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About this book

This book presents the selected peer-reviewed proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Trends and Innovations in Civil Engineering (ICRTICE 2019). The volume focuses on latest research and advances in the field of civil engineering and materials science such as design and development of new environmental materials, performance testing and verification of smart materials, performance analysis and simulation of steel structures, design and performance optimization of concrete structures, and building materials analysis. The book also covers studies in geotechnical engineering, hydraulic engineering, road and bridge engineering, building services design, engineering management, water resource engineering and renewable energy. The contents of this book will be useful for students, researchers and professionals working in civil engineering.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Structural Engineering

Frontmatter

Wind Analysis of High-Rise Building Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

In the analysis of high-rise structure wind pressure is a more effective lateral load than seismic force for larger time period. Therefore, buildings over 60 m height are generally analyzed for wind loads. In wind analysis building behaves as a cantilever structure. In this study, experimental work was carried out using wind tunnel setup for three models (circular, hexagonal, and octagonal). Drag coefficients were noted down from the experiments for different plan of structure. Same models were prepared and analyzed in ANSYS 16.0 with full scales. The results obtained from tests are compared with the values of CFD and with the values available in IS 875(Part-3)2015.

Prafulla Kishor Sharma, Suresh R. Parekar

Structural Performance of Modular Buildings: A Review

This paper presents a detailed review of research in the structural performance of modular buildings. Modular construction refers to 3D units that are fully fabricated in the factory and are assembled onsite to create complete buildings or parts of a building. This paper presents the advantages, different components, and materials used for modular construction. It also outlines the different load transfer mechanisms in modular buildings. The progress of research on the analysis of modular buildings under different actions is compiled, and conclusions are drawn based on available research. The authors suggest the use of cold-formed steel shear wall system as a lateral load resisting system owing to its specific advantages.

Ashok Jammi, Arul Jayachandran Sanjeevi

Application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in the Prediction of Displacement of RC Frame Subjected to Earthquake

The load response behavior of the structure subjected to earthquake load depends on many parameters. The responses can be broadly classified into three categories, namely zonal, soil, and structural response. Most of the designers and researchers rely upon the analytical method to see the complete performance of the structure which will enable them to design the structure for serviceability accurately. Several software have been developed to understand the structural behavior subjected to earthquake loading. The drawback of this analytical method is the failure of the models to represent explicitly important features like nonlinear behavior of structural system over the rate of change with time. It has been observed from the recent analytical studies that application of artificial neural network (ANN) is becoming very popular in the prediction of the behavior of the structure. In the present analytical studies, the ANN model was applied to predict the displacement of the structure using 462 data sets obtained from ETABS-16 results. The performance was compared over statistical parameters in terms of correlation coefficient (CC), root-mean-squared error (RMSE), and scatter index (SI). In addition, it was observed that ANN prediction provides an alternative method for predicting the structural behavior, especially in the case where it is difficult to model complex interaction.

R. Prabhakara, Pallavi Patil, Narayana Harish, H. N. Jagannatha Reddy

Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Using Surrogate Modelling Techniques for Structural Problems

This paper addresses the polynomial-based response surface models for fatigue crack growth problems. The fatigue crack growth behaviour of critical pin-loaded lug with through-the-thickness crack at a hole was analysed using finite-element (FE) tools. The stress intensity factor (SIF) and fatigue crack growth life for the incremental crack length of the attachment lug was predicted using Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) approach and crack growth laws, respectively. The polynomial-based surrogate model was built using the FE characterisation of the relationship between various crack parameters such as crack size, load applied, thickness, stress intensity factor and fatigue crack growth life. Then, using the developed model, stress intensity factors and fatigue crack growth life for various parameters were obtained without the help of FE tools. Hence, the computation cost of using finite-element tools was reduced.

Geetu G. Kumar, T. Sivaranjani, D. V. T. G. Pavan Kumar, C. L. Mahesh Kumar

Dynamic Response of RC Slab Under Drop Test Retrofitted with CFRP Strips Using NSM Technique

Slabs are two-dimensional structural elements in a storied building that provide large useful area for working during construction and even after occupancy. The effect of impact loads on slabs was not studied effectively due to lot of constraints, like lack of experimental setup, cost of sophisticated equipment, boundary conditions and so on. Drop test on slabs is gaining importance in recent years due to its simplicity in experimental setup while measuring the dynamic response of slabs under impact loads with a reasonable degree of accuracy. An experimental investigation was conducted on simply supported two-way RC slab under three drop heights to study the variation in the dynamic response of strengthened slab by near-surface mounting (NSM) technique over normal RC slabs. The dynamic response was studied over different height of impact and change in concrete grade, and the effect of strengthening was recorded using an accelerometer mounted at the bottom of slab. All the slabs were tested as simply supported with the drop weight impacting at the centre of the slab on the top surface. It was observed from this experimental result that the height of the drop and strengthening technique influence the dynamic behaviour of RC slab. Peak displacement, acceleration and damage index in terms of energy required per unit length of crack were compared to demonstrate change in the dynamic behaviour of RC slabs. It was interesting to note that the sudden change in the response of RC slabs over the different kinetic energy needs further detailed investigations.

Nandeesh M. Sreenivasappa, Arjun R. P. Reddy, H. N. Jagannatha Reddy, R. Prabhakara

Experimental Studies to Demonstrate the Effect of Clamping Reinforcement on Shear Strength of GPC Adopting Push-Off Specimens

Mechanical properties of GPC are different compared over NSC; this is due to change in cracking behaviour under the application of load. Compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and in-plane shear strength are the important mechanical properties to be understood before it is used in practice. It has been observed that literatures available on in-plane shear strength of GPC are limited. The experimental investigation carried out in the present study is to study the in-plane shear strength of normal strength concrete (NSC) and geo polymer concrete (GPC) using push-off specimens. The grade of concrete and height of shear plane used are M30 and 100 mm, respectively. Dimensions of push-off specimen were 150 × 150 × 260 mm with two rectangular notches of 10 mm thick was cut, 100 mm apart along the longitudinal axis of loading and at equidistance from mid-depth. A total of 48 push-off specimens were tested (24 in each NSC and GPC, respectively), six push-off specimens with zero, one, two and three bars, respectively, crossing the shear plane. It was observed from experimental results that as the number of bars across shear plane increased the shear stress increased and in-plane shear strength of GPC was higher than NSC.

N. R. Harish Kumar, Sachin R. Biradar, R. Prabhakara, H. Jagannatha Reddy

Evaluation of Flexural Behaviour of Post-tensioned RC Beams Strengthened Using CFRP Laminates with NSM Technique

A large number of investigations are available on the flexural evaluation of strengthened reinforced concrete beams using several structural materials and techniques. However, very limited information is available on the performance of strengthened post-tensioned (PT) beams. Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) strengthening material with near-surface mounted (NSM) technique has evolved as the promising material and method due to their superior performance. This paper focused on the structural strength and deformation behaviour of PT RC beams, and flexural strength with NSM technique using CFRP laminate. Four PT beams were tested in the present experimental and analytical investigation, in which one beam was regarded as control beam, and the remaining three beams with increase over the area of CFRP laminates by a factor of 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The aim of this experiment and analytical work was to demonstrate the strength and deformation behaviour of the PT beams tested under static condition over four points bending. The results revealed that the cracking and ultimate load-carrying capacity of strengthened PT beams increased linearly compared with control beams. Increase in ductility index with reduction in the deflection at the level of ultimate load was recorded for the strengthened PT beams.

Vathsala, H. N. Jagannatha Reddy, R. Prabhakara

Analysis of Isotropic and Orthotropic Sandwich Bridge Decks

This paper presents the behaviour of isotropic and orthotropic sandwich bridge decks under IRC class-A wheel loading. In general, the fatigue damage of the bridge deck under the wheel load system is caused by stress concentration. Therefore, the stress concentration and displacement of simply supported steel and steel-polyurethane sandwich decks are determined using FEM. The models of both the decks are developed using ANSYS Workbench 14.0 and are analysed under area loading. The geometrical and material properties are taken from the reported results. The present results are compared with the reported literature and are found to be in good agreement. The optimum mesh size is chosen through a convergence study for discretizing the decks. It is found that the stresses in the steel deck are reduced from 40 to 85% and the maximum stress is reduced from 75 to 80% by using a sandwich deck system. The displacement of the sandwich deck system is found to be 85–90% less than that in the single-layer steel deck. Here, the thickness of the steel deck is equal to the sum of the two steel faceplates of the sandwich deck. The study shows that fatigue damage can be reduced in the steel bridge deck by using the sandwich deck system. The developed sandwich deck system shows good performance and proves to be an effective solution for the existing steel decks.

Preeti Agarwal, P. Pal, P. K. Mehta

The Effect of Angle of Web Opening for Prediction of Ultimate Failure Load of Castellated Beams by Experimental Investigation

A beam which has openings in its web portion is called castellated beam. For the preparation of castellated beams, fabrication of I section is done by cutting web portion and subsequently re-joining it one above the other. The popularity of castellated beams measures its advantageous structural applications. It expands the lives of millions every day combined with our pioneering business facilities. The objective of this research paper is to investigate new angle of web opening of the diamond shape in comparison with hexagonal and rectangular web opening to determine the ultimate load-carrying capacity and to avoid shear stress concentration at the corner of the rectangular and hexagonal opening which is responsible for failure of castellated beam. This paper studies the deflection performance and ultimate load-carrying capacity of castellated beams with a diamond, hexagonal and rectangular opening. To identify experimental results of this research, 24 beams were fabricated, tested and results are validated using ANSYS software. The variable considered in this research is the angle of opening 30°, 45° and 60° for diamond. The length of the opening for diamond and rectangle of castellated beams is equal. It is concluded that the ultimate load-carrying capacity of diamond web opening with 30° angle of opening is 47.86% more and has 47.5% less deflection compared to the hexagonal opening. The average load-carrying capacity of diamond web opening is 44.21% more and deflection 44.00% less than rectangular web opening.

Amol J. Mehetre, Rajashekhar S. Talikoti

Free Vibration Frequencies of Lock Gate Structure

The effect of incompressible fluid on free vibration frequencies of a stiffened lock gate structure is investigated. The formulation of a stiffened lock gate consists of plate and beam elements. Mindlin’s plate bending and Euler’s beam theories are used for the plate and the stiffener, respectively. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible, having an irrotational flow. The infinite far boundary of the fluid domain is truncated near the lock gate structure using Fourier half-range cosine series expansion in the solution of the Laplace equation. Finite-element method (FEM) is used to establish interaction between the fluid and the lock gate. The finite-element formulation is then converted into computer code to determine the free vibration frequencies of the stiffened lock gate in the presence of fluid. The results are compared with the unstiffened lock gate by approximately keeping the same volume of material.

Deepak Kumar Singh, Priyaranjan Pal, Shashi Kant Duggal

Introspecting System Identification in Numerical Technique for Inverse Identification Process

In this paper, a new approach is developed for the system identification using finite element method (FEM) modelling concept. Matrices of the structural members are modelled using the stiffness matrix approach. A bridge truss structure is selected for the computational purpose. In the multiplication of the matrices element to element multiplication is used instead of conventional matrix multiplication. An algorithm has been developed of the same. MATLAB is used as a common platform for the computational purposes. Element to element computing concept has been applied in the algorithm for computing the global matrices. Eigen frequency evaluation technique along with the distributive computing concept is used to locate and predict the damage. The algorithm is able to detect the damage for single as well as multiple damaged members.

Shalem Ernest, U. K. Dewangan

Effect of Steel Ratio on Dynamic Response of HSC Two Way Slab Strengthened by Entrenched CFRP Strips Using Drop Test

Higher performance of High Strength Concrete (HSC) slabs attracted the engineers to provide it as floor slabs in warehouses and heavy industries. These floor slabs are subjected to higher intensities of loads including drop of objects there by subjected to dynamic effect. It has been observed that the dynamic response behaviour of slabs are obtained with a reasonable accuracy by subjecting the elements to drop test. Steel ratio in slabs plays an important role in the static and dynamic response behaviour of slabs. In the present study, HSC two-way simply supported slab strengthened with entrenched CFRP strips were subjected to drop test. Accelerometer was mounted on the bottom of the slab to record the acceleration time graph. In the current study dynamic behaviour of HSC slabs were compared with the same configuration with entrenched strengthened slabs. The change in dynamic response was recorded and studied with the strengthening and found that dynamic parameters such as peak acceleration and damage index, measured as energy required to develop unit crack length caused by the impact were found to be dependent on the steel ratio. The strengthening technique was effective in reducing the peak acceleration of slabs.

Arjun R. P. Reddy, Nandeesh M. Sreenivasappa, R. Prabhakara, H. N. Jagannatha Reddy

Damage Detection Techniques to Identify the Unknown Damage Parameters from the Structural Response Data in Beam: A Review

In this paper, the structural system identification technique is reviewed. The focus of this paper is to review mainly the state of art on damage detection techniques particularly, in beams. The various researchers have tried to find the unknown damage parameters from the structural field response data using various techniques, still, the unknown damage parameter identifications are a challenging issue using the field data. In this paper, a comparative review is presented using the various techniques applied by the researchers. Their findings and future scope of work are also presented. Finally, a conclusion in the current state of art review is presented.

Bhawna Patel, U. K. Dewangan

Studies on Rotation Capacity and Torsional Strength of Normal, Medium- and High-Strength RC Beams

Understanding of the beam behaviour in torsion along with bending and shear is very important for the complex design of buildings and as well as recent developments in neo-concretes. An experimental investigation was carried out to determine the response of normal, medium- and high-strength concrete beams when subjected to torsion. In the present investigation under standard testing conditions, the torsional behaviour of total 27 beams which are grouped into nine categories like NSC, MSC and HSC beams with identical geometrical conditions like width, depth, effective span and varied area of steel in longitudinal and transverse directions has been investigated. The beam properties like rotation capacity, ultimate torsional strength and failure pattern of the beams are studied. The results obtained from the experimental investigations are validated with the help of similar work as cited in the literature survey. Also, the parametric analysis had carried out for different models, theories and codal equations as suggested by the different investigators. The obtained torsional strength experimental values of NSC beams are well agreement with the predicted torsional strength for most of the codes available in the literature. The experimental values of MSC and HSC beams are close agreement with EURO code II results. It was also observed that the rotation capacity of the beams depends on the grade of concrete, longitudinal steel and spacing of transverse reinforcement.

M. R. Prakash, Katta Venkataramana, R. Prabhakara, B. Manjunatha

Manufacturing of an Economical Single Degree-of-Freedom Shake Table

Shake table is the most effective and well-organized device than any other test for understanding the basic concepts of earthquake. This paper provides a well-organized, effective, economical, and affordable single-DOF shake table. It gives a straightforward and user-friendly platform for engineering students to practically understand and carry out the scientific study of earthquakes. The study proceeds with the proper designing and erection of a single DOF shake table with a payload of 30 kg and a frequency of 0–25 Hz. Steady-state analysis of an identical structure made of steel and aluminum is done in SAP2000, conventional shake table and designed shake table, and results are compared. Harmonic analysis (sinusoidal wave) of three structures with different height is carried out in SAP2000 in order to study the impact of their height on the seismic response of structure. Harmonic sinusoidal wave applied on the above structures in SAP2000 is obtained from the designed shake table. Data translation system and QuickDaq software are used for recording the harmonic data. The single-DOF shake table assembled with an economical cost of INR 50,000 only proved effective for seismic analysis of structures at the academic level. It is also seen that as the height of the structure increases, the displacement of structure increases, and the base shear decreases.

Ketan N. Bajad, Manisha V. Waghmare

Behaviour of Different Lateral Stability Structural Systems for the Tall Steel Structures Under Wind Loads

The orientation of columns is one of the new trends that can be recognized in the current design of tall buildings. Diagrid structural systems are gaining popularity in design and construction of tall buildings. Diagrid has made its mark in the developed countries due to the features like aesthetic quality, structural efficiency and sustainability, but yet to be discovered in India. Introduction of tubular structures made its way for the diagrids. With the increase in population and limited availability of resources, the concept of sustainability plays a vital role in every aspect of life. Thus, a structural system, which can provide the solutions to the sustainability, is the demand we need to fulfil. In this paper, three different structural systems namely, diagrid, tubular and conventional rigid frame systems are analyzed and are compared on numerous parameters like top storey displacement, storey drift, shear lag, fundamental time period, structural steel mass usage and sustainability, etc.

Abhimanyu Pandey, R. K. Tripathi

To Compare ATC 40 and FEMA 440 Methods for Computation of Performance Point

Nonlinear procedures of analysis have gained popularity nowadays. In this paper, two commonly used methods, one ATC 40 and other is FEMA 440 results are compared for regular as well as mass irregular structures for 4, 6 and 8 storey buildings in zone 5. The variation in the performance point by both the methods is noted and comparison has been done. The values of base shear at performance point obtained by FEMA 440EL came to be on higher side for both regular and mass irregular frames. Further, it is evident that if the mass irregularity goes to higher storey, the values at performance point go on increasing. SAP2000, a FEM-based software is used in this analysis.

Ankit Sandilya, Rajesh Kumar Tripathi

Non-linear Dynamic Analysis of a Multi-storey Building Subjected to Earthquakes

During the last few decades, seismic analysis of multi-storey building has experienced notable growth. In the past years, multi-storey buildings were designed without considering any seismic excitation which is not reliable but later it was noticed that the nowadays multi-storey building is designed for some lateral loads like earthquake, wind, etc. When the dynamic load is considered for analysis, it performed significantly well than for gravity loading. In India, some states like situated in the seismically active Himalayan region in which evaluation of natural hazards due to seismic excitation is an important thing. In this paper, nonlinear dynamic analysis of a multi-storied RC building was carried out considering the different seismic intensities which occurred in seismically active state Uttarakhand. The building under consideration is modeled using finite element-based software SAP 2000 v.14.0.0. The response parameters used in the seismic analysis are time period, base shear, modal mass participation, lateral displacement, and storey drift. From the study, it is concluded that the time-history analysis method fortified the safety of multi-storey building when it is subjected to seismic excitations.

Arjit Verma, P. Pal, Y. K. Gupta

Finite Element Modeling of Precast Diaphragms Concrete and Their Connections

The precast concrete building’s structures are high superiority and speedy construction with the assurance of durability. In addition, there would be a reduction in site labor, formwork, and possible damage during earthquake. Probably due to lack of understanding of the basic nature of precast concrete during earthquake these could not get a place in India till recent past. In fact, with available tools and design philosophies designer of precast concrete structures can create a structure which will not only survive an earthquake but also will be subjected to a very little, if any, damage. The main objectives of this study work are the connections for different options of precast concrete floor unit in building situated in seismic zone for different aspect ratios and determine if precast concrete structures were more susceptible to earthquake damages, due to poor floor connections, to make the recommendations to Codal provision to improve the performance of these structural systems in future seismic events with the help of software.

Raj Joshi, Astha Jhawar, Megharima Datta, Ashwin Parihar, Ubaid L. Hanfee

T-Beam Bridge Girder Analysis Using Finite Element Modeling for IRC Loading

T-beam slab deck bridge is the most common type of superstructure generally adopted in most of the highways in the country. Moving live load combinations are the critical loadings for which bridge deck needs to be analyzed. In this paper, T-beam slab bridge deck is modeled using finite element method by assuming it as a beam–plate model. In beam–plate model, the beam element is assembled in the plane of the plate element, so that the center of gravity of the beam coincides with the plate element. Live load for Class 70R wheeled vehicle, on a two-lane bridge is taken as per IRC: 6-2016. The analysis is performed as per IRC: 112-2011. The study on the three different cases of cross girder combinations is considered. The effect of number of cross girders is analyzed in order to reduce the maximum bending moment and deflection in longitudinal girders on the bridge deck model. A MATLAB code is developed for finite element modeling of T-beam slab deck bridge. The results of various combinations of loads for the maximum value of shear force, bending moment, and deflections are tabulated and plotted.

Dhaker Rahul, U. K. Dewangan

Flexural Strengthening of Steel Structures with Fiber-Reinforced Polymers and Analysis Using ANSYS

Fiber-reinforced polymer has different material properties like higher strength, corrosion-resistant properties, and good durability. Fiber-reinforced polymer also has ability to restore decreased capacity of deteriorated structures. Moreover, most of the research has been conducted regarding applications of composites in concrete structures when it is compared to steel structures. It is said that tensile Young’s modulus is lower than steel. Durability can be increased by wrapping the FRPs externally, thereby reducing the stresses of steel beam. The current research proposed the use of a new high modulus carbon fiber-reinforced polymer for strengthening of steel structures by applying laminates externally to the bottom flange of beam. Finite element modeling has been used for analysis to suggest some design guidelines. The experimental results obtained confirmed the effective enhancement in flexural capacity.

Prabhudeva Gunthati, Mohit Jaiswal

Study on Sensitivity of PZT Signatures for Damage Detection in RC Columns—A Numerical Study

Structural health monitoring using EMI techniques have gained attention of the researchers in the past two decades. Damage detection in RC structural components in the form of cracks is important as it reduces the stiffness of structural members. Also, the occurrence of cracks in the near vicinity of the critical locations is a major issue which has to be addressed at the time of initial crack propagation. PZT sensors are effective in identifying the incipient damages locally. In the present paper, conductance signatures (real part of EMI signatures) are extracted from the smart RC column in healthy and damaged conditions (in the form of cracks) under different frequency ranges, i.e. 0–10 kHz and 0–300 kHz, and found that there is significant change in the conductance signatures by which the damage location and severity can be identified. The method also found to be effective in identifying the incipient damages in a low-frequency range of 0–10 kHz with well-defined changes in the EMI signature patterns.

Venkat Shivaram Yedlapati, Mallika Alapati

Experimental Studies on Flexural Behaviour of RC Beams Strengthened with High Performance Concrete Layer

This paper explains the effectiveness and the use of two different methods of flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams using high performance concrete (HPC) layer. A 50 mm thick layer/jacket of HPC was directly applied to the beam surface in two forms. In one form, strengthening is done only at the tension face. In the other form, U-shape HPC jacketing was done. A total number of six RC beams are tested under flexure. The different test parameters studied are crack pattern, load-deflection curves, first crack load and ultimate load. Results indicated a significant increase in the flexural strength of RC beams in both methods of strengthening. Beams strengthened in the form of U-shape jacketing showed a higher gain in strength.

Aravindkumar Harwalkar, Ashwini S. Ingale

Health Monitoring of Civil Structures by Pulse Compression-Based Digital Frequency Modulated Thermography

Strengthened solid structures such as reinforced concrete structures (RCS) have been broadly used in structural building due to their ideal properties like high-quality strength, toughness and adaptability. However, due to the presence of steel in the form of rebar in RCS, they are susceptible to premature corrosion which drastically reduces its durability. It is therefore important to detect this corrosion at an early stage to avoid fatal repercussions. However, it is generally not possible to detect this corrosion of rebar just by visual inspection. Active Thermography-based Nondestructive Testing (ATNDT) has emerged as one of the powerful techniques for this purpose and has seen a lot of advancements to improve its efficacy for monitoring of cracks and corrosion in rebar. One such advancement has been the use of Linear Frequency Modulated Thermography (LFMT). However, LFMT has limitations in the form of lower contrast of visibility of defects and depth detection capability. This paper introduces the use of Digital Frequency Modulated Thermography (DFMT) for RCS inspection. The results obtained from the Correlation images and Time Domain Phase Images clearly show the effectiveness of this approach in removing the drawbacks of LFMT for RCS inspection.

J. A. Siddiqui, Sachin Patil

Transportation Engineering

Frontmatter

Application of Remotely Piloted Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Construction Management

Construction projects may face challenges due to long project duration, uncertainties and big size. In recent times, remarkable research work has been done on automation of construction. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are exponentially being utilized in various civil engineering areas like land surveying, crack detection, construction logistic management, highway asset management and site inspection. It is always difficult to monitor and track the status of a large construction site. However, unmanned aerial vehicles collect huge data of a construction project quickly. Remotely located large-scaled construction sites can be monitor by using advanced IT technology in a frequent manner. In this research endeavor, a drone has been used for construction monitoring of the G+6 building with the help of Pix4D software. This research proposed the unmanned aerial vehicle enabled site to automation building information modeling (BIM). Unmanned aerial vehicle-captured visual data can be utilized effectively with the help of Pix4Dbim. The robotic data collection during construction monitoring can provide enormous benefits to building information modeling.

Tirth Patel, Vishal Suthar, Naimish Bhatt

Spatial Pavement Information System for Transportation Networks Based on Distress Features in Nagpur City Using RS and GIS

Preservation, maintenance and rehabilitation of pavements need continuous information through monitoring for their assessment. The deterioration rate of the pavement surfaces in developing countries like India is more due to a sudden rise in the automation industry which was not thought of during the planning stage of the road network. Increase in motorized vehicles has led to early failure of the roads which need to be properly maintained by carrying out the maintenance work to have a longer service life. Pavement Information System (PIS) is a valuable tool for evaluating the rapid deterioration of roads. PIS stores and compiles a large amount of data that are frequently collected on a timely basis. The new era of the pavement information system is utilizing the Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System. The present study analyzes the major pavements in Nagpur city. For these selected roads, the different types of distress conditions on the roads were collected and were represented on the high-resolution satellite map. From these data sets, a Spatial Pavement Information System (SPIS) was developed for Nagpur road network using ArcGIS software. The management system involved the development of distress indices which were calculated based on the frequency and types of distress. The different pavements were then prioritized based on distress indices for maintenance scheduling. This research paper provides a spatial method which helps prioritize pavements for maintenance and rehabilitation to improve Level of Service of the road.

Y. B. Katpatal, Kaddak Harashal, M. S. Mukesh

Evaluation of Strength Development of Untreated and Treated Red Mud with Gypsum as a Road Construction Material

The expense incurred in any treatment method of industrial waste is of major consideration to any manufacturer. The disposal of waste products is one of the major problems faced by the processing and manufacturing industries. Red mud is also a waste produced during the Bayer’s process of extracting alumina from the bauxite. Red mud contains traces of radioactive elements and the disposal of it gives rise to air, water and soil pollution. 77 million tons of red mud is produced annually and it has turned into a major concern of environmentalists from all over the world. To reduce the problems incurred by red mud, it is necessary to harness this waste product into a susceptible construction material thereby diminishing the problems caused to the environment. This project work explores the reasonable usage for a specific red mud contingent on its durable property. The acquired sample is stabilized by adding gypsum which increases the strength by facilitating the pozzolanic action. In this project the gypsum content is varied from 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% by a dry load of red mud. Initially, the basic index and engineering properties of the untreated red mud were studied which can be referred to when required while conducting the main test. Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests were conducted for the stabilized samples and the results were compared between an untreated and treated red mud for finding the feasibility of it as a construction material.

K. Sarath Chandra, S. Krishnaiah

Strength Characteristics of Cement-Stabilized Recycled Asphaltic Pavement (RAP) for Pavement Applications

Good quality construction materials are on the verge of depletion in various parts of the world. It is essential to preserve the available natural resources for the future. This scenario forces the engineers toward recycling of the construction materials such as recycled asphaltic pavement, construction and demolition waste, and demands their reuse in construction. As these materials are already distressed, they are inferior compared to conventional natural construction materials. This poses a limitation for the use of such recycled materials in construction and only a small amount of recycled materials can be used in its original form. To overcome this limitation, admixtures such as cement, lime and fly ash can be added to the recycled materials for improving their mechanical properties making them more durable. In this study, one such recycled material obtained from pavements during its rehabilitation, reconstruction, maintenance, etc. over a period of time is considered for investigation. The strength of various RAP–conventional aggregate mixtures were characterized in terms of CBR, and its suitability for granular sub-base applications is evaluated based on minimum CBR criteria specified by the relevant standards. From the test results, it is observed that the addition of cement improves the strength of the mix. Based on the minimum strength criteria of GSB, cement content of up to 3% is found to replace up to 100% conventional GSB material providing eco-friendly and sustainable construction practice.

V. K. Vidyashree, K. H. Mamatha, S. V. Dinesh

Feasibility of Recycled Tyre as Reinforcing Material for Pavements

Rapid industrialization and urbanization lead to various forms of waste materials such as construction and demolition waste, industrial by-products, waste tyres, etc. In some cases, the disposal of waste materials is of prime concern and a few waste materials are hazardous to the environment. Such scenarios force engineers to recycle and reuse these waste materials in an effective way wherever possible. In this study, one such waste material produced from vehicles, i.e., waste tyres, is considered. An attempt is made to reinforce the model pavement section with the recycled tyre in the cellular grid form. Repeated load tests were carried out on unreinforced and reinforced model pavement sections. The test results indicated that the reinforcement significantly reduces the plastic settlement and the pressure transferred to the subgrade level providing long-lasting pavements.

B. N. Vinod Raj, K. H. Mamatha, S. V. Dinesh

Partial Replacement of Moorum with Fly Ash in Embankment

The paper presents the geotechnical characteristics and slope stability analysis of moorum blended with fly ash for the construction of road embankments. The paper presents the geotechnical characteristics and slope stability analysis of moorum blended with fly ash for the construction of road embankments. An experimental investigation has been carried out on the moorum and moorum–fly ash mixes at various proportions of fly ash (i.e., 0%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%) by dry weight of moorum. The index properties of moorum mixes and strength characteristics were evaluated by conducting Atterberg’s limit, specific gravity, grain size analysis and compaction parameters, direct shear parameters, and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, respectively. The stability analysis of moorum embankment was performed using FLAC/Slope 7.0 (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua/Slope version 7) software at a slope angle of 30° and various heights of 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 m to determine Factor of Safety (FOS). The maximum FOS was obtained at 30% of fly ash mix in moorum with 6 m height of the embankment.

Sagar D. Turkane, Sandeep K. Chouksey

Scour Around Bridge Abutments in Clay Bed

Most of the hydraulic failures of bridges occur due to the formation of the scour hole at the corner of the abutment and in front of the pier. When the scour hole is more, the grip length of the foundation of the abutment and pier reduces causing destabilization of the bridge as a whole. Scour studies around the abutments and pier in clay bed attracts more studies due to the swell–shrink characteristics of the soil. In this study, an attempt is made to conduct a series of scour studies for clayey soil with three densities, i.e. 1.15, 1.23 and 1.37 g/cc and four abutment sizes, i.e. 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. Based on the test results, the effect of the width of abutment on the maximum scour depth at the end of 600 min of flow run was analysed. It is found that the maximum scour depth increases as the width of abutment increases and reduces as density increases. The rate of scour reduces with time and when the time parameter exceeds 4, it approaches to zero asymptotically.

Anoop Kumar, B. N. Advith Ganesh, Shubham Vats, P. Sumanth, T. Gangadharaiah, K. H. Mamatha

Analysis of Pedestrian Crossing Behavior at Uncontrolled Intersections

Increased vehicular population in second-tier urban areas and disobedience to the traffic laws by the road users (pedestrians and others) leads to a significant concern about the safety. This has become a very serious problem, unable to be controlled either by the enforcement or any means. In the present study, a city has been selected where the population is less than five lakhs but the substantial population of the vehicles and uncontrolled intersections are formed by adopting poor technical methods in town development. Eleven uncontrolled intersections were selected along the major arterial roads. The method adopted for data collection is a videography survey. The data collected were pedestrian volume, traffic volume, and the approaching speed of the vehicles. Also, the pedestrian characteristics were extracted to analyze the crossing behavior, gap acceptance, and critical gap. From the analysis, it is concluded that road geometry and traffic control device plays a significant role in pedestrian safety. In this analysis, while selecting the intersections, its formation, layout, and geometry are analyzed. Pedestrian crossing speed (15th percentile) was compared to the standard value 1.2 m/s and its relation between road geometry, pedestrian traffic control devices or signs, pedestrian characteristics, and traffic volume are analyzed. It is concluded that the 15th percentile speed of pedestrians did not meet the standard value 1.2 m/s in most of the intersections and male pedestrians crossing speed (1.39 m/s) is found to be higher when compared to crossing speed of female pedestrians (0.76 m/s). The critical gap is lesser for two-wheelers when compared to other classes of vehicles indicating that the size of the vehicles has a significant influence on gap acceptance, pedestrian crossing behavior, and critical gap.

S. P. Niveditha, K. M. Mallesha

Utilization of RAP in Flexible Pavements

In modern days, life without the transportation industry is unimaginable. The roadways play a vital role in improving the economy of the country. As the roadways require necessary strengthening, rehabilitation or reconstruction depending on the severity of the damage caused to the structure during its service life, enormous quantity of RAP will be generated. It is essential to recycle and reuse the RAP generated in the pavement construction as it can help in preserving a large quantity of conventional construction materials. In this study, the strength characteristics of the bituminous mix with recycled binder or aggregates are compared with that of the conventional bituminous mix through laboratory investigation. The test result indicated that the recycled binder or aggregates can be effectively used in the bituminous mix satisfying the MoRT&H requirements up to a certain percentage. The recycled aggregates of up to 20% give maximum stability and ITS in comparison with conventional mix providing an eco-friendly, economical solution for the construction of pavements.

Bhavana Suresh, K. H. Mamatha, S. V. Dinesh

Influence of Long-Term Laboratory Aging on Properties of Binder

Aging of the binder is an important factor that affects the service life of flexible pavements. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of long-term laboratory aging on binder. Normal oven aging in the laboratory at 85 °C for a varying period of 5, 6, 7, and 8 days was used to simulate the long-term field aging. Rheological characteristics of fresh VG-30 binder and laboratory aged binders were evaluated using a rheometer. Frequency sweep test and temperature sweep tests were conducted. Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to evaluate the effect of aging on the chemical composition of the binder. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the change in morphological characteristics of the binder with aging. The study demonstrated that the aging results in the reduction of fatigue cracking resistance of binders at low temperatures. Rutting resistance of binders increased with an increase in aging. FTIR results indicated that there is no significant change in the functional groups, the only difference was in the intensity of their peaks. Morphological changes in aged binders were well identified from SEM images.

S. Tejeshwini, B. Gowtham, K. H. Mamatha, S. V. Dinesh, Anand Tadas

Pavement Evaluation Using Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD)

Pavements are the key elements for a country’s infrastructure, and therefore its periodic evaluation, maintenance and rehabilitation activities are important. In the present study, a State Highway (SH) connecting Harihara to Honnalli, Karnataka was selected with a length of 40 km for evaluation. Road inventory survey, soil characterization and FWD studies were carried out along the selected stretch of the road. Functional evaluation was performed based on manual measurements and rated based on PCI values. The structural evaluation was performed using the modulus values obtained from Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). Pavement distresses were identified and maintenance measures were prioritized. Also, a comparison of CBR- and FWD-based modulus methods is also reported. It is concluded that insufficient thickness is the major reason for the failure which has to be corrected by considering overlay and strengthening measures.

D. Nayana, K. H. Mamatha, S. V. Dinesh, T. R. Lokesh

Geotechnical Engineering

Frontmatter

Design of Blanket by Adding Different Percentages of Soil

The paper discusses the analysis of a railway sub-blast blanket design mix using aggregates and sandy soil. Five-design mix with different proportions of aggregates and virgin soil is prepared as per RDSO guidelines, the property of soil used for the blanket mixes is the same in all the cases, and the effect soil on blanket mixes is studied.

Hardev Singh

Challenges in Design and Construction of Pile Foundation in Non-liquefiable and Liquefiable Soil

Pile foundation is considered as a suitable and best foundation system at the site with the top stratum of soils possessing comparatively lower bearing capacity with respect to intended loads. It is also recommended at the site where soils possess susceptibly liquefaction potential (liquefaction prone site). In the present paper, it is studied various challenges encountered during the design and construction of pile foundations in non-liquefiable and liquefiable soils. It is also presented various suitable, appropriate, feasible and technically acceptable solutions adopted to overcome the same. In the present work, it is also investigated various suitable methodologies adopted for the construction of pile foundations considering site condition and size of projects. It is also briefed the engineering measures adopted at liquefaction prone site for pile foundation, ground improvements and liquefaction mitigation techniques. Various codes and their guidelines for construction, testing of pile foundation also briefed. It is observed, evaluation of various soil properties from the geotechnical investigation, evaluation of liquefaction potential of soil is very essential before selecting the appropriate pile foundation system and design the same in non-liquefiable and liquefiable soil. Suitable construction methodology also very essential to accomplish the execution of pile foundation safely, meeting desired quality and within the required time frame.

M. K. Pradhan, G. R. Reddy, K. Srinivas

Improvement of Clayey Subgrade by Using Ferro-Sand

Development of any country is always marked by its effective and efficient communication system. In a country like India, the roads connectivity through its rural section is of paramount significance. But the major drawback is the soil subgrade in these regions. The clayey soil poses a serious pitfall affecting the serviceability and durability of the soil subgrade. This study focuses majorly on the improvement of clayey subgrade by addition of ferro-sand, a by-product obtained from the extraction of copper. The ferro-sand is a waste product which is generated in huge amount. For every million tonnes of copper extracted, there are more than 2.2 million tonnes of ferro-sand generated. The utilization of this industrial waste for the stabilization of clayey subgrade is the objective of the paper. Standard Proctor’s test, unconfined compressive strength test, direct shear test and California bearing ratio (CBR) test are performed on the virgin soil and the soil blended with ferro-sand. The ferro-sand is replaced in 10, 20, 30, 40% proportions by weight from the virgin soil. The standard Proctor’s test emanates that the significant decrease of 38.22% in optimum moisture content (OMC) and an increase of 27.89% in maximum dry density (MDD) of the soil mix from the virgin soil. The virgin soil and the soil blends were examined for the unconfined compressive strength test and improvement of 193.16% is observed. Such improvement in strength was further improved by curing the soil mix for periods of 7, 14, 28 days. The direct shear test result shows that the cohesion of soil mix increases significantly from 26.87 to 51.68 kPa. Then these proportions of the soil blend are tested for both unsoaked and soaked CBR tests. The results show an increment of 4% in the unsoaked CBR value and 3.42% in the soaked CBR value. This significant improvement clearly shows that ferro-sand is adaptably suitable for the stabilization of the clayey subgrade. Also, its properties resembling that of sand proposes its utilization as a replacement material for natural sand.

Ambika Priyadarshini Mishra, Rupashree Ragini Sahoo, Pradip Kumar Pradhan

Soil Subgrade Stabilization Using Non-woven Polypropylene Geotextile

Roads are the quintessential component for the social as well as economic upliftment of a country. Our country has a total road network of greater than 60 lakh kilometers of which 79% consists of rural roads. Around 20% of land area of our country is covered with the kind of soils having low shear strength and California bearing ratio (CBR) values. The pavement which is constructed over such soils deteriorates significantly under heavy wheel load which leads to substantial enhancement in maintenance and construction costs. To overcome such situations the soil reinforcement techniques have to be resorted to as replacement and removal of soil would lead to heavy economic liability. In this work, an attempt was made to study the effects of non-woven synthetic geotextile on the strength behavior of the soil. The geotextile was placed in single as well as multiple layers from the top of mold at different depths in soil subgrade and optimum moisture content (OMC), maximum dry density (MDD), soaked CBR, and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values were determined experimentally. Multiple linear regression models were developed for predicting soaked CBR and UCS. Maximum improvement of 66% in CBR and 45% in UCS was reported when the soil sample was reinforced with double-layer geotextile (i.e., 25 mm and 50 mm).

Ayush Mittal, Shalinee Shukla

Assessment of Scaling Effects on Plugging of Driven Piles Using Image Analysis

In recent years, open-ended steel pipe piles have been used in the foundations of urban and coastal structures such as long-span bridges, harbor terminals, and offshore wind power structures. It is found that pile capacity depends directly on pile dimensions and plugging phenomenon, especially in the case of open-ended driven piles. The present study investigates the effect of variation of pile cross sections and plugging behavior through image analysis. Three different scaling factors of 10, 5.7, and 4.5 are chosen for selecting pile dimensions and aluminum piles are modeled using Wood’s scaling law. Later, modeled piles are subjected to impact loads replicating energy of standard penetration test (SPT) in sandy soil for different infill densities. The experimental process is captured through a digital camera and later images are analyzed through Geo PIV software to understand displacement behavior and strain path. It is found that, with an increase in pile diameter, there is a decrease in plugging and an increase in shear strain contour around the pile tip. It is also seen that shear strain concentration zones are developed around the annular area of a larger diameter pile tip region.

G. Sreelakshmi, M. N. Asha, S. Nandish

Performance Evaluation of Bio-Stabilized Soils in Pavements

The method by which geotechnical properties of a soil is improved using enzymes is termed as bio-stabilization. This technique is found to have a low environmental impact as well as it is biodegradable. The present work involves the evaluation of the performance of bio-stabilized lateritic and black cotton soils in pavements. The experimental studies are conducted on three-volume proportions of the enzyme, namely 100, 150, and 200 ml/m3. It was observed that the strength parameters exhibited high improvements in case of both the soils. The role of varying dosages and curing periods were also observed to be significant in achieving desirable properties. Further, an attempt is also made to study the feasibility of bio-stabilization in deciding the pavement thickness.

V. Divya, M. N. Asha

Effect of Granular Pile Stiffness on Load Distribution for Piled Raft

Granular piles are a cost-effective technique of ground improvement which improves the load-carrying capacity, reduces the displacement of foundations built on the reinforced ground, and also a good alternative option of concrete pile. The reinforcement of ground becomes a necessity in many situations, where the soil is extremely weak or soft. The columns of granular material create an improved ground of lower compressibility and higher shear strength that of situ soil. Piles under the raft are designed to decreases the settlements and differential settlement of the soil. Raft, piles, and soil are three components of piled raft system through which the loads transfer to the subsoil. The present analysis is done to study the response of a floating granular piled raft based on the elastic continuum approach. The mathematical study is carried out for the comparative analysis of settlement of granular piled raft to rigid raft only and granular pile alone with variation of relative stiffness of GP, relative size of raft, and relative length of floating GP. The overall response of a granular pile with the rigid raft on top is presented in terms of settlement influence factor (SIF) for, viz. granular piled raft, rigid raft only, and pile alone. On the basis of findings, design charts are prepared to facilitate the design procedure.

Jitendra Kumar Sharma, Raksha Rani Sanadhya

Performance Evaluation of Expansive Soil Using Animal Bone Ash

There is a continuous search for improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soil economically due to non-availability of good construction sites for structures to build also to increase the strength of flexible pavements for efficiently withstand applied loads with a reduction in the thickness of pavements and improve the durability of pavements. The present study deals with the performance evaluation of expansive soil using animal bone ash (ABA). Significant changes are observed in mechanical and physical properties of expansive soil after adding ABA. The animal bones obtained from dead animals which are collected from an abattoir at Kota, Rajasthan. These animal bones are crushed and dried for 3 days in an open area. Then these crushed and dried bones are burnt in open air at uncontrolled temperature. The ashes obtained were cooled and sieved with 425-μm sieve to obtained ABA. This ABA was added in proportions of 2, 4, 6, and 8% by weight of samples to the soil to study the improvement in its properties. The local soil selected is highly plastic clay with a liquid limit of 51.68%, a plastic limit of 26.62%, and a plasticity index of 25.06%, which is not suitable for any construction activities purposes, needs stabilization. The results obtained on addition of ABA to the soil at different proportion reduces the plasticity of soil and soil convert from high plasticity clayey to intermediate plasticity and finally turned into low plasticity clayey. On addition of ABA to the soil at different proportions in soil samples reduces the water content and increases the dry density. For the addition of 6% of ABA with black cotton soil, the percentage increment in the value of CBR is more than 100% and beyond 6% of addition of ABA, the value of CBR decreases. The UCS value increases by increasing the percentage of ABA up to 6% and with the further increment in addition of ABA, the value of UCS also decreases. Thus, the optimum dose of ABA is found to be 6%. The value of swelling pressure for virgin black cotton soil is 1.38 kg/cm2 and, after adding of 8% ABA, it decreases to 0.11 kg/cm2. Thus, the percentage decrement in swelling pressure is 92.02%.

Jitendra Kumar Sharma, Abdul Shahid Qureshi

Concrete Technology

Frontmatter

High Performance Concrete Mixed with Combinations of Mineral Admixtures

Concrete is a widely used construction material all over the world. However, the raw material resources used for making concrete are degrading day by day. This gives scope for researchers to experiment with new materials for replacement which will help to conserve natural resources and further limit environmental concern caused due to the extraction of materials and emission of carbon dioxide during the process of manufacturing. Moreover, a lot of modern-day constructions require the use of high-grade concrete, leading to the development of High Performance Concrete (HPC). Partial replacement of cement in HPC with fly ash, GGBS, metakaolin and silica fume presents an environmentally friendly way of dealing with increased construction demands. Although studies have been carried out on partial replacement of cement with mineral admixtures in HPC, the performance of the combination of mineral admixtures in HPC has received little to no attention. This paper deals with the study of compressive strength, tensile strength and durability of M40 grade concrete partial replacement of cement with combinations of different mineral admixtures. Three combinations of mineral admixtures namely a combination of fly ash and silica fume, fly ash and metakaolin, and fly ash and GGBS were used for the replacement of 15% of cement by weight. A comparison of strength and durability of different combinations are presented and discussed.

Bhargav Reddy Isanaka, M. Abdul Akbar, P. Perumal, R. Sai Priyanka

Effect of Fly Ash as Replacement of Fine Aggregate on Strength Enhancement of Concrete

In this study, class F fly ash (FA) is used as a partial replacement of fine aggregate on strength enhancement of concrete. Two series of concrete mixes are prepared. In the first series, fine aggregate is replaced with class F FA by weights such as 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% with varying w/c ratio to meet the required workability. In the second series, fine aggregate is replaced with class F FA by weights such as 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% with constant w/c ratio (0.375) and the required workability was maintained by mixing the superplasticiser, i.e. Cera Hyperplast XR-W40. The design mix is carried out for M30 grade concrete. The workability of concrete is determined by slump test and hardened concrete properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength are determined at 7, 28 and 90 days. The test result indicates that the compressive strength of concrete increases up to 30% replacement of fine aggregate with FA whereas for split and flexural strength, it increases up to 40% replacement of fine aggregate with FA.

K. C. Panda, S. S. Samantaray, S. Jena

Bacterial Concrete for the Development of Sustainable Construction—A Review

Concrete which is vastly utilized in building materials has its own disadvantages, one being the phenomenon of crack formation which allows the passage of water, CO2 and other chemicals into the concrete. The incoming materials cause decrement in strength along with durability and ductility. These materials also have adverse effects on reinforcements. If the cracks are not healed as soon as they are formed, they might expand and become larger allowing passage of more amount of materials causing greater problems. That’s why the best solution is to prevent the formation of cracks from the very beginning. Self-healing concrete provides one such solution. In self-healing concrete, the concrete material is capable of healing the cracks formed beforehand, on its own. Microbial actions help in this. The basic principle of self-healing concrete is the formation of calcium carbonate precipitate by bacterial action. This introduction of bacterial concrete paves the way to the production of more durable, sustainable, crack-free and more efficient concrete. The usage of bacteria in concrete justifies its name, microbial concrete or biological concrete (in short bio concrete). The bio concrete causes less pollution and is economic as well. This paper aims at defining bacterial concrete and its effects on concrete properties and describing its merits and few demerits.

S. Jena, B. Basa, K. C. Panda

Effect of Aggregate Ratio Using Non-pozzolanic Mineral Filler Waste on the Property of Self Compacted Concrete

The presence of different filler materials in the SCC mixture is a major change in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) compared to ordinary concrete. The use of filler materials in SCC improves workability and reduces cement content. In the existing work, an investigational study has been carried out by using two filler waste materials, Marble Powder (MP) and Lime Powder (LP), to increase the fresh and hardened property of SCC. Different tests were performed using three replacement levels of 0, 10, and 15% of cement along with fine aggregate to the total aggregate ratio, ranging from 0.50, 0.54, and 0.56 to evaluate the fresh and hardened property of SCC. M30 concrete was designed and investigated for the same parameters with the use of LP and MP as non-pozzolanic fillers in SCC. The presence of filler types and content has a significant influence on flow behavior and the better deformability obtained in SCC samples. The test results show that fine aggregate to the total aggregate ratio has substantially affected the fresh and hardened property of SCC in the presence of filler materials. The compressive strength at a higher fine aggregate to the total aggregate ratio (0.56) and higher replacement (15%) decreases compared to 0.50 and 0.54 ratios of the same replacement. Also at 0.54 coarse aggregates to fine aggregate ratio, medium content of coarse aggregate and presence of filler provide better lubrication and enhance flowability, passing ability, segregation, and bleeding resistance. All samples of M30 concrete have satisfied workability criteria. The results are well matched with the SCC guideline (EFNARK 2005).

V. C. Panchal, G. R. Vesmawala

Strength and Drying Shrinkage of High Strength Self-Consolidating Concrete

The present study highlights on the strength and drying shrinkage behavior of High Strength Self-Consolidating Concrete (HSSCC) mixes, are studied through experimental investigation. HSSCC mixes of M60, M80 and M100 are produced using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and Alccofine as mineral admixtures. The IS 10262-2019 was adopted to design the mixes of HSSCC. The HSSCC are evaluated using tests on Slump flow, T500 slump flow, V funnel and L Box test. The strength parameters such as compressive strength and split tensile strength at period of moist curing are evaluated. For each mix proportion of HSSCC, three prism specimens of 75 × 75 × 150 mm were cast for drying shrinkage measurement and three cubes of 150 mm size were cast for water permeability measurement. The results have shown that shrinkage strain of HSSCC increases with the increases with powder content increases in the mix. Total powder content increases in the mix and shrinkage strain of concrete mixes was found to increase with time up to around 28 days and beyond which no appreciable increase was observed. The shrinkage result was in the range of 300–600 microstrain. As powder content in the mix increases, the depth of water penetration in specimens was found to reduce.

V. A. Shruthi, Ranjitha B. Tangadagi, K. G. Shwetha, R. Nagendra, C. Ranganath, Bharathi Ganesh, C. L. Mahesh Kumar

Creep Characteristics of High Strength Self Compacting Concrete

The Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a type of concrete that gets compacted under its own weight. The present paper is an experimental investigation on the strength and creep characteristics of different mixes of High Strength Self Compacting Concrete (HSSCC). HSSCC mixes were prepared using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and Alccofine as mineral admixtures. Trial mixes were carried out for three different grades namely M 60, M 80 and M 100. The rheology of mixes was obtained by varying both water–binder ratio and the dosage of superplasticizer. The properties of fresh HSSCC such as flowability, passing ability and filling ability were evaluated as per EFNARC 2005 with tests on Slump Flow, T500 Slump, V Funnel Flow Time and L Box. The cube specimens of 150 mm side were cast and cured as per the standard codal procedures. The compressive strength of the mixes at a curing period of 28 days was assessed as per IS 516:1959 (reaff. 2013), recorded and analysed. The cylindrical specimens of 150 mm dia. and 300 mm height were cast to measure creep as a durability parameter of HSSCC. From the analysis of results, it was observed that the workability and strength of mixes get enhanced due to the presence of GGBFS and Alccofine as mineral admixtures. The resistance to creep strain of HSSCC, in comparison with that of normal SCC, is found to increase with the increase in the grade of HSSCC (from M 60 to M 80 and from M 80 to M 100). The range of creep strain obtained varied from 450 microstrain M 100 to 1350 microstrain M 60. Hence it may be rationally concluded that the addition of GGBFS and Alccofine in concrete increases the durability (creep characteristics) of HSSCC.

Ranjitha B. Tangadagi, V. A. Shruthi, Bharathi Ganesh, M. V. Vasudev, R. Nagendra, C. Ranganath

Effects of Cigarette Butts in Fly Ash Cement Bricks

Cigarette butts are more than just pesky litter, their filters contain heavy metals, and since they take many years to break down, that gives these metals plenty of time to leach into the soil and water. It has become a big environmental threat. Using fly ash and cigarette butts and developing cement bricks with the help of these was the idea that was taken up as an innovative concept. The fly ash cement bricks with cigarette butts (FCBCB) were studied; different useful properties and prospects of the material were investigated; as a new building material, the FCBCB has shown very good plasticity and low water absorption characteristics.

Chaitanya Mishra, Aayush Verma, Aditya Ratra, Ankit Jain, Anuj Agrawal, Anuj Dodeja, Anuj Dubey

Influence of Copper Slag Properties on Behaviour of Cement Mortars and Concrete

The promotion of green infrastructure as an alternative to traditional concrete, known as grey infrastructure, is not as benign as many people think. In this concern, many alternative materials have been kept in place as a solution for the problems faced by the construction industry. The knowledge of understanding the basic property of a material is significant as the characteristics cannot be directly assumed that it can be compared to FA while mixing concrete. In this work, Copper Slag (CS) is used as a partial replacement for Fine Aggregate (FA), and a major focus is to understand the behaviour of the material based on its particle size, texture shape and surface characteristics as it decides the quality of concrete. Also, the importance of optimizing water/cement ratio (w/c) and dosage of Superplasticizer (SP) is a major consideration in this work which has a great impact on workability and strength parameter as it affects durability performance of concrete. Marsh cone test to decide optimum SP was carried out for PCE-based SP and Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC). Optimal w/c ratio was decided based on the trials carried out using flow test for mortars, and mortar cubes were prepared and tested for 3, 7 and 28 days compressive test. In order to check the behaviour of CS in concrete, cubes were prepared and subjected to compressive strength for 7, 28 and 90 days based on the ideal water–cement ratio (w/c) and SP obtained from various trials conducted to achieve required workability and strength. Test results revealed that CS mortars and concrete exhibited higher strength than the control mix. The chemical reaction between the cement matrixes, incorporation of CS and SP for optimized w/c and dosage of SP not only enhanced the strength but also provided the required workability though CS has less water absorption capacity.

D. Arpitha, C. Rajasekaran

Monitoring Methods of Concrete from Early Age Strength Gain of Concrete: A Review

The concrete is the most used man-made construction materials. Early age structural failures were observed all over the world. This is due to a low rate of strength gain at an early age. The paper deals with early age strength gain in the process of hydration and monitoring change in a cementitious material change in water–cement ratio and strength gain during the curing period. Wave propagation technique, wave reflection factor, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and EMI technique are sensitive enough to see the change in the parameters. These techniques may be used for damage detection in the existing structures as well as the indicator of strength gain process of newly constructed structures.

Tripti Sonker, Anupam Rawat, Rakesh Kumar

An Experimental Study on Strength Development in Concrete by Incorporating Rice Husk Ash as Replacement to Cement with Recycled Aggregate for Low Volume Roads

Use of the Natural Aggregate (NA) in cement concrete mixture is resulting in depletion of natural resource and incidence to global warming. In the present work, an assessment was carried to understand the effect of Recycled Aggregate (RA) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) when blended cement in concrete mix. During first stage of study, RA was partially replaced with NA at interval 0, 50, 75, and 100%, and in second stage of study RHA was introduced as a substitute for cement at interval 6, 9, 12, and 15%. Mixes were prepared to understand the effect of mechanical properties when partially replaced with RA and RHA as a cement substitute at 7 and 28 days age of concrete. The chemical properties of RHA mix were analyzed using XRD and SEM. The chemical test results explain that the fines of RHA are important for homogeneity and the morphology of RHA was also discussed. The experimental results explain that the concrete suitability is governed with the incorporation of RA and RHA in cement. However the optimum content RA of (50%) and RHA of 6% in concrete mix stabilizes the requirement of sustainable cement concrete pavement from industry perspective which will be the need for low volume roads.

D. Sai Bharadwaj, Adepu Ramesh

Influence of Partial Replacement of Cement by Industrial Wastes on Properties of Concrete

With express increase in the demand of high rise structure with high strength concrete in construction industry, led to enhance the cement consumption. The cement production consumes large energy and liberates CO2 during manufacturing of cement and concrete, resulting to environmental imbalance. Researchers are putting their untiring effort to conserve energy and control the environmental degradation, an attempt has been made to reduce the cement consumption by partially replacing it with pozzolanic materials. In the present study, attempt has been made to evaluate the strength properties of high strength concrete made of cement mixed with green and pozzolanic material like “Fly Ash and Silica Fume”. Using partial replacement method, in portland cement concrete, the percentage of fly ash adopted is 0, 10, and 20% and percentage of silica fume adopted is 0, 5, 10, and 15% for each percentage of fly ash replacement. Polycarboxylate Ether based Superplasticizer is used for desired workability with water to binder ratio as 0.3. Twelve different concrete mixes are prepared with ordinary portland cement, silica fume, and fly ash. Specimens are put to curing for 7, 28, and 90 days. Different properties such as workability, cube compressive strength, split tensile strength are investigated for the concrete. From the various test it is concluded that the nature of strength gain in the above concrete with fly ash and silica fume is in conformity with concrete made with OPC only. The optimum content of fly ash and silica was found to be 0 and 10% for 7 and 28 days cube compressive strength, but for 90 days strength, optimum content is observed to be 10 and 10% of fly ash and silica, respectively. Thus, increase in strength properties for the above shown values as compared to that of normal concrete are significantly good.

Nikhil Kumar Verma

Water Resource Engineering

Frontmatter

Bathymetric Mapping for Shallow Water Using Landsat 8 via Artificial Neural Network Technique

Bathymetric measurement using remote sensing can be replaced by the conventional technique which reduces the cost and labor required for bathymetric measurement. It can also overcome the complications in provision required during spatial and temporal depth estimates. But to obtain bathymetric information from multispectral satellite imagery using remote sensing techniques requires many corrections such as atmospheric, bottom albedo water and bottom reflectance, attenuation coefficient, and concentration of suspended solid constituents such as organic and inorganic, etc. Sometimes it is practically impossible to apply such correction to imagery because of non availability of field data. Therefore, there is a need to have faster and practical approach to hand the complex relationship between satellite reflectance and water depth for finding bathymetric measurement. The methodology based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is very simple to derive bathymetric maps in shallow water via reflectance’s value of imagery and sample depth measurement. ANN techniques used simple approach for deriving of the depth estimation possibility, without refining image reflectance value in the depth causing scattering from environmental parameters such as type of vegetation and bottom material available. In this paper, the best linear or non-linear mathematical models to be fitted for bathymetric application are applied on Upper Lake Bhopal using Landsat 8. For this, the best fitting curve, linear with single and multi band, polynomial fit for first, second and higher degree, ratio and exponential-based algorithm, and ANN models were tried. The main conclusions are ANN model have produced lowest pass, chi-square test, and RMSE value as compared to other models.

Arun Patel, S. K. Katiyar, Vishnu Prasad

Land Suitability Assessment for Agriculture Using Analytical Hierarchy Process and Weighted Overlay Analysis in ArcGIS ModelBuilder

In this study, we utilize the concept of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the functionalities of ArcGIS ModelBuilder towards a multiparametric classification of land regimes of Dewas District of Madhya Pradesh, based on their aptitude for agriculture. The study follows FAO’s land suitability criteria and uses data from Landsat-8 OLI+ (NDVI, NDWI, Land Use/Land Cover), ASTER-GDEM V2 (Elevation, Slope, Drainage), ISRIC Soilgrid (Soil Characteristics), OpenStreetMaps (road/river/well proximity) and India WRIS (Groundwater Depth). The methodology involves defining the evaluation criteria, creating Pairwise Comparison Matrix (PWCM), assigning relative degree of importance to the 18 chosen parameters, preparing raster maps, performing Weighted Overlay Analysis (WOA) in ArcGIS ModelBuilder to generate the land suitability map and comparing it to the land use/land cover map. The results help us identify the potentials and constraints of land parcels for agriculture, designating 17.8% (1,24,970 ha) area as highly suitable, 57.3% (4,02,294 ha) area as moderately suitable and 24.9% (1,74,818 ha) area as marginally suitable. The suitability analysis can help build justified land use policies and devise logical agrarian management strategies by recommending agricultural exclusivity in highly suitable areas.

Ayush Tiwari, Sunil Ajmera

Dynamic Analysis of Tunnels in Western Ghats of Indian Peninsula: Effect of Shape and Weathering

The rapid urbanization in the twentieth century has increased the demand of a smart transportation system for the movement of goods and services. The geotechnical structures required the proper study, analysis and application of theoretical, analytical and numerical model(s) from the stability, safety and sustainability aspect. In the present research work, the stability analysis of different tunnel shapes for four different earthquake zones using the finite element analysis has been carried out. The Mohr–Coulomb material constitutive model has been implemented for the elasto-plastic behaviour of the basalt rock mass using 2D plane strain modelling. Three different shapes of tunnel, circular, horseshoe and arch, under four earthquakes of different magnitudes have been considered (i.e. 4.6, 5.6, 6.5 and 7.4 M). The present study suggested that arch-shaped tunnel is stable in all earthquake zones while the horseshoe-shaped tunnel is the most unstable. The effect of depth of overburden has been also considered for each case by varying the overburden depth in three intervals (5, 10 and 17.5 m). The study further reveals that with the increase in depth of overburden, the stability of the tunnel increases. It is also suggested that the weathering of rock has a significant effect on the deformations in tunnels which may in turn increase the instability of tunnel.

Mohammad Zaid, M. Rehan Sadique

Trend Analysis and Rainfall Variability of Monthly Rainfall in Sheonath River Basin, Chhattisgarh

Hydrological effects comprise the changes in soil use to comprehend the mechanisms of future climate and land use. The significant temporal trend was identified in this study as being performed monthly, seasonal time scales using rainfall data from 39 monitoring stations throughout the Sheonath Basin, subdivided into five effective weighted stations by the creation of Thiessen polygon over Sheonath River Basin in Chhattisgarh State for the period of 1980–2012. Hydro-meteorological factors are evaluated using a combined trend detection technique. The findings show a substantial downward trend at 5% significance level, an average of −0.10 mm per year for all five monitoring stations for the month of March, May, September, October, December, January, and February similar to June, July, August, April, and November reveal the upward trend at 5% significance level, an average of 0.12 mm per year. While the trend continues in various phases such as winter and pre-monsoon seasons, the trend is considerably declining an average of −0.041 and −0.009 mm per year, respectively, for all five monitoring stations and post-monsoon periods; simga, andhayakore, and patharidih monitoring stations represent a downward trend at an average of −0.0084 mm per year. The variability of rainfall has resulted to the conclusion that the amount of rainfall variability decreases by 5.56% compared to the average annual rainfall variability in the Rajnandgaon, Durg, and Kawardha Districts during the Kharif season, and the rainfall variability decreases by 93.14%, 93.88%, and 93.34% compared to the annual average rainfall variability in the Rajnandgaon, Durg, and Kawardha Districts during the rabi season, respectively. Therefore, there is a need for improvement in the eastern zone.

Shashikant Verma, A. D. Prasad, Mani Kant Verma

Performance Evaluation of Pench Command Area of Maharashtra, India Using Spatial Approach

Scientific planning requires information about the irrigation projects. The surface water and groundwater sources support the irrigation purpose in India which requires regular monitoring to generate feedbacks regarding the optimum utilization of the water resources as well as the efficiency of the schemes. In this study, effect of irrigation has been evaluated based on variations in crop density in temporal and spatial scale from NDVI obtained from MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) for the years 2006–2016. For this study, Pench command area of Vidarbha Region of Maharashtra was digitized along with their canal network; LULC map was generated indicating agricultural lands. By using the NDVI images for the different seasons of cultivation, crop density was determined. The entire command area was classified into varying crop density classes. Area of coverage of each class was then studied and later correlated with the water released for irrigation through the canal system. The study corroborates the use of the spatial technologies of remote sensing and geographical information system for generating vital information required for command area performance evaluation and further organization of the information for futuristic management of the agricultural land and water resources.

Digambar S. Londhe, Y. B. Katpatal, Garima Newar

Regional Frequency Analysis Using L-Moment Methodology—A Review

In order to carry out hydrological and climatological characteristics of a region that is far apart or completely isolated which goes away from the gauging network, and on other hand it becomes a part of watershed or catchment area under consideration for the purpose of any hydraulic structure analysis. This can be resolved by means of regionalization technique using some statistical methods. Different techniques together with L-moments introduced by Hosking and Wallis [24] are being utilized by many researchers and hydrologists in their research work. The researchers have applied the L-Moment methodology to almost every extreme event, viz., extreme rainfall, low flow, flood and drought. The regionalization or RFA tends to compensate for the lack of data for ungauged watershed or catchments. The purpose of this paper is to describe regionalization procedure for hydrological and climatological assessment of ungauged watershed.

Ramgopal T. Sahu, Mani Kant Verma, Ishtiyaq Ahmad

Fluctuation of Pressure Due to Bends in Venturimeter

Venturi meter is a device used to measure the discharge of the flow of fluids in closed conduit. This device works on Bernoulli’s principle which states, “An increase in the speed of the fluid particle occurs when simultaneously with the decrease in pressure or decrease in fluid’s potential energy.” It consists of a converging section, a throat and a diverging section. Velocity increases with the decrease in the cross-sectional area and pressure. In this paper, the variations in pressure due to various bends applied after the diverging portion is depicted and is compared with the formal venturi meter mounted into a straight pipe. The diameter of the pipe is taken as 20 mm, converging angle is 11°, diverging angle is 6°, length and diameter of the throat portion are 20 mm and 10 mm. The results indicated the shape, size, and orientation of the pipe after the venturi meter. These parameters affect the performance of the venturi meter in the calculation of the coefficient of discharge. A detailed analysis was carried by computational fluid analysis by ANSYS software to know the pressure variations along the venturi meter, and also the velocity vectors along the length of the pipe.

S. Masalvad Shravankumar, Rallapalli Alice Grace, Kaveti S. Venkatesh, Ruthika Gujjula, Anjali Gujjari

UV/Fe+3 Photolysis Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology for Decolorization of Reactive Red 120 Dye Simulated Wastewater

Decolorization of synthetic azo Reactive Red 120 (RR120) dye wastewater via UV/Fe+3 process was investigated. A preliminary study was conducted to understand the effect of various process variables like oxidant dose Fe+3 (0.25–2.75 mM)), initial dye concentration (100–200 mg/L), time (0–35 min), initial pH (1–11) on the decolorization of RR120. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to assess individual and interactive effects of critical process parameters on treatment performance in terms of colour removal efficiency. The photo-degradation of RR120 was investigated in a laboratory-scale batch photo-reactor equipped with low-pressure mercury lamp. Optimized process conditions for UV/Fe+3 treatment of RR120 suggested by RSM are Fe3+ = 2.35 mM, pH = 3.6, Initial dye concentration = 170 mg/L and reaction time = 55 min. Under these conditions, 92% colour removal was actually observed which is found to be very close to prediction given by fitted model. Treatment cost of UV/Fe+3 process was ~4 Rs/L.

Bhatt Dhruv, Makwana Abhipsa

Relative Wave Run-Up Parameter Prediction of Emerged Semicircular Breakwater

Relative wave run-up parameter (Ru/Hi) on breakwaters is a vital component in fixing the elevation of the breakwater crest. In the present study, several soft computing methods has been employed to predict the wave run-up on the emerged seaside perforated semicircular breakwater for the prevailing Arabian sea wave climate, off Mangaluru coast in India. Unlike the mathematical modeling techniques, the soft computing tools have no complexity involved about understanding the nature of underlying process and prediction consumes less time when proper physical model data is available. The soft computing methods like artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), genetic algorithm based adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (GA-ANFIS) and particle swarm based adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (PSO-ANFIS) are the four models employed in the study. The ANN predicted well for the set architecture of (5-7-1). The ANFIS is used to predict the wave run-up on semicircular breakwater models using the hybrid efficiency of fuzzy logic and neural network. An initial FIS is generated for input variables by mapping the input-output data; the training is done using ANN; and the objective of GA and PSO is set to find the best FIS, reducing the root mean square error in the prediction of wave run-up. The most influencing input parameters (Hi/gT2, d/gT2, S/D, hs/d, R/Hi) are taken in non-dimensional form. The data required has been acquired from the physical model experiments conducted in the Marine structures laboratory of National Institute of Technology Karnataka (NITK), Surathkal, India. The GA-ANFIS prediction of wave run-up is found to be better than that of ANFIS prediction in terms of Correlation coefficient (R), Root mean square error (RMSE), Nash sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Bias and Scatter index (SI). However, among the four models developed the ANN prediction outperformed the other three considered models with a higher R = 0.9467.

Suman Kundapura, Subba Rao, Vittal Hegde Arkal

Study of Pavement Unevenness Using Sensor-Based Smartphone Software

Pavement surface monitoring has been a challenging activity historically in transport infrastructure management. Many researches have proposed a solution to check and control the pavement profile automatically. Mostly heavy sensors are employed in vehicles, like bump integrator or other class-1 profilers, resulting in an expensive measure. In developing countries detection of pavement irregularities also focuses on use of Merlin Cycle. This paper is based on monitoring a specific road surface using Merlin Cycle and Android-based smartphone mounted on a motor vehicle, that is, bike at a varying condition of speed and type of bike used. The overall architecture consists of the integration of a smartphone application (ROADROID), a georeferenced database system, a visualization front-end (MS EXCEL) and a regression analysis software (SPSS, i.e. Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Pavement quality is summarized through roughness parameters (i.e. estimated international roughness index (EIRI) and calculated international roughness index (CIRI)) computed using in-built accelerometer and global positioning system (GSM) technique on mobile devices. The roughness values captured were wholly transmitted in a back-end geographic information system that gave the value of road condition in terms of international roughness index (IRI). Then comparison of the two values obtained from two sources, that is, Merlin Cycle and smartphone application was done, and a correlation and regression analysis was also done using SPSS software.

Mandeep Kaur Arora, Mahesh Ram Patel, Abhyuday Titiksh

Detection of Flood Hazard Using QGIS

Flash floods result in significant damage to the society and economics of a particular country. These are serious issues in built-up areas, where the drainage network is weak and unable to survive a heavy flood event. Knowledge of the areas which are vulnerable to flood risk is mandatory to apply techniques to reduce the risk. Identifying flood is difficult in basins which are not gauged. The present study aims to define a manageable procedure for a delineation of flood plain areas. There are many tools for detecting the flood hazards areas effectively and economically like FLO-2D Integration tool, Flood Risk tool, Geomorphic Flood Area Plugin, and QGIS with HEC RAS. The QGIS tool, Geomorphic Flood Index (GFI), is the worthiest tool to identify flood vulnerable areas if the areas are large and data-deficient. In terms of data and calculating cost, this tool provides good accuracies with low requirements.

Shivani Soni, A. D. Prasad

Comprehensive Study on Foamed Bitumen

For many decades, bitumen has been with success utilized in asphalt concrete to pave roads. Despite continuous enhancements to bitumen production processes, combine style, and pavement style, there square measure limits to the extent that bitumen will surmount the challenge. Fast wear and tear caused by serious traffic and harsh climates square measure taking a toll. Additionally, there square measure increasing demands for quieter and safer roads. In Asian countries, regarding 90th of roads square measure bitumen paved. Pavement trade has developed chop-chop everywhere the planet throughout the previous few decades, particularly in developing countries. Following the speedy development, augmented traffic load, higher traffic volume, and too little maintenance junction rectifier to several severe distresses (e.g., rutting and cracking) of road surfaces. The tough reality was difficult a lot on bitumen quality. Considering these issues, it’s seen that exploitation plain bitumen isn’t adequate nowadays, because of an increase in distress so considering the requirement of modification of bitumen; foaming of bitumen is additionally a step toward the modification of bitumen.

Shweta Mandloi, Sarvesh Kumrawat, Vinay Deulkar

Water Lettuce for the Improvement of River Water Quality in Pune Metropolitan Area

The concentration of population in the metropolitan areas is a trend globally. The growth and development of human settlements are always aligned to natural resources. Indian metropolitan areas are also following similar trends. Rapid urbanization had caused losses to natural resources. It is important to develop ways to reduce the losses caused to natural resources. River is one of the prime natural resources. Effective wastewater management can play a vital role in the process of improving the rivers. Indian metropolitan areas are exposed to certain issues with the river water quality improvement. Inadequate wastewater management capacity, inefficiently installed capacity, lack of recovery cost, etc., are some of the crucial issues. In this paper, the Pawana River of Pune Metropolitan Region is considered for the study. Water lettuce, which is grown in the River Pawana is potentially used to improve river water quality. Context-specific parameters were considered for the purpose of the study. A prototype of the proposed system was modeled. Results based on the laboratory experiment were derived. Experimental results associated with the study were documented and ways to mainstream use of water lettuce in the wastewater management of Pune Metropolitan Area were proposed.

Jayeshkumar Maheshkumar Bhagwat, Veruval Devadas, Bharati V. Mahajan

Non-parametric Trend of Drought and Its Future Applicability: A Case Study of Sagar Station

Drought is a dominant factor for major deficiency of water, especially for agriculture. This study deals to understand the changing pattern of key climatic variables along with the PET and understanding the drought status of Sagar District, Madhya Pradesh, India, which is also a part of Bundelkhand; a severe drought-affected region of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Water resources clearly affected due to the change in temperature and rainfall patterns. Hence, the increase in temperature would result in higher evapotranspiration rate and higher need for agricultural water requirement. To achieve the rainfall pattern, trends in monthly, annual, and seasonal rainfall time series from 1977 to 2010 have been examined by Mann–Kendall test and Sen’s slope for Sagar District. There is a negative trend of rainfall seen in the month of August with Sen’s slope value as −5.65 mm/year. PET evaluated using the Hargreaves method for Sagar Station using minimum and maximum temperature data of duration 1989–2013. Trend analysis of drought has been assessed by using the same method used for rainfall trends. Two drought indices, SPI and RDI, are used for the study area. A T-test is performed for yearly values of SPI and RDI (1989–2013) and statistical significance is checked for the mean values.

A. Vishwakarma, M. K. Choudhary, M. S. Chauhan

Effect of Dam Reservoir Interaction on Response of Dam Subjected to Dynamic Load

Gravity dams are solid structures that maintain their stability against design loads due to their geometric shape, mass, and material strength. In access to the static water pressure, the dam undergoes dynamic forces from the reservoir when the system is subjected to earthquake ground motion. When the structure and the fluid are placed alongside and affected by the same base acceleration, fluid, and structure interaction problem becomes important and it causes changes in responses of both of these parts. The available literature review shows that most of the analysis work is done to study the dynamic effect on dams but reservoir dam structure interaction is neglected. The Eulerian approach has been adopted to investigate the dynamic behavior and the interaction phenomenon of the dam–reservoir system. The structures are modeled and analyzed using ANSYS WORKBENCH R.16 Software. The response of the dam structure subjected to excitation of the Koyna earthquake, 1967, is studied. An arbitrary section of gravity dam has been chosen for the extensive analysis such that it is an economic section and satisfies all the conditions and requirements of stability. The results of maximum hydrodynamic pressure, pressure contour, crest displacement; stresses are obtained by time history analysis for the Koyna earthquake, 1967, using ANSYS. The results obtained demonstrate that the dam reservoir interaction is significantly affected by the reservoir filled capacity when subjected to earthquake response.

Pooja D. Girme, Manisha V. Waghmare

A Small-Scale Study for the Treatment of Grey Wastewater Through Free Surface Constructed Wetlands Using Water Hyacinth Plant

This study was carried out to analyze the treatment efficiency of water hyacinth constructed wetland system with greywater. Greywater was collected from Boys’ Hostel in SVNIT campus for constructed wetland reactor. Parameters such as pH, conductivity, BOD3, COD, TS, TSS, TDS and TKN were analyzed. This study was observed in two phases. Water hyacinth wetland system operated in continuous mode with 3 retention time 1, 2 and 3 day. In continuous system, water hyacinth wetland system operated for 5 days with each different retention time. From the results of the continuous system, it can be concluded that the water hyacinth wetland system will work efficiently for a retention time of 2 days with high removal of BOD3 and COD of 88.55% and 79.20%, respectively. TDS reduced by 56.76% in a continuous system, whereas, TS reduction occurred only by 14.03% in wetland operated with 2-day retention time. After the treatment conductivity, pH, TS, TSS, and TKN of greywater increased when operated in continuous modes as water hyacinth reintroduces nutrients to greywater. During the continuous operation of the water hyacinth wetland system, plant biomass also analysed and observed for its growth. Water hyacinth increased by 61.83% by mass after the treatment. This shows the high greywater-suitability of water hyacinth for its growth.

Anudeep Nema, Dhaneesh K. H, Kunwar D. Yadav, Robin A. Christian

Real-Time Flood Analysis Using Artificial Neural Network

Floods are natural disasters that affect the likelihood of occurrence. Forecasting and predicting floods have a significant role to play in ensuring that mitigation, adequate planning, and management can be carried out in advance. The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one of the techniques by which rapid forecasting and prediction can be carried out. In the present study, ANN has been used to simulate real-time floods in the lower Tapi basin. Data from the upstream gauging station of the reservoir, the inflow of the reservoir, and the downstream gauging site were simulated for three different events. The Feed–Forward network, the Levenberg Marquardt learning rule, and the Sigmoidal Axon transfer function are used in the models. Developed models have a correlation coefficient value close to one. The findings acquired from these models are satisfactory and the predicted flood discharge of the ANN is consistent with the observed values.

Vijendra Kumar, S. M. Yadav

Development of Synthetic UH by Using Geomorphologic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (GIUH) Based Nash Model

The present study is aimed at developing a methodology suitable for the development of unit hydrograph for un-gauged catchments. As we know in developing countries like India, there is a paucity of the gauged catchment. Research has been done to seek out this problem. In this research, we have found different ways to find the geophysical characteristics of un-gauged catchment. In previous times, there were certain methods to find the geomorphologic characteristics, but these methods were very difficult to apply and time consuming, so our first need was to overcome these problems. There were certain softwares like ILWIS, GRASS, and ERDAS which were introduced and used to find the characteristics in much less time than before and with much more ease. In this research, data is evaluated from DEM through Arc-GIS. This research uses GIUH-based NASH model. Through this model, better instantaneous unit hydrograph was found as compared to any other techniques that were applied in previous time. The curve found through this model is exactly same as the ideal curve.

A. Agrawal, R. K. Shrivastava

Environmental Engineering

Frontmatter

The Selection of Wastewater Treatment Units Based on Analytical Hierarchical Process

Nowadays, various recognized technologies exist for the treatment of municipal wastewater. Each technology has its own advantages and limitations depending on appropriateness to fulfill the desired requirements. In this study, an effort is made to use the MCDM tool to select the most appropriate technology for municipal wastewater treatment in a small to medium city, where availability of land is not a major constraint. The Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) has been used as a decision-making tool, the expert opinions and judgments are used to assign quantitative and qualitative weights to different criterion and sub-criterion. The available options were compared based on three main criteria, i.e., economical aspects, technological aspects, and environmental and health aspects, and thirteen sub-criteria. In the present scenario in India, the three simple and effective treatment technologies were used in this study: (A) Trickling filter system (B) Waste stabilization pond system, and (C) Activated sludge process. The AHP analysis on three options revealed that the waste stabilization pond technology is an appropriate technology with the highest priority value of 40% among the other options.

Atul Sharma, Nekram Rawal

Bibliometric Analysis of Constructed Wetlands in Wastewater Treatment

Constructed wetlands, an eco-friendly and green wastewater treatment technology has been proven to be an effective alternative for conventional wastewater treatment technologies. The bibliometric analysis was conducted in the field of constructed wetlands to investigate its progress and future research trends during the years 1998–2017 based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) of Web of Science (WOS). Co-word analysis along with top countries and institutes were determined. The analysis of author keywords indicates that the significant hotspots of constructed wetlands include “nutrients” “aquatic plants” “removal,” etc., based on centrality. The USA is the country that has contributed the most in the field of constructed wetlands followed by China. Chinese Academy of Sciences is the topmost institute which has a maximum number of publications. Scientists and researches can also explore the utility of constructed wetlands in river water treatment, heavy metal extraction from various wastewaters, petroleum refinery wastes, fish pond discharges, and pre-treated industrial wastewaters, in future. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of constructed wetlands research and help readers to establish future research directions in the field of environment.

Nandini Moondra, Robin A. Christian, Namrata D. Jariwala

Assessment of Carbon Foot Print: A Case Study of SVNIT Campus

The carbon footprint is one of the main methods used to quantify the anthropogenic impact on the environment and to help combat the threat to climatic change. If carbon footprint analysis is being done for the first time, it is curtained to be stuck by wide range of definitions, approaches, and terminology of neighborhood. This study quantified the carbon emission from different sources and carbon absorption by vegetation cover inside the SVNIT campus. The estimation of total carbon sequestration by vegetation cover of SVNIT was around 392 to 400-ton CO2/year. The total carbon emission by indirect source (electricity) was estimated from 2953.58 to 2506.71 tons of CO2/year, and from direct sources was 474–520 tons of CO2/year. The green belt, in the campus, is absorbing 76.92 to 84.63% CO2 emission annually. In the present paper, an attempt was made to provide an introductory guide on some preliminary concepts of carbon footprint for researchers and interested ones in this area. Each step is presented for calculating the carbon footprint, and an introduction to the main methodologies is presented. An approximate framework of procedures for calculating carbon footprint on different topics is also presented.

Bibin K. Suresh, Nandini Moondra, Bhaven N. Tandel

Removal Efficiency of Heavy Metals by Washing the Contaminated Soil Using Effective Leaching Agents

Unscientific disposal of industrial waste pollutes the surrounding soil and groundwater during the contamination of heavy metals through leachates. It has been observed from the sample tests conducted on soil and groundwater from various cities that the concentration levels are above the threshold levels. If not addressed, this will result in very serious consequences on the health of human beings and animals. Immediate action is required to prevent contaminated soils from further damage and reduce the contaminant concentrations in the soil. Many researchers have developed different soil remediation methods such as immobilization, phytoremediation, and soil washing. In this research work, an attempt has been made to establish more suitable leaching agents to wash the contaminated soil in bringing down the concentration. In the present study, the use of the soil washing technique with respect to zinc contaminated soil is demonstrated. Column leaching tests on contaminated soil samples were conducted to know the removal efficiencies with mono and combined chemical solutions. Contaminant transport parameters were determined using analytical method of plotting the elution curves of analytical and experimental values. It was observed from the results that leaching with 0.1 Normal Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) is very effective with a removal efficiency of 99.8% compared to the other chemical agents. Further study is very much required in this regard in different soils and for different heavy metals to treat the contaminated sites using soil washing technique.

J. Sumalatha, R. Prabhakara, P. V. Sivapullaiah

Pre-monsoon Analysis of Vehicular Pollution on Highly Traffic Loaded Squares of Indore City

RSPM (PM10) Gaseous pollutant like SO2, NO2 and Air Quality Index has been simultaneously measured during the pre-monsoon month of April and May 2019 at the busiest squares of Indore city which are Palasia and Palsikar. Sampling was conducted with the help of respirable dust sampler and was followed by CPCB norms. The lowest RSPM has been observed in the morning time at Palsikar square that is 61 µg/m3 and highest in the morning that is 123 µg/m3; similarly, at Palasia square the RSPM concentration in morning detected as lowest was 104 and 127 µg/m3 as highest during the month. At evening peak hours the concentration at Palsikar square have been observed 117 µg/m3 as lowest and 186 µg/m3 as highest. On the other end the concentration at Palasia square has been observed 181 µg/m3 as lowest and 187 µg/m3 as highest. It is observed that the gaseous pollutant concentration was lowest at Palsikar and highest at Palasia and AQI remains moderate except Palasia. This data can help to analyze the present status of vehicular pollution with the respective squares and can also help in the future for making some policies to prevent it.

Ruchir Lashkari, Ramakant Agrawal

Stress–Strain Behavior of Municipal Solid Waste in Undrained Loading Condition

Shear strength property of municipal solid waste (MSW) reveals important information with reference to the various stability issues in landfill engineering. In this context, the undrained behavior of MSW plays significant role for the short-term stability issues of landfill. The shear strength parameters derived from stresses–strain response of MSW during loading at failure state is important to assess the stability of landfill in undrained condition. The stress–strain analysis of MSW depends upon composition of MSW, water content, unit weight, size and shape of particles, loading history, etc., as the results of all above parameters are clearly visible in nature of stress–strain response of MSW. Due to these issues, analysis of MSW becomes complex, and improper investigation of strength, compressibility parameters, and design may lead to catastrophic failure. Therefore, the stress–strain behavior plays significant role for better understanding of assessment of landfill slope stability in undrained loading condition. In this paper, experimental observation of stress–strain behavior of MSW under undrained loading condition is presented for the waste collected from Bangalore landfill site. The results obtained from experiments are interpreted in the form of stress–strain response and pore water pressure.

Sandeep Kumar Chouksey

Settlement Behavior of Municipal Solid Waste Using Constitutive Modeling Approach

Settlement behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) is very important to understand the short- and long-term operations of landfill systems. It provides information about the landfill capacity and also possible to plan the post-closure development at the site activities. Therefore, in this paper, settlement behavior of MSW is calculated for the typical landfill of 30 m height filled in 10 layers and compared with various other existing available models in literature. The result shows that the settlement behavior of MSW varies largely depending upon the assumptions made for the development of models and consideration of various mechanisms.

Sandeep Kumar Chouksey

Performance Comparison of Microbial Fuel Cell: A Case Study with Different Effluents

The numerous ability function of microbial fuel cells creates them more generative in research field at current era. This experimental study includes construction of fuel cell using microorganism in an efficient manner, and the test was carried out in dual chamber microbial fuel cell. In the investigation, dairy wastewater, sugar mill wastewater, and domestic waste effluent were used as waste matter substance. Wastewater characteristics such as total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, and biochemical oxygen demand were observed prior to and later than process the wastewater effluent in microbial fuel cell using yeast as accelerator. In this case study, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand after deduction were established to be 82.68 and 57.52% for dairy wastewater effluent, 91.65 and 80.90% for sugar mill wastewater, 84.19 and 81.08% for domestic wastewater, respectively. The highest voltage generated throughout the experimental run of dairy wastewater was found to be 1.03, 0.098 and 0.081 V generated for the duration of the experimental run of domestic and sugar mill wastewater. In the experimental run, voltage generated during the treatment of dairy wastewater is more. The overall production showed that the organic matter has been successfully treated higher in the dairy wastewater and produces additional electrons when correlated to leather and domestic wastewater in the experimental run.

Prateek Jyotishi, Dal Chand Rahi

Microbial Fuel Cell: An Application for Dairy Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation

Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is an alternative to convent Victorian wastewater treatment approach. This case study work shows the MFC as an appreciable approach in the treatment of dairy waste effluent and electricity generation. The better design results are calculated by appraising the practical by taking distinct electrodes, with different electrodes, and their surface area with separate detention time. MFC in graphite, carbon rods, aluminum rod, and stainless steel are used as electrode, and Agar + Sodium Chloride salt bridge issued as protonex change membrane bridge and established as the better design at 10 days of detention time and generated energy of 359 mV to 1106 mV, respectively. The amount of removal efficiencies accomplished in this case study experimental setup for different wastewater parameters which are COD, BOD, and TDS are 93.98%, 90.63%, and 57.52%, respectively. Finally, the result is concluded that “Microbial Fuel Cell Technology” is good alternative for dairy wastewater treatment and simultaneous energy production.

Prateek Jyotishi, Dal Chand Rahi

Construction Technology and Management

Frontmatter

Analyzing Labor Productivity for Reinforcement Installation Using Artificial Neural Network in India

The current investigation study aims to develop a productivity model analyzing the prediction performance for reinforcement installation activity for building projects using artificial neural networks. Fifty-six data were collected from Real Estate Regulatory Authority (RERA) registered residential projects across India. Soft computing tool of MATLAB was utilized for developing the productivity model. A multilayer feedforward network trained with backpropagation algorithm was used as basis, and further optimization of the network was done using Levenberg–Marquardt training function. Different network architectures and data points were tested for obtaining the superlative network for predicting labor productivity. The optimum network comprised of 16 input neurons, followed by 15 hidden neurons and single output fully connected. The developed model showed a respectable regression value between the predicted and the actual output with mean square error of less than seven. The findings of this research study provide awareness of the importance of documenting historical data for prediction of labor productivity.

Jignesh M. Mistry, Geetha K. Jayaraj
Additional information