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About this book

This volume contains selected papers presented during the International Conference on Environmental Geotechnology, Recycled Waste Material and Sustainable Engineering (EGRWSE-2018). The papers focus on finding innovative ways of recycling and reusing waste materials, reducing demand for natural resources and processing industrial and chemical wastes such that disposal reduces their environmental burden. This volume will be of interest to researchers, policy makers and practitioners working in the field of waste management.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Evaluation of Compressibility and Drainage Characteristics of Highly Plastic Clay Stabilized with Fly Ash and Stone Quarry Dust

Abstract
Approximately, one-fifth parts of the soil deposit in India is covered with high compressible clay (i.e., Black cotton soil); due to high volume change behavior on changing moisture and poor drainage condition, such soil is classified as problematic soil and requires suitable modification before using it as a soil support. In this study, fly ash and stone quarry dust were used as stabilizing admixture to improve the mechanical behavior of soil, which reduce the waste disposal problem and the environmental pollution, and save the natural material (soil). Here, soil sample was collected from SH 102, B.P. Road, Allahabad and classified as CH. Fly ash was collected from Prayagraj Thermal Power Plant, Bara Allahabad (660 MW), and stone quarry dust was obtained from Shankargarh crushing unit, Allahabad. Three different types of samples were prepared in which soil was mixed with fly ash, stone quarry dust, and both in equal proportion in different percentages (i.e., 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 25, and 30%) by dry mass separately. After proper mixing and aging of samples, standard consolidation test was carried out on each sample. The calculated values of compressibility characteristics (cc, cv) and permeability (k) have reflected considerable and justified results, in which coefficient of compressibility decreasing, coefficient of consolidation, and permeability increase with increasing mix proportion of differently used admixtures with different rates. The optimum percentages for all three different mixes have been determined and compared by considering a triple bottom line of the sustainability.
Himanshu Yadav, Haidar Ali, V. P. Singh

Strength Characteristics of Clayey Soil Stabilized with Nano-silica

Abstract
Due to rapid growth in urbanization and industrialization, waste utilization becomes an important aspect of the conservation of the environment. With the progression in the field of Geotechnical Engineering, waste materials like rice husk ash, fly ash, agro-industry waste, silica fume, etc. find their way in soil improvement techniques. Soil, in its natural state, at a construction site may not always be suitable for supporting structures. The constructions at a site composed of clay possess great challenge due to settlement. This research is intended to study the effect of adding nano-silica on the strength characteristics of clayey soil. A series of laboratory experiments have been conducted on the virgin soil and the soil blended with nano-silica content at 5–20% by weight of dry soil. The experimental results showed an increase in optimum moisture content with the increase in nano-silica content. It was found that unconfined compressive strength also showed an increase in the addition of stabilizing material. From the investigation, it can be concluded that nano-silica particles have a potential to improve the engineering properties of the clayey soil along with its proper utilization from the environmental point of view.
Abhay Malik, Shiv Om Puri, Neeru Singla, Sanjeev Naval

Chemical Analysis Procedures for Determining the Dispersion Behaviour of Red Mud

Abstract
The present study deals with evaluating the dispersion characteristics of red mud by adapting to chemical analysis methods. For this purpose, the leached aqueous solution has been extracted by suitably diluting the red mud particles with distilled water. The parameters like sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), which are strong indicators of flocculation or dispersion stability, pH, zeta potential and electrical conductivity, have been measured and employed to assess the dispersive nature of the red mud. The values of SAR and ESP are measured as 54.9% and 98.3%, respectively. The very high values of SAR and ESP demonstrate that the red mud tends to exhibit moderate to high dispersive behaviour. Usually, dispersive soils are not selected as a source material for the construction of earth structures, without adequately stabilizing or treating with chemical additives. As such, the results emphasize that there is a need for treating the red mud with additives like gypsum or alum for mitigating the dispersion behaviour, before its intended use.
N. Gangadhara Reddy, B. Hanumantha Rao, Krishna R. Reddy

Study and Analysis of Characteristics of Construction and Demolition Waste in Highway Pavements

Abstract
Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) and Recycled Asphalt Pavements (RAP) are the most easily available “Construction and Demolition (C&D)” waste materials. Research work has established that the volumetric properties of bituminous mixes, i.e., bulk density, percentage voids in mineral aggregates, voids filled with bitumen, and the bitumen film thickness, are complementarily affected by the use of RCA & RAP. Studies have been conducted on dense bituminous mixes prepared with natural aggregates (NA) to analyze the effect of field compaction on the pavement life, using “Extended Marshall Compaction Test.” However, the performance characteristics of RCA and RAP substituted bituminous mixes, so as to ensure that the pavement material does not undergo premature failure due to surface bleeding and plastic deformation, remain under-researched. In this study, the performance characteristics of “Dense-Graded Bituminous Mix” prepared by substitution of natural aggregates (NA) by RCA and RAP have been studied. Laboratory experiments have been done by preparing Marshall samples at various bitumen contents corresponding to different compaction efforts. The effect of variation in either of the factors on Marshall properties has thereafter been analyzed.
Nupur Jain, Tripta Goyal

Effect of Cement Kiln Dust and RBI Grade 81 on Engineering Properties of Plastic Clay

Abstract
This paper deals with plastic clay (CH) treated with cement kiln dust (CKD) and roadbuilding international Grade 81(RBI 81). Geotechnical properties including consistency limits, compaction characteristics, unconfined compression strength (UCS), California-bearing ratio (CBR) and consolidation properties are investigated before and after treating the soil. The effects of CKD and RBI 81 on geotechnical properties are found to be very significant. The consistency tests result in the various mix proportions of CKD, RBI 81, with clay soils indicates the low plastic (CL) in nature. The maximum dry density significantly improved with these cementations materials. The UCS increases with increase in curing time and achieves maximum strength. The mix of CKD and RBI 81 with clay soils of the compression index reduced considerably. For pavements having high compressible subgrade especially in rural areas, these materials are very useful due to significant improvement in CBR values. They are durable in terms of maintenance of the pavements as well. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations on original clay and treated mix presented. The SEM image shows the formation of impermeable CSH and CAH gel. The mix which was studied can be used for rural and low-cost construction road infrastructures.
Sudheer Kumar Jala, Pankaj Sharma

Stabilization of Silty Soil with Marble Dust and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

Abstract
Soil with low bearing capacity requires stabilization to improve its engineering properties. In urban areas, to borrow soil from a long distance is time-consuming and uneconomical. Therefore, it is economical to use locally available industrial and agricultural waste for soil stabilization. In the present investigation, silty soil is used with various percentages of sugarcane bagasse ash and marble dust; various laboratory experiments have been performed, viz., unconfined compressive strength test and standard Proctor test to evaluate the effect of materials used to enhance the properties of parent soil. This stabilization technique is cost-effective and has an additional benefit of providing an environmental-friendly way to deal with industrial waste product. Results of Proctor test indicate that there was an increase in optimum moisture content and decrease in maximum dry density on increasing the stabilizer content, and unconfined compressive strength test result shows that there was increase in the strength value on increasing the stabilizer content.
Priyanka Mishra, V. K. Arora

Strength Improvement of Silt Loam Using Egg Shell Powder and Quarry Dust

Abstract
Proper sub-soil investigation at the proposed site and proper foundation design on the basis of settlement and shear strength criteria is essential for long-life serviceability of a structure. Stabilization of weak and soft soil deposits with solid domestic and industrial wastes is a beneficial alternative of stabilizing the soil using traditional expensive agents like cement, lime, etc., which also gives a suitable solution for disposal of waste materials and environmental pollution. Silt has low bearing capacity and hence requires improvement for bearing the structural load. Chicken Egg Shell Powder is rich in CaO and Quarry Dust is rich in SiO2. In this study, the suitability of Egg Shell Powder and Quarry Dust as stabilizing materials for silt loam is analyzed through laboratory experiments. Soil was mixed with Egg Shell Powder and Quarry Dust in varying % of dry wt. of soil. Unconfined Compressive Strength tests (UCS) were conducted on soil samples mixed with optimum percentages of Egg Shell Powder and Quarry Dust and a significant increase in strength with increase in percentage of additives was observed. Hence from these results, it’s concluded that Egg Shell Powder and Quarry Dust can be effectively used as eco-friendly and economic stabilizing agents for strength improvement of silt.
Vaangmayaa Singh, V. K. Arora

Enhancement of Shearing Strength of Poorly Graded Sand by Using Surface Modified Waste Rubber Tyre Fibres

Abstract
Used automobile tyres are a form of wastes, which cause disposal and environmental problems. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the angle of shearing resistance (ϕ) of the poorly graded sand (SP) reinforced with the untreated tyre fibres (UTTFs) and cement coated tyre fibres (CCTFs). In the paper, a surface modification of tyre fibres by cement coating is proposed to increase the specific gravity in order to obtain uniform mixing, and improve a strong bond between the tyre fibres and sand particles. Direct shear tests were performed on the mixtures of UTTFs–sand and CCTFs–sand with proportion of fibres equal to 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 12.5% by weight of dry sand. Three vertical effective stresses of 50, 100, and 150 kPa were assigned and all the tests were performed at a strain rate of 0.25 mm/min. Optimum fibre content is observed at 10%. The ϕ values at 10% for CCTFs and UTTFs reinforced sand are approximately 12% and 8% more than that of 0% fibre content (i.e., only sand) respectively.
P. Venkateswarlu, E. P. Krishnaveni, D. Bishnoi, C. H. Solanki, S. K. Shukla

Effects of Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag and Fly Ash on Stabilization of Soil

Abstract
My research work is oriented towards the extended studies on stabilization of soil using industrial waste Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) to achieve positive results for index properties, compaction characteristics and strength characteristics by investigating so many soil samples with varying proportions of GGBFS and Fly Ash by weight of soil. Main objective of this research paper is to elaborate and take previous studies to another level and to establish a conclusion that GGBFS and Fly Ash are best byproduct stabilizer material for increasing the strength and stability of soil by investigating samples of soil. In this dissertation, effect of GGBFS and Fly Ash on various engineering properties, i.e. plastic limit, liquid limit, specific gravity, optimum moisture content, maximum dry density, unconfined compressive strength and California bearing ratio value have been investigated. During the course of investigation, GGBFS and Fly Ash were used in proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% respectively by weight of soil sample for various experiments. Finally, on the bases of experimental results it is concluded that the utilization of industrial wastes, i.e. GGBFS and Fly Ash are much effective in terms of cost, time, stability, strength and also environment friendly for the construction purpose.
Arshad Tyagi, D. K. Soni

Soil Stabilisation Using Plastic Waste

Abstract
Stabilisation of a fine-grained soil using plastic waste is experimentally investigation in this study. Samples are prepared by mixing with four different plastic waste contents (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% of weight of dry soil). Variations in compaction characteristics and Unconfined compressive strength are investigated as per Indian standard experimental procedures. Percentage decrease/increase in the stated parameters is computed with respect to their untreated value. Study shows that plastic waste additive increases maximum dry density, optimum moisture content, and unconfined compressive strength to some extent. The plastic waste cut into strips form of size 5 mm × 3 mm
Kamal Singh, Anupam Mittal

Effect of Fly Ash on Permeability of Soil

Abstract
Permeability of soil is one of the most significant property. It controls the hydraulic stability of soil mass. It is dependent on various index properties like particle size of soil, percentage of impurities, void ratio, etc. However, permeability of soil is difficult to find out and it consumes time, especially in the case of fine grained soils. In this paper, change in permeability of soil due to mixing of additive (Fly ash) is investigated. Experiments were conducted in the National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra soil laboratory. Various samples were collected for laboratory investigations to determine various soil parameters such as specific gravity, grain size distribution (particle mean size), and coefficient of permeability. Collected soil for the experiment is locally available sand. Additives are added in collected soil samples at different replacement ratios. Permeability of sample is checked and it is observed that permeability of sand firstly decreases up to a certain limit, then it increases.
Sourav Debnath, Anupam Mittal

Review Paper on Partial Replacement of Cement and Aggregates with Various industrial Waste Material and Its Effect on Concrete Properties

Abstract
This study is conducted to evaluate the performance of various type of industrial waste by-products that can be used as an admixture in concrete as a replacement of cement or aggregate as the demand of cement is increasing in the market. Increased demand leads to increased production of cement at large scale which leads to environmental issues and reduction in the number of natural resources on one hand and increase in the cost on the other hand. To deal with these, alternate materials were tested experimentally for use in preparing concrete. Properties of a number of materials such as steel fibre, asphalt, slag, asbestos, lead, dry sludge, wet sludge, fly ash, bagasse ash, red mud, plastic, glass, etc., were studied to find an alternative for replacement of cement. A detailed study of compressive strength, flexural strength and slump value were made by various researchers for 7 days and 28 days respectively. This work compiles the study of a number of waste materials which makes it easy to compare the properties of these waste materials and find out which waste material is more suitable as an alternative for better performance and for environmental suitability as well.
Saini Babita, Upadhyay Saurabh, Gupta K. Abhishek, Yadav Manoj, Sumit, Bindal Pranjal, Meena K. Ravi, Kumar Pankaj

Size Effect of Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Mud Earth Blocks

Abstract
Mud earth blocks are green constructional materials with zero carbon footprints, low embodied energy, economical, etc., but having low compressive as well as least tensile strength and subjected to high shrinkage. This paper presents an experimental study on the behavior of mud earth blocks reinforced with natural fiber. The test blocks were prepared by adding 5% coir fiber by weight of dry soil as reinforcing material with varying sizes ranging from 2 to 8 cm. The effect on properties like shrinkage, compressive and tensile strength, cracking time, and failure pattern due to the presence of fiber were studied in comparison to unreinforced mud earth blocks. The test results showed that the mechanical properties of the blocks are highly affected by the fiber length. Compressive and tensile strength of the blocks with fiber length 4 cm gave the maximum results about 1.45 times and 4 times than that of unreinforced blocks, respectively. Thus, 4 cm length size fiber reinforced mud earth construction is recommended to achieve better structural performances.
Sangketa Sangma, Lumlangki Pohti, Deb Dulal Tripura

Investigation on the Potential Use of EAF Dust and RSA for Sustainable Concrete Production

Abstract
In the construction field, cement is one of the most commonly used materials for concrete production, wherein 5–7% of globally anthropogenic CO2 emissions are contributed in this process. Agricultural and industrial fields produce various types of Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs) as wastes, which otherwise can be used as a replacement in cement for concrete production. In the present context, rice straw, which is a by-product of the rice plant, is subjected to open burning which causes numerous health and environmental problems. Moreover, Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust produced from steelmaking processes contains heavy metals, which is being dumped in landfill. Considering the severe impact of the above-highlighted issues, it has thus become the need of the time to identify the feasibility of waste integration in concrete production. The objective of the current study is to utilize the mixture of rice straw ash and electric arc furnace dust in cement at fixed 10% partial replacement criteria for feasibility analysis. The test results obtained shows that there is a marginal difference between the compressive strength of concrete casted with and without replacement. However, the concrete casted with 10% replacement of cement is still preferable for casting.
Rajwinder Singh, Amanpreet Kaur Sodhi, Neeraj Bhanot

A Study on Strength Behavior of Alkali-Contaminated Soils Treated with Fly Ash

Abstract
Alkali-contaminated soils have being considered for research in the recent past to counter  the industrial failures encountered due to accidental spillages and leakages. It was observed by the researchers that alkali contamination can change the engineering behavior of the soils to a large extent. The change in soil behavior may alter with the concentration of the alkali, type of soil, and duration of alkali interaction. In the present work, the effect of 2 N and 4 N NaOH on the Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of BC soil and kaolinite clay was studied for 7, 14, and 28 days. From the results, it was evident that the reduction in UCS values were 46 and 43% for BC soil and 44 and 36% for kaolinite clay with a contamination of 2 N and 4 N NaOH, respectively, after a curing period of 28 days. In order to address this reduction in strength, treatment with 10, 15, and 20% of fly ash was opted for both the soils. In the case of BC soil, 15% fly ash was found to be optimum for 2 N contamination while for 4 N contamination, it was linearly increasing up to 20%. For kaolinite clay, 20% of fly ash addition gave an optimum strength for 2 N contamination and for 4 N contamination, it was observed at 15% fly ash content. The increase in strength can be attributed to the initiation of pozzolanic reaction by alkali and subsequent strength improvement with time due to the formation of pozzolanic compounds.
Mohammed Ashfaq, M. Heeralal, P. Hari Prasad Reddy

Performance of Pond Ash and Rice Husk Ash in Clay: A Comparative Study

Abstract
Use of admixtures for improvement of the engineering behavior of soils is one of the popular techniques in ground improvement. Different wastes ashes like fly ash, pond ash, etc., are available as an option for the improvement of the soil properties. In this paper, a series of the unconfined compressive strength tests were conducted on the kaolin clay mixed with rice husk ash and pond ash, and comparison of performance improvement is done. The content of rice husk ash and pond ash was varied as 10–50%. The results have shown that both rice husk and pond ash have the potential to improve the load-carrying capacity of the clay. But the impact of the rice husk ash on the load-carrying capacity of the clay is more significant than the pond ash. Optimum rice husk content is found to be 10%, while for pond ash, optimum moisture content is found around 40%.
Deepak Gupta, Arvind Kumar, Vikas Kumar, Akash Priyadarshee, Vaibhav Sharma

Reviewing Some Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Recycled Materials

Abstract
The manuscript presents an assessment of the available data on the properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) containing recycled materials in its fresh and hardened states. A large number of studies has been conducted which showed that SCC is a sensitive product in its fresh state, wherein different recycled products have been used to access its fresh properties like flowability, passing ability and stability. It is assessed that a huge data is available regarding the investigations conducted to study the characteristics of hardened SCC using various recycled materials. The workability and suitability of SCC for various structural applications viz., bridge decks and piers, highway and airfield pavements, offshore structures, rapid mass transport systems, dams, tunnel linings, high-rise structures, precast and prestressed elements has also been accessed. The literature reveals that the use of different recycled materials in SCC would be a sustainable solution for developing a versatile construction material along with the environmental benefits.
Irmandeep Singh, Sanjay Goel

Assessing the Performance of Self-Compacting Concrete Made with Recycled Concrete Aggregates and Coal Bottom Ash Using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity

Abstract
The construction community has now taken up the challenge for the use of ‘green and recycled by-products’ in construction. The utilization of coal bottom ash (CBA) in concrete is one of the feasible options to reduce the environmental problems related to its disposal. Coal bottom ash has the potential to use as a replacement of fine natural aggregates (FNA) or Portland cement (PC) and sometimes both. The current study assess the performance of self-compacting concrete (SCC) made with coarse recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) and CBA using ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) tests at different curing ages. Compressive strength and workability tests have also been conducted for reference. It has been noticed that with the incorporation of RCA (0, 25, 75, and 100%) and CBA (10%), the UPV values have been decreased compared to control SCC mix, however, an equivalent performance has been achieved up to 50% replacement of RCA across all curing periods. The maximum reduction up to 4 and 18% in terms of UPV and compressive strength, respectively, for SCC made with full replacement level (100%) of coarse natural aggregates (CNA) with RCA along with CBA (10%) has been noticed. However, the best and equivalent performance has been noticed for 25 and 50% replacement levels compared to control SCC mix.
Navdeep Singh, Shubham Arya, M. Mithul Raj

Compression and Shear Resistance of Self-compacting Concrete with Arch-Type Steel and Polypropylene Fibres

Abstract
The experimental investigations were carried out on fibrous self-compacting concrete (SCC) elements subjected to monotonic loading to study the influence of arch-type steel fibre (AF) in terms of shear and compressive properties. The influence of polypropylene fibres (PF) at varying proportions was also studied along with arch-type steel fibrous self-compacting concrete. The tests were carried out on both fresh concrete as well as hardened concrete. In fresh concrete, slump and L-box tests were carried out and the results thus measured against varying combinations of both the fibres have been compared. In hardened concrete, compressive strength and shear strength test was conducted and their behaviour was compared. It was observed from slump test as well as L-box tests, the workability of hybrid fibre-reinforced self-compacting concrete was found to be reduced with increase in the volume of fibres. It is also observed that arch-type steel fibres showed exceptional post-cracking behaviour along with the polypropylene fibres for each mix.
Kasilingam Senthil, Davinder Singh, Ivjot Singh

Prediction of Flexural Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced High-Performance Concrete

Abstract
The availability of ultra-fine materials, mineral, and chemical admixtures have made an easy design of concrete mix of high and ultra-high strength. Many investigators have developed methods to predict the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced concrete composites assuming different stress distribution over the crosssection. However, it has been observed that the use of fibers throughout the crosssection is structurally inadvisable and economically wasteful, as the tensile stresses are developed in one portion of the crosssection, depending on loading and end conditions. The beams having fiber reinforcement in only tension region are found to possess higher flexural load capacity and higher initial stiffness in comparison to the corresponding beams with fibers throughout the section. Based on this approach of tension reinforcement, the concept of partial depth fiber-reinforced high-performance concrete beams has been established by incorporating fibers in tension zone only. The typical results obtained experimentally are analyzed in the light of load–deflection behavior, failure pattern, cracking and ultimate moment capacity, and ductility associated parameters have demonstrated that Fiber-Reinforced High-Performance Concrete (FRHPC) is extensively used as a construction material because of fact that the composite provides better mechanical, rheological, and durability properties.
Umesh Chand

Mechanical and Durability Properties of Recycled Aggregate Self-compacting Concrete Along with Basalt Fibers

Abstract
The experimental investigations were carried out on recycled aggregate concrete to study the influence of basal fiber through mechanical and durability tests. The mechanical tests like compressive strength and split tensile strength were conducted on recycled concrete aggregate along with basalt fiber of various proportions. The durability tests like carbonation properties were conducted on recycled concrete aggregate along with basalt fiber. The percentage of recycled aggregate replacement was varied as 0, 50, and 100%, whereas the percentage of basalt fiber was varied as 0, 2, and 4 kg/m3. In hardened concrete, compressive strength, split tensile strength test, and carbonation tests were conducted against 7, 28, and 90 days after casting and their behavior was compared. It is observed that the basalt fiber does not contribute much in case of compressive strength of the concrete. It is observed that the split tensile strength has found to be increased considerably with increasing basalt fiber. The split tensile strength of R50B0 has been found to be increased 14% as compared to conventional SCC, R0B0 concrete, however, the strength of R50B0 concrete was found to be decreased by 22% as compared to R100B0 mix. It is observed that the carbonation depth of concrete was found to be increased with increase of recycled concrete aggregate as well as basalt fiber.
Davinder Singh, Kasilingam Senthil, P. C. Emmanuel

Soft Waste Management in Spinning Industry

Abstract
During yarn manufacturing at short staple ring spinning system, cotton has been considered as “White Gold” because of fiber characteristic features. Yarn manufacturing involves many intermediately processes, starting from blow room stage to ring-frame stage where finally fibers get converted into yarn structure. Cotton processing over various machines in spinning preparatory section leads to soft waste generation at different stages and that can be reused again in an acceptable proportion using waste management techniques. The present study reviews some imperative methods of soft waste management and minimization in cotton spinning industry.
Sukhvir Singh, Alok Kumar

Application of Solar Energy in Wastewater Treatment

Abstract
The consumption of water in domestic, commercial and industrial sectors is massive and the generation of wastewater is even greater. The availability of clean water resources is limited, its uses are endless and its need is ever increasing. With the increasing demand of water and rising energy consumption, the treatment of this quantity of wastewater poses a great challenge. The present study involves the use of a model to harness solar energy by a fabricated lab-scale parabolic tough collector to treat textile wastewater and the optimization of the observations. Solar wastewater treatment using non-concentrating/concentrating collectors is an upcoming promising technology to be applied as evaporators. Concentrating collectors like parabolic trough collectors use mirrored surfaces curved in a linearly extended parabolic shape to focus sunlight on an absorber tube running the length of the trough. The project includes treatment of textile wastewater (COD = 566 mg/L, TSS = 3500.67 mg/L, pH = 10.66) using parabolic trough reactor and study of factors effecting the process like natural light source, pH, temperature, contaminant concentration, etc. 30% reduction in COD of textile wastewater was observed after the treatment.
Lekha Patil, Savan Sachpara, Divya Dixit

Optimizing Waste Material: Slum Development

Abstract
At this random pace of urbanization going on in every developing country of the world, the most lagging part of the city in getting even basic infrastructure is the slum area. Missions like smart city in India are redefining urban facilities in every aspect but the slum areas have still not been brought into the spotlight for development and providing infrastructure. The foremost objective of this study is to provide a basic home to every slum dweller with basic amenities along with the secondary aims of usefulness of every available material to its fullest and recycling the materials for the conservation of the environment. After the documentation and analysis of the topographical features along with road hierarchy, sewer lines, and water supply, a house model is to be proposed providing every basic facility along with aesthetically sound environment for the inhabitants of the area. Along with a proper plan of the area, majority of the material to be used in new construction must be of recycled type. This model proposed will surely lie under the norms of the Indian government scheme of “Housing For All By 2022” and will also be in the economical budget of this project that has been launched to eradicate slums. The principal construction materials to be used for construction, flooring, roofing, and laying down pavements for the road hierarchy will mainly emphasize on recycling of materials.
Manpreet Singh, Rajvir Singh, Sohrab Chatrath

Sustainable Solid Waste Management in Indian Cities

Abstract
Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is a big problem Indian cities are facing these days. Total waste generated by the cities is around 135198.27 ton/day. This review paper aims in providing a comprehensive review of the characteristics, generation, collection, transportation, disposal, and treatability of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the cities, through a collection of secondary data from Government agencies, Interviewing Stakeholders, and Questionnaire Survey and technologies for the effective management of MSW in the cities. The paper also aims at proving various types of waste generated by the cities and their major source of generation, and its composition and source segregation. The paper also presents the current status of solid waste management, waste generation rate, collection efficiencies, refuse derived fuel, waste to energy, and recycling initiatives taken by various cities of India and prospects of introducing improved means of disposing and treating MSW for achieving sustainable management of waste in the cities.
Amandeep Kaur, Surinder Deswal
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