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2024 | Book

Recent Developments in Water Resources and Transportation Engineering

Select Proceedings of TRACE 2022

Editors: Nidhi Nagabhatla, Yusuf Mehta, Brijesh Kumar Yadav, Ambika Behl, Madhuri Kumari

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering


About this book

This book comprises select proceedings of the International Conference on Trends and Recent Advances in Civil Engineering (TRACE 2022). The book focuses on the latest research works carried out in the area of water resources and transportation engineering. Various topics covered in this book include technological intervention and solution for smart and sustainability in water resources and transportation infrastructure, crop protection, resilience to disaster like flood, hurricane, and drought, traffic congestion, transport planning, green and intelligent transportation infrastructure, etc. The book is useful to researchers and practitioners working in the areas of civil engineering, water resources, and transportation engineering.

Table of Contents

Comprehensive Assessment of Simulation Tools for Analyzing Seepage Through Earthen Dams
Seepage is one of the primary reasons for the failure of earthen/embankment dams worldwide. As approximately 40% of earthen dams fail due to excessive and uncontrolled seepage, it is crucial to manage seepage in order to improve their stability and life. Numerical experiments are favored for predicting seepage flux under changing climatic conditions for earthen dams made of varying geological materials. In the present study, the application of numerical tools to analyze seepage through earthen dams is critically reviewed for popular software’s such as SEEP/W, ANSYS, HYDRUS, PLAXIS, MODFLOW, SVFLUX, and FEFLOW. An overview of governing equations and limitations of these models  is briefly explained along with their relative advantages. A comparative analysis is then carried out for a characteristic earthen dam using the simulation results of SEEP/W and FEFLOW. It has been found that the results obtained from FEFLOW are slightly accurate, and therefore, a detailed seepage study is finally being conducted for the Ambawali Dam, Haryana, India using FEFLOW. The results of this study can be used by field engineers in selecting the appropriate model(s) based on dam body and their surrounding conditions to manage the seepage flux effectively.
Shravani Yadav, Shruti Jain, Brijesh Kumar Yadav
Nature-Based Solutions as a Pragmatic Approach Towards Flood Resilient Cities
Flooding is one of the most common and severe disasters that afflicts several Indian states every year, and it is frequently followed by the spread of epidemics. The cities along the banks of river or seashore face great pressure in dealing with flood disaster management and such experience will mount up in the coming decades due to the rising intensity and frequency of natural hazards triggered by climate change. Therefore, there is a need to develop an environment-friendly pragmatic approach for making such vulnerable cities into a flood resilient city. In recent decades, flood risk reduction and management strategies are seen to be supplementing the traditional technical and engineering methods with nature-based solutions (NBS). NBS brings in multiple benefits to people and the social system by contributing towards improvement in quality of life, strengthening, and promoting ecological balance. This paper presents a conceptual framework for the integration of NBS into current Flood Risk Mitigation and Management (FRM) strategies. This framework is intended as a tool to be adopted by decision-makers to operationalize the NBS integrated pragmatic approach and work towards developing flood-resilient cities.
Madhuri Kumari, Pranjal Pandey, Akanksha, R. K. Tomar
Analysing the Rigidity of Water Flows in Small Himalayan Towns: An Analysis of Water Accessibility and Availability in Champawat Town, Uttarakhand, India
Water scarcity in Himalayan towns and cities has become a common phenomenon. Deforestation, urbanization, and heavy construction activities accompanied by climate change have impacted the availability and accessibility of water. In such a situation, water management becomes crucial to ensure water equitably. The remote Himalayan centres lack both research and assessment. The case study provides the condition of water accessibility and accessibility in small Himalayan urban centre of Champawat. The results show various indicators like quantity of water supplied, supply hours, quality standards are below state average. Local people use various coping mechanisms such as using multiple water sources, government water tankers, water rationing, multiple water containers to deal with persisting water scarcity.
Nishant Kharkwal, Kamal Kumar Murari
Identification of Flood-Inundated Areas Using HecRAS Model: A Case Study of Upper Sabarmati River Basin, Gujarat, India
Identification of flood-inundated areas under different flood levels in a river basin is an important step to control and properly manage floods. Topography plays an important role in identifying vulnerable areas. River flood plain areas are most vulnerable to flooding requiring proper study. The flood management in any basin depends on the rain-fall events, surface runoffs, water surface elevation profiles, cross-section of the river basin, river bank profiles, elevation profiles, and ground level of low-lying areas. In the present study, downstream area of the Upper Sabarmati River basin between Dharoi Dam and Derol Bridge has been modeled using 1D HecRAS software for identifying inundation areas under different flood scenarios for proper flood management.
Shibani Chourushi, Pradeep P. Lodha, Indra Prakash
Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of Dam Break: A Case Study of Hulu Perak Dams in Malaysia
In Malaysia, embankment dams are frequently constructed because they benefit the local population, particularly in agricultural activities and flood control. However, flood disasters caused by dam breaks have catastrophic consequences on human lives and immensely damage the environment, infrastructure, and socio-economic stability, especially in downstream areas. Despite the rapid advancement of risk analysis in dam engineering, there is limited research on the socio-economic impact of dam failure. This paper is deemed to provide a critical review of the socio-economic risks affected by dam breaks in Hulu Perak district, Malaysia. The findings have highlighted the communities, key facilities, and heritage sites are at high risk if there are dam breaks in the Hulu Perak district. İt is recommended that appropriate risk management measures be undertaken to reduce human catastrophy and negative socio-economic impacts. Hence, there is a need to conduct an empirical study to assess dam break threats to humans and the socio-economy and formulate a framework to mitigate the risks of flood disasters due to dam failures.
Rohani Salleh, Lariyah Mohd Sidek, Rafidah Abdul Rashid, Hidayah Basri, Vicky Kumar, Siti Nooriza Abd Razak, Khalidah Khalid Ali, Priyanka Singh
Study of the Conjunctive Water Use: A Case Study of Kankai Irrigation System, Jhapa, Nepal
More canal water is provided to farmers in the head end reaches of the canal. Consecutively, the farmers at the tail end have to pump more groundwater due to insufficient irrigation canal supply. As a result, it causes over exploitation of groundwater assets. If coordinated use of surface water and groundwater supplies is done in a planned way, then water demands for the crops can meet which ultimately increases water supply reliability. This research study focuses on enhancing irrigation water distribution by simultaneously using surface water and groundwater. Kankai Irrigation System having a command area of 7000 hectares (ha) of agricultural land in Jhapa district of Nepal is selected as the study area. Our main focus is on the tail end of the main canal at the command region of the secondary canals S19, S20 and S21 having a total area of 500 ha. The optimal plan for allotting canal water and groundwater was achieved using the LINDO 6.1 optimizing software. LINDO input model has been developed for allocation of water on existing and proposed cropping patterns. After extensive study on the different cases, the optimal plan giving maximum net benefits of NPR 9612 million, utilization of surface water and groundwater 266.15 ha-m and 152.67 ha-m respectively whereas the optimal of land use 95% monsoon rice for monsoon season, 40% wheat +20% green beans +20% pulses +15% tomatoes for winter season and 95% spring rice for spring season is suggested to be adopted and implemented for the study area.
Krishna Sedai, Debi Prasad Bhattarai, Jawed Alam, Bhola Nath Sharma Ghimire
Dam Break Flood Hazard Mapping and Vulnerability Analysis in Kulekhani Dam, Nepal
Construction of dam serves numerous purposes. Despite all the advantages, failure of dam structures could result in enormous losses in downstream areas due to unexpected floods. So, dam break study is important to reduce threats of flood in downstream areas during dam failure. The present study was conducted in the year 2021–2022 for Kulekhani Dam in Nepal and it helps to prepare dam break flood hazard map, to identify the vulnerability of downstream and to estimate the time for peak discharge to reach at different sections of the river from Kulekhani Dam to Bagmati River. The equations proposed by Froehlich in 2008 and 1995 were used to calculate dam breach parameters and peak outflow respectively. The maximum flood discharge was calculated as 15,303.61 m3/s. HEC-RAS two-dimensional unsteady flow analysis was performed from which approximately 2.03 km2 of the downstream area was found to be inundated with maximum flood depth of 31.60 m. The cultivable lands, vegetation, roads, bridges, buildings, electric poles and other infrastructures were found to be vulnerable during flood. The peak flood during the dam breach was estimated to reach different settlements in a time period between 60 and 100 min. The model was validated by comparing simulated flood depth and calculated flood depth using the coefficient of determination, Nash–Sutcliffe Simulation Efficiency, RMSE-observation for Standard Deviation Ratio and Percent BIAS which were found to be 1.00, 0.81, 0.44 and −7.81% respectively, all remaining within a prescribed range. Using flood hazard map and vulnerability of the downstream areas, the local government have to identify areas of risk and only then design and extension of market towns, infrastructures, buildings, etc. should be allowed. Concerned authority, local government and national government together have to perform dam break study and prepare flood hazard map, emergency action plan and standard operating procedure, proper evacuation route and open spaces during a disaster.
Nabin Shrestha, Upendra Dev Bhatta, Bhola Nath Sharma Ghimire, Akhilesh Kumar Karna
Enhancing Blue-Green Infrastructures for Flood and Water Stress Management: A Case Study of Chennai
The urban water system has been severely affected across the globe in the recent decades due to rampant urbanisation, industrialisation and climate change. Many cities in India have witnessed a rise in the frequency of urban flooding as well as water scarcity. Chennai, the fourth largest metropolitan city lying on the southeast coast of India and the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, is severely facing both flooding and water scarcity. In 2015, the city suffered the most disastrous flood in a century. More than 400 human casualties were reported; about USD 80,000 million loss were estimated and about 2 million people were very badly affected. While four years later in June 2019, the city was surprisingly hit by ‘Day Zero’ and all of its major reservoirs ran dry. With the rapid urbanisation, the blue and green spaces of the city have been drastically decreased. This paper focuses on the roots of flooding and water scarcity issues of the city. The paper further explores ‘Blue-Green Infrastructure’ (BGI) approach to integrate flood management along with water crisis management as an innovative, sustainable and nature-based solution. The paper also explores the emerging concept of BGI and analyses the existing plans and research projects in some major global cities and further, the possibility of their implementation in India. It is observed that adaptation of BGI measures (wetlands, lakes, ponds, rivers, swales, rain gardens, parks, green roofs etc.) minimises the flood risks as well as water stress including other urban ecosystem services (UES) to derive multiple benefits regarding ecological, socio-economic and overall urban well-being.
Nadeem Ahmad, Quamrul Hassan
Issues and Challenges of Small-Town Water Supply and Distribution: A Case Study of Leh Town in UT Ladakh
Leh-Ladakh is one of the most sought-after tourist destinations in the country. The annual tourist arrivals have ever increased in Leh town without appropriate and necessary urban infrastructure evolving such as water supply and sewage system. This paper aims to highlight certain water issues such as availability, accessibility, and vulnerabilities in Leh town. The town depends on two sources for all its freshwater requirements, glacial melt water and groundwater. Glacier-melt water comes in the form of springs and surface runoff such as streams. Both Public and Private borewells are dug across the town so that the extraction of groundwater becomes easier and over the years it has become economically more viable for the locals. Leh Town has three spring sources and several major tube wells operated by the Public Health and Engineering Department (PHE), which oversees providing drinking water to the town. These sources and their Service Reservoirs (SR), where water is stored before releasing it into the distribution pipes, presently have the capacity of supplying 6.07 MLD in Leh Town, assuming all service reservoirs are functioning at maximum capacity (PHE, 2018). This maximum capacity of water supply is, however, less than the total water demand which stands at 7.5 MLD according to calculations done using population projection data of Leh Town of the year 2018. Further, this demand fluctuates when you consider the large amount of floating population which consists of tourists, service sector employees, migrant labourers, local migrants from other parts of Ladakh, and the defense forces. With regards to the quality of water, groundwater is getting more polluted due to anthropogenic reasons, mainly due to seepage from soak pits. This issue is especially highlighted in the wards of the town where clusters of hotels and guesthouses are close together and hence causes greater pollution of the groundwater. According to the PHE department, a private piped connection of water is presently being given at a flat rate of INR 2400 per annum for both commercial and household use. However, a very small percentage of these customers pay their tariffs (as per PHE) making the PHE supply water almost free of cost. This practice has led to the department having a poor CAPEX. Thus, an appropriate water pricing mechanism needs to be introduced to control water consumption and pollution.
Anub Tsetan Paljor, Kamal Kumar Murari
Real-Time Smart Water Management System (SWMS) for Smart Home
Water plays a vital role in ensuring a healthy human life. Many water- related issues have been faced by developing countries like poor infrastructure for water, scarcity of drinking water, water pollution, falling water table, and low levels of water security. Over-pumping of groundwater leads to the depletion of the groundwater table. Unfortunately, this situation is worsening. Recently, the trend toward smart and sustainable housing is gaining traction. IoT-based sensors and system automation are a key to such smart constructions. This paper gives a general framework for a Real-time Smart Water Management system (SWMS) for smart homes with the help of sensors added to the water distribution system in a home/villa. Sensors are broadly categorized into three classes, namely Quality Sensors (SQ), Quantity Sensors (QS), and Overflow Sensors (SO). Installation of sensors in the system can be done to prevent overflowing by measuring the water level in terms of capacity. The quality of water can be maintained in terms of certain parameters namely Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity, pH, Conductivity/Salinity, suspended solids, and oil. The sensors will classify the water emanating from various domestic fixtures as poor or better quality and cause their disposal or reuse accordingly and automatically. Application of the proposed system to smart homes would enable the monitoring of overflowing and quality of water, thereby providing measures for its conservation and reuse. Moreover, it provides an awareness highlight to users about water management in their smart homes.
Anupriya Verma, Amrendra Kumar Singh, Ashutosh Kumar Pathak, Gaurav Saini
An Assessment of Vulnerability to Extreme Rainfall and Livelihood Resilience in Hillslope Geography: A Case Study of Malappuram, Kerala, India
Extreme rainfall events and hazards may rise as a result of climate change, which is already known to intensify the global water cycle. Disasters like floods and landslides are also becoming more common in India. Located in the state of Kerala, the district of Malappuram is prone to both landslides and floods. People become vulnerable as a result of disasters because they are initially deprived of their support systems and have few options for recovery. Rural poor communities lose jobs and their income is reduced as a result of such events, limiting their capacity to prepare for, respond to, and recover from future floods. In order to retain livelihood resilience, livelihoods must respond to global and local changes. For this research study, 127 quantitative household surveys were carried out throughout the Chaliyar Panchayat of the Nilambur block in the Malappuram District. Respondents were categorized into different groups based on their caste category (General/OBC (Other Backward Classes) and SC(Scheduled Caste)/ST(Scheduled Tribes)) to compare their overall household livelihood resilience by index method. The results show that the overall livelihood resilience of general/OBC (0.619) household is higher than SC/ST household (0.330). Better access to five livelihood capitals (Natural, Physical, Human, Financial, and Social) by General/OBC households helped them to build better livelihood resilience compared to SC/ST households. The study additionally looks at how extreme rainfall events affect people’s livelihood, including losses and damages.
Haani, Kamal Kumar Murari
Dynamics of the Aquacultural Intensification in the Godavari-Krishna Inter Delta Region in India and Its Impact on Ecological Balance
One of India’s mega deltas, the Godavari-Krishna inter delta, has abundant natural resources that are good for the growth of agriculture. However, regional limitations are also rapidly giving way to aquaculture. In the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, particularly in the West Godavari and Krishna districts, aquaculture is one of the land feature classes that is expanding quickly. The other land cover elements, including vegetation and built-up areas, will be negatively impacted by aquaculture’s unrestrained and indiscriminate expansion. Geographic information system (GIS) software was used to evaluate the dynamic changes in land use and land cover between 2013 and 2019. With the loss of about 650 square kilometers in both deltas, agricultural practices are changing to intensive aquaculture with an emphasis on increasing yields rather than lowering environmental quality. In the short period between 2013 and 2019, 16.5% of the agricultural land in the Godavari-Krishna delta was cleared to make way for infrastructure improvements and aquaculture. The essential components of the Godavari-Krishna delta aquaculture scenario are also highlighted in this research. The Godavari-Krishna delta is changing coastal ecology and is vividly depicted in this study.
T. V. Nagaraju, T. Rambabu, Sireesha Mantena, B. M. Sunil
A Comparative Assessment of the Water Footprint of Agricultural, Industrial and Domestic Practices in India
Water footprint assessment is done to quantify direct and indirect water consumption by categorizing it into blue, green and grey categories. The present study has analysed water footprint of India in contrast to global consumption using the national water footprint data as available online on WaterStat. For the years 1996 to 2005, India has the 2nd largest water footprint value of 1182 Gm3∕year and 1144 Gm3∕year for both production and consumption, respectively. This value accounts for 13% and 13.4% of global total. In terms of blue water footprint, India has the largest share of 243 Gm3∕year, which is 24% of global aggregate blue WF of national production. India too has a very small external water footprint of consumption, i.e., 2.5% of its total value. High footprint values can be attributed to the high population of the country and partly to the consumption patterns and the inefficient production processes.
Deepali Goyal, A. K. Haritash, S. K. Singh
Assessment of Nitrate Fluxes in Intensive Aquaculture Region in Godavari Delta Using Spatial Interpolation Kriging
In areas with a high concentration of intense aquaculture, nitrate pollution and nutrient enrichment are growing concerns. With predicted future climate changes, these problems are expected to intensify for aquifers and surface waters. The possibility exists to reduce some of these worries through land management and utilization modifications. However, there is much ambiguity surrounding how these alterations will relate. This article uses conventional kriging and empirical Bayesian kriging (EBK) to estimate nitrate levels in India’s intensive aquaculture zone, the Godavari delta. The stable, exponential, rational quadratic, and Gaussian models were used to fit experimental variograms using weighted least squares. The number of neighbors that generated the best cross-validation outcome has been further investigated for the model with the shortest residual sum of the squares. Kriging’s statistical approaches provided the best root mean square error (RMSE) values overall. No additional summary statistics shed any light on the regression method’s selection or settings. After thorough testing, we concluded that many parameters might be better detected using cross-validation.
T. V. Nagaraju, B. M. Sunil, Babloo Chaudhary, T. Rambabu
Climate and Water-Related Disasters and Eco-DRR (Disaster Risk Reduction) Sensitivity in Island Nations: Overview Analysis
Atmospheric, geological, or hydrologic natural hazards occur at a variety of scales, from local to regional levels. These hazards lead to disasters when combined with vulnerability conditions and inadequate measures to mitigate the consequences. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is a proactive approach aimed at reducing disaster risks by systematically analyzing the multiple factors that contribute to disasters. Integrated DRR involves building resilience in communities by (a) enhancing capacity building and knowledge sharing; (b) implementing mechanisms like early warning systems or solutions that can support the prevention of loss of lives and assets; (c) offering policy advice at the intersection of natural and social sciences, other areas (culture, education, communication, etc.); (d) boosting collaboration with key actors, including governments from national, state, and local level, civil societies, academia, and international organizations. An ecosystem-based approach to disaster reduction (Eco-DRR) has gained much attention around the world. The vulnerability of small island nations to natural hazards is high, and the consequences of disasters are devastating. Due to geographic location and limited resources, islands are highly susceptible to natural hazards such as hurricanes, water scarcity, earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. The impact of these disasters can be long-lasting and far-reaching. In this synthesis, to highlight integrating ECO-DRR contributes significantly to reducing disaster risks. Effective ECO-DRR remains crucial for island communities to build resilience and prepare for the potential consequences of disaster impacts. In addition, stakeholders in these nations require systematic efforts to assess and manage direct and indirect factors that exacerbate the effects of disasters, such as resilient infrastructure in the water sector and other sectors.
Padmi Ranasinghe, Nidhi Nagabhatla, Kelly Vrijens
Feasibility Study on the Use of Multilayer Plastic (MLP) Waste in the Construction of Asphalt Pavements
In the last few years, considerable research has been carried out in the country to determine the suitability of plastic waste in the construction of bituminous roads. That research led to establishing that linear density polyethylene (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE)-based plastic waste can be successfully used for road construction, but there is very limited research available on the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based multilayer plastic waste in road construction. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the feasibility of using multilayered plastic (MLP) waste in the construction of roads. The properties of asphalt mixes prepared with multilayered plastic (MLP) waste have been studied, and the efficacy of different types of waste plastic for coating the aggregates was also studied. The moisture resistance of MLP-based waste plastic asphalt mixes has also been studied in comparison to PE (polyethylene) plastic waste-based and control asphalt mix. The MLP waste-modified mix showed better stability and resistance to moisture damage when compared to the PE-modified waste plastic mix. The effect of waste plastics in reducing overall bitumen demand in the asphalt mix was also studied. The heating of waste plastic to coat aggregates has always posed a concern regarding air emissions. To address this concern, the environmental emissions were measured during the coating and mixing stage. In this study, an attempt is also made to evaluate the coating of waste plastic on the aggregates using a simple approach of coatability index.
Aakash Singh, Ambika Behl, Ashish Dhamaniya
Planning Strategies for the Improvement of Intermediate Public Transport in Walled City: Case Study of Walled City, Delhi
Intermediate Public Transport (IPT) plays an important role in Indian cities as it helps in connecting the user to the Mass Transit modes and increases the accessibility to these modes. Walled City, Delhi, over a period of time has evolved as a major commercial and recreational area. Over the period of time, the need for IPT in the transport system of Delhi has increased quite rapidly. In 2000–01, the modal share of Cycle Rickshaw and Auto Rickshaw was 6.7%, while in 2007–08, the modal share increased to 11.5%, where cycle rickshaw completed almost 8% of the trips. Only Cycle Rickshaw trips have a share of approximately 34% of the total traffic volume entering the Walled City, which is roughly more than 1/3rd of the total incoming traffic. In this study, indicators such as Traffic Characteristics, Network Characteristics, Socio-Economic Profile, Travel Characteristics and IPT Infrastructure were used to study the IPT system in Walled City, Delhi, and identify the critical issues and gaps which act as hindrances to smooth mobility in the area. After studying and analyzing the IPT system in detail, the major issues identified include the absence of a formal policy framework for IPT which makes the system unorganized and is the major reason for the other issues relating to this sector. This paper discusses the existing situation of IPTs in the Walled City, Delhi, in particular and recommends proposals to improve the existing situation for the seamless operation of IPTs in this area.
Hrishi Sharma, Sandeep Kumar, Charu Nangia
Assessment of Sustainable Public Transportation Provisions in Himachal Pradesh, India
With the increase in population in hilly areas, the importance of public transportation increases which requires appropriate management. Safe mobility of PT provides sustainable, accessible, affordable, and multimodal transportation for all, including people who don’t prefer driving due to age, disability, or lower income. The current study describes the present scenario of PT in the state of Himachal Pradesh (HP). The state of HP holds high PT utilization for deliveries of goods and tourism which causes congestion in traffic movement mostly leading to accidents. The people of HP primarily use PT to fulfill their need for transportation for both shorter and longer distances. The main aim of this study is to interview people using public transportation with the help of a questionnaire and analyze their responses to improve safety measures. 5000 person’s feedback has been considered for the analysis in the study. The present study concluded that safety for people traveling on public transportation is essential for all groups of people. Providing safe and cheap PT is a massive challenge in Himachal Pradesh, which may be simplified by adopting the results of the present study.
Arunava Poddar, Akhilesh Kumar, Akhilesh Nautiyal, Amit Kumar Yadav
Impact of Runway Configuration on Flight Delays
Flight delays have become a major complication for many airlines around the world. In order to reduce the complications like economic loss and customer satisfaction, analyzing the data and causes of flight delays is a must. This study focuses on runway configuration as a factor for flight delays. The paper will also briefly analyze the different types of runway configurations. The study will conduct a statistical two-way ANOVA test to test flight delay data of selected airports in the United States. Runway configuration and hub types are taken as independent variables and flight delay data as the dependent variable for the analysis. The two-way ANOVA result fallouts to reject all the null hypotheses meaning there is no significant level of interaction between runway configuration types, hub types, and the interaction between runway configuration and hub types. This research concludes that there is no need for any specific runway configuration in order to reduce flight delays. The study will also help in the development of new airports according to the findings of the study.
Dhanachand Thokchom, Aditya Kumar Tiwary
Effects of Adding Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) to Dense Bituminous Macadam Mixes Using the Dry Process
This study looked at the mechanical characteristics of dense bituminous macadam mixtures that have been amended using waste plastic bottles (PET). Bitumen content was taken as 4.1–4.9% (with a 0.2% increment), and the amount of PET content was taken as 4–14% (with a 2% increment) of bitumen content. The quantity of bitumen content required for traditional mixes was 4.82%, whereas modified mixes require 4.50%. Reduction in optimum bitumen content and better rutting performance indicates that dense bituminous macadam mixes improve with the addition of PET. This technology is beneficial in an environmentally friendly way.
Mukesh Saini, Praveen Aggarwal, Sunil Chouhan
Numerical Parametric Study on Time-Dependent Response of Geocell-Reinforced Flexible Pavements
Flexible pavements on weak soil are prone to longitudinal cracking and rut formation on the surface. Geocell-reinforced granular layers offer enhanced load distribution and restrict settlement on the pavement under regular vehicular traffic. An intensive parametric study was done to assess the degree of impact of various factors on the time-dependent behavior of flexible pavement with a geocell-reinforced granular base. Parameters analyzed include stiffness and aspect ratio of geocell, frictional characteristics of the granular layer, and subgrade shear strength. The independent effect of each influential parameter on the mechanism of load transfer was analyzed using three-dimensional modeling incorporating the actual honeycomb shape of the geocell. The load transfer mechanism in a geocell is most affected by the tensile stiffness of geosynthetic material and the aspect ratio of the cellular pocket. While the effect of the wide slab mechanism is affected by the strength characteristics of all pavement layers, including fill friction, subgrade cohesion, and geosynthetic stiffness, the membrane effect is dependent purely on the strength and aspect ratio of the geocell. The aspect ratio close to unity is desirable for efficient and uniform stress transfer through Geocell walls.
Anjana R. Menon, Anjana Bhasi
Intelligent Accident Rescue System
Vehicles on roads are increasing day by at a very fast pace. This increase in vehicles has also increased the number of road accidents. Every year, an average of 150,000 people die due to accidents in India. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate such scenarios where first aid and rescue can be provided at the accident site or the breakdown site at the earliest. In this paper, we have proposed a solution for situations where rescue is needed. We have taken the scenario of school buses as nowadays school buses get late in reaching school due to traffic jams, road accidents, etc. A network of school buses has been created in which if the drivers or the passengers get to know about the traffic jams ahead on the road, then the driver can take another path and reach on time or in case of bus breakdown, the driver or the passengers can send the signal to the other nearby bus drivers for rescue. This has been established using the OMNet++ tool using the SIoV concept. The results obtained are promising with a fully deployed functional network that is capable of providing help to the victim node at the earliest.
Vishant Kumar, Sandesh Tyagi, Sakshi Garg, Deepti Mehrotra
A Critical Review on Transitopia of Tomorrow as a Solution of the Transit System to Stimulate the Use of Public Transportation to Make Cities Liveable
Urbanization has caused cities to grow horizontally, leading to issues with urban sprawl, longer commutes, and a rise in the demand for private vehicles, all of which have a negative impact on the environment. Adding new mass rapid transit systems (MRTS), such as metro railways and bus rapid transit systems, has boosted public transportation in many cities in order to address issues and fill in gaps (BRTS) [1]. However, in order to create liveable, healthy, and intelligent cities, it is crucial to utilize these systems effectively. Urban transportation is a serious concern in today's megacities. The transportation network extended and evolved to cover the new urban fabrics and connect them to the rest of the city because of considerable urban expansion and population growth. It is quite challenging to achieve growth and development, especially in developing cities. Urban transportation is facing a new issue due to the ever-increasing population of urban regions. The difficulty with which these options can be used to meet the current requirements as well as the constraints on the options’ availability, space, and relationships with one another increase the complexity of the issue. The need for speedier communication, travel, and transportation is increasing quickly as the world gets smaller [2]. Technology both facilitates and offers answers for this process, functioning as both a catalyst and a supporter of it. Planners and engineers are interested in finding solutions for urban transportation, despite its complexity and difficulties. Public transit, or PT, is one such option that has shown promise in addressing the aforementioned issue. This paper explores the potential of TOD and IPT, as well as its viability in a developing country like India. This novel kind of urban transportation is thoroughly discussed in the paper, along with the transportation needs and potential use and solution for this technology to address them.
Snigdha, Charu Nangia, Manoj Kumar
Recent Developments in Water Resources and Transportation Engineering
Nidhi Nagabhatla
Yusuf Mehta
Brijesh Kumar Yadav
Ambika Behl
Madhuri Kumari
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