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About this book

This book consists of peer-reviewed proceedings from the International Conference on Innovations in Mechanical Engineering (ICIME 2020). The contents cover latest research in all major areas of mechanical engineering, and are broadly divided into five parts: (i) thermal engineering, (ii) design and optimization, (iii) production and industrial engineering, (iv) materials science and metallurgy, and (v) multidisciplinary topics. Different aspects of designing, modeling, manufacturing, optimizing, and processing are discussed in the context of emerging applications. Given the range of topics covered, this book can be useful for students, researchers as well as professionals.

Table of Contents


Analysis of Hybrid Green Fuel Blended with Diesel as Fuel for Conventional Engine

We are in a scenario where the fuel prices are increasing and the demand for fuel is on the rise but the resources are reducing. There is a big gap between the demand and supply of fuel resources. Green fuel is obtained from vegetable oils, which is the best alternative fuel. Several types of research have been done on using a blend of diesel and green fuel. Nonetheless, quite less research has been done on using a combination of two different green fuel blends with the diesel. This has given a lot of opportunities to analyze the usage of such fuel in an engine. In this research, an empirical study has been made by performing certain tests on two green fuels from Kanuga oil and Eucalyptus oil and they are mixed with diesel using varied mixing proportions. The impact of using dual green fuel on the engine effectiveness and release of toxic gas have been investigated on a single-cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled, and high-speed diesel engine at various engine loads with a steady engine speed of 3000 rpm. On conducting emission test, the impact on the release of CO, CO2, HC, NOX, and smoke opacity have been examined. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A is higher in contrast to that of diesel. The release of smoke, hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxides from dual green fuel blends have been high in contrast to diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature of dual green fuel blends has been lesser in contrast to diesel.

N. S. Senthur, S. Shafquath ibn sulthan, H. Ram Ganesh, K. Arun

Experimental Investigation of Direct Evaporative Cooler with Sisal, Hemp, and Abaca Cooling Pad Material

Evaporative cooling is environmentally friendly and a more efficient air cooling method. The efficiency of evaporative cooling systems increases with an increase in temperature and decrease in humidity. Therefore in hot and dry climates, evaporative cooling can save a large amount of energy used for conventional air-conditioning systems. Direct Evaporative Cooler (DEC) uses a wetted pad with large air-water contact surface area through which air is passed at a uniform rate to make it saturated. However, this process is accompanied by an increase in humidity which is sometimes not desirable. Thus, it is seen that a variety of materials that can be used as cooling media in direct evaporative cooler is very large. Hence there is a need to analyze the performance of alternative materials in terms of saturation efficiency and cooling capacity. Further, the performance of a cooler using hemp and abaca as cooling media has not been analyzed. Hence, the attempt is made to fabricate and analyze the performance of such cooler in the present work. The efficiency of evaporative cooling systems increases with an increase in temperature and decrease in humidity. In the developed direct evaporative cooler, 15–20% effectiveness is more in case of hemp as cooling pad material as compared to the abaca and Sisal cooling pad material. Enhancement in effectiveness is 10–15% more in case water flow rate at 220 LPH in all cooling pad material as compared to 180 LPH and 200 LPH. Average outlet dry bulb temperature was varying between 240 and 280 °C. Cooling capacity can be improved by increasing the water flow rate through the cooling pad and the dry bulb temperature of incoming air can be reduced below its wet-bulb temperature.

Manojkumar Udgire

Mitigation of Carbon Dioxide Gas from a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled with Honge Biodiesel for Agriculture

This paper investigates the mitigation level of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas released from a direct injection (DI) diesel engine fuelled with honge biodiesel fuel suitable for agriculture. This study involves the use of thermal barrier coating on diesel engine combustion chamber components so that heat loss through the coolant can be kept minimum thereby improving engine combustion and emission characteristics when honge biodiesel blends are used as an alternate fuel. Experimental results depicted lesser BSFC with a significant reduction of emissions CO, HC, smoke, and slight increase of NOx and CO2 gas for fuels tested in the coated engine. Of various biofuel blends tested, blend B15 showed a significant reduction in CO of about 50%, HC of 26.5%, smoke of 20% with slightly higher values of 2.37% NOx, and 5.17% of CO2 at 230 bar in the coated engine at full load condition compared with an uncoated engine. The presence of oxygen and high in-cylinder temperature condition prevailed in coated engine enhances the combustion process in biodiesel blend B15 resulting in improved combustion at this operating condition. A retrofit kit was developed to separate CO2 gas from engine exhaust through chemical absorption technique. The separated CO2 in gaseous form was stored in cylinders.

K. Muralidharan, K. Senthil Kumar, K. Shanmugavel, S. Lakshmana Kumar, S. Rajkumar

Reduction of Greenhouse Gases from a Coated Diesel Engine Fuelled with Honge Biodiesel for Sustainable Environment

In this research work, the impact of thermal barrier coating on combustion and gas emissions in a diesel engine fuelled with honge biodiesel fuel is examined. The engine combustion chamber components including inlet and exhaust valves, cylinder head, and piston crown were coated with YSZ ceramic material over nickel aluminium alloy bond coat for 250 µm thickness. Test results exhibited that in the coated engine, fuel blend B15 emitted significant reduction in carbon monoxide gas, unburnt hydrocarbon gas, smoke emission with a slight increase of NOx and CO2 gaseous emission than other fuels tested. At lower loads, honge fuel blend B15 showed a drastic reduction in CO gas emission of 18.65%, HC emission of 17.24%, smoke gas reduction of 29% with a slight increase in NOx emission of 5.38% and CO2 gas of 6.80% in injection advance of 27° crank angle BTDC. At higher loads, fuel B15 experienced emission reduction in CO of 10%, HC of 10.4%, smoke of 9.85% and slight increase in NOx gas of 2.94% and CO2 gas of 4.60%. Diesel posed higher HRR of 46.25 J/deg and higher cylinder peak pressure of 71.456 bar followed by B15 blend of HRR 43.25 J/deg, peak cylinder pressure 67.33 bar in an injection advance. Engine exhaust gases are passed into a retrofit CO2 capture kit developed to separate CO2 gas from vehicle exhaust through chemical absorption technique. Amine-based chemical solvent has been employed to separate CO2 gas.

K. Muralidharan, V. L. Raja, S. Lakshmana Kumar, K. Shanmugavel, R. Dhanasekaran

Thermal Barrier Coating on IC Engines; A Review

In the recent years, usage of fossil fuels had increased rapidly which negatively affects the environment like ozone depletion, hazardous emission content in atmosphere, etc., so in order to avoid this many technologies have been discovered, but among them Thermal Barrier Coating draws great attention because of its brilliant properties like reducing various toxic emissions like NOX, CO, Smoke, SOX, etc., and reducing thermal stresses, erosion, and corrosion on metallic surfaces of IC engines, so this process became the industrial standard for many automobile companies. TBCs are bi-form systems that consist of Top coat, Bond coat. These two layers are deposited on the metal (substrate) that needs to be coated. TBC’s empower very high surface temperature due to this heating of charge during intake can be minimized which causes increase in engine efficiency. By adopting TBC’s on engine, the in-cylinder temperature gets increased up to 1000 °C compared to the uncoated engine, which helps in reducing emissions of IC engines. TBCs are not only used in IC engines, turbines but they are also used on the surface of disc brakes, which reduces heat dissipation on it due to huge braking conditions. Many of the automobile companies use coating with less than 0.2 mm in order to obtain high performance of engines. By introducing just TBC’s cannot improve performance and emissions of engines there are few parameters that need to be observed like properties of coating materials (nano or micro), Deposition techniques, Implementation of nanomaterials, Exhaust characteristics, Coating construction (multilayer), etc. So this paper describes these parameters based on the colonial work of many researchers.

Anoop. R. Chattarki, K. G. Basavakumar

Modeling and Analysis of Compression Ignition Engine Performance and Emissions of Biodiesel

Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternative fuels for diesel engines because they are potentially renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, clean-burning, high lubricity, low environmental impact, derived from vegetable oils, and could be used directly in diesel engines without requiring extensive engine modifications. The major objective of the present work is to investigate the engine performance and exhaust emissions of variable compression ratio of a single cylinder, 4-stroke, and direct injection diesel engine with different blends of biodiesel, load, compression ratio, and injection pressure. Four parameters were considered to investigate the engine performance and emissions. Hence, to reduce the cost of experimentation, it is decided to conduct the experiments using Design of Experiments (DOE) technique, which in turn reduces the number of experiments. The significant parameters were determined using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. The adequacy of the developed models is verified by using coefficient of determination (R2). The results are predicted by the response surface model. The engine performance and emissions were analyzed in detail.

V. Nageswar Reddy, G. Sreenivasarao, K. Thirupati Reddy

Simulation of Performance of Boiler System for a Bagasse Unit Using LabVIEW

Cogeneration plants are one of the major power generation sources in this era of industrialization and automation. Bagasse is a by-product generated by the sugar industries on a large scale in India. The cogeneration plants use the bagasse produced by the sugar industries to generate power. Boiler system forms one of the primary components of the cogeneration plant. Designing a virtual model of the boiler system will help to model optimal systems. Simulation of the performance of the boiler system will aid in predictive maintenance as well. In this paper, a virtual model of a boiler system for a bagasse unit is designed in the LabVIEW software package. Such kind of performance analysis aids in better designs of actual models and predictive maintenance, which in turn saves time and reduces unwanted expenditures due to failures.

Mahesh G. Emmi, Aravindrao M. Yadwad, Vinay V. Kuppast, B. S. Talikoti, M. Sampanna

Experimental Investigation of Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of a Di-diesel Engine Fuelled with Aqueous Cerium Oxide and Aqueous Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticle Additives

Experiments were conducted to determine the engine performance and emission characteristics of Direct Injection (DI)—diesel engine using aqueous cerium oxide nanoparticles (ACONP) and aqueous aluminium oxide nanoparticles (AAONP) as an additive in diesel, ethanol and surfactant blended fuel and were compared with diesel fuel. Blends were prepared by in proportions of Diesel 83%, Ethanol 15% and Surfactant 2% (Span 80) with 50 and 75 ppm aqueous cerium oxide and aqueous aluminium oxide nanoparticles as an additive, denoted as ACONP50, ACONP75, AAONP50 and AAONP75, respectively. The blends are prepared by uniform mixing of nanoparticles with the help of an ultrasonicator. Nanoparticles were acted as an oxygen-donating catalyst which improves the combustion process and results in complete combustion. This will also reduce the hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. It was observed that there is a significant enhancement of performances and decrease of exhaust emissions HC, CO, smoke, slight increase in nitrogen oxides (NOX) as compared to diesel fuel. The combustion parameters like cylinder pressure and heat release rates are increased for both nanoparticles as an additive which has been compared with pure diesel.

P. Ravichandra Ganesh, K. Hemachandra Reddy, J. M. Babu, M. Sarath Chandra

Emission Characteristics of CSOME in CRDI Diesel Engine with Multiple Injection Strategy

Diesel engines are successful in commercial applications both on-road and off-road due to their higher thermal efficiency and fuel economy. CO and HC emissions are less from diesel engines compared to its counterpart gasoline engine. But NO and PM (smoke) emissions are higher due to heterogeneous combustion. Simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke became a tough task faced by researchers to comply with the stringent emission regulations imposed upon. On the other hand, biodiesel as a replacement of petro-diesel in diesel engine applications is found to be a good means of solving the problems like depletion of fossil fuel and environmental degradation. The high temperature in the combustion chamber causes the formation of NOx and heterogeneous mixing that causes smoke formation. In this work, an attempt is made to study the influence of splitting injection on NOx and smoke in CRDI diesel engine operated with cottonseed oil biodiesel blend (B20). The injection was split into three pulses, namely pre, main, and post. The dwell between pre and main was varied, and dwell between main and post was fixed at 3° CAD. A fixed quantity of 0.5 mg/cycle fuel was injected in the post, whereas the fuel injection in pre is 10% of the main injection. At different main injection timings, the dwell between mail and pilot varied. The post-injection is maintained with a dwell of 3 CAD, which is very closely coupled with the main injection. From the recommended injection timing of 23° bTDC, the main injection timing along with post and pilot was retarded in steps of 3°. Baseline data was obtained with a petro-diesel single injection and B20 single injection at recommended 23° bTDC. For smoke reduction, the dwell of 10 CAD observed to be the best at all main injection timings. For NOx reduction 20 CAD is better. For trade-off between NOx and Smoke, in overall Dwell 10 CAD is observed to be better. It is found that splitting injection is very much helpful in simultaneous reduction of harmful emissions like NOx and smoke from diesel engines.

Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Anantha Kamal Nallamothu, Seshu Kishan Nallamothu

Impact of Process Parameters on Peak Temperature Inside the Workpiece During Friction Stir Welding of AA5083 Aluminum Alloys

An experimental work was completed of weldability of 5 mm-thick Aluminum alloy 5083 metal plates. This work was done with the help of FSW process. The map of experiments was finished on universal milling. The process parameters are probe revolving velocity of 710, 900, and 1200 rpm, the cross speed of at 20, 30, and 40 mm/min were used. The pin geometry of tool was taper threaded profile. The samples were prepared for microstructure analyses, Rockwell hardness measurements, SEM analysis, and tensile testing. The K-Type thermocouples of 8 were arranged to find the temperatures at different places on the plates. It was ascertained that the properties acquired were mechanically very sound. And these properties were achieved at optimum tool rotational speed. The agreement was good from the analysis between mechanical properties and microstructure.

M. Shiva Chander, M. Ramakrishna, B. Durgaprasad

Optimization of Friction Welding Process Parameters for Weldment of Aluminium–Copper Electrical Connector

Friction welding of aluminium and copper has been widely used in electrical transmission in production of bimetallic (lug) or connectors. The use of dissimilar metal connector is to prevent high electrical losses due to contact resistance and mechanical contact between aluminium and copper which is not permanent in their application for the fact of environmental degradation. Galvanic corrosion between the two metals in mechanical contact is saviour and it is technically distractive; hence friction welding of the two metals solved the problem by introducing technically acceptable joint between the two metals. Mechanical strength of the connectors has been very important to withstand stress caused by heat and mechanical force. Electrical resistance behaviour has also been highly important. The aim of this research has to optimize process parameters that gave the best electrical and mechanical properties of the weldment. The selected materials and method are different and unique from any other studies. Optimization of welding parameter that gave two characteristics of their performances such as strength and electrical resistance when optimized successfully. Grey relational analysis, ANOVA and Taguchi method have been used for the optimization process. Vertical drilling machine was used for the friction welding process and the machine was 1.7 KW power with the rotational speed of 3060 RPM. The optimization of the process parameters of the friction welding, i.e. RPM, friction pressure and friction time was conducted. The obtained optimum setting for two performance output characteristics such as strength and electrical resistance was friction time at 20 seconds, friction pressure 117 (MPa) and 1050 (RPM). Furthermore, based on two performance studies, friction pressure has a basic parameter that determined the desired response.

Balkeshwar Singh, Worku Mamuye, Moera Gutu Jiru

A Study on Effect of Cutting Fluids on Surface Roughness of EN 8 Steel Turning Using Taguchi Method

Surface completion is one of the essential worries during machining of different materials in the machining tasks. In this way, it is extremely fundamental for controlling the required surface quality to have the decision of streamlined cutting parameters. The present trial study is worried about the improvement of cutting parameters (profundity of cut, feed rate, axle speed, and cutting liquids). In the present work, turning activities were done on EN 8 steel via carbide cutting instrument in wet condition, and the mix of the ideal degrees of the parameters was acquired. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was utilized to think about the presentation surface roughness and cutting forces qualities in turning operation. The results of the analysis show that none of the factors were found to be significant.

V. Kumar, P. Surendernath, K. Amarnath

Study on Mechanical Behavior of Friction Stir Welded Nylon-6 Sheets

The use of thermoplastics is vastly popular in advanced industrial and aerospace sectors due to unique mechanical properties. The solid-state friction stir welding is seen as one of a kind of the significant joining strategies to overcome heat incited fusion welding deficiencies. This friction stirred solid-state welding method can be effectively used to join poor thermal conductive materials. This work presents the practicability of friction stir butt-welded nylon-6 sheet using cylindrical profile tool pin. Tool rotational speed and tool traverse speed are the key factors which affect the weld strength and micro-hardness variation along the weld centerline. At 1800 rpm, tool rotational speed and 20 mm/min tool traverse speed the highest joint efficiency was found to be 41%. The weld joint strength was discovered poor at low tool rotational speed and high traverse speed; however, both the process variables were significant over joint quality. The maximum number of failures during tensile test was found advancing side of the weld zone. The stress-elongation outline specified a brittle failure in the heat-affected weld interface welds. The joint efficiency has, however, been found to be reduced significantly due to predominant material gather up from advancing to retreating side along with significant hardness variation from stirred weld zone to heat-affected zone as per hardness deviation graph.

Santosh K. Sahu, Kamal Pal, Susmita Das, Avisek Tripathy

Optimization and Characterization Study on Deposition of Aluminium 6063 Over IS 2062 Low Carbon Steel by Friction Surfacing

The present work exhibits the correlation between process variables and coating geometry on friction surfaced deposition of aluminium 6063 over IS 2062 low carbon steel. A 33 factorial design technique and RSM were carried out through Taguchi method using Minitab software. Furthermore the existence model was validated by corresponding collateral experiments. Impact of discrepancy in Axial force (4, 5, 6 kN), Rotational speed (1500, 2000, 2500 rpm) and Transverse speed (75, 150, 300 mm/min) on coating width, thickness, interface temperature and bond strength was investigated. Results showed that at optimum condition of rotational speed 2500 rpm, axial force 5 kN and transverse speed 75 mm/min, the observed coating width = 20.24 mm, thickness = 2.42 mm, interface temperature = 408 °C and bond strength = 92.2 Mpa, respectively. Mechanical strength of the coating was analyzed by push-off test and hardness test which shown a higher hardness value at substrate coating interface than mechtrode material.

Dillip Kumar Sahoo, Bhulok Sundar Mohanty, A. Jaswanth, D. Abhinay Varma

Determination of Bending Force and Bend Angle of Sheet Metal Welds

Bending is one of the important sheet metal forming process. At present, the trend for light weight vehicles along with attactive and complicated geometric shapes is growing in a rapid way. The reduction in weight of the vehicle is to get a reduction in fuel consumption and its emissions. So that various sheet metal blanks are used in almost all aircraft, the automotive, ship, and navy applications to create complex geometric shaped components and to meet the present trends as well. So that sheet metal blank should be formed into the desired shaped component. This can be achieved by various sheet metal forming operations. In this study, various sheet metallic blanks with and without welded are considered and are tested on bending experimental setup. The bending test is conducted for sheet metals and in this process the bending angle and corresponding bending forces are found for various sheet metal with and without welds.

R. Uday Kumar

A Novel Approach for Reducing Delamination During Drilling of CFRP by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Integrated with the Taguchi Method

Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) laminates are one of the lightweight materials that have been around for a while in the manufacturing sector for its superior properties. However, the aviation industries are considered as the prime shopper of these fibrous composites in building structural parts of airplanes. Despite having some delectable properties like high strength, high fatigue resistant, high stiffness, high resistant to a corrosive environment, etc. it has been kept in the difficult-to-cut category. The machining of the CFRPs is quite tricky due to the anisotropic, heterogeneous, and abrasive nature. Drilling is considered as the final machining operation in the assembly line in most of the cases as holes are the absolute need in assembling purpose. However, the wedge-shaped drill, while cutting high strength fibers, produces various types of damages like delamination, surface roughness, fiber pullout, matrix breakage, etc. Among these, delamination is considered as the most vital and can influence the joint quality for which it needs a more significant concern. In this particular experiment, the drilling experiments have been designed by using Taguchi’s L18 orthogonal array. The drilled persuaded damage like delamination factor and two sensory output parameters such as thrust force and torque has been acquired using data acquisition system and further analyzed and effort has been made to relate with the hole quality. Finally, a multi-objective optimization of the responses was made by utilizing the response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The delamination damages found to be less with a parameteric setting in case of lower feed rate (0.025 mm/rev), small point angle tool (108°), and at a higher spindle speed (3125 rpm).

Tarakeswar Barik, Sourav Kumar Jena, Avisek Tripathy, Kamal Pal, Suchismita Parida

Application of MCDM Methods for Process Parameter Optimization in Turning Process—A Review

Optimization of process parameters in machining process leads to enhancement in process outcomes. Turning process is one of the primary operations in manufacturing industries. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) concepts are used by researchers to optimize the process parameters in turning process. These MCDM methods are used to rank and find out the best combination of process parameters from given number of alternatives. In this study, a detailed literature survey is carried out in the area of application of different MCDM methods which are used for optimization of turning process parameters. There are different MCDM methods are available, but in this work only focused application related to manufacturing domain and methods are reviewed namely Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje in Serbian (VIKOR), Multi-Objective Optimization on the basis of Ratio Analysis (MOORA) method, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The result of review work indicates that the above-mentioned MCDM methods are capable of solving multiple criteria problems for turning process parameter optimization.

Ch. Divya, L. Suvarna Raju, B. Singaravel

Effect of Hybridization, Influence of Surface Modification on the Properties and Optimization of bio fiber Composites

The target of the researcher and the work was to examine the tensile, flexural, and compressive properties of biofiber strengthened composites. The legitimacy and advantage of utilizing regular filaments was their effective accessibility, simple and safe dealing with, and biodegradable nature. While biofibers reveal commendable physical and mechanical properties, it shifts with the plant source, species, and geography. In the present work, bagasse–henequen filaments were utilized at the following fixations: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 wt%. Untreated and soluble base-treated bagasse–henequen filaments were fortified in the epoxy/vinyl ester mix and composites have been created by hand lay-up strategy. The bagasse–henequen strands were salt-treated for 12 and 24 h in 10% NaOH. Composites were assessed as far as their microstructure and mechanical properties. 25% wt. filaments 24 h NaOH (soluble base)-treated composites have demonstrated prevalent and optimum values than untreated and 12-h-treated composites.

G. Venkatesha Prasanna, M. Nikhil, A. Sai Kiran

Review on Processing and Characterization of Duplex Stainless Steels

Duplex stainless steels are a grade of stainless steels which consists of ferrite and austenitic phases in balanced proportions, hence they have excellent corrosion and mechanical properties. Duplex stainless steels find their major applications in oil and gas industries, chemical process plants, pulp and paper industry, and desalination plants. The widely used duplex stainless steel grades are 2205, 2304, and 2507. In this review, the preparation of DSS Nanopowders by planetary ball milling procedure, consolidation of metal powder by Selective Laser Sintering technique, and microstructural characterization techniques like Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction is elaborated.

Rayappa Shrinivas Mahale, V. Shamanth, P. C. Sharath

Prediction of Wear Characteristics of Polymer Composites by ANN Modified by GA

Wear characteristics of any material are highly improved by reinforcing it with particulates. Wear resistance enhanced materials are very much essential in industries today. To reduce the cost of the composites, naturally available materials are preferred as reinforcements. Industrial waste in the powder form is reinforced with Nylon in various concentrations and wear tests were conducted at different parameters. The specific wear rate was found by experiments. Artificial Neural Network which is equivalent to biological network is usually used to predict the characteristics of the materials. An artificial neural network was developed to predict the wear rate of these composites. To get precise results, various techniques are being followed by researchers in developing the architecture of the neural network. The architecture of the developed network was optimized by applying genetic algorithm to obtain high accuracy in the predicted values. The neural network developed was able to predict the wear rates with more than 98% accuracy.

V. L. Raja, K. Muralidharan, R. Dhanasekaran

Experimental Investigation of Mohair Fibrous Composite Material on Mechanical Properties

Due to the scarcity of regular materials, Global R&D are mainly focusing on an alternative to regular materials and composite materials had found the place as alternative materials, due to its high specific strength, high resistance to fatigue and corrosion, integration in function, low manufacturing and maintenance costs, and mainly due to its greenhouse nature. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted on newly developed natural fiber using mohair epoxy composite biodegradable material by investigating its mechanical properties. Natural fiber Mohair is taken in different compositions with commercial epoxy LY556 and HY951 hardener in different weight percentages for making composite materials to find the properties of it.

K. Amarnath, R. Venumadhav, E. Sreedhar

FE Analysis of Superplastic Forming Complex Shapes in Aluminum-Coated Magnesium Alloys

Magnesium alloys known for its lightweight and high stiffness serve the aerospace and automotive industries. The flammable property of magnesium alloy restricts its applications under certain circumstances. To overcome this limitation and to reduce the intensity of flammability, aluminum is coated on AZ31B magnesium alloys. Near net shape forming of industrial products with intricacies in geometry are simulated in MSC.MARC/MENTAT on aluminum-coated magnesium alloys. Investigations on the forming time and final thickness distribution on the product for different D/H ratios are conducted. The gas pressure profile for optimum time is obtained for improved thickness distribution. The thickness distribution conserves the material for a given target strain rate and uniformity in thickness of the product is observed.

J. Kandasamy

Failure Analysis of GFRP Composite Reinforced with Semimetals for Marine Applications

The main aim of the project is to design and fabricate the material required to prepare surfboard. GFRP composites are used for preparing the laminates, either unidirectional or bidirectional. Experimental analysis is performed using Compression test, Impact test, and Drop Weight Impact Test on the material after the specimen is immersed in normal water and seawater for a period of 720 h (30 days), moisture absorption test is further carried out. Both analytical and experimental analyses are compared on the specimen and further results have been observed. In addition to these results, design and analysis of surfer board is done to meet the requirements. GFRP composites are prepared using American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) and Indian Standard Organization (ISO) standards. Fiber-reinforced composite materials are demanded by the industry, especially for the applications where weight reduction is critical because of their high specific strength, ability to resist corrosion. The present work aims at the evaluation of various mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites (GFRP) with the inclusion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in different weight fractions. The specimens are compared with the inclusion of MWCNTs to the neat composite.

Pala Srinivasa Reddy, Inkulu Anil Kumar, Satuluri Srikiran, Dannana Suresh

Mechanical Behavior in Tungsten Carbide-Reinforced Aluminum Composites

In rubbing components, the wear property of the material is found to be a significant consideration. To enhance the wear property of Aluminum (Al), which is most widely used for its better strength to weight ratio, Tungsten Carbide (WC), which is highly abrasive in nature, is reinforced in different weight fractions of aluminum (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10%) to form a metal matrix composite (MMC) by fabricating through powder metallurgy and stir casting techniques. The specimens surface topologies were studied for the dispersion of WC in Al by performing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis, the tests for wear and hardness were performed and the results were compared for both the fabrication techniques by checking the variation of results, if any, which is mainly dependent on the dispersion of tungsten carbide in aluminum. Eventually, it was investigated that the wear property of the specimens fabricated through stir casting technique was increased up to 7.5% and declined after that, whereas the wear property got increased up to 10% when fabricated through powder metallurgy technique. This is quite evident that the WC dispersion in Al is the prime factor enhancing the properties, where powder metallurgy proved to have better dispersion over stir casting technique.

Yamuzala Sai Ratnakar, Allu Venkata Pradeep

Simulation of Bridge Deck Made-Up of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites Reinforced with ZrO2

Composite material of glass fibre base is a very promising material for future structures. It is possible to create a bridge span consists of steel main beams and GFRP deck. For identifying the kind of glass fibre and type of polymer matrix or type of adhesive with steel or concrete, there are very interesting directions of searching line. The project presented with results of compression, tensile and impact analysis of GFRP composite. It will be described with the examples of bridges where GFRP deck have been constructed with main steel beams. Deterioration of concrete bridge decks has become a serious problem in recent years due to corrosion of steel reinforcement. There is also a need to replace existing bridge decks to accommodate the demand to increase the traffic load. The concept of using rapid deck replacement introduces an attractive approach, which minimizes traffic interruption and consequently reduces replacement costs. This project proposes an innovative glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bridge deck as an excellent solution for the infrastructure of highway bridges. The proposed composite deck, patented by War drop Engineering Incl. Faroex Ltd., consists of a series of equilateral triangular section tubes produced by the filament winding process. Glass fibres are wound at varying angles, including fibres in the longitudinal direction, to achieve the target transverse and longitudinal strengths. The bridge deck consists of modules that are formed when several of the uncured, wound, triangular elements are placed between two pultruded plates and are subsequently cured into a single module of bridge decking. These modules delivered to the site and within hours they are installed. By virtue of the very materials and processes used, glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bridge decks offer high strength, lightweight and easy handling for installation. Most importantly, the absence of steel in the deck ensures that corrosion will never occur. This project provides a description of the deck, fabrication process and test results of a portion of the deck.

I. Anil Kumar, P. Srinivasa Reddy, M. Balajee, R. Jagadeesh Kumar

Friction and Wear Characteristics of Austenitic Stainless Steel Against Ceramic Disc

This paper focuses on investigating wear behavior of Austenitic stainless steel-304 using pin-on-disc wear testing tribometer in as-received condition. Wear behavior is of particular concern as the frictional force and coefficients of friction are known to influence the wear significantly. In this study, we have taken austenitic stainless steel (304) as a pin which makes point contact against the mating surface of alumina ceramic disc. Sliding distance and speed are maintained constant during the P-o-D experiments. Experimental runs carried out with load on the pin at three different weights. The scientific data so obtained, viz wear, frictional force, and coefficient of friction are plotted employing Origin Graphs. The microstructure of worn-down surface is characterized using a Scanning Electron Microscope. Results obtained found with a good agreement of wear behavior of austenitic stainless steels. Frictional force and coefficient friction fluctuated severely when the load is applied. The SEM investigations indicate that moderate loading on stainless steel will preserve anti-galling characteristics while offering resistance to wear. However, the 3 kg loading on the pin exhibited a microscopic scale transfer, adhesion and spalling of the material of the pin during sliding. SEM studies revealed that moderate loading preserved anti-galling characteristics of the material of the pin. Results of these investigations will have an impact on applications leading to orthopedic stainless steel implants used against broken bones which are analogous to ceramic. The wear tests have bearing on the products used in ceramic brake pads, ceramic disc brakes of automobiles and railway trucks.

V. Sumalatha, P. Ravinder Reddy, A. Krishnaiah, G. S. Reddy

Fiber Surface Treatment and Quantity, Impact on the Performance of Biocomposites

The principle intention of this compound treatment was to diminish the water ingestion property of regular strands and furthermore to improve the similarity with a grid. At present, biocomposites are created by mixing 90% unsaturated polyester–vinyl ester grid and fortifying the normal strands into the framework mix. The mechanical presentation of the composites was likewise impacted by fiber amount and concoction treatment of the strands. Surface of the filaments was changed by soluble base treatment prompting higher crystallinity of strands. The examination of malleable, compressive, and flexural properties of Banana–Luffa strands strengthened biocomposites was done for 10, 20, 30, and 40% and half amount of surface adjusted composites and other untreated biocomposites. The 40% fiber amount benzene diazonium chloride-treated composite showed higher and ideal condition for the previously mentioned mechanical properties than 5% NaOH-treated, 10% NaOH-treated, and 10, 20, 30, and 50% fiber amount chemical-treated and -untreated biocomposites.

Gowdagiri Venkatesha Prasanna, A. Nikhil Nihar, G. Lokesh, N. Naga Sai

Compressive and Impact Behavior of Nanoscale Hybrid Composite Materials

The use of polymer matrix composites has been increased exponentially for the past. Marine, aeronautical, automobile, and space structures are the areas were fiber-reinforced composites are very widely used for their specific properties like high tensile strength, high strength to weight, inert to the environment, etc. These conventional fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) fall shortage of both compressive strength and impact strength. To overcome these challenges, an attempt is being made to develop the properties of FRP composites (glass/epoxy) by adding nanofiller. Three different types of nanoparticles are used: (i) multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), (ii) Nanosilica (NS), (iii) Nano-Iron oxide (NI) with four different weight percentages 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0%. The experiments reveal a significant enhancement in the compression and impact behavior for Glass/Epoxy FRP when modified with nanofillers.

Mohd. Minhajuddin Saif, Dasari V. Ravi Shankar, Mohd. Manzoor Husain

Study of Mechanical Properties of Coconut Coir Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites

In the present day situation, the usage of conventional material for building and manufacturing sectors is growing enormously. This leads to, at some point of time, the depletion of the conventional material due to heavy demand. Now, there is a necessity to think of other materials for different purposes for the development of new products. The other source is that which does not cause any pollution to the environment and, at the same time, gives the scope for replacing the existing materials. Generally, everybody knows that for construction, materials like steel and wood take the major part. But once there is a shortage of these materials, the other materials which provide the same purpose would get major importance in this particular research. The unconventional materials like natural fibers play a major role here. A lot of research is going on this field. But generally, the research is limited to a particular fiber that is available in plenty. The fibers like coconut, kenaf, and sisal are abundantly available in countries like ours. Here and there, some research is going on but it is only of limited scope to understand. Even countries like India produce a lot of agricultural waste every year. If this is used for the purpose of making usable products, there may be a demand for that, and there is employment potential for those companies or organizations. The authors are highly motivated to develop such products which can use and replace conventional materials.

Gondi Konda Reddy, H. Madhusudhana Reddy

Processing and Characterization of 6061 Aluminium Alloy with Nickel (Ni) and Zirconium (Zr)

In an aluminium alloy, there are many inventions and researches that are introduced since 1954, when there are only 75 compositions are present, and by now, there are 530+ composites of aluminium. This explains how much we can explore aluminium with combinations of different alloys out of which 6061 aluminium alloy used for making automobile bodies. This experiment is to find the tribological behaviour of nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr) particles reinforced with 6061 aluminium alloy. Composites are manufactured by a liquid metallurgical process known as stir casting. The alloy combinations constitute of 1. nickel (Ni)—0.5% and zirconium (Zr)—0.5%, 2. nickel (Ni)—0.5% and zirconium (Zr)—1% and 3. nickel (Ni)—0.5% and zirconium (Zr)—1.5% with 6061 aluminium alloy as a base metal. Above mentioned are three sample materials that are prepared by stir casting followed by annealing or heat treatment to improve the grain growth [1].

S. Arun Kumar, R. Raman Goud

Static Structural Analysis of Hybrid Honeycomb Structures Using FEA

The following paper describes the behavior of hybrid honeycomb structures over solid-profiled structures. Sandwich panels being a major application of honeycomb structures exhibit very high stiffness-to-weight ratio, low mass–volume ratio, and high energy absorption capacity. The various hybrid hollow structures with finite boundaries (finite width and height), subjected to a uniaxial compressive load, are observed using the finite element method. The stress and deformation characteristics of these structures are calculated using ANSYS® 18.1. Subjected to cantilever conditions, the structures are processed in static structural simulations to obtain the corresponding data. In this paper, a comparison of various hybrid structures is conducted based on the obtained data to conclude their adaptability.

A. Chandrashekhar, Himam Saheb Shaik, S. Ranjan Mishra, Tushar Srivastava, M. L. Pavan Kishore

Design and Random Vibrational Analysis of Horizontal Impact Hammer Crusher

During the crushing of a stone, sharpness of the blade decreases due to which deformations are observed on the blade, which reduce the efficiency of the blade. Hence it becomes necessary to check the blade structure for its crushing ability so that safety is achieved while crushing the stone. The FE model was developed to observe the stresses and deflections which are caused while crushing. Various iterations are performed and graphs are plotted and analyzed to see the deflections caused on the blade. This paper is presented to evaluate the frequencies and deflections caused on the blade and also to evaluate the stress caused on the rock, which gives better efficiency while crushing the rock. The model was created using CAD software, and Modal analysis was performed by using ANSYS Workbench 19.2.

S. Naveen, P. Praveen Kumar Reddy, S. L. N. Reddy

Fault Diagnosis of Unbalanced Multirotor System

Rotating machines with center-hung dynamic balancing rotors are widely used in several industries. During operation, the rotor may gain or lose material due to the wear and deposition of foreign materials in the rotors. As a result of this, the rotor becomes unbalanced. Unbalanced rotor usually causes excessive machine vibration that generates large forces on the bearing. It also results in enormous power loss and leads to potential damage to the system. So, the vibrations caused by the rotor have to be continuously monitored to prevent the potential damage to the rotating machinery. In this project, experimental studies are performed on a dynamic rotor test apparatus to obtain the vibration response of the rolling element bearings in the rotating system under several masses with different running speed conditions. The shaft is attached with four rotors, each having different mass and rotating in different planes. The rotor shaft vibration responses on the bearings are obtained using piezoelectric accelerometer. Dual-channel vibration analyzer (ADASH) is used to analyze the obtained vibration data. The identification of system characteristics is to be carried out. The results thus obtained can be used for condition monitoring of the unbalanced rotor system.

V. Hariharan, G. Rajeshkumar, K. A. Ibrahim Sheriff

Robust Design of Deterministically Synthesized Four-Bar Mechanism

Robust design of mechanisms ensures that the intended task will be performed with minimum deviation from the target performance. In this paper, robust design of path-generating four-bar mechanism has been discussed. Deterministic synthesis has been performed to determine the mechanism parameter values for a vertical line path generation task. Five best deterministically synthesized mechanisms have been identified based on their objective function values. Optimum link tolerances and joint clearances have been designed for these mechanisms using Taguchi orthogonal arrays. Robustness of these mechanisms has been analyzed based on the normal distribution of responses. It has been observed that the fourth mechanism has been the best robust mechanism as it has the least mean and standard deviation. Thus, to design the robust mechanism, a set of deterministically synthesized mechanisms have to be analyzed for robustness after tolerance design.

Sanjay Matekar, Ajay Fulambarkar

Analysis of Various Cooling Mechanisms for Plastic Gears Using Decision Tree Algorithms

Plastic gears are widely used by engineers in various engineering applications due to their reduced noise while working, low cost, lighter weight, chemical resistance, flexibility, and the ability to operate without lubrication. A disadvantage found in these drives is the thermal stresses induced during continuous operation. Incorporating cooling holes into the design of plastic spur gears can reduce the thermal stresses on the gears. These cooling holes promote increased stress and tooth deflection, thus exerting a negative effect. Various machine learning algorithms like the decision tree algorithms are used to correctly identify the gear specifications based on the amount of torque applied from factors like material, hole sizes, and maximum force that can be applied at certain temperatures pertinent to regular working conditions maintaining a factor of safety of 2. The decision trees were able to correlate various gear parameters and material properties with high accuracy to provide the means to select the gears based on three types of torques; from high torques of more than 10,000 N mm to low torques of less than 1000 N mm.

Sam Cherian, Abu Bakr Azam, Lokavarapu Bhaskara Rao

Design and Analysis of Sedan Car B-Pillar Outer Panel Using Abirbara with S-Glass Fiber Hybrid Composites

Automotive industries are struggling hard to optimize vehicle body through different ways; like shape for its aerodynamics and aesthetics, weight of materials to be used for fuel efficiency, material conservation, recyclability, and others. The century’s competitive material in the industry is composite material especially natural composites are preferably based on different perspectives. As B-pillar is one of the critical structural support members of sedan cars, different considerations are taken to analyze and replace its outer panel with natural Nettle fiber composite. Mainly it should overcome two things; B-pillar must overcome the stress developed due to the system as it is a structural member and safeguard the occupant in the case of side crash. Considering these properties of the B-pillar, a natural fiber called Abirbara/Aleblabit/Ethiopian origin stinging nettle with S-glass hybrid composite was used to replace its outer panel with Ansys analysis. It is observed that Abirbara fiber, which can be extracted from the Abirbara plant is abundantly available in Ethiopia and is not yet used widely as composite materials. This work started with plant harvesting (collecting) and fiber extraction, which was performed through mechanical methods. The composites were prepared using chemically treated fiber with different orientations based on predetermined performance. Different mechanical properties were measured by using UTM machines and its tensile strength, compression strength, bending strength values are 153.166 MPa, 212.7 MPa, and 370 N peak load, respectively, whereas water absorption is 1.6% in 48 h. The model of the sedan car B-pillar panel was prepared by SpaceClaim software and analyzed for impact using Ansys software. Crush simulation of B-pillar panel with conventional material and composite material was computed. So the Ansys analysis shows that the energy absorption of EOSN fiber composite B-pillar panel is 2.61 and 0.15925 kJ for conventional materials. It is concluded that Abirbara composite can be used for B-pillar outer panel, which results in reduction of weight of the vehicle, fuel consumption, and an increase in energy absorption.

Ramesh Babu Nallamothu, Melkamu Yigrem Yihunie

Design and Analysis of Shock Absorber

Shock absorber is a mechanical device designed to smooth out or damp shock impulse, and dissipate kinetic energy. In this work, suspension system is designed and a 3D model is created using CATIA V5R21. Structural analysis is done on the shock absorber by varying different spring materials. Spring materials are spring steel, phosphorus bronze, beryllium copper, and titanium alloy. To validate the strength of the model, the structural analysis on the helical spring is done. The analysis is done by considering loads, bike weight, and single, double riding. Finally, comparison is done for different materials to verify which material suits for spring in shock absorber.

N. Ankitha, M. R. S. Rupa Sri

Design and Optimization of a Two-Stage Gearbox Using GearTrax

The ATV transmission system comprises a CVT gearbox along with the axles and hubs which in turn drives the vehicle. The gearbox coupled with CVT provides optimal torque and power at all times. This paper focuses on the design and optimization of a two-stage reduction gearbox for BAJA All-Terrain Vehicle. Based on the CVT’s high- and low-end ratios and different road resistances, the required reduction ratio of the gearbox is calculated. Also, the gradeability factor and maximum acceleration required were the factors taken into account for determining the reduction ratio. Standard AGMA procedures were utilized to scrutinize the design of gears and shafts by using force equations.

Kalyan Sekhar, Pradyumna Dharmadhikari, Shreyash Panchal, Lokavarapu Bhaskara Rao

Analysis of Composite Leaf Springs Using Finite Element Method

Composite leaf springs are extensively used in automotive industries to maximize fuel efficiency. In the present work, composite leaf springs are analyzed to find deformation and stresses by selecting different composite materials such as E glass/epoxy, carbon/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composite. The analysis is performed by using the Finite Element Method. The interlaminar stresses generated between the leaves of composite laminate have been identified. Different combinations of composite materials have been analyzed to bring out the best composite leaf spring. The Finite Element based software Ansys is used to estimate the deformations and stresses of the composite leaf spring. The Finite Element Models are validated with the theoretical results. The present work is useful for the effective design of composite leaf springs with single fiber as well as hybrid fiber composites.

S. Geetha Satya Sai, Venigalla Sailesh, S. K. Mobin, T. Subash Chandra Bose, Y. Sai Krishna, P. Phani Prasanthi

Design of Gears Using Aluminium 6061-T6 Alloy for Formula SAE Steering System

Aluminium alloys have become major replacements of steel alloys for many applications due to its high strength to weight ratio and resistance to corrosion. Steering mechanism is one of the most important subsystems in an automobile that helps to control its direction of movement. In a Standard OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) Rack and Pinion system, generally steel alloys such as AISI 4340 and grey cast iron are used, due to higher dynamic loads and higher value of basic stress. For an efficient steering system, it is very important to take materials and properties of the gear system into consideration. This paper focuses on efficiently designing a lightweight rack and pinion steering system for an FSAE car by replacing conventional materials using aluminium 6061-T6 alloy due to its low cost and weight, taking contact stresses and bending stresses into consideration followed by verification with FEA (Finite Element Analysis) in ANSYS. In conclusion, the use of aluminium alloys in the steering system of FSAE vehicle will make it lighter and more efficient compared with standard OEM materials. The outcome of this research was use of aluminium alloys instead of conventional materials in gears based on their application.

Arnav Gupta, V. P. Yashvanth, Lokavarapu Bhaskara Rao

Design and Analysis of Helical Teeth Harmonic Drive

Harmonic drives are power transmitting devices with high torque and precision. They are used in many applications for their advantage of providing high torque ratio and reduced backlash, thereby reducing the power loss in the drive. The primary objective of this project is to modify the design of the harmonic dives by introducing harmonic teeth instead of existing straight teeth. The harmonic drives were modeled using SolidWorks. Three incremental loads are applied on a tooth of each harmonic drives and the stress developed on the tooth was found out using structural analysis in ANSYS. The results showed that the stress generated on the helical tooth of the flex spline was less compared with that of the stress developed on the straight tooth. There was an increase in the stress developed as the force acting on the tooth increased.

Sekar Anand, Arunachalam Dharmalingam Srikeshav, Baskar Sharran, Lokavarapu Bhaskara Rao

Design and Analysis of Permanent Magnetic Gears

This paper is all about a design, construction, and analysis of permanent magnetic gears. The basic idea of a gearing is to convert mechanical power from one rotational speed and torque to another speed and torque. The input power that is used in most of the applications is with small revolution speed and great torque. But many applications require input power with less revolution speed and great torque. The problem is often lack of torque from the source drives. The physical size of a direct drive electrical machine able to drive a conveyer belt directly will typically be too large and expensive. A more cost-effective solution will be to place a transmission between the conveyer belt and the electrical machine. Mechanical gears are often used for such transmission purposes. The magnetic gears designed particularly for the transmission and automobile sectors, with comparison with non-magnetic gears. After completing primary design, detailed calculation is done followed by CAD modeling and analysis at the end. In increasing productivity, this can show better results.

Kolape Poonam Gujaba, Sharmila Parashar, Lokavarapu Bhaskara Rao

Design and Analysis of Swing Arm Using Carbon Fiber Composite by Using Creo 2.0 and ANSYS

The current research presents the first step in the design process of a cantilever composite swing arm. The aim of the project is to design and model a swing arm according to the loads applied. Presently used material for swing arm is mild steel. In this project, we are going to design swing arm for the materials, mild steel and composite material carbon fiber. For validating this design, FEA structural analysis is done on the swing arm by using different materials. Modal analysis is also done for different mode shapes to know different frequencies with respect to deformation. For validating this design, FEA structural analysis is done on the leaf spring by using different materials. Modal analysis is also done for different mode shapes to know different frequencies with respect to deformation. Creo 2.0 software is used for designing and ANSYS Workbench 16.1 is used for analysis.

Pidaparthy Maheshbabu, R. Ramkumar, Dasari Ajay

Comparison of Kinematic Analysis of Robot Made of Conventional Theo Jansen Mechanism, Modified Theo Jansen Mechanism of PLA and Modified Theo Jansen Mechanism of Mild Steel

This paper presents the design analysis of an intellectual model of an autonomous surveillance robot. The principal objective is to do surveillance in the muddy or desert area or on that region where the surface is less grippy. This is the first spider robot, which will, made by Polylactic Acid (PLA) material and is having eight legs controlled by two DC servo motors. The mechanism, which is used to make those legs, is Theo Jansen mechanism, which is one of the animal walking patterns. To do the surveillance, a 360-degree rotating camera is used which is having its own working module. Arduino controls all the electronics and that Arduino takes power to run itself as well as all the other systems by 12 V DC battery. And this paper compares the performance of robots made with the same material (PLA) but, works on two different mechanisms, named as between conventional Theo Jansen mechanism and modified Theo Jansen mechanism. In addition to that, it also compares the performance of robots made with two different materials, Mild Steel (MS) and Polylactic Acid (PLA), having the same mechanism as modified Theo Jansen mechanism.

Keval Bhavsar, Pranav Darji, Dharmik Gohel, Jitendra Modi, Umang Parmar

Modeling of a Warfield Autonomous Robot with GPS and Digital Compass

Human life is the most valuable thing, and many lives are lost in battles. Robot uses in battles to give detailed information and live feed will help in saving lives. To perform this intelligent navigation, the Microcontroller is loaded with an efficient program written using embedded “C” language. Since all the operations of this robot can be controlled by an operator, real time situations can be analyzed and actions can be taken accordingly. System reduces fuel requirements as it can also run on solar power. It can be used for public security, monitoring.

P. V. Prasad Reddy, S. Madhava Reddy, D. L. Tejaswini

Analysis of Enterprise Model Using System Dynamics: A Case of Production–Inventory System

Enterprise modeling methodology supports capturing processes, activities, and functions of a manufacturing enterprise. Enterprise Model (EM) is the process of conceptual abstraction of enterprise functionality, business data, information channels, and triggering events. Most of the present EM modeling frameworks are open process modeling architectures which are thought of a detailed comprehensive informative data structure. The System Dynamics (SD) model captures the causal relationships among the variables and develops the feedback structure of the processes. SD analyzes and understands the dynamic behavior of the manufacturing enterprise by incorporating the time delays and draws the various policies to improve the system performance. In this paper, the integration of EM and SD methodologies to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the process and information structures to design new policies and understand the dynamics of a manufacturing enterprise is studied.

P. S. R. K. Nageswara Rao, P. Usha Sri, K. Vizayakumar

Comparative Analysis of Small and Large Capacity Sized On-grid, Rooftop Solar PV Systems - An LCA Approach

Due to scarce hydrocarbon reserves in India, majorly Coal and to some extent Nuclear remain the most dependable sources of energy in near future, to meet the ever-growing demand for energy in its instant form, i.e. Electricity. Renewables such as Solar PV and Wind are relatively clean sources of electricity, but they have their own drawbacks in terms of potential, penetration, technology and the scale of deployment. But these options can supplement our energy needs to some extent. A comparative LCA study of two different capacity sized and grid-connected Solar PV systems installed on the flat rooftop of buildings located at different geographical sites within India is carried out by modelling them to run on SimaPro LCA software with ECOINVENT 3 as database. This study covers all-important Inventory Analysis for the inputs used in terms of energy and materials, outputs resulted in terms of energy and environmental releases. The study results are expressed in the form of predefined energy metrics such as CED and EPBT. Further, this study covers the environmental impact assessment category such as GWP, and the result is presented with kWh of electricity produced by these systems as a functional unit. Further, these investigations help energy planners and policymakers to compare various power generating options and also the same option with varied capacities so that the decision on future investments in the power sector can be made in a more justifiable manner for a clean and sustainable future.

N. Leela Prasad, M. Shreyas, P. Usha Sri

Automated Real-Time Software Based Forecasting of Climate Change Using Chlorophyll Content on Agriculture

The core theme of this project is to assess the economic impact of climate change on Indian agriculture. The climate change is caused due to the emission of greenhouse gases like Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), and Nitrous oxide (N2O) from various industrial sources. Neyveli, being the source of heavy megawatt generating stations, let out flue gases which contain Carbon dioxide (CO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Oxides of sulfur (SOx), Methane (CH4), and Oxides of nitrogen (NOx). These harmful gases are responsible for depletion of Ozone (O3) layer which has a significant effect on year-to-year variation in weather and agricultural output and sometimes even produce acid rainfall. Considering the probable effects of climatic change on agriculture has motivated a vital change in the yield of agricultural products, livestock yields, and also changes in the food production pattern and prices. This alarming situation has motivated the researchers to propose a solution which will facilitate to identify the concentration of the constituents of the greenhouse gases, increase in atmospheric temperature, and variations in rainfall from the chlorophyll content present in the crops. This estimation of chlorophyll content can be done by extracting green colored pixels from the satellite images or images captured by the vision sensors and soil moisture sensor placed in the Indian agricultural area. These images are preprocessed for noise removal using Edge detection technique. From the preprocessed images, feature descriptors like Histogram of Gradient (HoG) are extracted. The HoG values are fused with the information gathered from soil moisture sensor. The extracted features are reduced using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The feature set is thereafter used as inputs to Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) using Feed Forward (FF) structure trained with Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA). These estimates done using data analytics will lend a helping hand to the farmers to adapt themselves to the year within annual weather shocks. It can be inferred that the estimates derived from short term are capable of predicting the short- and medium-term impacts of climate change which would direct the farmers to adapt rapidly to the changing climatic conditions. These short- and medium-term impacts of climate change are found to reduce the agricultural productivity by 4%–6% and 6%–9%, respectively. Whereas, the long term impact is drastic, decreasing the agricultural productivity by 10%–25% which makes adaptation a challenging task to the farmers in our country. Hence, it is inferred that the climate change entails significant impact on the revenue of the Indian economy until and unless the farmers can promptly identify and adjust to decreasing rainfalls and increasing atmospheric temperatures. The real challenge in the proposed method is twofold. The first challenge lies in analyzing the satellite images of the farmlands using efficient image processing algorithms to extract useful and meaningful information. This data extracted would be of a very large quantity and needs to be handled using some data analytics algorithm like BPA, whose prediction efficiency will be determined and also validated. The second challenge lies in mapping the emission of greenhouse gases with the images of the farmlands under three categories, namely Highly Productive (HP) farmlands, Medium Productive (MP) farmlands, and Less Productive (LP) farmlands and correlating the yield of farmlands with respect to emission levels of greenhouse gases in particular environment under study.

K. Sujatha, K. S. Thivya, S. Elakkiya, V. Srividhya, NPG. Bhavani, Bhuvaneshwari Nagarajan

Studies on Drop Test of a Helmeted Head Form with and Without Chinstrap Using LS-Dyna

The aim of this research is to study the behavior of human head during the event of impact while wearing a helmet with and without locking the chinstrap. While many accidents are reported due to the negligence of wearing a helmet, there are also a few cases where not locking the chinstrap of the helmet led to major loss of lives. There is no much information about the threat level caused due to negligence of locking the chinstrap while wearing a helmet. This paper investigates the significance of locking the chinstrap, and compares the results of impact on head in both cases. The dimensions of a commercially available helmet are considered, and a head is designed to fit into the helmet. Numerical simulation, i.e., Impact test is carried out with the presence of chinstrap and in the absence of chinstrap using computer-aided engineering simulation solver LS-Dyna. The FEA model preparation and meshing is carried out using Hypermesh. Finally, comparisons are made on the impact of injured head. Results are plotted using Hyperview software. The impact forces during drop test of the helmeted form with a chinstrap were found to be minimal when compared to the forces without a chinstrap. The stresses on the chin region were major in case 2 in contrast with case 1 stresses. Energy plots were similar in both the scenarios, which ensure that drop test behavior is proper. The significance of chinstrap of helmet is immense while driving a two-wheeler. Numerical simulation also proves the importance of the chinstrap. Wearing a helmet with locked chinstrap results in minimal injuries to the victim rather than long-term diseases and death.

Madipalli Manisha, Suresh Lonka, R. Dhanasekaran, S. Sreenatha Reddy

Design and Implementation of SEPIC Converter Based Nine-Level MLI Fed IM with PI, FLC, and ANN Controller

In recent year, the field of power converters has experienced a large growth due to confluence of several factors. Moreover, these advances in semiconductor fabrication technology have made it possible to significantly improve the voltage and current handling capabilities and the switching speeds of power semiconductor devices, which make up the converter to design for many applications. Whereas industrial sectors are facing many difficulties to convert the fixed voltage into variable voltage. For that reason, a DC-to-DC conversion process is established from conventional methods like voltage divider, potentiometer to get output voltage less than the input supply; in that case, this will lead to power losses. The DC-to-DC converter topologies can be divided into two major types, depending on whether or not they have galvanic isolation between the input supply and the output circuitry. DC-to-DC converters are used in portable electronic devices such as mobile application and laptop computers, which are supplied with power from batteries primarily. Such electronic devices often contain several sub-circuits, each with its own voltage level requirement different from that supplied by the battery or an external supply. Additionally, the battery voltage declines as its stored energy is drained. Switched DC-to-DC converters offers a method to increase voltage from a partially lowered battery voltage, thereby saving space instead of using multiple batteries to accomplish the same thing. This research work is focused on a performance analysis of SEPIC converter fed nine-level inverter with artificial neural network for induction motor; the performance analysis is carried out for Boost–SEPIC converter fed multilevel inverter IM drive system. Comparison is made with PI, Fuzzy logic, and ANN controllers. The simulation and experimental results validate the various time domain parameters.

S. Karthikeyan, K. Lakshmi, S. Gobhinath

Preparation and Experimental Evaluation of Membrane Electrode Assembly of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

The present paper deals with the preparation and experimental evaluation of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). For MEAs fabrication, the electrodes (anodes and cathodes) were prepared using 10% by wt. Platinized carbon on backing paper and Nafion 112 membranes. The prepared MEAs were assembled in single cells and tested on the fuel cell test bench. The MEAs were tested at 70 °C, with the hydrogen gas humidified and air/oxygen unhumidified at 1 barg operation. The results were evaluated for its V-I characteristic under the above-mentioned conditions. The maximum current density for cell-1 of 200 mA/cm2 is achieved for H2/Air operation. The maximum current density for same cell-1 of 450 mA/cm2 is achieved for H2/O2 operation. Future work will be focused on the modeling and simulation of PEMFCs with various gas flow field designs and their experimental validation to optimize the performance of the cells and stacks.

Syed Aslam, Md. Masood, Sudheer Prem Kumar

Relative Importance Analysis of Factors Influencing Sea Port Service Quality

In any competitive business environment customer satisfaction is more important to manage and improve their business. Nowadays sea ports are playing key role in any country economy and development. The main view of this work is to examine the impact of service quality of sea port on customer satisfaction of sea port. The literature review deals with the attributes that affect the service quality of sea ports. To check the relationship among sea port service quality and its customer satisfaction a confirmatory factor analysis, along with multiple regression is conducted. It is also concluded that PSQ is a seven-dimensional construct and identified that PSQ and customer satisfaction are related positively. Finally Relative Importance Analysis (RIA) is applied to obtain the weights and ranks of each criterion. The proposed model was tested with a survey of 180 members of the Indian Ports Association (IPA).

S. Hemalatha, Lingaraju Dumpala, B. Balakrishna

Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) System Performance Effects Using Conventional/Modern Cooling Techniques with and Without PCM

The PV panel electrical efficiency depends upon panel material and its operating temperature. Photovoltaic cell electrical generation will drops with rise in temperature, so cooling is required to increase the PV panel electrical efficiency. Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) system is a technology in which thermal system implants behind PV panel which removes heat of photovoltaic panel and cools the panel. Photovoltaic thermal control is technically feasible using phase change materials (passive method cooling), if some issues like thermal conductivity, high nucleation rate, and high PCM life cycle are properly addressed. Phase change material major draw backs are their poor thermal conductivity and large under cooling. The PVT-PCM systems were established to propose more thermal storage potential about 30–43% than the conventional PVT water system, along with more time of thermal availability and output escalation around 8–12%. The PV panel back surface is attached with the aluminum container inside PCM with different (geometric, spherical, and fins) configurations. This paper presents the study of research gap and to adopt the better cooling techniques to enhance the best panel efficiency under all conditions by lowering the PV panel temperature.

D. Kameswara Rao, K. Sudhakar Reddy, V. V. Subba Rao

Studies on Emergency Alert for Women with Smart Dollar

The main motto of this research is to save the woman from kidnappings, rapes, and harassment. There is no safety for women anywhere. Nowadays these rapes and kidnappings were happening more and more all over the world. Government of India is also coming forward to reduce these issues. Recently government has introduced a new application for the safety of women, i.e., 112 India app. This app is completely meant for women’s safety. But apps cannot save the women all the time, devices are far better than apps. Many devices are introduced, like safe lets, pepper spray gun, lipstick flashlight, safety rods, safety smart pendants, etc. Safe lets and safety smart pendants don’t harm the opponent but intimate to the cops, friends, and family. Pepper spray, safety rods, all these devices just help to defend the opponent but will not give any information to the police and family. In this way every device has only one or two advantages. So this research work will combine all advantages into one device. The device contains micro-camera, which captures images and records the video. GPRS which gives the information about the location of the woman. Button which activates the device by pressing and transmitter helps to transfer the captured pictures and videos to the nearby police station and to the family members. So this research work will surely help every woman.

R. Dhanasekaran, S. Sreenatha Reddy, Mohammed Sirajuddin, Harisaiteja Nanaboina, I. Jahnavi

A Comparative Analysis of Multi-criteria Decision-Making Techniques to Optimize the Process Parameters in Electro Discharge Machine

In today’s tremendous competitive market, industrial produce should possess high precision and quality and should be manufactured in minimal time. To obtain these objectives, the input parameters are controlled to attain the desired output depending on the conditions. The process parameters play a substantial role in defining the material removal rate as well as the surface quality. Based on its features, Electro Discharge Machine (EDM) is a striking alternative in the manufacturing industry. The effect of four process parameters (i.e.,) Voltage, Pulse-on-time, Current, Duty Cycle on the performance measures Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (Ra) are studied based on the experimental results. Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) approaches support a decision-maker to pick the best substitute from a set of substitutes where the objectives are differing in nature. To establish the relative importance of the performance measures, entropy method is employed. The weights obtained using entropy method are MRR is 0.34 and for Ra is 0.66. Further, MCDM techniques, namely, MOORA, MULTIMOORA, and TOPSIS are used to attain the optimum process parameters. The optimum values are Pulse-on-time 100 µs, Voltage 50 V, Current 15 A, and Duty Cycle 50.

J. Anitha, Raja Das

Studies on Customized Compression Bandage Materials for Healing Injured Part

Aim of the paper is to cure the swelling of a body part with the help of compression bandages which are made with different fibers. Some of the natural and synthetic fiber materials are used for compression bandages that is cotton, viscose, Lycra, polyester, nylon, and latex. The main property of compression bandage is its flexibility. Compression bandage is mainly used for curing the Venous Leg Ulcers. Swelling is caused due to the clotting of the blood in body part; in order to heal the clot effectively compression bandage is used. Compression bandage assist veins to transfer the de-oxygenated blood to the ventricle by providing pressure to the part which is swollen. The present problem faced by using the compression bandage is severe pain at the injured area due to the fluctuated pressure applied by the clinician. Even skilled clinician applies the compression bandage but it gets severe pain to the patient caused by the uneven pressure applied. Uneven distribution of the pressure may also leads the swelling to chronic stage. In order to reduce the problems faced due to fluctuating pressure, sensor is used in combination with compression bandage. So that the semi-skilled nurse can also apply the bandage effectively and efficiently. This paper concentrates on bandages which are arranged in combination with sensor in order to minimize the problems faced due to uneven pressure.

S. Sreenatha Reddy, R. Dhanasekaran, M. Srihari, Sirgiripet Sai Kiran, S. Kalyan, T. Anvesh Kumar

Investigation on Effect of Industrial Waste on Tribological Properties of Polymer Composites

Particulate-filled polymer composites for various industrial and domestic tribological applications have become a domain of interest for researchers in recent times. Conventional fillers have been replaced by by-products and nano-sized fillers and the performance enhancement of the composites is being evaluated. In this study, fly ash, a by-product of coal combustion process, was used as filler from the perspective of reusing waste material that otherwise would cause pollution due to landfilling. It was reinforced into the Nylon 66 matrix in various weight fractions of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. The wear tests were conducted at three sliding velocities of 2, 4, and 6 m/s at three normal loads of 25, 50, and 75 N; and at a constant sliding distance of 5000 m. Scanning electron microscopic observations were used to understand the wear mechanisms.

V. L. Raja, K. Muralidharan, S. Lakshman Kumar, K. Shanmugavel

Computational Analysis of Concentrating Solar Boiler Uses with and Without Graphene Coating

This paper presents an enhanced thermal conductivity for composite wall of solar boiler by using the heat-transfer characteristic of a graphene coating. Utilizing the arrangement of reflective mirrors, the sun beams are made to focus on the reflective mirrors. The light beams which produce heat falls on these reflectors get reflected and consumed by the engrossing material that is set toward the looking of reflectors. The modeled plant layout which is expected to manufacture is a semi-round about design in which a semicircularly orchestrated reflectors are made to concentrate on a solar boiler. Results verified from transient analysis, that thermal conductivity of solar boiler without coating and with coating of a graphene. This investigation gives an exploratory reference to the utilization of graphene covering in against/deicing.

Mohammad Arif Hussain, S. Nagakalyan, M. Prakashbabu
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