmay Kumar Kundu

Structural Optimization of Microwave Antenna Tower Subjected to Wind Load

The microwave antenna towers are important in the telecom industry as they are used to broadcast microwave transmission from one location to another. These open-latticed steel towers are highly indeterminate structure. In this paper, a 50 m microwave antenna tower mounted with a hollow hemispherical dome of 2 m diameter is considered. It is subjected to a multiple combination of wind, dead loads, and the self-weight of microwave antenna. The tower is designed optimally for least weight. It is having a base width of 6 m and is located in Bhubaneswar City having a basic wind speed of 50 m/s. The various sections chosen are angle, pipe, and tube section with tower having X-type bracing. Weight is considered as an objective parameter which is function of independent variables (base width, number of panel, and panel height ratio). The design wind force on each panel of the tower has been calculated according to IS 875 (Part 3): 1987. It has been seen that with angle section X bracing there is a reduction in weight of about 14% than the weight before optimization. The results show that angle sections are best suited for the design of microwave antenna as compared to pipe and tube sections.

Swabarna Roy, Chinmay Kumar Kundu

Seismic Analysis of a Concrete Gravity Dam Using ABAQUS

The safety against seismic loads of the dams existing at present and the design of new earthquake-resistant dams is under rigorous research. The designs of the earthquake-resistant dams along with the evaluation for safety of the existing dams depend upon the reliable analytical procedure that can determine the stresses and deformations induced by the earthquake. Therefore, this study is carried out to perform the modal analysis, study the influence of hydrostatic forces, and also to determine the effect of dynamic loads on the dam with rigid and flexible foundation by using ABAQUS. In this study, modal, static, and dynamic analysis of Koyna dam located in Maharastra, India was performed by using ABAQUS. Dynamic analysis of the dam is done under two conditions: dam with a rigid base and dam with a flexible base. North–South Component of the El Centro data was used for the dynamic analysis of the Koyna Dam. The crest of the dam undergoes a displacement of 0.016 m in case of flexible foundation which is higher compared to the displacement of the crest without the dam with rigid foundation, which is 0.0107 m. Major principal stress and shear stress value is found to be higher in case of flexible foundation as compared to rigid foundation of the dam. In case of rigid foundation, maximum displacement is found within the crest of the dam for all the time steps due to dynamic load, whereas Maximum displacement observed within the center part of the dam for the time steps of 0.6 and 0.8 s and at the base of the dam for the 1 s time step due to dynamic load in case of flexible foundation. The major principal stress of the dam is found to be lower (1.04E+09 N/m2) in case of flexible foundation as compared to the rigid foundation (1.55E+09 N/m2). The shear stress of the dam is found to be higher in case of flexible foundation (6.95E+09 N/m2) as compared to the rigid (5.28E+08 N/m2) foundation.

Sourav Sarkhel, Jyotiprakash Padhi, Anil Kumar Dash

Seismic Analysis of RC Framed Tall Structures with Plan Irregularity

For the last few decades, architects, designers and structural engineers have focused on various advanced architectural aspects of reinforced concrete and steel structures. Regular plan buildings are quite commonly existent in India, while irregular plan buildings are in practice. These asymmetrical plan buildings, which are constructed in seismic prone areas, are most vulnerable and prone to subsequent damage during earthquakes. Seismic excitations generate the most destructive forces on structures. In accordance with newly revised Indian Code for Earthquake Provisons i.e. IS 1893:2016. In this present paper, high rise RC buildings have been modelled using a software package like STAAD.Pro V8i. Various models of irregular plans (e.g. U-, L-, T- and X-shaped) each of 25 storeyed (75 m each) have been taken into account. All the building models are located in high intensity seismic zone IV. As per IS 1893:2016, equivalent static analysis and dynamic response spectrum method have been conducted on all the building models. Even though various irregularities (such as torsional irregularity, stiffness irregularity) affect the seismic behaviour, this paper primarily concentrates on the effect of geometric irregularity on various RC structures. The paper also highlights both on which irregular shape of building plan gives the severe most response towards ground motion and also the accuracy of dynamic analysis conducted on high rise RC structures compared to static analysis.

Saurav Kar, Tapas Sadhu

Behaviour of RC Deep Beams Strengthened with Externally Bonded GFRP Fabrics: An Experimental Study

This paper aims to study on shear behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams strengthened with externally bonded GFRP (Glass fibre reinforced polymer) fabrics. Six numbers of RC deep beams were constructed. Three beams were left as it is to count as the reference beams and the rest three beams were retrofitted with GFRP sheets in various patterns. Two of these beams were wrapped with single layer and one beam was wrapped with double layers of GFRP and tested under single-point loading. The load at initial crack, peak load and contribution due to GFRP were recorded. A key discussion has been made on the enhancement of shear capacity of strengthened beams with respect to the un-strengthened beams. A comparison has also been made between the obtained experimental strength and predicted shear strength evaluated from available design guidelines.

A. Kumari, A. N. Nayak

Seismic Behaviour of a Typical Rail Bridge Using North-East India Specific Synthetic Ground Motions Under Multi-support Excitation

Seismic excitations are time varying and spatially varying waveforms depending on the seismotectonics of a region. Analysis of a long structure like bridges, pipelines, dams using uniform seismic excitation is not a realistic approach as the seismic excitation does not remain stationary at every support location. Thus, multi-support seismic excitation is performed to obtain seismic responses of a structure under a realistic situation. In this paper, a replica of a five-span railway bridge (5 spans @ 26.24 m) located in the seismically active north-east zone of India has been studied. A finite element modelling of the total bridge has been created in the SAP2000 software. Synthetic ground motions of moment magnitude (Mw) 8.7 with wave velocity of 1200 m/s have been generated as per the geotechnical and geological conditions of this region considering Oldham and Dauki faults by Stochastic Model Simulation (SMSIM). The synthetic acceleration response has been used for performing nonlinear time-history analysis for both uniform and multi-support seismic excitation study. Nonlinear time-history analysis has been performed to obtain the dynamic response of the total structure due to seismic excitation. The study concludes that the absolute maximum displacement, shear force, bending moment at the total deck and the piers increase in case of multi-support seismic excitation than uniform seismic excitation. This study shows that the codal provisions should incorporate the effect of multi-support excitation and site-specific ground motion details in the design of important structures to keep them operational in extreme hazardous conditions.

Aakash Kumar, Nirmalendu Debnath

Seismic Control of Soft Storey Buildings Using LRB Isolation System

Sustainable development not only deals with the protection of environment but also with the development that can be sustained for generations. Large part of the world is subjected to earthquake forces, which demands that structural engineers have to design the buildings so that it can withstand the consequence of these earthquakes. In order to mitigate this problem, seismic base isolation technique is used in recent years. In seismic base isolation, laminated rubber bearing (LRB) is the most extensively used technology, because of its fruitfulness and reliability. The principal purpose of seismic isolation is to lessen the seismic demand on structure. Isolation works on the principle of increasing structural time period. Hence decreasing the vulnerability of earthquake demand on the structure. In urban environment, for the purpose to provide parking facility at the ground storey of building, the concept soft storey has taken its place. However, the buildings with soft storey are most vulnerable to earthquake. In Bhuj earthquake (2001), most of the buildings damaged were of soft storey type. This investigation is to find out the efficacy of laminated rubber bearing isolation system in managing the reciprocating action of the soft storey frame model for the installation of isolation system at the top and at the bottom of soft storey column when subjected to El Centro, 1940 ground motion by using state-space method and a comparison is made between structures with and without infill wall. The response behavior in terms of absolute acceleration, inter storey drift, and storey shear have been investigated, for example, building models. With the use of isolation system, storey shear for all storey level is reduced. When LRB is placed at bottom of soft storey column base shear is reduced by 31.91% and absolute top floor acceleration is reduced by 42.23% that of soft storey building with fixed base.

Soumitri Soumyarani Choudhury, Sanjaya Kumar Patro

Comparison of Effectiveness of TLCBD Over LCVA in Vibration Control of Structure Under Non-stationary Earthquake

Liquid column vibration absorber (LCVA) is very much useful to mitigate the responses generated by the dynamic forces due to its cost-effectiveness dynamic vibration absorbing property. LCVA is usually a U-shaped tube having different cross-sectional areas in the vertical and horizontal column, normally filled up with water. The basic working principle of LCVA is to dissipate the vibration energy by gravitational force and the viscous force generated by the water present in the column. The damping force generation by the liquid movement through the orifice is very less in case of LCVA. To overcome this aspect, a new system is introduced which is called tuned liquid column ball damper (TLCBD) where a metal ball is installed in the horizontal part of the tube instead of orifice present in the LCVA. In the present study, the optimum performance of the response reduction of the structure is compared for both these systems. The numerical study has been performed by considering a single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure with an LCVA and TLCBD attached on the top of it separately under non-stationary random earthquake. The stochastic structural optimisation has been performed for both the cases and their results are compared. The results are confirmed the disparity between the response reduction of these two damper systems and improved response reduction is achieved for TLCBD system over LCVA system.

Shulanki Pal, Bijan Kumar Roy, Satyabrata Choudhury

Performance-Based Design of Dual System

In the present study, reinforced concrete dual system building have been designed by unified performance-based design (UPBD) method for various target performance objectives. In such buildings, lateral load is mainly taken by shear wall and gravity load is taken by frame. Proper engineering procedure is required for apportioning and designing shear wall and frame members. The designed building are subjected to static and dynamic non-linear analyses. The shear wall is modeled as a layered shell element, whereas the beams and columns are designed as frame elements using ETABS-2016 software. In this study, frame-shear wall building of height 12 storeys has been considered as sample building. The building has been designed with expected strength and demand level of EC-8 spectrum at 0.45 g. The target performance objective is considered as Life safety (LS) performance level with 2% drift. Various performance parameters like performance point, design drift, equivalent damping, and base shear have been found out. It has been observed that the target performance objectives have been achieved.

Durga Mibang, Satyabrata Choudhury

Study on Optimum Location of Outrigger for High-Rise Building

Due to rapid population growth and constraint on land availability, construction sector spread its wings in vertical dimension. As high-rise buildings are stretching toward sky, challenges with structural behavior govern the choice and design of structural system. Lateral load resisting systems popularly in use are moment resisting frames, load bearing structural walls, dual systems, tube system, and moment-resisting frames with outrigger. The intent of the work in this paper is to investigate the performance of outrigger, location optimization, and their efficiency when used in multiple numbers placed at various heights (2/3rd, 1/2th, 1/3rd times the height of building). Models of 30 storey buildings with outrigger and belt truss systems are analyzed for earthquake and wind loads and the lateral drift responses are compared to find the optimum location of outrigger and belt truss systems. The results are interpreted and found that outrigger system can effectively reduce the lateral drift of the building and optimum location of outriggers is found to be at mid-height of building considered along with cap truss.

B. Venkat Rao, T. Manasa Lakshmi, Mallika Alapati, G. K. Viswanath

Seismic Control of Benchmark Highway Bridge Using Fiber-Reinforced Elastomeric Isolator

In this study, the seismic response of a benchmark highway bridge is scrutinized with a passive control system named Fiber-Reinforced Elastomeric Isolator (FREI). Bearing with fiber reinforcement and elastomeric damping material is called fiber-reinforced elastomeric isolator bearing. Advancement of fiber materials is striking nowadays whose stiffnesses are practically identical to steel. So as per efficient and innovative point of view, this isolator is supposed for seismic analysis. The Phase I problem of the benchmark highway bridge is considered for this study. The ground acceleration is applied at all supports of the bridge. A comparative study on the basis of displacement amplitudes has been encountered under six real ground motions. Evaluation criteria are also established under different boundary conditions which highlight that substantial reduction of seismic response can be achieved by using higher displacement amplitude values of FREI. It is observed that peak responses of base shear and displacement at mid-span are effectively reduced by employing certain range of displacement amplitude values.

Jyoti Ranjan Barik, Purnachandra Saha

Optimal Design of Hysteretic Nonlinear Energy Sink for Suppression of Limit Cycle Oscillations of a Flapping Airfoil

The aim of this study is to address the suppression of limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) of a flapping airfoil using hysteretic nonlinear energy sink (HNES). A flexible flapping wing with span-wise bending and twisting degrees of freedom incorporated through translation and torsional springs with nonlinear stiffness in heave and pitch is considered in this study. HNES is comprised of a mass connected with primary structure by a purely hysteretic and a linear elastic spring connected in parallel. The nonlinear hysteresis behaviour is characterized by Bouc–Wen model. The performance of HNES with negative stiffness is investigated. Numerical results presented in this paper clearly elucidated the enhanced performance of the proposed HNES with negative stiffness compared with conventional NES and HNES with positive stiffness. An optimization is carried out to find the optimal design parameters of HNES in a deterministic approach by considering uncertainties in initial conditions with the objective of minimizing peak and root mean square response of LCOs. The theoretical study in this paper clearly demonstrated the concept and efficiency of the proposed passive control strategy which can be easily adopted for existing and up-coming wings.

Omkar Ghosh, Sourav Das

Remaining Life Assessment (RLA) Study and Retrofitting Old and Dilapidated Buildings

The building and the structures are basically considered for a particular design life and functionality to meet its purpose. However, due to various factors like design deficiency in the conceptual stage, poor quality of material and methodology in construction stage, lack of maintenance, exposure to aggressive environment, unexpected over loading, external impact, etc., the structures have reduced its strength in due course of time and sometimes causing mishaps endangering life of occupants, surrounding habitats including major financial losses. Periodical examination of health condition with proper diagnosis is thus very important step for ascertaining residual life of the building to enable to take corrective action for improvement of its strength and restoration process. Application of proper methodology by conducting semi-destructive/non-destructive tests with scientific instruments for investigation of structural members as per standard operation and codal provision to be carried out and the interpretation of results to be made to find out residual strength of various members of the building. The analysis will suggest appropriate measures to be undertaken for repair and retrofitting of the members so that the buildings and structures perform better and achieve the prolonged life of building. In this case, two industrial buildings, one from M/s J K Paper Mills, Rayagada, Odisha, and another from M/s Neelachal Ispat Nigam Limited (NINL), Jajpur, Odisha, have been selected as examples. The building selected from J K Paper Mills, Rayagada, Odisha, is an old RCC-framed structure of 24-m height, constructed almost 40 years back. After investigation, it was decided to abandon it and dismantle up to certain height for its safety and stability. In the second case, it is the Ammonium Sulphate Plant (ASP) building of Coke Oven and by-product plant of NINL which was constructed only 10 years back but having signs of distress such as spalling, disintegration and deterioration of concrete, exposure of corroded rebar, spillage of chemicals, dampness in RC members and in-filled walls, etc., because of sulphate and ammonia attack. After investigation, the affected members were identified and restoration measures were undertaken for structural deficient members. After restoration, the tests were re-conducted to check the improvement in the strength of members. This paper will be helpful to all the owner/occupier and engineers looking after the old and dilapidated buildings and industrial buildings having exposure to corrosive environment like steel, power and chemical plants, and housing societies requiring structural audit as per various regulatory and legal provisions of safety and stability.

T. Sarat Kumar Shroff, Kalpataru Rout

History of Finite Element Method: A Review

Finite element method (FEM) is a numerical technique to obtain an approximate solution for problems involving elliptical partial differential equation by dividing the domain into n no of parts of smaller size and applying the boundary conditions to them. In more advance way, it is the analysis of any structure by dividing the whole body into number of small elements and applying the constraints and loads on them and finding the unknowns as per our analysis and the whole analysis are done by the software itself. Initially, the FEM concept was used for solving mathematical formulations in easier way but the development of the FEM concepts and various FEM software, like NASTRAN, ANSYS, etc., made its applications to reach into fields of statistical analysis of structures, linear and non-linear analysis, heat transfer problems and also in bio engineering, nuclear engineering, metallurgical and much more, and this is possible due to the advance types of element in the FEM software. So in the research, the origin and the history of FEM is been studied and the contribution of various researchers has been shown which gives a very clear development idea of FEM and applications of FEM in daily engineering applications from past date till today. The idea of discretization is very old, the mathematical papers on FEA by Schelbach and Courant show the same approach. Earlier, before 1922, also Courant used the finite element ideas in Dirchlet’s principle. The FEM we use today involves the contribution of many researchers, namely Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp, Argyris, Bubuska, Aziz, Irons, Melosh and many more, like M. J. Turner at being perfected the direct stiffness method, clough coined the term ‘Finite Elements’, contribution of B. M. Irons towards FEA was the introduction of shape functions, patch test, text books by Huges and Bathe, Zienkiewicz laid the foundation for further advancement of FEM, and thus the period of 1962–1972 is known as the golden age of FEM and so on.

Lovely Sabat, Chinmay Kumar Kundu

Yield Behaviour of Two-Way Reinforced Concrete Flyash Brick Slab

The present exploratory experimental work has been attempted to study the yield behaviour of two-way square reinforced flyash brick slab (RBC) compared with that of RCC slab. The RBC slab has been prepared using flyash bricks partially replacing concrete in RCC slab. The bricks are bonded using concrete of same compressive strength as that of control RCC slab. Reinforcement is provided embedded within the concrete bond between the brick units. Thus, it reduces the weight of slab and achieves economy. All the slab specimens with edges discontinuous and simply supported are tested under concentrated load applied at its centroid. Load-carrying capacity at onset of crack and till failure, Load–deflection characteristics, crack pattern, and failure mechanism of the slabs have been studied.

Sushree Sangeeta Panda, Bhagabat Jena

Recent Developments in Concrete and Building Materials

Frontmatter

Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash and Ferrochrome Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete Using Recycled Aggregate

Recycled aggregate (RCA) is a term which is used to describe crushed concrete or asphalt from construction debris, which is also used to make other building projects. This method of construction is generally used for making road base or other different infrastructure-based projects. The source of RCA is nothing but the local construction and demolition waste in KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. This paper suggests the experimental results and analysis to study the behaviour and feasibility of the use of RCA in concrete form as a replacement of natural coarse aggregate. In this research work, fly ash and ferrochrome ash-based geopolymer concrete are used, and 13 M concentration of caustic soda (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) alkali activators are utilized to synthesize the fly ash and ferrochrome-based geopolymer concrete. Alkali activators to fly ash ratio are constant for all series. Experimental result shows that the strength of geopolymer concrete decrease with an increase in RCA contents up to 50%. Though recycled aggregates, fly ash and ferrochrome ash are waste materials used for making geopolymer concrete, experimental results revealed that up to 20% of replacement of recycled aggregate can achieve the strength and it can be the recommended percentage of RCA in concrete industry.

Srishti Saha, Tribikram Mohanty, Purnachandra Saha

Individual and Combined Effect of Nano- and Microsilica on Cement-Based Product

In the cement concrete industry, everybody is concerned about high-strength and high-performance behavior of concrete. These properties were improved using micro- and nano-sized pozzolanic mineral admixtures as stated by various authors. In this paper, author has emphasized mostly on using micro- and nanosilica materials with cement. Literature survey revealed that the most suited mineral admixtures for getting highest behaviors are micro- and nanosilica. Nanotechnology is nowadays a buzzword in everyone’s tips. Nanotechnology in concrete means the addition of nano-sized materials in the range of 1 and 100 nm to improve the behavior of cement and concrete. Micro- and nano-sized silica particles improve the porous behavior of concrete and also produce more calcium silicate hydrate resulting from chemical reaction of nanoparticles and calcium hydroxide. On the other hand, it makes concrete more compact in microstructure point of view, which improves density, strength, and also durability. This paper also discusses the synergic behavior of nanosilica and microsilica on the property of concrete in comparison with traditionally produced concrete.

Wubshet Gebru, Ashoke Kumar Rath, Dillip Kumar Bera

Self-healing Conventional Concrete Using Bacteria

Concrete is most widely used as an epochal building material all over the world. However, the repercussions of its deterioration are inevitable ever since early stage of its service life. It is followed by the fixture and repair works, which is very labor intensive and also involve a lot of capital. This becomes uneconomic when the design period of the concrete is considered. Thus, many conventional surface treatments are applied, and also various alternative techniques are taken for the improvement of its mechanical properties. Self-healing of the affected concrete can not only be of great importance but also it uses the environment-friendly techniques. The present study pertains to the use of bacterial-induced self-fixing concrete which has a significant effect on its mechanical properties as well as crack healing capacity of conventional concrete. Two different species of genus Bacillus are incorporated to the concrete which repairs the crack by healing the microcracks occurred in the transition zone as well as enhance the mechanical properties of the concrete. Bacterial concentrations are varied and mixed with the concrete mix to observe the change in mechanical properties, and results show a remarkable increase in the strength of the bacterial concrete. Results indicated that bacteria showed an optimum result when mixed with the concrete in the concentration of 108 cfu/ml. The present work illustrated that the production of self-healing concrete by both the species has a capacity to improve the strength properties of conventional concrete.

Smruti Pal, Ipsita Mohanty, Ipsita Panda

Use of Autoclaved Fly-Ash Aggregates in Concrete Mixture

In all developing countries, coal is used in a large scale. Fly ash, which comes out as a by-product of ignition of coal, is a very dangerous material to handle and it makes a scowl to our mother nature, along with using it as a low-land dumping, fly-ash bricks and replacement of fine aggregate. It also can be used as a replacement for regular aggregate. The grade of fly ash is determined by automated spectroscopy. The fly ash was agglomerated with cement using different proportions. Then, the pellets are produced by using Disc Pelletiser. These pellets got hardened by autoclave technique. The produced aggregates were tested by different aggregate testing procedures. This artificial aggregate will be lightweight having specific gravity less than that of 12.5 mm gravel (3.1) though it has high impact and crushing strength than that of normal aggregates. At the same time, it will also solve the problem of wasting natural resources such as hills.

Biswaroop Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar Rath

Optimization of Percentage of AR Glass Fibre Addition to Fly-Ash-Based Self-consolidating Concrete

Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is usually referred as flowable concrete which can consolidate without having segregation of aggregates. It uses chemical and mineral admixtures to achieve its properties. The present experimental study investigates the influence of glass fibres with varying proportions (i.e. 0, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5% by weight of cement) on rheological and mechanical properties of fly-ash-based self-consolidating concrete. The experiments were conducted by considering water–powder ratio of 0.3656. The guidelines of EFNARC were followed for the mix designing of SCC. Fresh properties were determined by L-Box, Slump Flow and V-Funnel tests and hardened properties were assessed by 28th day compressive, flexural and split tensile strength tests.

Asheena Sunny, Nitin Gusain

Performance of Concrete with Marble Dust as Supplementary Material: A Review

Waste marble powder is an inert material obtained from the sawing, shaping and polishing of marble. Those marble dusts are hazardous to the health and atmosphere if it is not disposed properly. The main objective of the paper is to use those powders in construction work as a supplementary material and to observe the performance in concrete. Presently, in this paper, physical, chemical, mechanical properties such as workability, compressive strength, tensile strength and durability such as water absorption by immersion, carbonation properties of concrete with marble dust are studied. The review indicates that in concrete industry marble dust can be used as replacement of sand and it generally improves the mechanical properties of concrete with lower water–cement ratio. In hydration process, marble dust does not play any role but it shows filler effect in concrete and also it shows better performance. Hence, marble dust can be used as an appropriate fine aggregate material for sustainable concrete.

Srishti Saha, Tribikram Mohanty, Purnachandra Saha

Mechanical Properties of Self-compacting Concrete Made of Glass Fibre

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) which is an extremely floatable, non-segregated concrete can reach easily at the congested formwork and covers the brace without any vibration. This present research work is focused on comparison of the mechanical properties of glass-fibre-reinforced SCC of grade M30. The mechanical properties of SSC like compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength with different ages at 7 and 28 days are evaluated. During the experimental work, the workability is measured by slump flow test, T50 flow test, L-box test and V-funnel test. In this current experiment, long chopped glass fibres of size 12 mm are used to reinforce SCC. Replacement percentages such as 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30% are adopted throughout the research programme. It is observed that at 0.20% replacement, mechanical properties show the better results than control mix and other replacement percentage. Load deflection curve of SCC beam reinforced with glass fibre shows better ductility.

Debarshree, Biswajit Jena, Kaliprasanna Sethy, Asish Kumar Pani, Kirti Kanta Sahoo

Study on Mechanical Properties of Steel Fibre Concrete

Nowadays, in most of the important constructions, high-strength concrete is very much essential. Achievement of high-strength concrete alone with cement is difficult rather than addition of admixtures. Utilization of fibres in concrete, effective development of flexural rigidity, imperviousness to splitting, resistance to porousness and thawing are incredible. Fibre has strengthening character which is useful for producing high-strength concrete. Therefore, fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) is accepted world wide rapidly. In this present research, concrete grade of M60 is prepared incorporated with steel fibre. The percentage of steel fibre is maintained from 0.5 to 2% of the weight of binding material. Mechanical properties like compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength are checked to quantify the solo effect of steel fibre on the concrete. It has been reported that all three mechanical properties are increased in comparison to control mix for a steel percentage of 2. Throughout the experimental work ordinary Portland cement is used.

Asish Kumar Pani, Kirti Kanta Sahoo

Sustainable Infrastructures (Materials and Management)—High-Strength Nanoconcrete with the Replacement of Nanoflyash

Using nanolevel adjustments in the development of advanced materials is the new trend now, and this nanotechnology can help in enhancing the properties of construction materials. The nanomodification of materials has wide areas of applications in changing and improvising the strength and durability of concrete. An effort was taken to explore the new areas of concrete using nanoflyash. Class-F flyash was crushed to nanoform in the high-energy planetary ball mill to produce nanoflyash. A high-strength concrete of M70 grade was prepared with normally available materials (NCC), and then the cement was replaced with 10, 15 and 20% of bulk flyash to produce flyash high-strength concrete (FAC). Then 2, 4, 6 and 8% of nanoflyash was applied to the FAC to get even stronger concrete or to compensate the strength loss due to addition of flyash to this high-strength concrete. The compressive strength and workability of this nanoconcrete were figured out and there was increase in strength in the range of 10 to 24% for various percentages of addition of nanoflyash to flyash high-strength concrete (FAC) after the comparison with NCC and FACs.

Abhijeet Prasad Dash, Kirtikanta Sahoo

Light Weight Concrete Using Light Weight Expanded Clay Aggregate and Dry Saw Dust

The dynamic nature of concrete to be shaped into an assortment of structures along with its ability to withstand tremendous compressive loads has made it the most widely used construction material of this era. Light weight concrete is characterized with a lower density than normal concrete viz two-third of normal concrete. Hence, it allows a greater degree of freedom while considering slender sections at some places leading to creation of increased workable space. In this paper, the properties (physical and mechanical) of LWC using LECA and DSD have been discussed. Going through literature review it was noticed that the features of LECA and DSD include lightweight, thermal insulation, superior acoustic insulation, earthquake resistance, and higher compressive strength. Specimen cubes of dimension 150 × 150 × 150 mm were tested for various proportions of LECA and DSD. With the replacement combination of 7.5% LECA as coarse aggregate and 10% DSD as fine aggregate (by weight), it has been observed that the desired compressive strength was achieved with a weight reduction of approximately 100 kg/m3. However, further successive increment in percentage of LECA and DSD shows a decreasing trend in compressive strength. Thus, to choose between LWC and NC, a careful analysis should be done keeping in mind the higher cost and skill required to achieve the perfect proportioning of the above-said materials.

Honey Mishra, Ankit Jena

A Study on Properties of Concrete Using Silica Fume and Brick Aggregate

An extensive investigation was carried out for recycling of demolished brick aggregate concrete as coarse aggregate. This paper explains behaviour of brick aggregate concrete with addition of SF while partial replacement of OPC. Natural coarse aggregate was replaced by brick aggregate and OPC was replaced by SF in various substitutions, i.e. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 14% (by weight), respectively. The objective of the paper is to improve strength and also make durable concrete by using brick aggregate and SF. An experimental investigation has been carried out for concrete samples having silica fume at a constant slump. Effect of brick aggregate with silica fume on workability, compressive strength, dynamic Young’s modulus of elasticity and UPV was investigated. It was found that strength of concrete increases with an increase in SF contents up to 10%, and beyond this limit the strength will be gradually decreasing. It was concluded that the use of SF up to 14% of brick aggregate concrete can be effectively utilized in performance of concrete.

Srishti Saha, Joyanta Pal

Comparison of Performance of Admixtures on Workability

Conventional concrete differs from the modern concrete with the use of fifth additive known as admixtures. These admixtures change the desired properties in an unimaginable manner. In the present study, effect of low, medium and high end admixtures is considered to evaluate their performance with varying dosages. Marsh cone studies followed by setting time were studied following IS procedures. This study finds the range of dosages of admixtures for better performance and taking workability into consideration. Water–cement ratios ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 and dosage varying from 0.3 to 1.5% by weight of cement including a control were considered in the study. Results are comparable with their performances for suitable recommendations for the field studies.

Alima Fernandes, K. G. Guptha

Study of Heat of Hydration in Mass Concrete

Heat of hydration generated by cementitious materials is one of the major setbacks in case of mass concreting. Controlling heat and managing with ambient temperature is a herculean task while working with them. The differential potential if not maintained leads to cracks. Hence, it is essential to control this heat especially in the core. As per IS 456-2000 and ACI specifications, the temperature in the core shall not exceed 70 °C. However, there is no technical or literature support available on this matter barring experience. This study focuses on tracking of after effects of release of heat of hydration to a greater extent in mass concreting. Study also focuses on relationships between various ingredients of concrete and their contributions of heat. Understanding the heat of hydration in core is carried out using a special device called SMARTROCK2—a wireless sensor placed on rebars before the concrete pour. This measures the temperature development at regular intervals. Delivering high-accuracy data that can be accessed from any device through Android or iOS app. Study compiles heat of hydration data on the prototype.

K. G. Guptha, T. Mohan, Guptha Tejas, Khan Bahadur, Chari Sanmit, Peixoto Cosyma, Raut Manasi

Study on Specific Compressive Strength of Concrete with Fly Ash Cenosphere

The properties of concrete, such as compressive strength and density, are the key properties that control the size and self-weight of any structure. Hence, concrete with high strength-to-density ratio (specific strength) can reduce the vulnerability of a structure against earthquake and also can reduce the operational energy consumption. Therefore, this investigation is focused on the study of the variations in specific compressive strength (SCS) of concrete incorporating fly ash cenosphere (FAC) as an alternative of natural fine aggregate (NFA). By doing so, the pollution of soil, water and air due to disposal of FAC can also be solved. To fulfil the above objectives, concrete mixes are prepared by replacing various fractions of NFA with FAC. The compressive strength and oven dried density of these concrete mixes are evaluated. Thereafter, the SCS of all these concrete mixes are calculated. The outcomes of the above study reveal that both density and compressive strength of FAC-based concrete are less than those of normal concrete. The decrease in density is due to the lightweight nature of the FAC and reduction in strength is due to the inferior bonding between FAC and cement paste. It is also found that the rate of reduction in compressive strength is higher than that of density. As a consequence, the SCS also gradually decreases with increase in the replacement of NFA with FAC. Therefore, it needs further investigation to enhance the SCS of concrete by increasing the compressive strength with minimum variation of density.

S. K. Patel, A. N. Nayak

Sustainability of Copper Slag as a Building Material Under Elevated Temperature

River sand is the standard practice of fine aggregate used for the concrete production. In this present era of rapid urbanisation, to meet the increasing demand for natural sand by the construction industry, massive scale depletion of the river bed is being carried out which is causing a considerable negative impact on our environment. Hence, it is highly imperative to find sustainable fine aggregates to meet the global demand without disturbing our ecosystem. Copper slag is one such sustainable material which has a promising future to be used as an alternative to river sand. This paper presents a study on finding the optimum dosage of copper slag (CS) for partial replacement of sand in concrete. Further, as part of durability study, the impact of elevated temperature of 200, 400 and 600 °C for 12 h exposure period on strength characteristics of copper slag blended concrete has been presented and been compared with that of normal concrete. The results indicate that copper slag concrete has excellent resistance to weight and strength loss at an elevated temperature of 200, 400 °C compared to normal concrete; however, at 600 °C copper slag concrete shows similar trends like normal concrete. In the present experimental study, M20 & M30 concrete grades were used.

Binaya Patnaik, Chandrasekhar Bhojaraju, T. Seshadri Sekhar

Properties of High Density Concrete with Mill Scale Waste as Aggregates for the Production of Washing Machine Ballasts

One of the notable environmental issues dealt by the society is the generation and management of solid waste. Steel industry is one of the major contributors of solid waste generation all over the world. There have been many debates to minimize the production of such wastes, but apart from this, enough prominence should be given to utilize the same. One such waste generated in the steel industry is mill scale waste. Mill scale is formed on the surface of steel plates or sheets during its production in rolling mills. The specific production of mill scale constitutes to about 3 to 4% of the steel produced in the industry. Globally, millions of tonnes of mill scale are generated on annual basis. To some extent, it can be reused in steel industries and cement plants but very rarely research is conducted to explore the possibility of its use as aggregates in concrete. This study concentrates on the utilization of mill scale waste for the production of ballasts used in washing machines. Ballasts act as counterweights in washing machines and require a standard weight. Thus, high density concrete is used to produce ballasts occupying lesser volume for the given weight. Mill scale acts as a high density aggregate and is used as a complete replacement of fine and coarse aggregates. The studies carried out show that a density of 3100 kg/m3 is achieved for the designed mix concurrently meeting the strength requirements of the ballasts as per the industrial requirements.

Vishnu S. Gavandi, K. G. Guptha

Effect of Bacillus Cohnii Bacteria on the Properties of Concrete

Concrete plays an important role in this era of rapid urbanization. But concrete is quite prone to crack formation, which affects its durability. If immediate precaution is not taken then cracks tend to expand further and require costly repair. Due to the cracks, an easy path is developed in the structure, through which water, oxygen and carbon dioxide, etc. from air penetrates into the concrete which leads to the decrement in durability of concrete. To overcome this disadvantage, various crack healing techniques have come into limelight; one of them is self-healing bacterial concrete. This paper is aimed at finding out the influence of Bacillus Cohnii bacterium on the properties of concrete. Bacterial cell count, i.e. colony-forming unit (CFU) of 105 and 1010 cells/ml were selected for the present work. Then 103 and 108 cells/cm3 bacterial concentrations have been added to concrete for 105 and 1010 cells/ml, respectively. Specimens were tested after different intervals of curing period. When compared to control mix (without the addition of bacteria), it is noticed that concrete with Bacillus Cohnii bacteria shows increment in compressive, flexural and split tensile strength in all curing periods for both cell concentrations 103 and 108 cells/cm3. The highest strength is achieved when 103 cells/cm3 bacterial concentration have been added to concrete for 105 cells/ml.

S. Jena, B. Basa, K. C. Panda

Effect of PVC Dust on the Performance of Cement Concrete—A Sustainable Approach

In a current scenario, about 2.7 billion tonnes of cement is produced every year, by this lot of CO2 is emitted to the environment, to overcome the environmental problems cementatious material (PVC DUST) is used as an alternate material in concrete. While manufacturing PVC pipes, lot of PVC dust is generated. PVC dust is a fine powder obtained while manufacturing PVC pipes, this waste will create landfilling and environmental problems; due to the contamination chlorinated chemicals in PVC dust the workers working in PVC industries are suffering from diseases like blood cancer, lung cancer and brain tumour, if it is exposed to environment, the people who stay in the surrounding they also get caused by these diseases. Chemical composition of PVC dust is having silica and other compounds so that effectively this is used in concrete as a mineral admixture to enhance the mechanical properties of cement concrete to overcome the above-mentioned serious diseases and environmental problems. Overall the main importance of proposed research is to overcome the environmental pollution problems by using PVC dust in cement concrete, to overcome the landfilling and disposal problems of PVC dust. As a sustainable approach, use of waste PVC dust in concrete will give optimum results. This paper reports on the investigation and implementation of PVC dust as a replacement of cement in concrete mixes for all types of constructions. In concrete, with a view to reduce the use of cement content in mortar and concrete without affecting their performance. For this it must be assured that concrete prepared with PVC dust has good mechanical strength. The characteristic properties of concrete were studied with controlled mix. Concrete mixes with 0 to 25% replacement of PVC dust and other waste materials in concrete. As a sustainable approach, this thesis will overcome environmental pollution, landfilling and disposal problems and economical viability.

M. Manjunatha, K. Vijaya Bhaskar Raju, P. V. Sivapullaiah

An Overview of Strength and Durability Aspects of Concrete Using PET Fibres

As a widely used construction material, concrete plays a very important role in the construction industry. Concrete reinforced with fibrous material is called as fibre reinforced concrete. Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) is a new structural material that is becoming increasingly important due to rise in concrete structural strength and integrity. Rapid urbanisation and industrialization and overuse of plastics in day to day life all over the world have resulted in large accumulation of plastic waste materials all over. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste is obtained from disposable PET bottles is the major cause of solid disposal. This research is expected to encourage the use of waste plastics in the construction industry to regulate the pollution of the environment and the harm caused to humans. Use of plastic fibres into the concrete as a reinforcing material has attracted widespread attention from all over the world due to its long-term benefits especially in the construction industry. In the current paper, reviewing of the impact of PET fibres on properties of concrete is undertaken.

Shruti K. Chodankar, Purnanand P. Savoikar

Strength and Sorptivity of Concrete Using Fly Ash and Silpozz in Marine Environment

This article presents the strength and sorptivity of concrete using fly ash (FA) and silpozz exposed to seawater. Conventional concrete made with 100% cement. First blended concrete series made with 0% FA and 10–30% silpozz replaced with cement and second series made 10% FA and 10–30% silpozz. The studied parameters are compressive strength for 7, 28, 90, 180 and 365 days and flexural strength and split tensile strength for 7, 28 and 90 days of seawater curing (SWC) and normal water curing (NWC) samples. Modulus of elasticity and strength reduction factor (SRF) in bond strength along with slip of 28 days SWC samples are also studied. Water absorption and sorptivity were observed as durability indicator. It reveals from the present investigation that incorporation of silpozz helps to improve the strength and reduces sorptivity of concrete against seawater.

T. Jena, K. C. Panda

Effect of FRC Due to Saline Water and Urea Solution

Fibre-reinforced cement mortar is a composite material used to introduce short fibre for enhancing some properties of the mortar matrix. Mortar cubes of 1% hybridization by using poly-propylene (PP), coconut coir (CC) and scrap rubber (TR) fibre were prepared and various properties were compared with a control mix specimen after 28 days. Compressive strength test was conducted for determining the changes in physical properties of the mortar due to the effect of salinity and urination. Study on interfacial bonding between matrix and reinforcement carried out by using SEM analysis. The test result suggested that fibre-reinforced plaster was able to achieve adequate strength if curing water contains salinity of 3.5% (35 g/L) and crop nutrient (NPK-46-0-0) of 40% w/v dissolved form in freshwater. This type of concrete could be used in non-structural components like warehouse flooring, industrial floor, water tank, benches or footpath near sea beaches, etc.

Sagar Sarangi, Anand Kumar Sinha, Birendra Kumar Singh, Devendra Mohan

Effect of Lime on Mechanical Properties of Silica Fume Modified Concrete

The sole objective of the work is aimed to examine the possibility of replacing ordinary Portland cement with condensed silica fume. Silica fume is a waste product from ferro-alloy silicon industry. In this research, the ordinary concrete has been modified by 25% of micro silica fume by replacing Portland cement. Again that same mix has been modified by adding free lime by replacing fine aggregate with different percentages like 3, 5, 7 and 10% by weight with a constant water-cement ratio 0.45 by weight. The cement and silica fume percentage was kept constant and after that the influence of addition of active lime was studied. The cement, sand and aggregate proportion were assumed as 1:1.5:3. Specimen was prepared for various tests like compressive, split-tensile and flexural strength for different curing ages (7, 28 and 56 days). Silica fume modified concrete with 7% of free lime by volume gave the best results.

Gaurav Udgata, Purnajit Bhowmik, Silpa P. Das

Polymeric Materials for Repair of Distressed Concrete Structures

The concrete repair is not given its due the weightage in civil engineering considering the sustainability issues and environment impact factor that it produces in restoring and conserving the old structures. To build the similar new structure, there is lot of embedded energy involved for demolishing and rebuilding the structure. Unless otherwise the structure is unsafe, the building or structure should be restored and should not be given permission for redevelopment. Before repairing any cracks in concrete structures, it needs to be diagnosed properly. Based on the diagnosis, compatible repair materials need to be selected for the repair. There are different types of repair materials and methodologies available out of which suitable one needs to be selected. The structural audit with non-destructive test (NDT) helps to diagnose the problems. There are different kinds of repair materials and methods available, which need to be specified based on the requirement. In most cases of repair, the failure takes place since the issues of compatibility of repair material are not considered during material selection. Also, during design and execution of a repair project, the planning and surface preparation is not done properly for which repair of same surface continues again and again. The present paper discusses the various types of polymeric materials and methodologies used for repair of distressed concrete structures for a durable concrete repair system.

Suresh Chandra Pattanaik, Sanjaya Kumar Patro, Bitanjaya Das

Thermal Cycles and Its Behavioural Aspects of Glass Fibre Self-compacting Concrete

The structural elements when exposed to heat energy because of solar heat in the day time as discussed in Sravana P, Srinivasa Rao P, Seshagiri Rao MV (2006) Effect of thermal cycles on the strength properties of OPC and Fly ash concrete. Indian Concrete J 49–52; Dubal N, Bairagi NK (1996) Effect of thermal cycles on the compressive strength, modulus of rupture and dynamic modulus of concrete. Indian Concrete J 70(8):23–26. 100% elements will undergo decline in strength when exposed. To study the behaviour of thermal cycles on strength characteristics of glass fibre self-compacting concrete mixes (GFSCC) (Dubal N, Bairagi NK 1996 Effect of thermal cycles on the compressive strength, modulus of rupture and dynamic modulus of concrete. Indian Concrete J 70(8):23–26) using AR-glass fibres, the investigation have been carried on various mixes.

Seshadri Sekhar Tirumala

Constraints in Journey of Graphene from Laboratory to Life

Graphene extraction through exfoliation was reported in 2001. Researches revealed many attractive properties of graphene, such as excellent strength, good thermal and electrical conductivities, high surface area, its potential to absorb and store harmful gases, etc., for which graphene is being seen as a wonder material. Though multiple benefits with graphene as a material are observed in the research findings, still the adoption of this wonder material is not visible in common public life. Experts opine that new materials take longer time before penetrating into the domain of public use, citing previous instances. However, in the twenty-first-century world, where information travels really fast, it is not unfair to expect greater spread of graphene by this time. The associated factors responsible for the poor availability of this excellent material and the constraints to be overcome for its implementation in common life have been reported in this paper. Firstly, the paper attempts to assess the use scale of graphene in laboratories and in real life. The established graphene institutes and the different research areas are highlighted in this work. Further, the statistical analysis of the research publications in Scopus database is presented to assess the research progress in the field of graphene. The graphene-based products those are commercially available so far also have been reported in this investigation for showing its importance in common life. In the subsequent sections, the constraints in commercialization are presented based on the published literatures and reports.

Sanjukta Sahoo, Trupti Ranjan Mahapatra, Hemlata Jena

Simultaneous Optimization of Strength and Acid Resistance in Concrete Composed of Carbonated Fly Ash

Fly ash that has captured carbon dioxide is regarded as carbonated fly ash. Use of this as a cement replacement can help in concreting in economically and environmentally beneficial way. For the purpose, the strength and durability aspect need careful investigation. In the current work, three cementitious materials such as fly ash, carbonated fly ash and fine crusher dust have been used as supplementary cementitious materials in concrete for finding strength and durability properties. Three levels of replacement (20, 40, 60%) have been considered to design M30 grade of concrete at water/cement ratio of 0.35. The cube compressive strength of concrete at water-curing age of 7, 28 and 90 days and the acid (5% H2SO4) resistance of those 7, 28 and 90 days water-cured concrete at 30 and 90 days acid exposure has been determined and compared with that of control concrete. Multi-response optimization using Taguchi method and grey relational analysis has been used to find process parameters towards simultaneous optimization of strength and durability. The carbonated fly ash concrete with cement replacement of 40% and 90 days of water curing offers simultaneously optimized strength and durability.

Sanjukta Sahoo, Neha Priyadarshini, Navneet Kumar, Bhaabani Sankar Das, Sabyasachi Dutta

Mechanical and Durability Properties of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

Portland cement plays a very important part in construction, but the manufacturing process emits almost 5–7% of the CO2 in the world and it is one of the main causes of global warming. This paper discusses about the alternative material to Portland cement and compares between their strength and durability. The main material in this study is fly ash which is an industrial waste and easily available. In India, every year almost 120 million tons of fly ash is produced in the power plants and fly ash is very rich in silicon and aluminium; that is why it is a very good replacement for cement and this way we can recycle the waste also. Geopolymer is a mixture of fly ash with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). In this paper, geopolymer is made using the combination of M25-grade concrete. The ratio between NaOH and Na2SiO3 is kept constant which is 1:2 and the morality of NaOH varied from 10 M to 16 M. In geopolymer concrete, cement is 100% replaced by fly ash. The compressive strength and durability parameter is compared between geopolymer concrete cubes (which is kept at different curing conditions) and concrete cubes in which Portland cement is replaced by 25% of fly ash.

Arani Dutta, Narayan Chandra Moharana

A Review on Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of Reinforced Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures

This paper presents the recent research progress on the response of concrete exposed to fire or high temperatures. The main highlight of this review paper is a compilation of previously reported data regarding the variations in mechanical properties and microstructure properties of concrete when exposed to high temperatures. The concrete structures get deteriorated at the macro- and microscopic levels due to high-temperature exposure. The macro-level damages can be measured with degradation in mechanical properties such as the reduction in compressive strength, weight loss, changes in elastic properties, reduction of bond strength in reinforced concrete, etc. The macro-cracks on the surface of concrete causes spalling which can be observed after exposing the concrete samples to more than 300 ℃. The compressive strength of the concrete reduces slightly till 400 ℃, and when the temperature increased to 600 ℃, there was an exponential reduction in the compressive strength of concrete. Another important parameter is bond strength degradation, which plays a crucial role in durability issues. To understand the deterioration phenomenon and changes in mechanical properties, the changes at the level of the microstructure of concrete need to be understood. Dehydration of products causes deterioration of mechanical properties and weight loss of concrete when exposed to high temperatures. At different temperatures, the microstructure changes and the response of hydration products such as calcium hydroxide (CH), CSH gel, unhydrated cement and capillary water reported by previous researchers are compiled and discussed.

Sharan Kumar Goudar, Santhosh Kumar Gedela, B. B. Das

Application of Andreassen and Modified Andreassen Model on Cementitious Mixture Design: A Review

Cement is a widely used construction material and its consumption on large-scale causes environmental degradation; thus, more emphasis is being given on industrial by-products as alternative materials to cement for their sustainable usage. It is necessary that varying particle size of supplementary cementitious particles is to be used for filling the voids to form a dense particle-packed concrete. The selection of right combination of material is tedious job by trials involving different replacement materials and the resultant concrete may show unexpected results; thus, a more suitable method is the selection of materials based on optimum packing of particles. To select the optimum size of replacement materials particle packing models are essential, so that a low-cement concrete can be prepared which will be ecological as well as economical with improved density, low porosity and high compressive strength. It is found that there are different models have been developed to achieve optimal packing. However, application of Andreassen and modified Andreassen models for the particle packing of multiple ingredients of cementitious matrix found to be largely being accepted by the researchers. This paper reviews the application of Andreassen and modified Andreassen models for the effective particle packing investigations on cementitious particles. It also reviews the software’s employed for designing various cementitious mixtures based on Andreassen and modified Andreassen models.

K. Snehal, B. B. Das

Characterization of Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of FA and GGBS-Based Geopolymer Mortar Cured in Ambient Condition

Fly ash-based geopolymer mortars require heat curing to achieve its properties, which limits its practical application at ambient conditions. The present study was aimed to accomplish the need for application of fly ash-based geopolymers for practical viability without any heat curing by inclusion of ground-granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The results revealed that inclusion of GGBS as a partial replacement to fly ash (FA) in geopolymer mortar, which is cured in ambient curing condition, can be able to achieve required setting time and compressive strength. Amalgamation of GGBS with class FA as binder in geopolymerization lend a hand to attain compressive strength as well as setting time which is analogous to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Microstructural properties were studied using scanning electron microscopy.

K. M. Prasanna, Saif Tamboli, B. B. Das

Fast Setting Steel Fibre Geopolymer Mortar Cured Under Ambient Temperature

Cement and cementitious materials are being used worldwide as the most popular multipurpose construction materials but the greenhouse gas such as carbon dioxide (CO2) produced during its manufacturing process creating a huge environmental hazard, thus efforts have been made for alternative binders. Geopolymer binder is new age binder alternative to ordinary Portland cement in infrastructure projects because it is produced from eco-friendly and industrial waste materials. This study was aimed to produce fast setting with ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) in fly ash-based geopolymer mortar incorporated with steel fibres cured under ambient temperature. In this research, alkaline to binder ratio was varied from 0.5 to 0.8, crimped steel fibre are varied from 0.5 to 1.5% by total volume of binder and combination of fly ash (FA) and GGBS (100%:0%, 90%:10%, 80%:20%, 70%:30%, 60%:40% and 50%:50%) as binder were used for preparation of fibre geopolymer mortar. The tests conducted include stetting time and flowability of geopolymer mortar, compressive strength and microstructural characterisation of steel fibre geopolymer mortar. The tests for compressive strength were carried out on standard size of mortar samples at curing period of 3, 7 and 28 days. It is noted from the test results that increase in GGBS content setting times were decreased; however, the compressive strength of fly ash-based geopolymer mortar increased. The highest compressive strength at 28 days of curing period was found to be 69.5 MPa, which is obtained with content of 1% of steel fibres and alkaline to binder ratio of 0.6 with 50%:50% binder’s proportions. Further, it is observed that the incorporation of steel fibres in plain geopolymer mortar have enhanced the compressive strength and optimum dosage of fibres was found to be 1%.

K. M. Prasanna, Irambona Theodose, K. N. Shivaprasad, B. B. Das

Durability Properties of Self-compacting Concrete Using Silica Fume

Vigorous industrialization has led to the voracious generation of waste materials, like silica fume, RHA, ferrochrome ash, fly ash and so on. There were alternative materials that can be used as mineral admixture to cement in concrete. For example, ferrochrome ash which was obtained from Ferro-alloy industries and fly ash which is produced in thermal power plants are a few of them. This research shows the combined effect of fly ash and ferrochrome ash-based concrete in different percentages as partial replacement of cement. This paper is inclusive of results of experiments that have been carried out to get the enhanced mechanical properties of OPC by replacing fly ash with various percentages (10, 20, 30 and 3%) of ferrochrome ash. It was observed from the research that even a small quantity of ferrochrome ash when mixed with 30% of fly ash increases the compressive strength than fly ash alone in concrete. Both ferrochrome ash and fly ash come categorically under industrial waste; hence by using this industrial waste reduces the production of greenhouse gas and helps manage dumping at large. This, at the end, is a method of producing sustainable concrete.

Tribikram Mohanty, Bhargavi Nandan Patra, Purnachandra Saha

The Performance of Geopolymer Concrete Utilizing Wastes as Binder

Utilizing wastes at present is of utmost importance since it not only leads to the reduction in environmental load and reduction of carbon footprint but also reduction in waste management cost. Geopolymer concrete has been developed as a substitute to conventional cement-concrete where alkali activators react with the binder along with fine and coarse aggregates. The binder for geopolymer concrete can be any wastes which are rich in silica and alumina that will collectively lead to the reduction in the concrete pollution and enhancement of its properties. The objective of this paper is to review the mechanical performance of geopolymer concrete utilizing wastes like fly ash, metakaolin, rice husk ash, palm oil fuel ash, red mud, ferrochrome ash, and so on as binder. It is observed that slag-based geopolymer concrete can be cured in ambient temperature but for the other binder materials, elevated curing temperature is required to attain the target strength. The mechanical properties (like compressive, split tensile, flexural properties) of the geopolymer concrete utilizing fly ash and slags as binder have shown to provide more strength than other binder combinations, and therefore prove to be a better replacement to the conventional cement-concrete.

Sneha Sen, Purnachandra Saha

Effect of Replacement of GGBS and Fly Ash with Cement in Concrete

Use of ordinary Portland cement as a binding material is well accepted for construction purposes globally. The huge demand for cement in construction leads to a rise in the use of absolute energy from the cement industry and high CO2 emissions. As a result, the global cement sector is facing increasing difficulties in the conservation of material and energy resources, as well as decreasing its CO2 emissions. Similarly, many industrial wastes like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, waste recycled product, cement kiln dust, silica fume, quarry dust, glass waste, rubber waste, red mud are generated nowadays due to growth in industrialization, increasing urbanization and rising standards of living due to technological innovation, which is leading to harmful threats to the environment along with the waste disposal problem. Therefore, in this paper efforts have been made for not only to control environmental pollution but also to reduce the cost of waste management and concrete production by utilizing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and fly ash (FA) with partial replacement of cement. Industrial wastes, such as GGBS and FA, are waste by-products from iron industry and thermal power plants, respectively. In the present study, these by-products at different percentages as a partial replacement of cement have been utilized in concrete. The tests were conducted with partial replacement of GGBS at different percentages of 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% and with FA at different percentage of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% by the dry weight of cement. Tests on workability and compressive strength were carried out on concrete mixes prepared at different percentages of GGBS and FA. The experimental results show a significant improvement in the strength with increase in GGBS and FA content in partially replaced cement-concrete, making it viable for practical uses in the building industry. On the basis of experimental results, it is concluded that with an increase in GGBS and fly ash percentage the compressive strength of concrete increases and the evaluation allows the design of GGBS and FA mixed concrete for medium strength concrete.

Rachita Panda, Tanmaya Kumar Sahoo

Effect of Silica Fume on Strength Enhancement of Geo-Polymer Mortar in Ambient Curing

One of the best alternative binder in place of Portland cement is geo-polymer binder. In geo-polymer binder, the main constituent is fly ash which is rich in silicate and alumina. It reacts with sodium hydroxide/silicate solution to produce alumina silicate gel. This gel binds the fine aggregate to form a good paste-like mortar called geo-polymer mortar (GPM). In this paper, the influence of lime and silica fume towards the strength enhancement of GPM mortar has been studied. Most of the author emphasized on hot curing rather than ambient curing for achieving high strength of geo-polymer matrix. This paper also works out to optimize the sodium silicate to hydroxide proportion, molarity of NaOH, various percentage replacement of lime and silica fume partially with fly ash on enhancement of strength of GPM. It was found out that the compressive strength value increased on increase of molarity of NaOH from 6 to 12 M; similarly, for sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide ratio at 2:1 and also at 7.5 and 3% of lime and silica fume replacement, respectively, better strength was shown.

Amarendra Kr. Mohapatra, Dillip Kumar Bera, Ashoke Kumar Rath

Red Mud as a Controlled Low Strength Material

In this paper characterization of red mud as a controlled low strength material (CLSM) is discussed with red mud as a base material and crusher dust or quarry dust, phosphogypsum and fly ash as other mineral admixtures. The highly alkaline red mud is mixed with phosphogypsum (PG) and crusher dust (CD) in different proportions, and fly ash is used to improve the flowability. The material properties of developed CLSM are characterized in both green and hardened state. The bleeding percentage was found to be less than 1% and flow diameter decreased with increase in crusher dust. Higher flow value was observed with phosphogypsum in comparison to with same percentage of crusher dust due to particle size and chemical composition. Higher unconfined compressive strength, California bearing ratio and flowability were observed for CLSM developed with red mud and CD mix in comparison to red mud and PG mixture.

Bijaya Kumar Das, S. K. Das, Benu Gopal Mohapatra

Recent Developments in Construction Technology and Management

Frontmatter

Genetic Algorithm: An Innovative Technique for Optimizing a Construction Project

Time and cost are two basic objectives of any construction project. Optimization of these objectives is the main concern over the last three decades by the construction sectors. Many innovative techniques have been used by the construction companies to optimize the cost and time of a project. Genetic Algorithm (GA) method is one of the most advanced and widely used non-traditional search algorithms based on the mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics. The principle of natural selection is based on the “survival of the fittest” concept coined by Charles Darwin. It is neither an intelligent nor a smart algorithm but it searches for optimal solution in the solution space. The objective is to review GA as an optimizing technique used to generate high-quality solution for optimization process. Reproduction in GA is done by three sophisticated operators—selection, crossover and mutation through which optimal solution is found out only if the condition is true. Hence, GA method is useful optimization process in construction projects. The main advantage present in GA is providing more effective and efficient optimum value in a construction project. Moreover, it also provides optimal trade-off values between project duration and total work done. This concludes that GA can be widely used as an advanced innovative technique for optimization process in future construction project.

Paromik Ray, Dillip Kumar Bera, Ashoke Kumar Rath

Exploring the Acceptance of Life Cycle Cost for Residential Projects in India

In the construction project management, demands for sustainable and long-term decision-making methods are increasing as the projects are getting complex. Life cycle costing is the best approach to foresaid conditions for cost management practice. LCC is an economic analyzing method for all costs involved (construction, operation and maintenance) to the construction project over a defined period of time [1]. LCC method assists in finding an economical, effective and purposeful solution for a building project [2]. Best results are obtained by conducting LCC analysis in the earlier time during the feasibility study of the construction project. The questionnaire survey is done to identify all the parameters contributing to life cycle costs. The objective of this study is to explore the level of awareness and acceptance of life cycle cost for residential building in India. The research result reveals critical barriers in acceptance of life cycle cost in India.

Abhipsa Guru, Mohibullah

Genetic Algorithm for Resource Levelling Problem in Construction Projects

The resource levelling problem (RLP) arises when with sufficient available resources, it is mandatory to have minimum fluctuations in the pattern of resource usage. These fluctuations are very much undesirable because it causes problem in the utilization of labour and monetary concern for the contractor. This kind of problem aims at minimizing total duration or making span of a project-dependent to precedence relations between activities and finite resource availability. A resource levelling approach gives direction to the person doing scheduling to plan activities in a project with smooth resource utilization without exceeding the constraints of resource availability. It is also often useful in minimizing the project duration within limited availability of resources for making project profitable. In RLP, start times of noncritical activities are shifted within their available float times so that the resource usage profiles are levelled best. Existing research has done to analyse various methods and algorithms for the resource levelling problem. In this study, we have discussed the scheduling process of RLP using genetic algorithm technique which is evaluated by a sample problem where resource levelling index (RLI) is improved by 48% to conventional schedule resource profile. Analysis of this study shows that GA could be an effective asset for getting optimized solutions in construction industry.

Dolasankar Sahu, Mohibullah

Strategies for Construction and Destruction (C&D) Waste Management

At the present time, waste debris generated from constructions and destructions of buildings, statues, and many more is an important matter of concern for solid waste management, which mainly consists of bricks, cement, stone chips, iron rods, plastics, etc. and also increases rapidly with the growth of construction industry across the world. This waste contributes to a massive amount of dust that is mainly responsible for environmental pollution. Hence, we need well- planned C&D management to recover and reuse the tremendous amount of hazardous substances to make pollution-free environment. This review paper analyzed different C&D management strategies based on the literature review to draw comparisons among these strategies and also to identify the best substitutes from the sustainability perspective. This study observed that 25–35% of the total amount of waste debris that ends up in landfill is the most ordinary and extensively used strategy but it should not be preferred as it has an adverse impact on the environment and the human body. So there are a numerous number of techniques which can be considered for alternate options than landfilling which will have less detrimental effects. From a sustainability point of view, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycling (3R’s) are most favored and possibly the best options for C&D waste management which are of recent origin and not yet adopted globally.

Rajarshi Patty, Dillip Kumar Bera, Ashoke Kumar Rath

Comparison Between the Tunnel Form System Formwork and the MIVAN Formwork System in a Multi-unit Building Project

Tunnel form system formwork is one type of modern system of formwork that is used for construction purposes. This system has become a prime and permanent construction technique for construction of building in the country along with many foreign countries. This system is an emerging technique for construction purpose due to its efficient construction technology, minimum duration utilized and low estimated budget cost in the construction project. This paper reviews the main comparison of the tunnel form system formwork with the MIVAN formwork technique which is the frequently used technique in the country. Moreover, the working process, advantages, disadvantages along with characteristics and limitations of the formwork system as compared to the behaviour of the structure has also been reviewed. The MIVAN formwork technique also referred to as aluminium formwork provides much faster mode of construction work with easy access all over the country as compared to tunnel form system formwork. This review paper also highlights the failure and hazardous activities of the tunnel form system formwork mentioning with case studies along with the benefits or usage in designing, shuttering process, de-shuttering process and dismantling process. This review paper also highlights the modified and advanced analysis of both the formwork systems and its comparison with the scheduled duration and the estimated cost budget of the construction project. The break-even analysis of both the formwork systems has also been compared in this review paper.

Paromik Ray, Dillip Kumar Bera, Ashoke Kumar Rath

Time Cost Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm of a Construction Project

Construction projects often go through delays due to various reasons, which create a dreadful financial influence on the project. For minimizing this scenario, cost and time optimization of a construction project is effectively used. Cost and time optimization method is the most effective and time efficient method with highest achievable performance under specific condition in a construction project. This method is mainly required for cost and time optimization in a construction project. This thesis work also highlights the various innovative techniques that are required for cost and time optimization of the project. Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) methods are considered the advanced innovative techniques which are being used continuously by the construction companies for cost and time optimization. The advance work of Genetic Algorithm(GA) method in the form of GA with Dev-C ++ 4.9.9.2, GA with Line of Balance(LOB), GA with Modified Adaptive Weight Approach (MAWA), GA with Critical Path Method (CPM) along with new methods Linear Programming (LP), Non-Linear Integer Programming Model (NLIP), Discounted Cash Flow Method (DCF), Maximum Flow-Minimal Cut Theory and Artificial Neural Networks Method (ANN) are also included in the various innovative techniques of cost and time optimization process. Furthermore, the method of Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is specified in the thesis work is classified into two parameters where the global parallel GA method provides more effectiveness and efficiency than coarse-grained parallel GA method. Also, it is found through researchers and investigators that the Non-Linear Integer Programming (NLIP) method and Line of Balance (LOB) with GA method both have an efficient and optimum solution for time cost trade-off problem, along with PSO method which is best for Pareto-compromise solution and Direct Cash Flow (DCF) method which optimizes cost and time within the project boundaries. Finally, it is observed GA along with its advanced parameters, ANN method and NLP techniques are better for solving time cost trade-off problems.

Paromik Ray, Dillip Kumar Bera, Ashoke Kumar Rath

Sustainable Infrastructures (Materials & Management)—Planning for Sustainable Infrastructure in Old Town, Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar, being the first smart city of India has already witnessed the initial application of the smart mobility methods in its infrastructure by the transition of traditional transportation techniques to a sustainable and digitally enhanced system. The paper primarily includes an extensive study of important criteria such as the pedestrian facilities, safety, accessibility and aesthetic appearance [3]. The survey is based on the principles of H. Krambeck’s ‘Global Walkability index’ that was developed for the World Bank. The methodology gives information to several key parameters and identifies the core areas for improvement. The study aims to suggest the walkability values, principles of inclusive and smart mobility and a qualitative analysis of the Old Town Area of Bhuvaneshwar around Bindusagar Lake and other temple complexes including the Lingaraja Temple. With dense and unplanned neighbourhood development, congested roads ad-hock marketplaces, archaic storm water drainage and poor waste management in and around the historic structures, this part of the city remains untouched by recent infrastructure developments. This paper aims at providing sustainable solutions by proposing retrofitting measures to the existing infrastructure. A walkability audit followed up with recommendations has been made, incorporating the latest trends in sustainable infrastructure.

Sukanya Dasgupta, Nilanjana Roy

Urban Infrastructure and Special Economic Zone (SEZ): Challenges for Corporate Land Alienation

This research paper critically introspects into the area of special economic zones taken up in India by the corporate Moghuls and the challenges it faced from the public during land alienation. Lacunae in transformational enactment of laws have resulted in fighting between people, corporate and governance. The focal study of the paper proves into the case of Urjja Nagar and Dadri during the course of land acquisition by reliance energy. The process of acquisition of alluvial soil in the Ganges and Yamuna Rivers resulted in the protest by farmers. Political stalwarts join the protest against land alienation for SEZ contributing to the development of urban infrastructure. Vehement media report alleged the political power to have cross-crushed the democratic dissent and accused of the corporatisation of democracy, a new normal doctrine. The paper analysed into the concept of public trust doctrine for enabling the urban infrastructure developed without hurdles during the acquisition of land. The paper argues for a concept of compromise and compensation during land alienation to be incorporated in the R&R act. This research paper reviewed the literature available from primary and secondary sources. It is exploratory and descriptive in its approach. The research analyses the factors associated infers into the findings providing a solution to the identified problem. This analysis allowed a permeable amount of land for the villager and fair price for the alienation of land with a share of investment in the company towards the portion of land given to the company as equity.

Divyajit Das, Bhubaneswari Bisoyi, Ipseeta Satpathy, Biswajit Das

Studies on Integration of Lean Construction and Sustainability in Indian Real Estate Projects

Indian Real estate market has grown largely in recent, which has achieved faster growth among the developing global markets. Quick urbanization and increase in income of the public is the prime reason for the demand and growth of Indian real estate. On the other hand multiple issues like incompetence, productivity declination, waste generation, low sales, etc. are bothering Indian Real estate. To hamper these, lean principles have been introduced in the field of construction which had caused a revolution in the manufacturing process and green building practices to reduce its negative ecological footprint with simultaneous creation of more sustainable environment. The value maximization and waste minimization of a project are achieved through lean construction and its techniques will be integrated with the current sustainable construction techniques to diminish the current wastage without comprising the quality of the construction. When used and combined perfectly, the sustainable parameters and lean principles can be aligned to yield better results and counter support the benefits of both. Lean principles to combine with sustainability parameters in cast-in situ construction in Indian context are a challenging task. Independently both lean construction and sustainability in construction have proven results in Indian real estate projects. However, no studies or framework on integrating the cast-in situ construction of have been attempted either for world across or within Indian context. This paper mainly focuses on the small scale real estate projects. The stakeholders or parties of smaller construction projects argue that the implementation of lean construction in their projects will not yield the results and claim to be the best way that they adopt with their experience, which is not really true on field. To prevent this problem, the adoption of sustainability with respect to the environmental, social, and economic terms will further enhance the building value in the construction market. This paper follows an integration procedure (with reference to PMBOK) of lean and sustainability concepts together are the key to the efficient and economic construction in the future. As these require a detailed study of the all the attempts previously made and helps to frame a perfect model which makes it an easier way for the worldwide adoption in the real estate projects.

Raja Sekhar Mamillapalli, Ashok Kumar Rath, Dillip Kumar Bera

Efficiency Measure of Form Work in Construction: A Comparative Assessment

Architectural planning, engineering, and building are the major areas in the complex, process-driven, field of construction. When it comes to large housing projects in contemporary times, the speed of construction is given paramount importance. Among the emerging technologies in mass housing projects, formwork system happens to be the favourite for two reasons: completing the project in less time and obtaining good concrete finishing without change in the investment. Thanks to the phenomenal rise in building of residential, commercial, and industrial buildings and structures, formwork system is in great demand. Formwork system also owes its great demand due to record building of mega infrastructure projects such as transport infrastructure (R&B), water resources engineering works, sports buildings, stadiums, and so on. Fast-track construction largely depends on formwork system. For example, Mivan, a modern method consisting of an aluminium-based formwork system, is found widely used in the building of housing units and mass residential projects. Suitable to Indian conditions for its low maintenance feature and cost-effectiveness, it is aluminum formwork that can be tailormade to suit various requirements. This paper attempts to compare the technology cost of aluminium-based Mivan formwork with that of conventional construction formwork technology. It works on the hypothesis that Mivan technology is more cost-effective, qualitatively superior, and time-saving as compared to conventional formwork technology.

Sarbesh Mishra

Recent Developments in Water Resources Engineering and Management

Frontmatter

An Approximate Cost Equation of Offshore Wind Turbine Blade

Since many years, energy poverty and climate change are the pivotal issues faced by societies. Harnessing offshore wind energy would be a reliable solution to both of these issues. Offshore wind energy is an attractive source of green energy, because of abundant of wind resources in the sea. In compression to the onshore wind turbine, visual and noise impact no more an issue in case offshore wind turbine. Developing offshore wind turbines 15–30 km away from shore experience hostile environmental loads such as ocean currents, storm wave loading, ice loads, and potential ship impact loads significantly contributes the high cost in offshore structure. The turbine blade is an important constituent of the wind turbine. It costs around 22% of the total cost of a wind turbine. In this paper, an approximate cost equation for turbine blade was derived. This cost equation is sensitive to the quantity of various materials used in turbine blade and diameter of the wind turbine. This cost equation can be used to compute the material cost for a wind turbine up to a diameter of 80 m.

Chandan Kumar Majhi, Satyajeet Nanda, R. C. Pradhan, Benu Gopal Mohapatra

A Review: Effect of Turbidity Current on the Reservoir Sedimentation

Reservoir is frequently vulnerable through damage of capacity owing towards sedimentation. Sedimentation is an inherent procedure in the reservoir. A continuous sediment deposition, which is being transported by the alluvial rivers in the reservoir cannot be fully eradicated rather it can be controlled. Nowadays, reservoir sedimentation is a burning problem, especially in India. For the sustainability of this massive structure (reservoirs) various measures are taken into account. If the sediment inflow is larger than that of the sediment outflow, the effective life of the reservoir is shortened. Turbidity currents generated in the reservoirs play a significant role in the reservoir sedimentation. The term turbidity current is a natural phenomenon which is frequently undecided besides the sediment support appliance (e.g. settling, turbulence, etc.) may be operated simultaneously within a sediment-gravity flow. The turbidity current is the utmost stereotypically a submerged current of typically quickly moving, downhill flow of water produced through the increased density for the high quantities of sediment. It is also responsible for disturbing the vast amounts of sediments in the deepwater. If the turbidity current increases in water, the aforementioned converts thicker besides a smaller amount of flawless for the higher concentration. Because of sedimentation, the yearly loss rate of the storage capacity of reservoir is estimated as 1–2% of the total storage capacity of the reservoir. This paper focuses on an extensive study of the literature and analysed and compared the results of the previous studies on turbidity current of the reservoir sedimentation. It is found that venting of the turbidity current that reaches in the dam is economical as well as beneficial as per the present scenario of the various reservoirs which are facing the sedimentation in it.

Bidisha Byabartta, Tanmoy Majumder, Paromita Chakraborty, Jyotiprakash Padhi, Bitanjaya Das

Optimal Use of Land and Water Resources of a River Basin: Case Study

Due to quick rise in population and rapid urbanization more water needs to be diverted for domestic and industrial use thus decreasing the allocation of water for irrigation in the near future. Therefore it is the need of the hour to optimally allocate available land and water resources for irrigated agriculture in a river basin so that maximum benefits from the available resources are received. In view of the above in a given agro-climate region, an optimal cropping pattern can be developed such that the return from the available land resources is maximized with minimum consumption of available water for irrigation. Hence the present study aims at maximizing net return from the cultivable crops in a command area by satisfying land availability, Irrigation water requirement, surface, ground as well as total water availability and minimum and maximum crop area constraints considering the projected population by the year 2051 AD. For the purpose of analysis, the Brahmani Basin in Odisha State has been considered as a case study. For the purpose of optimization Linear Programming (LP) model has been used. The Software package Language for Interactive Discrete Optimizer (LINDO) has been used for solving the LP model. For estimating crop water requirement, the guidelines of Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) have been considered. The optimal cropping pattern so developed utilizes 3186.95 MCM water and generates a net profit of Rs 183489.2 lakhs against the existing cropping pattern which uses 4033.21 MCM of water and generates a net profit of Rs 114930 lakhs.

Prabeer Kumar Parhi

Water Resource Management During Monsoon Months Based on SPI and CZI in Khordha District, India

Droughts took place because of decrease in amount of rainfall occurred over a large time period in a year or season. Management and planning of freshwater, which needs the understanding of historical droughts as well as their impact in the region, interpretation of the drought play a key role. Drought indices can be used for the forecasting as well as monitoring of the drought, as a result of which quantitative information about the characteristics of drought provided to the policy makers, which will be helpful for the planning as well as management of water resources. Therefore, this study was carried out in ten blocks (Balianta, Balipatna, Bhubaneswar, Jatani, Banapur, Begunia, Bolagarh, Chilika, Khordha and Tangi) of Khordha District to find the moderate, severe and extreme drought events using SPI and CZI, threshold limit of rainfall during June, July, August and September based on SPI and water resource management based on drought assessment. Monthly SPI and CZI indices are computed by using the 30 (1988–2017) years’ rainfall data. Maximum number of total (moderate + severe + extreme) droughts experienced by Banapur, Balipatna and Khordha, Balipatna and Bolagarh blocks in the months of June, July, August and September, respectively, are based on SPI calculation. Banapur and Balinata, Balipatna, Begunia and Khordha, Balianta and Balipatna and Bolagarh blocks detected with maximum number of total droughts are based on CZI. Rainfall threshold limit was different for different blocks in June, July, August and September due to the spatial and temporal variations of rainfall, and was found to be 89.3, 182.6, 188.4 and 137.4 mm, respectively, in Khordha District. If the rainfall occurred in a particular year below these threshold limits in monsoon months, drought will occur for that month in that year. Therefore, those blocks which were experiencing frequent droughts, water-harvesting structures can be constructed in those blocks. In addition to that, low water requirement crops can be encouraged to grow in those critical blocks.

Jyotiprakash Padhi, Abhilash Mishra, Shubham Choudhary, Bitanjaya Das

Seasonal Variability of Satellite-Derived Aerosol Optical Depth in Smart City, Bhubaneshwar

With the increase in industrialization and urbanization, the environment is being polluted by the addition of harmful products by the anthropogenic activities of human beings. The rapid increase in population accounts for the aerosol concentration that is increasing with time and having a significant impact on climatic conditions. The study focuses on the variation of aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent (AE), concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) and potential source contribution function (PSCF) in smart city Bhubaneswar in the year 2017. The present study analyses MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in the year to estimate the AOD level. Results show that the daily mean value for AOD and AE from the satellite data product showed the range falls between 0.16–2.17 and 0.01–1.80, respectively. The corresponding monthly mean for AOD in winter, summer, monsoon and post-monsoon is found to be 0.27 ± 0.16, 0.22 ± 0.05, 0.24 ± 0.1 and 0.18 ± 0.02, respectively. Similarly, the values for AE for the above seasons are obtained as 1.53 ± 0.10, 1.52 ± 0.1, 1.19 ± 1.05 and 1.61 ± 0.09, respectively. The CWT and PSCF are analysed for the seasons of winter (DJF), summer (MAM), monsoon (JJA) and post-monsoon (SON) in the given year.

Sushree Sasmita, Dudam Bharath Kumar

Modelling Sea Water Intrusion in the Eastern Coast Adjacent to Ersama and Kujanga Blocks of Odisha, India

Coastal belt of the Bay of Bengal has got the human habitation from the time immemorial because of availability of abundant water sources and plain land for cultivation. The requirement of drinking water as well as that for irrigation and industrial use has increased manifold in the region. Surface water is available during monsoon from mid-June to mid-October. Heavy to very heavy rainfall as well as the floods of existing river network keeps the total area water-locked. But after that the total water gets drained into the sea and the area gradually gets dry. People of the area almost depend on ground water source for drinking purpose. About 85% of rural supply schemes depend on ground water. Earlier shallow wells could meet the limited demand. But population growth, urbanisation, increased industrial demand, and the need for high consumptive use pushed for digging deep tube wells/bore wells leading to over exploitation. This has led to the depletion of ground water table as well as potential availability of the aquifers gradually. The Kujanga block will have projected population of 1,22,374 and Ersama block will have 1,20,074 in 2020. Rural area is largely populated. Considering the per capita water demand at 135 l, the overall daily domestic requirement of fresh water is about 33000 m3. Though the rural demand is much less as compared to that of urban life, it is essential to assess the bare minimum necessity, particularly during dry spells. The people of the area coming under this mix up zone suffer from scarcity in quantity and quality of water as well. There is rampant adaptation of aquaculture, particularly shrimp culture in the area. Shrimp culture ponds along with tidal riverine network enhance saline recharge of the ground water. Further, anthropogenic activities lead to resource depletion, and rising sea water level triggering saline intrusion into the coastal aquifer. So, the present study is attempted to understand the ground water movement in the two blocks of Ersama and Kujanga, and their impact on human life in short and long run, especially for the coastal zone for sustainable water resources.

Rohita Kumar Sethi, Prabhash Kumar Mishra, Deepak Khare, Khyana Prava Samal

Groundwater Level Trend Analysis for Sustainable Extraction and Use in Coastal Odisha

Groundwater level indicates groundwater availability, flow and physical characteristics of an aquifer. The availability of groundwater depends on rainfall and recharge pattern. As the use of groundwater is steadily increasing, it becomes imperative to analyze and understand the trend of groundwater recharge and use pattern employing the trend analysis of groundwater level. In this regard, a study of trend analysis of groundwater level has been done for the coastal districts of Odisha, India. The trend analysis is conducted in such coastal districts where the groundwater is affected by salinity problems. The trend analysis is done for seven coastal districts of Odisha: Balasore, Bhadrak, Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapada, Puri, Jajpur and Ganjam. Mann Kendall trend analysis is essential for the exploration of the trend of groundwater level by using the data from 1998 to 2017 for a network of 272 locations categorized in four seasons such as pre-monsoon, mid-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter. Results indicate that for groundwater level there is an increasing trend in 206 locations and decreasing trend in 66 locations during pre-monsoon period; in mid-monsoon period there is an increasing trend in 152 locations and decreasing trend in 120 locations; in post-monsoon period there is an increasing trend in 142 locations and decreasing trend in 130 locations; and in winter there is an increasing trend in 113 locations and decreasing trend in 159 locations. Such analysis can help the planners and managers in decision-making with regard to the extent of groundwater to be extracted and used in different locations and in different seasons. Besides, it will also help in making strategies for rainwater harvesting and augmentation of groundwater recharge activities.

Anuradha Panda, Bitanjaya Das, Jyotiprakash Padhi, Paromita Chakraborty

Recent Developments in Transportation Engineering

Frontmatter

Design of Long-Life Pavements for India

Perpetual or long-life pavements have been proven to be a sustainable pavement solution to meet heavy traffic demand and to address the material scarcity. These are normally designed as full depth asphalt pavements to last more than 50 years without requiring any structural rehabilitation, but need periodic maintenance to address damages which are confined to top few inches of a pavement. However, requirement of huge quantity of bituminous materials makes full depth asphalt pavements very expensive for use in developing countries like India. Studies in countries like UK and China have shown that long-lasting composite pavements with cemented materials and deep strength pavements with thin granular layer sandwiched between asphalt layer and subgrade can also be considered as perpetual pavements. In India, the concept of perpetual pavement is relatively new and introduced only in 2012. Also, the computer program IITPAVE available with these guidelines does not address the design of perpetual pavements in a comprehensive manner. Therefore, a computer program called “PerPave” has been developed under this study to design and compare different perpetual pavement types and to suggest the optimum perpetual pavement composition with minimum cost. It will be helpful for the design engineers in selecting the appropriate perpetual pavement section considering the budget, traffic, and availability of the materials in the locality.

Brundaban Beriha, Umesh Chandra Sahoo

Comparison of Coconut Root with Other Geotextiles for Transportation Infrastructure

To match India’s rapid growth, the transportation infrastructure has to keep pace especially in the rural regions. Embankments and hill slope stabilizations comprise a major challenge in this sector. Today the focus of development has shifted to natural products and sustainable infrastructure. In this respect, it is vital to also study a technique that has been used for centuries by the Saraswat civilization that settled in Goa and is today classified as natural geotextiles. This paper compares the Geotextiles used today with this ancient sustainable technique. The benefits of this technique are comparable to those of modern plastics while sustainability is far better.

Leonardo Souza, Purnanand P. Savoikar

A Study of Dynamic Traffic Assignment Using Statistical Method for Urban Scenario

Rapid urban growth leads to a rise in demand for transport and private automobiles in urban regions. The current methods have failed in the current situations to meet the requirements leading to congestion, vehicle pollution and accidents. Vehicular congestion is a major problem in urban road networks. With traffic congestion on roads, the delay to the road users has been increased and the road networks reliability is decreasing. Before decade, four-stage modelling was used as transportation planning tool to evaluate transportation facilities on the system of transportation. But this kind of planning is not sufficient or not applicable to cover the dynamic properties for now existing situations and conditions. Hence, there is a need for new dynamic technique to be applied for the present condition of congestions. The major theme of this dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) is to control the traffic situations in networks through real-time measurement, communication and control. Dynamic traffic assignment was studied for more than four decades and many of the research works are been conducted but there is a lack in dynamic traffic assignment techniques research relating to Indian scenario especially for urban road networks. In this research, the survey is done through a questionnaire which is given to the VNR VJIET College of Engineering students to record their origin, destination, travel time and mode of transport. The origin is taken as JNTUH as all the trips are moving over JNTUH to reach the destination, there are two routes, i.e. one is along with Pragathi Nagar and another is along Nizampet route. The origin, destination, travel times and distance parameters are considered for the study. Travel times and the corresponding volume on the selected routes are taken and linear equations are built and user equilibrium technique is analysed for the obtained equations and the number of trips is calculated.

K. Sushmitha Singh, Ch. Hardik, C. Naveen Kumar

A Study on Replacement of Coarse Aggregate with Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) in Road Construction

Growth in population is influencing the construction activities in the recent times leading to higher demand for various construction materials. This has affected the environment in an adverse way due to the exploitation of depleting natural resources. Aggregate prepared by quarrying rocks and then crushed to various suitable sizes is one such material which is heavily used in construction industry. This procedure leads to serious occupational hazards and also causes disturbance in the ecosystem such as deforestation, air and noise pollution, necessitating the finding of substitute materials for natural aggregates. On contrary, millions of tonnes of concrete are produced every year as wastage due to dismantling of existing structures which are unconsciously dumped or used for filling lower areas. Since concrete acts like solid hardened material as rock, its suitability for use as an aggregate can be explored. In the present study, quarried coarse aggregates, used in both flexible and rigid pavement construction, are replaced with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA). Different strength tests such as toughness and hardness test of RCA along with compressive strength test of cube and tensile strength test of cylinder with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% RCA replacement have been performed and the results compared with natural aggregates and with IRC and IS codes. The findings showed that RCA and natural aggregates if mixed in a proportionate ratio can be used in both pavement and building construction.

Bhagyashree Panda, Nazia T. Imran, Kundan Samal
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