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2023 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

4. Recycling

Author : Luís Eduardo Pimentel Real

Published in: Recycled Materials for Construction Applications

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

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Abstract

The classification of recycling processes and cascading principles for recycling are addressed in this chapter. In the circumstances, the issues related to the quality of recycled plastics, like influencing factors and constraints, as well as normalization for quality assessment, arise naturally.
The entire value chain for plastic waste is described In this chapter, from the collection to the introduction of recycled materials on the market, with an emphasis on intermediate separation methods (wet and dry) and recycling methods and technologies (chemical and mechanical), which are well detailed.
Reprocessing, manufacture of final products, recycling machinery, and some optimization examples are also briefly mentioned.

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Footnotes
1
After the plastics are sorted and washed, they can be regranulated. Wet-milling is often used to prevent clogging of screens and thermomechanical degradation of plastics. If powdered material is required, plastics can be pulverized in a mill equipped with a cryogenic medium.
 
2
As washing and drying technologies are important for raising the quality of recycled plastics, new additives are being recently introduced that can improve the washing process and reduce drying time (see Sect. 2.​6.​4.​1).
 
3
Process in which a plastic undergoes a series of purification steps to separate the target polymer(s) from other polymers, additives, and other added materials such as fibers, fillers, dyes, and contaminants, resulting in recovered polymers, which remain largely unaltered by the process and can be reformulated into plastics. This process may also allow for the recovery of other valuable components from the plastic (according EN 17615–2021)
 
4
Some black pigments have been developed for NIRS detection (see Sect. 2.​6.​4.​1). The solution is not to absorb at the near infrared wavelength and to allow classification systems, which are based on reflective or transmission sensors, to properly identify the different polymers.
 
5
Localized electrical current, induced in a conductor by a variable magnetic field.
 
6
It is worth noting the fact that a future standard is already being developed, establishing the quality requirements for the application of recycled plastics in products of different polymers, subdivided in parts (1 – General; 2 – PE; 3 – PP; 4 – PVC; 5 – PET; 6 – PS; 7 – PA; 8 – ABS; 9 – PC).
 
7
Product resulting from the processing of plastics or mixed films. The agglomeration aims to increase the apparent density of plastic waste, joining pieces by heating, at a temperature slightly below that of the melting point. The quality is defined according to the chlorine, water and ash content, as well as the apparent density and grain size.
 
8
High quality material made to measure, from granules, the properties of the base material being chemically modified with different additives and modifiers.
 
9
Industrial plastic waste is mostly made up of the leftovers from the production of plastic products in the factory, either during the start-up operation, or of the material rejected for non-compliance with quality requirements, or of batches stored abroad for longer than reasonably acceptable time.
 
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Metadata
Title
Recycling
Author
Luís Eduardo Pimentel Real
Copyright Year
2023
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-14872-9_4