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Recycling

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Chapter 3. “Vision 2050” to the Rescue of a “Limited Earth”

Next let us consider the second paradigm—“The Limited Earth.” The problems caused by the fact that the Earth is limited are far-reaching. These include not only energy, resources, global warming, air pollution, water pollution, ground pollution, food, and water, but also—if we think broadly—such problems as the widescale spread of infectious diseases of people and livestock. The reason is that the probability of virus mutation and transmission increases along with the probability that wild animals come into contact with livestock, livestock with other livestock, humans with livestock, and so on. And in turn, the probability of contact on the limited surface of the Earth increases in proportion to the square of the population density.

Hiroshi Komiyama

Chapter 2. Drawing a Software Space for Natural Evolution

The genome expresses itself into a given phenotype in a complex way. Actually, at the basic level, the genome sequence codes for its own translating machinery. It determines the birth of a cellular machinery responsible, in turn, for gene regulation and expression. A particular gene, for instance, codes for RNA polymerase whose function is to transcribe the genes into messenger RNA. Without RNA polymerase there is no messenger RNA, we are faced with the absence of cellular life. However, RNA polymerase is necessary for its very synthesis because it transcribes its gene. Hence the essential circularity that characterizes living organisms. The cellular machinery “represents”, step by step, the genome into an organism realizing the final stage of what we call the embodiment process. In this sense, the genome and the cellular machinery really interact by establishing an evolving and coupled network: as we shall see one of the key results of this interaction is represented by the continuous engraving (through selection) at the level of the organisms of specific formats: among them we can distinguish, first of all, the formats relative to the architectures of sensorial perception. In this way the circularity proper to life necessarily unfolds in the conditions of Reflexivity.

Arturo Carsetti

9. Environmental Justice Risks in the Petroleum Industry

In practically all of its various forms, petroleum is potentially hazardous to the environment. As a result, virtually every activity engaged in by the petroleum industry can have profound environmental implications. For many years, environmental considerations have played a role in decisions regarding the siting of petroleum production, refining, or storage facilities. Recent case law and regulatory developments in “environmental justice,” however, assure that environmental considerations that affect minority communities will play an increasingly critical economic role in both the permitting process and, perhaps most importantly, the permit renewal process. This article discusses the recent developments, suggests preventive management techniques to deal with the new challenges, and proposes a better process of environmental justice in order to benefit minority populations living near the sites. The article will accomplish this by addressing the legal and regulatory environmental barriers to the petroleum site permitting and renewal process, reviewing the Environmental Protection Agency’s “environmental justice” compliance guidance, and suggesting pre-permit management techniques to educate citizens of the affected community so as to minimize the hidden contingent costs of “environmental justice” complaints.

Walter E. Block, Roy Whitehead

4. Fluidized Bed Process with Silane

Silane-based fluidized-bed technology is used to produce polysilicon for solar cells by decomposing silane onto silicon particles suspended in a heated stream of silane and hydrogen. Silane-based fluidized-bed reactors potentially provide a lower cost method to produce polysilicon than the current Siemens reactors that dominate the silicon market. Production of silicon in a fluidized bed requires 80–90% less electrical energy than the currently favored Siemens process and converts a batch process into a more economical continuous process. The spherical granular silicon product from fluidized-bed reactors is preferred to the polysilicon rods produced by the Siemens process for downstream processing. Production of silicon by fluidized beds has been carried on for over 20 years, but the simpler Siemens process has dominated polysilicon production because of the high purity of its polysilicon product and the availability of low-cost electricity. The economics of the silane-based fluidized-bed technology has improved significantly due to advances in reactor design, process modeling, and operational experience. Fluidized-bed technology is the leading candidate to eventually provide less expensive polysilicon for solar cells.

Limin Jiang, Benjamin F. Fieselmann, Liguo Chen, David Mixon

3. Siemens Process

Polysilicon is the elementary raw material for integrated circuits and photovoltaic products. In recent years, the technology of polysilicon made great progress, its cost dramatically reduced, and it provided ideal conditions for photovoltaic energy power to meet the state-set price. This chapter summarizes the achievements of Siemens process, including the technology process, the technical principle, main equipment, technological operations, polysilicon quality control, energy-saving feature, and cost reduction. This could be used as a reference for the production of polysilicon.

Dazhou Yan

13. Characterization of Wafers and Supply Materials

The technological development of silicon wafer processing for solar cells by multiwire sawing is mainly driven by the need to reduce cost but under the condition to maintain or even improve the wafer quality. This additional requirement becomes even more important because wafer and wire thickness will decrease in the future and the standard loose abrasive sawing technique will be replaced by the fixed abrasive sawing technique.The essential quality parameters for wafers are total thickness variations (TTV), roughness and grooves, subsurface damage, and fracture strength stability. These factors depend on the properties of wires, consumables, and machine sawing parameters. Their investigation and determination require adequate characterization methods. The chapter describes standard and new methods, which have been developed to characterize wafers, wires, and consumables. Today’s optimization processes also require a basic understanding of the interaction processes between wires, sawing fluid, and the silicon material. Special experimental methods, which have been developed to investigate the fundamental micromechanical processes and their ramifications on the wafer quality parameters, are presented.

Hans Joachim Möller

11. Wafer Processing

The fabrication of silicon wafers for solar cells and modules is an expensive step in the processing chain. The technological development is therefore primarily driven by the need to reduce cost. The dominant wafering method is multi-wire sawing with a straight steel wire and an abrasive slurry consisting of polyethylene glycols (PEG) and SiC powders (loose abrasive sawing). Substantial cost reductions are possible with structured steel wires or wires coated with diamond particles (fixed abrasive sawing) and the replacement of PEG by water-based fluids. Apart from the cost, the wafer qualities such as thickness variations, roughness, subsurface saw damage, and fracture stability play an important role and have to be improved as well. These factors depend on many sawing parameters, which makes optimization a difficult task. The chapter describes the requirements on the sawing machines, the wires, the slurries, the wafer quality, and the experimental methods, which have been developed to characterize wafers and the consumables. The fundamental micromechanical sawing processes and models are also described. Their knowledge is helpful to improve the sawing process in a controlled way. Alternative wafering methods and their perspectives are presented briefly.

Hans Joachim Möller

3. Primary Criteria Air Pollutants: Environmental Health Effects

A polluted air is a harmful complex combination of primary and secondary pollutants in the atmosphere. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) listed the six most common air pollutants as criteria air pollutant under the Clean Air Act. The primary criteria air pollutants (CO, SO2, NO2, PM and Pb) are released into the atmosphere directly from their emission source. Due to their highly reactive nature, they get easily participated in a variety of reactions during atmospheric chemical transformation reactions. Due to the dry and wet deposition process, they may easily settle down onto ground/vegetation/ecosystems/water surfaces/building materials and show negative impact on their health/life/durability/beauty. The primary criteria air pollutants also produce adverse health effects to human being after their short-term/long-term exposure. Asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer and cardiopulmonary problems are the major noticed due to inhalation exposure of these pollutants. Mental disorder, kidney disorder and abortion are other harmful impacts. The WHO reported the level distribution and harmful effects of air pollutants several times in the past few decades. The direct and indirect effects of criteria air pollutants in changing climate are also discussed.

Pallavi Saxena, Saurabh Sonwani

2. Criteria Air Pollutants: Chemistry, Sources and Sinks

Ambient air pollution is the foremost reason for global death and disease. An estimated premature death globally is related to ambient air pollution, mainly from emphysema, obstructive bronchiolitis, lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, and severe respiratory problems in children. The criteria air pollutants include particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and lead (Pb). The present chapter provides a summary of the types of criteria air pollutants, their National Ambient Air Quality Standards and their emission sources. This chapter also explains their level distribution and chemistry, and the sink in the earth’s environment of these criteria pollutants is studied extensively. Description of global, regional emissions of criteria air pollutants, their contribution from different sectors, and efficiency of control strategies in developed and developing countries are also focused.

Pallavi Saxena, Saurabh Sonwani

4. Secondary Criteria Air Pollutants: Environmental Health Effects

Air quality has become a serious concern in mostly urban areas and covering different parts of the world. Over the last few years, there have been tremendous studies reported so far related to harmful health effects due to bad air quality in urban areas across the globe. Among all air pollutants, criteria air pollutants are specifically highlighted for critically analysing about the environmental impacts in relation to plants species, materials, health, biosphere, etc. These air pollutants are in focus due to their toxicity, reactivities and the severity of their impacts. Among them very less information has been reported on secondary criteria air pollutant. Hence, the present chapter focuses on the nature and behaviour of secondary criteria air pollutants with respect to their impacts on environment. It will also highlight the mechanisms involved in examining their impacts, toxicity and overall assimilation plus fate of their chemical reactivities.

Pallavi Saxena, Saurabh Sonwani

Use of Wastes from Metalworking Machining for Packings in Contact Heat-and-Mass Exchange Devices

The authors have studied the use of wastes from metalworking machines for packings of heat-and-mass exchange apparatuses as well as the adjustment of their basic parameters and flow modes. The articles show the photograph and schematic view of the experimental plant for studying a wide range of properties of heat-and-mass exchange packing devices and cartridges with the studied adjustable packing material that was represented by metal stainless steel shavings are given. A method is offered to process experimental data which helps to classify the packing material by mass exchange processes; the article describes the calculation algorithm for a small-sized industrial cooling tower used for cooling circulating water with a compacted package of metal shavings as a packing. Initially, reference, calculation geometric and technological parameters of the designed small-sized ventilator cooling tower with compressed metal shavings package used as packing material and schematic view of adjustable packing block were introduced.

N. A. Merentsov, A. V. Persidskiy, V. N. Lebedev

Improving Efficiency of Boiler in Case of Coal Hydrotransport

There are different schemes of utilization of heat of combustion products discharged from the boilers of CHP. The efficiency of heat recovery depends on the type of combustible organic fuel. This problem is the most relevant when using solid fuel dust and coal-water slurries. Gas recirculation boilers may be used. For the secondary use of incomplete combustion products, you can use boilers designed to burn industrial gases and coal-water fuel. A variant of an experimental system for physical modeling of coal-water fuel movement through a pipeline has been proposed. The plant improves the reliability of the existing systems of inspection and monitoring of the flame burning in the furnace of the boiler unit by simulating real processes and determining the air excess factor. The use of non-standard ways to improve the efficiency of thermal schemes of CHP and boiler rooms is possible with the use of alternative types of fuel, which include the considered coal-water slurries and coal-water fuel.

K. V. Osintsev, M. M. Dudkin, Iu. S. Prikhodko

How Different Autonomous Cutter Cooling Methods Affect Machining Performance

This paper covers the effects of various autonomous cooling methods on the cutting performance. Heat phenomena considerably affect the wear of tools induced by finishing structural materials of low thermal conductivity. Aside from being environmentally unfriendly, conventional cooling methods sometimes fail to solve the problem. This is why this paper proposes a cooling method based on first-order phase transitions, which is successfully employed in other industries. Based on the proposed thermal cooling diagram, the researchers have designed a novel indexable cutter that combines the use of heat pipes and consumable media. It has been found out that evaporative cooling requires equipping various elements of a standard indexable cutter with porous inserts as well as special adaptations in the design of the cutting inserts. Besides, the method is not autonomous as such, as the operator must periodically replenish the coolant. According to the studies presented herein, the most preferable option is an integrated cooling system based on first-order phase transitions. This method is shown to make cutters 1.8–2.6 times more durable when finishing 110G13L steel.

D. Yu. Dubrov

Kapitel 3. Erzeugung und Leitung von Elektroenergie

Als Primärenergien zur Elektrizitätserzeugung dienen fossile und native Kohlenstoffträger, die Kernspaltung, die Wasserkraft oder die Wind- bzw. die Sonnenenergie. Die Verarbeitung in den entsprechenden Kraftwerken liefert im Falle der Verbrennungskraftwerke und KKW eine grundlastfähige Versorgung. Bei Wind- und Sonnenkraftwerken kann dagegen nur temporär eine Versorgung abgesichert werden.

Bernhard Adler

Kapitel 4. Energiekonvertierungen

Die oxygene Photosynthese von Algen und grünen Landpflanzen bildet die Lebensgrundlage auf der Erde.

Bernhard Adler

Kapitel 7. Klimaschutzaktivitäten

Wenn die Klimaerwärmung gemäß Gutachten des IPCC auf einen Temperaturanstieg auf 1,5 bis 2 K beschränkt bleiben soll, muss es zu einer Halbierung der Treibhausgasemissionen, vor allem des CO2-Ausstoßes kommen. Energieeinsparungen, Technologieänderungen und eine drastische Konsumreduzierung sind deshalb die technischen und gesellschaftlichen Aufgaben, die eine moderne Recyclinggesellschaft zukünftig organisieren muss.

Bernhard Adler

Kapitel 5. Energiespeicher

Nach Abschalten der Kernkraft- und Kohlekraftwerke bleiben von der im Jahre 2018 erzeugten Elektroenergiemenge von 541 TWh noch 158 TWh an grundlastfähigem Energiepotenzial bestehen (Tab. 5.1, Zeilen 1 und 2). Die eigene Pumpspeicherkapazität im Lande ist topologiebedingt gering und kaum noch ausbaufähig (Tab. 5.1, Zeile 3). Über das Seekabel „Nordlink“ wird eine Verbindung mit den Pumpspeicherwerken in Norwegen angestrebt.

Bernhard Adler

Chapter 5. Intelligent Decoupling Control of Gas Collection and Mixing-and-Pressurization Processes

Coke is an important raw material in the metallurgy industry [1]. In the coking process, large amount of by-product gas will be generated from coke-ovens [2], and the process of recycling by-product gas is called gas collecting process. Gas collection involves using gas collectors to collect the gas produced by coke-ovens and sending it where it will be used. Generally, several coke-ovens are in operation at the same time. After the purification of the coal gas, the gas mixing-and-pressurization process of clean coal gas together with clean coal gas is a very important step in the production of steel and nonferrous metals.

Min Wu, Weihua Cao, Xin Chen, Jinhua She

Plastic: Reduce, Recycle, and Environment

Plastic is a general term utilized for a wide scope of high subatomic weight natural polymers obtained for the most part from the different hydrocarbon and oil subsidiaries. Plastic is non-biodegradable, as it does not break down to a natural, environmentally safe condition after some time by natural procedure. Global world is attempting to recycle more plastic. Plastics that are disposed off in daily routine are becoming noticeable execration for environment; more than half of the world is facing these problems. Underdeveloped countries constitute more than half of the world and have heaps or gyre of plastics and other wastes. The time rate of wastage of plastic is increasing which can be observed by seeing oceans. It is hard now to clean them up at this stage. It is a nature of a plastic that when it reveals to the heat or sunlight, it starts to discharge harmful poisonous chemicals. It takes approximately thousand years to degrade, so dumping them in ocean or in landfill does not mean they will be gone, but they will be here after centuries. This paper focuses on the effects of reduction and recycling of plastics on environment.

Nasreen Bano, Tanzila Younas, Fabiha Shoaib, Dania Rashid, Naqi Jaffri

Investigation of Fuel Preference Effects for Integrated Buildings Considering Low-Carbon Approach: A Case Study

In the building groups considered as campuses or integrated structures, the energy demand based on the heat source is observed to be mostly made with regional integrated solutions. In carbon management of such structures, control and reduction of potential, reduction of energy-related threats are considered as priority strategies. In this study, first, the energy performance of the integrated buildings in which low carbon technologies evaluated instead of a fossil-based solution was evaluated. Next, the CO2 emission potentials related to the thermal systems compared different fossil and the environmental effect was examined separately. In the process analysis, the resource preferences together with the energy preferences, the effects of different types of resources, and energy consumption performance were analyzed separately. It was observed that the technology applied was 45.38% more effective than standard natural gas systems, 71.07% fuel consumption of fuel oil 4 and 63.28% more effective use of LNG.

M. Ziya Sogut, Hamit Mutlu, T. Hikmet Karakoc

Effect of Using Photovoltaic Power Systems in Sustainable Energy Action Plan of a Big County Municipality in Turkey

Integration of solar photovoltaic energy systems to urban planning is one of the key priorities of local authorities who cares the global warming threat. “Covenant of Mayors” (CoM), which is the most extensive association of local governments in the world, has started serious works on fighting against climate change and required the local governments’ preparation of sustainable energy action plans (SEAP). Bornova Municipality has calculated its reference greenhouse gas emission inventory as 31,432 t CO2e (CO2 equivalent) in the SEAP delivered to the CoM on February 7th, 2013. In accordance with the CoM goal, it has committed to reduce its greenhouse gas emission value by 25% by 2020 and realized the installation of a 300 kWp photovoltaic power system (PVPS) in 2013 as the most important project. The main objective of this study is to use the real-time data of 300 kWp plant and evaluate its contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. Moreover, usable potential roof surface areas of the service buildings of Bornova Municipality have been calculated and the contribution of the increase of the PVPS capacity to the goal of greenhouse gas emission reduction by 2020 has been studied.

Mert Biter, Mete Cubukcu

Experimental Investigation on Heat Transfer Coefficient and Thermal Efficiency of Solar Air Heaters Having Different Baffles

The courant research presents the heat transfer and thermal efficiency in an experimental investigation of solar air collector system for several configurations in Biskra Region (Algeria). Experiments were performed for forced convection airflow in the air duct of SAH to define the performance. A conventional solar air heater considered for the comparison purpose was working under similar conditions for all the configurations. The effect of baffles configurations and arrangement on the convective heat transfer coefficient and thermal efficiency were compared. The results showed that the thermal performance is proportional to the solar intensity at the Type I and a specific mass flow rate.

Charaf-Eddine Bensaci, Abdelhafid Moummi, Adnane Labed

Environmental Problems and Solution Proposals from the Perspective of Secondary School Students

The problems we face today such as climate change are a product of the society’s current outlook on the environment. Therefore, finding and implementing a solution requires a different outlook. One approach can be a systematic change in schooling children on these concepts. This paper presents the preliminary results of a project that focuses on creating awareness on the concepts of natural and built environment and their interaction with each other. The project involved 130 students, who have different socio-economic backgrounds, academic and art achievements, from six secondary schools. One part of the project involved the determination of the most important natural and built environmental problems and solution proposals according to participants in groups consisting of four–five participants in a group setting. During this study, they discussed their problems and proposals within a wider setting including other participants and supervising academicians. This chapter groups and discusses these problems and solution proposals. The results indicate that most of the children are aware of many problems such as environmental pollution, which was the most discussed topic. Yet, some important problems were not mentioned, and energy management was the least detailed and understood issue in the discussions.

Ebru Güller, Ayça Tokuç, Gülden Köktürk, Kutluğ Savaşır

Biochar Application for Greenhouse Gases Mitigation

Agricultural applications significantly increase the atmospheric emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides and methane. Therefore, studies on new strategies to reduce greenhouse gases are become more important. Biochar produced from different organic materials as a by-product of slow pyrolysis and/or rapid pyrolysis, gasification or combustion processes can be used for carbon sequestration, greenhouse gases mitigation, soil improvement, waste management and wastewater treatment. Biochar application is promising technology as a climate change mitigation tool to reduce carbon emissions from soils. The agricultural implementation of biochar may have an important effect on global warming reduction by greenhouse gas emission mitigation and carbon sequestration. Besides, biochar can support the improvement of soil structure and productivity and increase the yields in agriculture. In this study, biochar application and especially the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are reviewed. Further research is necessary to realize the effective mechanisms in biochar application to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Özlem Demir

Utilization of Alternative Building Materials for Sustainable Construction

The world population is growing at unprecedented rates and it is expected to reach 9.8 billion in 2050. Today, non-sustainable exploitation of non-renewable resources of the Earth due to the high demand of conventional building materials is already an important environmental issue, and for sure, this concern will become of vital importance in the future with rapidly growing world population. Utilization of alternative building materials in construction is a good way to effectively address this concern. Alternative building materials (ABMs) are low-cost building materials that aim to reduce or eliminate the environmental impact of the construction, simply by saving energy and resources, minimizing the emissions through the use of rapidly renewable materials, local resources, recycled content, industrial/agricultural byproducts/wastes, etc. This chapter aims to present prevailing ABMs for sustainable construction, such as bamboo, rammed earth, strawbale, supplementary cementitious materials, cork, mycelium, HempCrete, Ferrock, Papercrete, etc. Current strategies for ABMs are discussed with emphasis on sustainability concerns. Benefits of these materials and ten remarkable case studies benefiting from the use of ABMs such as 3D Printed Gaia House, Jill Strawbale House, The Higo, Hy-Fi Tower, The Acre, The EcoARK, etc. are also discussed.

Ahmet Vefa Orhon, Müjde Altin

Modeling of TiB2–BN Composites as Cathode Materials for Aluminum Electrolysis Cell

Aluminum is the third most common element and the crust’s most abundant metal. Nowadays, aluminum is an important metal in industrial production. Due to the lightweight, corrosion resistance, low density, and easy working probability, combine with its compatibility for recycling, support its position as the material of option for many utilization and it begins more favored in automotive, spacecraft components, and architectural construction with its extensive utilization area. In this work, the aim was targeted to evaluate the energy consumption in manufacture of the primary aluminum. The life of aluminum electrolysis cell, carbon cathode wear against arc blow, cryolite and abrasion of aluminum film was studied. It was found that TiB2–BN composite was a better option as cathode due to wear resistance, high electrical conductivity and machinability.

Eda Ergün Songül, İsmail Duman

Energy, Environment and Education

Renewable energy sources have more advantages than fossil fuels to generate power, especially to save environment. However, like every new emerging technology, they need to be publicized in a suitable way. Education plays a crucial role to increase awareness on energy and environment and develop positive attitudes toward renewable energy sources and environment. In this study, elementary science course books from fifth to eighth grade have been analyzed in terms of sufficiency for energy and environment education. Also, a survey has been conducted to a total of 191 pre-service teachers of which 62.3% was from elementary science department and 37.7% from primary education department. Analysis results show that mean values obtained from renewable energy sources attitude scale of pre-service teachers from both departments are above average. There is a statistically significant difference in favor of elementary science education pre-service teachers in the results of independent t test.

Yunus Emre Yuksel

Chapter 5. Selective Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide into Methanol

This chapter is dedicated to methanol synthesis from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Methanol, chemical formula CH3OH, is an important platform molecule which can be transformed into a large number of other chemicals, i.e., formaldehyde, acetic acid, dimethyl ether, methyl tert-butyl ether, and methyl methacrylate, as well as complex hydrocarbon mixtures, e.g., gasoline and diesel. Up to date, methanol is produced at industrial scale by steam reforming of natural gas, leading to high environmental impacts. The selective hydrogenation of carbon dioxide into methanol can be a good alternative since it is possible to capture carbon dioxide from industrial processes and to produce hydrogen from renewable energies, e.g., solar energy and wind energy.From a thermodynamic point of view, carbon dioxide hydrogenation is strongly influenced by the total pressure, temperature, and feeding composition. The use of a catalyst is also mandatory to control the kinetic and the selectivity into methanol. Among solid catalysts studied, copper-based catalysts have been found to be the best catalytic systems. Promoters like zinc oxide were usually used. Nickel-, palladium-, and silver-based catalysts also showed good catalytic performance compared to copper-based catalysts. Soluble catalysts have been intensively studied for this hydrogenation. Ru complexes appeared as the best homogeneous catalyst. Other metal-free homogeneous catalysts, e.g., N-heterocyclic carbenes, have been found to be active and selective in this reaction. Efforts have been made on the mechanistic study of the reaction in both the gas and liquid phases. Large industrial production has started in several countries showing the interest and the feasibility of the process.

Doan Pham Minh, Anne-Cécile Roger, Ksenia Parkhomenko, Valentin L’Hospital, Bruna Rego de Vasconcelos, Kyoung Ro, Devinder Mahajan, Lyufei Chen, Sharanjit Singh, Dai-Viet N. Vo

Chapter 3. Sustainability in Heating and Cooling

Heat pump systems become preferable for heating and cooling in buildings due to economic benefits resulting from high COP. The COP and energy efficiency are closely associated. This chapter begins with a discussion of sustainable energy development. In addition to energy efficiency, other key dimensions of building performance are also examined. Next, the four subsystems of HVAC, namely cool generation, heat generation, water transport, and air transport, are investigated. After examining options for cool generation and heat generation, heat pump systems to provide sustainable heating and cooling are discussed. The comparison between air source heat pump and water source heat pump is presented. Strategies to enhance energy efficiency of heat pump system are also discussed. To adopt the principle of 3R (i.e., reduce, reuse, and recycle), the use of recover heat in heat pump system for space heating and water heating is also examined.

Y. H. Venus Lun, S. L. Dennis Tung

Chapter 12. Environment

How America Compares offers data and analysis on an encyclopedic range of social indicators, comparing the United States with 17 other politically stable, economically affluent democracies. Occasionally, there are more global perspectives, but most of the book examines commonalities and contrasts among these advanced democracies. Environmental issues have acquired urgency throughout the world, and this chapter looks at trends in greenhouse emissions, energy use and environmental policies, as well as patterns in bio-diversity and waste management.

Rodney Tiffen, Anika Gauja, Brendon O’Connor, Ross Gittins, David Smith

Kapitel 4. Nachhaltigkeit und Zukunft der Bionik

Die Bionik kann speziell für das Erreichen von Nachhaltigkeitszielen genutzt werden und nicht nur technische Innovation, sondern auch gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen adressieren.

Kristina Wanieck

Chapter 3. SDG 2 Zero Hunger

Organic Waste-to-Resource Compost Program Development: Cultivating Circular Sustainable Systems

The backbone of society and the basis of self-sufficiency is the agricultural advancement of food, fiber, fuel, and industry. However, in many non-industrialized countries, self-sufficiency has been eroded by several factors, including environmental impacts, lack of educational infrastructure, and inequities in resource management and distribution. Additionally, with the rise in human populations and climate pressures, the need to increase food production security and water conservation measures is imminent. By emulating the productivity of natural ecosystems and returning carbon-based materials to the soil, agricultural production may be enhanced with a reduced reliance on potentially water-polluting and often prohibitively expensive synthetic fertilizers. Through various case studies showcasing the effectiveness of educational tools, we work to demonstrate the need for more financial investment in biomass utilization program development in order to cultivate emerging circular economies. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of carbon and ecosystem cycling curriculum in school settings. In situ soil application of organic materials engenders soil carbon sequestration – a climate change mitigation mechanism – and overall soil health and soil water conservation. Compost processing and program development ameliorates potential organic materials pathogen transference while mineralizing nutrients for plant uptake.

Emily F. Creegan, Robert Flynn

Chapter 7. SDG 6 Clean Water and Sanitation

Sustainable Use of Energy and Water Resources in the Mining Sector: A Comparative Case Study of Open-Pit and Alluvial Mining Technology

Environmental impacts associated with the use of water and energy resources are among the most significant problems for the mining industry, requiring the implementation of new solutions in line with Sustainable Development Goal 6 – Clean Water and Sanitation. Currently, the challenge is converting mineral wealth into development opportunities while responding to the needs of future generations. This is specifically regarding the investment of nonrenewable resources in the implementation of strategies to promote the efficient use of both renewable and nonrenewable energy sources. This chapter aims to evaluate the cradle-to-gate consumption of renewable (water) and nonrenewable energy sources in both open-pit and alluvial mining systems. Additionally, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been performed to both estimate and analyze their impact on water resources. This is extended by the presentation of opposing reductive strategies including the optimization of process efficiency and use of circular economies. This research is significant within the Colombian context as water usage is often a determining factor in the attainment of key environmental and social licenses. Furthermore, the results of this investigation clearly show how water usage and the magnitude of its related impacts differ between opposing forms of extraction.

Natalia A. Cano Londoño, Jessi Osorio Velasco, Felipe Castañeda García, Isabel B. Franco

Chapter 15. SDG 14 Life Below Water

Introducing Fish Skin as a Sustainable Raw Material for Fashion

In recent years there has been a growing interest in fish skin – a by-product of the food industry – as an alternative sustainable raw material for fashion. Global production of fish has steadily increased over the last decade, and more than 50% of the total remaining material from fish capture results in 32 million tonnes of waste. A substantial amount of this waste is the skin of the fish; only a small percentage of this skin is processed into leather. While, to date, the European Environment Agency allows seafood processors to dispose of fish skins in marine waters, this is expected to change as the decomposing organic waste can suck up available oxygen from marine species and introduce disease into the local ecosystem. Fish skin leather processing could prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution and sustainably protect marine ecosystems in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans. This paper describes the conditions necessary for the development of fish skin craftsmanship within a Fashion Higher Education sustainable curriculum. In order to enhance the innovation and sustainable design of fish leather products, the author has developed an impactful capacity-building approach connecting fashion students with the Icelandic fish leather industry, which is renowned for sustainable sourcing from Nordic fish farms, promoting the sustainable use of ocean-based resources.

Elisa Palomino

Chapter 16. SDG 15 Life on Land

A Review of Sustainable Fashion Design Processes: Upcycling Waste Organic Yarns

The fashion industry has had a significant impact on the environment and overall global sustainability. Evidence shows it is the most polluting industry and the largest consumer of water, accounting for 20% of global water wastage detrimentally affecting both life on land and underwater. As such a few key stakeholders in the fashion industry have begun undertaking key preventative measures. These include but are not limited to the use of organic cotton crops, reduction of water use throughout the production chain, the implementation of a zero-waste patternmaking technique, second-hand shops, recycling of production materials, recycling discarded fishing nets into nylon fibre and increasing the use of biodegradable fibres, crop’s waste fibres, bio-based fibres and bio-textile processes and renewable sources like bamboo and hemp. The review presented in this chapter examines the fashion production cycle, the use of alternative organic materials and recycling processes for the sustainable production of yarns whilst exploring the connections between the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 15 Life on Land and 14 Life below Water.

Claudia Arana, Isabel B. Franco, Anuska Joshi, Jyoti Sedhai

Chapter 1. Towards Impact Sustainability

Introduction

This book contributes to sustainability studies, as it focuses on local operationalization of all 17 Global Goals in an impactful manner. This book is the result of collaborative and interdisciplinary research work by sustainability leaders from all over the world, namely, scientists, researchers, educators and practitioners. Disconnected educational systems and policy practices from global and local sustainability trends create scepticism about the potential of the research institutions in contributing towards policy debates and issues centring on the question of sustainability, which compromise the wellbeing of all. Preliminary investigations identified that a few reasons for this were limited understanding of the context; lack of an overall approach to sustainability, such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); and inadequacies in the education sector and collaboration processes amongst academics, educators and practitioners to achieve global sustainability targets (Franco et al. 2018; Franco and Tracey 2019).

Isabel B. Franco, Tathagata Chatterji, Ellen Derbyshire, James Tracey

3. Methoden und Hilfsmittel im Leichtbau

In vielen Entwicklungsprojekten bestätigte sich immer wieder, dass Leichtbau zu den theoretischsten Disziplinen der Ingenieurwissenschaft zu zählen ist. Gewöhnlich verteilen sich die Zeitanteile bei typischen Projekten etwa wie folgt:

Bernd Klein, Thomas Gänsicke

4. Leichtbau-Methoden und -Strategien

Der Entwicklungsprozess von Produkten muss alle neuen Anforderungen infolge bestehender und neuer Gesetze, Sicherheitsanforderungen und Kundenwünsche wie Komfortverbesserungen im Lastenheft berücksichtigen. Bei Produktaufwertungen und Nachfolgeprodukten sind häufig gestiegene Anforderungen aus diesen Bereichen einzubeziehen. Als Beispiel sei hier die Entwicklung von Fahrzeugkarosserien genannt. Zum Vorgängermodell steigt zunächst das Gewicht infolge höherer Crashsicherheit, Fußgängerschutzanforderungen, steifere Schweller und Akustikmaßnahmen für mehr Komfort an. Die dann angewendeten bekannten und bereits erfolgreich eingesetzten Gewichtsminimierungslösungen reichen oft nicht aus, um das im Lastenheft formulierte Gewichtsziel zu erreichen.

Bernd Klein, Thomas Gänsicke

22. Fügetechniken

Einige Fügetechniken haben im Leichtbau große Bedeutung erlangt, weil zur Herstellung leichter Konstruktionen oftmals aufgelöste Bauweisen aus teils unterschiedlichen Bauelementen und Werkstoffen erforderlich sind. In diesem Sinne interessieren bei Fügungen die mechanischen Festigkeiten, die Parametergrenzwerte und das Langzeitverhalten. Meist sind jedoch die möglichen Fügetechniken (s. DIN 8593-1/8) durch die gewählte Leichtbauweise vorbestimmt.

Bernd Klein, Thomas Gänsicke

11. On the New Paradigm of International Energy Development: Risks and Challenges for RussiaRussia and the World on the Way to the Low-Carbon Future

This chapter analyses an objective character of the shift in the key paradigm of international energy development from the perception of ‘peak supply’ to ‘peak demand’. Though most researchers couple this mental shift with the climate agenda, namely with 2015 Paris Agreement (COP-21), Professor Andrey Konoplyanik argues that the preconditions of this shift refer to previous international developments, of almost half a century ago. The key reason for pushing the international energy economy towards this shift appears in the early 1970s with the radical increase in international oil prices. The following ‘domino effects’ of world economy adaptation to the new oil price levels and pricing mechanisms created, in a few decades, accumulated structural effects on world economy in its shift from being ‘energy-wasteful’ before the 1970s to increasing focus on ‘energy-efficiency’ today. And it is only based on this development with diminishment of the GDP energy intensity worldwide that the climate agenda has added another dimension to the trend, by increasing in significance such factor as ‘carbon intensity’, like it has been ‘energy intensity’ as a dominant issue since early 1970s. As the shift from an energy-wasteful to energy-efficient economy creates risks and challenges for different states due to their competitive advantages and disadvantages under ‘old’ and ‘new’ economic structures globally and nationally, the same will be the story with low-carbon development. This set of issues will be analysed in this chapter with particular attention to Russia.

Andrey Konoplyanik

Chapter 1. Introduction: Market System and the Role of Government

The level of budgetary activities in a government is directly related to the economic system of which it is a part. In a command economy, where there is no private sector, budgeting is central to all economic and noneconomic decisions of the government. In a free market economy, such as the United States, while the presence of a strong private sector limits the role of government, it is still substantial considering the size of the federal budget that runs into several trillion dollars each year. Although not as high as the federal budget in percentage terms, state and local budgets also constitute a significant percentage of their respective gross products. Therefore, to understand the nature of budgetary activities in a government it is important to understand how the market system operates—its strengths and limitations and, more importantly, the role government plays in a market system. As the conventional wisdom goes, the more efficient the market system, the less the role of government (The idea of an efficient free market, also known as “the efficient market hypothesis,” has its roots in the works of Milton FriedmanFriedman, M. , an ardent advocate of free market system. The hypothesis, which has been refuted by most economists, simply says that market works better than individuals who intervene in a discretionary manner. Nevertheless, it does provide the basis for a system that, according to Friedman, if left alone, could address many of the economic problems, at least, in principle.). In budgetary parlance, it means less government expenditures, less taxes, and less regulations. Ideally, if the market system could address all our needs and fully regulate its own behavior, there will not be any need for government intervention, but, in reality, that is seldom the case. A market system, by itself, cannot perform all the functions necessary to meet the needs of society nor can it fully regulate itself, hence the need for government intervention. This chapter briefly discusses how the market system operates, the problems an unchecked market system creates for society, and why government intervention is necessary, including an overview of some of the measures commonly used to address the problems.

Aman Khan

Design and Implementation of Low Noise Amplifier in Neural Signal Analysis

LNA is an important component of transceivers and is widely used in neural signal analysis. In this paper, we review the different topologies and configurations used for LNA in neural applications. We compare the different topologies and conclude which one is the best topology among the ones studied on basis of certain parameters that govern the performance of a LNA for neural applications. According to our analysis, CMOS bipotential amplifier is the most appropriate neural amplifier in terms of all design parameters taken into consideration for use of LNA in neural applications.

Malti Bansal, Diksha Singh

Open Access

Chapter 3. Global Sustainability: How to Rethink Urban Planning

In this chapter, we will dissect the salient elements of urban planning in terms of theoretical foundations and methodology, in order to demonstrate that in addition to criticism expressed by a certain number of authors regarding its transfer to cities of the South, urban planning does not focus on the key issues faced by local authorities and inhabitants, both in terms of target population groups and the infrastructures and services that should be given priority.We will highlight the translation of these theories, essentially of western origin, and their application to “other societies”, trying to understand how throughout the course of history, this intellectual configuration of the city has been replicated in contexts subject to other injunctions and constraints. We will then deconstruct urban planning, viewing it not as a science but rather as a method that is applied with field-adapted techniques, based on precepts that often lack clear definition, yet that is guided by instruments that can spatially and materially organize the distribution of individuals, their activities, goods, services, facilities and equipment, within a territory that is identified for geographical and administrative reasons. Urban planning takes into account the potential and the limitations of the natural (spatial and environmental) and human entities in question, including in its analysis the causes and impacts of the dynamics that affect the transformation of the city and its dwellers. The difficulty with urban planning is that it is based more or less explicitly on different disciplines (urbanism, architecture, engineering, economics, sociology, geography, etc.), that function independently with no formal obligation to work together/cross reference, which means that many professional practices are used periodically and repeatedly.Sustainable development and urban sustainable development represent a conceptual framework allowing us to rethink urban planning. More than a technical tool giving voice to all stakeholders, a participatory approach is the most advanced methodological manner of anchoring planning in a local and regional democratic policy.As broadcast by the United Nations in 1987, “sustainable development” is defined above all by two essential components. First, the time factor, by emphasizing that development can only be sustainable if it “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Second, the focus on “an equal balance between the necessary ecological, social and economic dimensions of development”.In addition to these aspects of sustainable development, two complementary dimensions will directly involve urban stakeholders. On the one hand, spatial organization would better regulate the distribution of human settlements and economic activities in the territory. It would also mitigate the excessive concentration of people and activities in saturated and weakened areas in favor of a decentralization that maximizes spatial planning with a lower ecological imprint on available resources. On the other hand, there is a cultural dimension, in that the proposed changes would take into consideration the value systems, the historical development of the human communities involved, the socio-political context as well as the social and cultural organizational structures prevailing in the regions concerned.These conceptual precepts have to be linked to technological innovations capable of facilitating the creation and processing of urban and regional data, such as geospatial software (free and open source) and crowdsourcing.

Jean-Claude Bolay

Open Access

Chapter 2. Urban Facts

Today, the majority of the world’s population – roughly 54% – lives in urban areas. Though global, this trend nonetheless varies greatly depending on the country and continent. It appears that in Europe and the Americas (both North America and Latin America) the urban population has reached roughly 80%, versus less than 50% in Asia and Africa. Yet, it is in the two latter regions that 90% of the world’s urban transformation process will take place and have the greatest impact in terms of living spaces, economic activities, culture, lifestyles and mobility.While considerable differences exist between countries, the same can be said of cities. Though most research focuses on major urban agglomerations (cities of over a million and megacities of over ten million), the fact that nearly 50% of the world’s urban population lives in cities of less than 500,000 inhabitants has been somewhat overlooked. Infinite in number, these small and medium-sized cities are extremely interesting in terms of the role they play as intermediate cities that serve their surrounding regions, providing public and private services and facilities that benefit both rural and urban populations. Yet, research on these cities shows that they are at a disadvantage compared to larger cities in terms of poverty, insufficient financial resources and skilled workers.By considering the environmental, economic and social dimensions of sustainable development independently, we are able to differentiate South cities and integrate our 30 years of research within the framework of this multi-faceted problem. We argue the fight against poverty and instability are both a common thread and the greatest challenge to creating sustainable, inclusive cities.To begin, environmental issues must be analyzed bearing in mind that urban life generates waste and pollution of natural resources (water, air and ground). The latter negatively impact individuals’ health when the sources of contamination and their effects are not monitored. In many South cities, where makeshift housing with sub-standard hygiene and sanitation conditions prevail, such monitoring is still in its nascent stage. Thus, many poor are exposed to environmental risks that far surpass those in other neighborhoods.In South and North countries, cities are drivers of the economy. As home to half of the world’s population, they contribute 80% of the global GDP. In emerging and developing countries this economic dynamic couples with a high proportion of informal employment, a key source of urban insecurity. Far from being a space of transition between the rural and urban economy, the informal economy is an integral part of the globalization of modes of production and marketing that goes together with the modern industry sector.The picture of the South city would not be complete without an analysis of its social dimensions. Cities continue to grow with waves of rural migrant populations. These new inhabitants account for about 40% of urban growth in developing countries. For these individuals and families, urban integration means development potential not only economically and monetarily but also socially, culturally and healthwise, especially for new generations who were raised and educated in the city.This positive urban vision should not overshadow the fact that the city is a machine designed to produce poverty and social inequalities. Nearly a billion people are living in slums, more than 90% of which are in poor countries. Economic growth is only partially reflected in the improved living conditions of the most destitute. The number of urban poor is expected to double in the next 30 years, a glaring indication of the need to rethink urban planning based on this mixed reality of wealth creation and growing disparity between social groups.

Jean-Claude Bolay

Open Access

Chapter 5. An Intermediate City in Brazil: Between Inequalities and Growth

The Case of Montes Claros

According to international statistics, nearly 50% of the world’s urban population now lives in cities of less than 500,000 inhabitants. These small and medium-sized cities act as intermediaries between rural regions, the local economy and more extensive urban networks and have three spheres of influence: regional, national and international. In many of these “intermediate cities”, the main problem is a lack of financial and human resources for them in a comprehensive way in order to tackle the demographic and spatial sprawl of these urban settlements and avoid an increase in social segregation and territorial fragmentation.The example of Montes Claros in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, illustrates how a city of nearly 400,000 inhabitants at the centre of an economically prosperous region is tackling these issues through its current process of urban planning by striving to take into account its historical, social and spatial context.Like most Brazilian and Latin American cities, Montes Claros – which serves as a transit hub at the State and national levels – is a rapidly growing intermediary city whose economic growth over the past two decades has been exponential. However, this growth, which is mainly commercial and industrial, has not resulted in a more inclusive distribution of the urban population. When one considers the growth that has resulted from rural migration and new urban residents, the urban area of Montes Claros remains territorially fragmented, with neighbourhoods that are more or less equipped with various public facilities (hospitals, schools, etc.) and served by public transport depending on the socio-economic status of their inhabitants.The current planning process is raising many issues. Among them, three crucial elements which must be rethought in order to develop an adapted planning approach and appropriate planning tools that can guide decision makers in shaping the city and region’s future. The first is a medium and long-term vision for Montes Claros, its hinterland and northern Minas Gerais; the second is the current (biased) perception of Montes Claros wherein only the dense downtown areas are considered and suburban areas remain disconnected from the rest of the city (and hence poorly integrated); the last is a participatory urban planning process that involves all stakeholders and the entire population, from the diagnostic phase up through the definition of priorities in terms of urban policies, strategies and investments.

Jean-Claude Bolay

Chapter 7. Build a Desktop RetroPie Arcade

In previous chapters, we covered some significant milestones when building an arcade. On any arcade scale, we've talked about specific arcade hardware, methods of fixturing, and electronic component selection. Those methods will carry over to a larger scale. The larger scale also inherits some bonuses: as the cabinet expands in size, we gain some flexibility. A carger cabinet provides some much needed interior space. This build will have a bit more room regarding how to mount components and integrate electronics. If anything, this build doesn't involve working in cramped spaces. I will be covering build topics a bit more broadly if they've already been discussed in the previous chapter. Previously, we built a 1:8 scale arcade.

Mark Frauenfelder, Ryan Bates

5. The Value Economy and Its Influence on Shaping Social Business Modelssocial business models

Looking broadly at the issues of building social business models, the concept of the value economy should be referred to. This approach determines new cognitive perspectives for the exploration and exploitation of social business models. Moreover, this triggers strategic behavior based on social entrepreneurship. This chapter describes the concept of the value economy as a factor which determines the shaping of social business models.The concept of social entrepreneurship as a platform for building effective social business models has been described. Attention was paid to the emergence of a strong social effect as a result of the operationalization of social business models.

Adam Jabłoński, Marek Jabłoński

3. New Economy Business Models in the Concepts of Big DataBIG DATA, the Sharing Economysharing economy and the Circular Economy

In the current economy, the ontological entity necessary for a market victory is the effective and efficient company business model. This model should be particularly capable of dynamic monetization. The logic of generating income from the business model must be preceded by embedding it in a given economic perspective. This determines the appropriate monetization mechanism resulting from this perspective. This chapter describes, among other things, the perspective of using the Big Data concept in the conceptualization and operationalization of business models. The assumptions for the use of the sharing economy in business models have been defined together with the reference, in the scientific discussion, to social factors that materialize them. Attention has been paid to the aspects of learning in building community networks which create digital business models. The mechanisms of using circular business models have been described and assumptions for the construction of robust business models in the circular economy have been determined.

Adam Jabłoński, Marek Jabłoński

6. Creating Sustainability Business Models in the Digital and Network Economy

One of the overriding strategic goals for companies in the current difficult market is their ability to survive in the long term. Unfortunately, this is not easy. Companies, however, search for such a business model that could ensure survival. Undoubtedly, a sustainable business model can be such a model. This chapter presents the mechanisms for creating sustainable business models. Attention was also paid to its archetypes. The principles of understanding such business models were also described and an attempt at their operationalization was made.

Adam Jabłoński, Marek Jabłoński

Chapter 12. HIV/AIDS Vulnerability Among Street Children in Urban Bangladesh: A Reality of Old Dhaka

A growing pace of urbanisation has created a number of crises in BangladeshBangladesh, especially as regards good governance and sustainable development. The governmental structure is highly centralised, limiting local officials’ authority and flexibility to adapt to local circumstances and demand. Moreover, the persistence of traditional customs, perceptions, attitudes and practices towards children within society often hamper collective development. Unbalanced urbanisation, the absence of urban good governance, unjustified political culture, the huge pressure of rural–urban migration in recent times and the related unplanned character of the urban dwelling system all lead to the presence of a growing number of homeless or ‘street’ people within the city. In this context, the present study aims to address the phenomenon of homeless children and their susceptibility to the threats and harms of sexual abuseSexual abuse, substance abuse as well as the related risk of contracting HIV/AIDSHIV/AIDS. The study also aims to explore specific factors that render children vulnerable and affected by these behaviours. The authors attempt to examine HIV/AIDSHIV/AIDS vulnerability among street childrenChildren street children in Old DhakaDhaka; this is done through a field-level investigation combined with a critical review of theoretical frameworks. Thus, the paper is based on a qualitative approach which includes analysis of secondary sources of data, yet it also deals with primary data through case studies, Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Network or snowball sampling techniques were adopted to pursue this study. The overall outcomes of this paper reveal that street childrenChildren street children have a moderate knowledge on HIV/AIDSHIV/AIDS; they have become aware of its dangers due to interventions by many government organisations and NGOsNon Government Organizations (NGOs). However, due to cultural barriersCulture cultural barriers, they often fail to apply this knowledge and awareness. Consequently, they do engage in high-risk behaviours such as drugDrugs abuse, and their sexual safety measures are inconsistent, meaning that vulnerability to HIV/AIDSHIV/AIDS persists. Integrated and comprehensive intervention programmes coupled with continuous monitoring and sustainable supervision are needed; through this process, both factual knowledge and cultural constructions among the population must be addressed.

Md. Saidur Rashid Sumon, Abdullah Abusayed Khan

Chapter 16. Challenges of Smart Cities in India

In 2015, the central government of India added a new dimension to urbanisation and urban development policy and introduced the concept of smart cities. In the beginning, the concept was not elaborated, and questions arose such as: What does inclusive development of the selected cities mean? Could they correct the spatial and structural imbalance of urban development in India? The government took almost a year to define smart cities and identify about 100 such smart cities for integrated urban development. To start with, only 20 such cities were taken up for planning and development in 2016. Independent India inherited a spatially and structurally imbalanced urban development dominated by large cities (metropolises, megacities, etc.); there was a lack of small and medium-sized towns. To achieve a balanced urban development, in 1974, the government introduced the concept of integrated development of small and medium-sized towns so as to reorient the rural–urban migration away from large-size cities. The policy continues even now but has had limited success in urban development. In the 1980s, the Urbanisation Commission suggested the development of selected urban areas that had potential for development. However, large-sized cities grew unabatingly and migration towards the metropolitan cities continued. Because of the weak economic base, small and medium-sized towns could not keep pace with the urbanisation process. The latest population Census of India (Provisional population totals, Paper-2, Vol 1 Rural-urban distribution, India, 2011) analysed the urbanisation pattern in the country. It shows that India has achieved a 31.16% level of urbanisation with an annual growth rate of 2.76%. There are 7,935 urban areas with an urban population of 377.1 million and 466 cities having a population of more than a hundred thousand (100,000). The urbanisation pattern in India has been supported by the development of the tertiary sector of the economy rather than backed by commensurate economic growth. In 2011, about ten megacities dominated the urban structure, accounting for more than 20% of urban population while the share of the small and medium-sized towns remained low. Urban growth has shifted spatially from metropolitan cities (megacities) to peripheral urban areas with rapid horizontal expansion of the metropolitan areas (urban fringes). Whether this urbanisation trend could be regulated is an open question. The role of smart cities in urban development has been examined in the context of their sustainability, inclusive growth and aspiration of the citizen.

Chitta Ranjan Pathak

2. Structure and Operation of Systems, Models of the Global Earth System

This chapter gives the basis for systems thinking which approach is applied throughout the book. The term system, its general characteristics, structure and specifics together with the hierarchy of systems, the similarities and differences of mental and material systems are discussed plainly. The operation of systems is analysed in more detail: negative (stabilising) and positive (destabilising) feedbacks, behaviour of chaotic and adaptive systems on internal or external effects. The classification of environmental systems is also reviewed discussing abiotic, biotic (ecological) and human-made (artificial) systems. Topology of systems and the essence of network theory are presented. The types of system models and the most important general steps of model forming are given. Models simulating the operation of Earth as a planet are analysed in more detail: PREM model, new global geodynamic model, global climate simulation models, GAIA biosphere model, world models of Meadows, Mesarovic–Pestel world model, the social model of László. A simple (homomorphic) complex Earth model is presented and the issue of global threshold and planetary boundaries is discussed. Finally, it is proved that the basic working mechanisms of the global society (production, consumption, transport) inevitably result in environmental damage and risk for human health (basic problem of environmental protection), however, reducing these effects can be solved. Sustainable development means more: the operation of the global society has to be changed.

Attila Kerényi, Richard William McIntosh

1. Introduction

Three main phases of the development of the Earth are presented briefly: (1) development of the physical environment (chemical evolution), (2) development of life and its effects on the composition of the atmosphere and on the terrestrial environment (soil formation) and as a result, the formation of the biosphere, (3) advancing deliberate activities of the human society discussing the process via which humanity harms the natural environment in an increasing degree and even threatens his/her own health arriving to the idea of sustainable development. A brief outline is given on the interpretation of sustainable development from the Brundtland Committee report in 1987 to nowadays. The different interpretations of development and growth are analysed, the qualitative and quantitative description of weak sustainability and the essence of strong sustainability are discussed. Ecological, social and economic sustainability relations of sustainable development are presented. Finally, sustainable development elements most important regarding the future of the society and making the theoretical basis of the present book are emphasised.

Attila Kerényi, Richard William McIntosh

4. Changes on Earth as a Result of Interaction Between the Society and Nature

Major changes caused by humans in the upper layers of the Earth’s crust, pedosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere are discussed. The environmental effects of mining, energy production and metal processing are analysed. Constructions by the society and their environmental consequences, the transformation of the Earth’s surface are presented. The role of settlements, especially cities in the environmental change and their social and economic significance regarding environmental development is discussed in a subchapter. Interaction of settlements and ecological networks is analysed. Human activities causing soil degradation, the effects of agricultural systems on soils and crop yields are given. Regarding changes in the hydrosphere, the plastic pollution of the world ocean, oil pollution from tankers and derricks are highlighted. Fresh water resources and the degree of water usage together with the reasons of regional water scarcity are analysed. Biosphere modified by humanity and the artificially controlled ecological systems are presented while the reasons for the accelerated destruction of natural wildlife (sixth major extinction period) are analysed. Finally, anthropogenic changes in the gas composition of the atmosphere and climate change, acid deposition, the present and the future of the ozone shield are also discussed.

Attila Kerényi, Richard William McIntosh

6. Steps Towards Realising Global Sustainable Development

In the first part of the chapter, the global measures made so far in the interest of sustainable development are described. The scientific antecedents of the document entitled “Transforming Our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable development” are presented including Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDGs are analysed in detail regarding feasibility. According to the authors of the present book, the most important step to be taken towards sustainable development is the global reform of education, therefore the recommended changes in the content and structure of education are presented in detail together with measures already executed in the right direction. The currently ongoing technological revolution is analysed one of the main characteristics of which is the rapid development of autocatalytic technologies (information technology, biotechnology and nanotechnology). As a result of this revolution, beneficial quality changes could be expected regarding the relationship of production and the environment. The possibilities of reducing life standard differences among countries and people, the most important tasks for stabilising the population of Earth and the relationship between education and population growth are also discussed. The possibilities of making peace among different religious-cultural civilisations are considered. The last subchapter outlines views that could strengthen processes towards sustainable development, like degrowth, circular economy, theory of the second curve, massive open online courses, “revolution of sustainability” and new humanism.

Attila Kerényi, Richard William McIntosh

Chapter 1. Modern IoT Architecture Patterns

Today, Microsoft Azure footprints are often designed to be part of a broader architecture that includes Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Though you might be new to this type of solution, the need for such an architecture did not suddenly appear overnight. IoT itself has a long history that predates the cloud and Big Data.

Robert Stackowiak

4. Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) im Kontext von Industrie 4.0

PLM ist ein ganzheitlicher, integrierender Management- und Organisationsansatz, welcher sämtliche Informationen im Produktlebenszyklus mit geeigneter IT-Unterstützung zusammenbringt, mit dem Ziel, sie zur richtigen Zeit, am richtigen Ort, in der richtigen Quantität und Qualität bereitzustellen. Es schließt die Planung, Steuerung und Kontrolle der damit verbundenen Prozesse im gesamten Produktlebenszyklus ein. Die im Kontext von Industrie 4.0 postulierte horizontale und vertikale Integration sowie die Durchgängigkeit des Engineerings über den gesamten Lebenszyklus stellt das PLM vor neue Herausforderungen. Mit dem Referenzarchitekturmodell RAMI4.0, dem Modell der Industrie 4.0 Komponente und der Definition von Eigenschaften, die Produkte (zukünftig) als Industrie-4.0 fähig kennzeichnen, werden die Voraussetzungen geschaffen, diesen Herausforderungen zu begegnen. Darüber hinaus bedarf es einer disziplinübergreifenden Entwicklungsmethodik des Model Based Systems Engineering und dessen systemtechnischer Unterstützung. Die Erweiterung von PLM in Richtung System Lifecycle Management scheint ein vielversprechender Lösungsansatz zu sein.

Cornelia Zehbold

9. Digitale Fabrik – Das Digital Enterprise in der Industrie

Der folgende Beitrag untersucht die Veränderung der industriellen Wertschöpfung auf dem Weg der Digitalisierung. Von der Integration der eingesetzten Industriesoftware über die Standardisierung der Kommunikation und die steigenden Anforderungen an die Sicherheit aller Daten bis hin zur Wandlung von Kundendienst in smarten Service. Dabei wird der Unterschied deutlich, den die Digitalisierung für den Maschinenbauer und für den Güterproduzenten macht: Der digitale Zwilling eines Produkts verlangt andere Modelle und Methoden zu seiner Entwicklung als die Maschine oder Anlage. Doch für alle Unternehmen der Fertigungsindustrie gilt: Sie müssen ihren gesamten Wertschöpfungsprozess auf den Prüfstand stellen, vom Geschäftsmodell bis zu den einzelnen Prozessen und ihrer Verkettung. Die Digitale Fabrik kann anders nicht realisiert werden.

Michael Butschek

17. Von der analogen zur digitalen lebenszyklusübergreifenden Gebäudedokumentation

Der Beitrag beschreibt die Transformation von einer analogen zu einer digitalen und lebenszyklusübergreifenden Gebäudedokumentation. Eine solche Dokumentation ist eine wesentliche Grundlage für nachhaltiges Bauen und Betreiben von Immobilien und im gemeinsamen Interesse von Eigentümern und Betreibern. Digitale Lösungen übernehmen die Bereitstellung und KI-gestützte Technologien erleichtern die Auswertung und Vernetzung von Informationen, Dokumenten und Systemen. Dies ist Teil der „Plattform-Ökonomie“, die sich in weiten Teilen der Wirtschaft entwickelt. Digitale Technologien unterstützen mehr und mehr die Erfassung, Strukturierung und Extraktion zunehmender Datenmengen einer digitalen Gebäudedokumentation unterstützen. Bisherige Erfolge in der Klassifikation helfen bereits, Dokumente zu erkennen, zu kategorisieren, automatisiert zu benennen und zu sortieren. Die Wertschöpfung entsteht allerdings erst durch die effiziente Analyse und Verknüpfung mit spezifischen Anwendungen. Bei allen Chancen, die sich bieten, weist der Beitrag auch auf relevante Limitationen hin.

Björn-Martin Kurzrock, Mario Bodenbender, Philipp Maximilian Müller

Chapter 18. Digital Marketing Strategies and Business Trends in Emerging Industries

The digital age in which the Internet is located in the center has initiated a period that completely revised the whole marketing system from using traditional tools to using modern tools. Thus, this has led to the birth of digital marketing. Digital marketing can be defined as the marketing practices carried out by using digital channels such as internet, mobile, and interactive platforms. It provides cost advantage and competitive advantage for businesses through its distinctive features. New industries which bring new developments into economies such as new products and concepts are called emerging industries. There are several difficulties an emerging industry faces while entering into a market such as high costs, uncertainty, complexity, and instability. Traditional marketing may not be effective enough in these industries to deal with these difficulties due to the ongoing transformation in the technology and digital marketing. This is expected to present more useful and effective results. Therefore, the digital marketing potential in emerging industries will be presented in this study.

Buket Özoğlu, Ayşe Topal

Chapter 1. Introduction

With the start of the twenty-first century, emerging economies represented by the Brics countries have shown a trend of rising as a group and become a new engine of global economic growth. As major emerging market countries, China, India, Russia, Brazil and South Africa demonstrated sustained and rapid economic growth. Their shares in global GDP increased from 17% in 2000 to 50% in 2010, and reached around 60% in 2012. According to the Global Economic Prospects published by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in early 2012, the economic growth rate of China, India and Russia in 2011 was 9.2, 7.4 and 4.1% respectively, far higher than the average global economic growth rate. The economic growth rate of Brazil and South Africa was also far higher than the average level of developed countries. With the rapid economic growth, the Brics countries have gradually enhanced their international competitiveness and their rankings in the world have kept on rising.

Yao Ouyang, Xianzhong Yi, Lingxiao Tang

Chapter 4. Economic Growth and Transformation Path of the Brics Countries

Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the overall average economic growth rate of the Brics countries has exceeded 6%, attracting worldwide attention. In 2011, China’s GDP reached USD 7318.5 billion, ranking the second in the world in terms of economic aggregate; Brazil reached USD 2476.7 billion, ranking the sixth in the world; Russia reached USD 1857.8 billion, ranking the ninth in the world; India reached USD 1848 billion, ranking the 10th in the world; and South Africa reached USD 408.2 billion, ranking the 29th in the world. The total GDP of the Brics countries accounted for about 20% of the global total GDP.

Yao Ouyang, Xianzhong Yi, Lingxiao Tang

Chapter 6. Construction of Brics Financial Cooperation Platform

In the new century, BRICS has evolved from an economic concept into a new platform for international cooperation. In 2011, the Sanya Declaration established the Brics cooperation mechanism focusing on economy, trade and finance. The mechanism is characterized by adhering to the principle of sharing interests and promoting multilateralism and south-south cooperation. It is really a new model of global economic cooperation. In 2010 and 2011, the Brics countries contributed more than 50% to the growth of the global economy.

Yao Ouyang, Xianzhong Yi, Lingxiao Tang

Chapter 7. The Economics of Nature

This chapter chronicles the economics of nature as it evolved around the fringes of the mainstream, identifying elements that could serve a future economics. It begins with the emergence of natural resource economics, which was an economics of optimal exploitation. Over time, new branches emerged that took a progressively more generative stance to the relation between the economy and nature. The chapter critiques recent developments in ecological and biophysical economics, and suggests how these disciplines might become part of the future mainstream.

Fraser Murison Smith

Chapter 8. Conventional Economics on a Crowded Planet

Conventional, or mainstream, economics contains much theory and practice that will be indispensable to a future economics for a crowded planet. It also incorporates a great deal of thinking that it antithetical to a world-view of economic alignment with nature. The challenge is to tease apart what is useful from what should be replaced. This chapter surveys the twentieth-century economic orthodoxy, identifying disconnects with the foundational propositions outlined earlier. It proposes new ways of thinking about the economy and of conducting economic analysis, while retaining core concepts from existing economic theory.

Fraser Murison Smith

Chapter 4. Subsystem Model of the Economy

This chapter delves into the model economy to explore how flows of materials and money within it affect its long-term prospects. The economy is divided into three major subsystems: Production, Consumption and Regeneration. A fourth subsystem, Government/Regulation, monitors natural capacity and regulates material and money flows accordingly. In addition to flows of material, the model tracks gross global product (GPP) per capita as a rough measure of prosperity. The results indicate that the exercise of material discipline, such as by recirculating material within the economy, leads to long-term stability and increased prosperity.

Fraser Murison Smith

Chapter 3. Simple Physical Model of Nature and Economy

This chapter describes a simple scenario model consisting of a material exchange between an economy and nature. A concept of natural capacity and an index of economic sustainability are introduced. The index measures the probability of the model economy avoiding collapse within a certain period, such as 200 years. This probability is inversely related to the capacity of nature to support the economy, i.e., natural capacity. Through adjusting the ways in which the economy responds to changes in natural capacity, the scenarios explore the conditions under which collapse occurs or long-term stability is attained. From this analysis, a concept of material discipline emerges.

Fraser Murison Smith

Chapter 22. The Impact of Climate Change in Hindu Kush Himalayas: Key Sustainability Issues

After the observation of IPCC 4th assessment that the Himalayas are “data deficient” with regard to climate change, some progress has been made particularly in the areas of glacier shrinkage, snow cover change, glacial lake outburst flooding, river discharge, treeline advance, phenological shift, climate change mitigation and adaptations, and people’s perceptions. This article focuses on complex interactions among climate change impacts on various bio-physical and socio-economic components of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region ecosystems. The magnitude of climate change impacts can be traced from impacts, such as pre-monsoon drought to crop failure and outmigration of people. The interconnectedness of the ecosystem components makes the Climate Change impacts complex, and often has a cascading effect across various environmental systems. We shed light on how climate change effects get intensified by interacting with other anthropogenic factors. There is a need to devote more concerted efforts to generate primary data, and document evidences to understand the complexity and interconnectedness of CC impacts to address sustainable development issues in the Himalayan mountains.

Surendra P. Singh, Rajesh Thadani, G. C. S. Negi, Ripu Daman Singh, Surabhi Gumber

Kapitel 4. Ergebnisse

Die Fallstudie macht deutlich, dass sich die Definitionen des digitalen Zwillings je nach Kerngeschäft der Unternehmen unterscheiden. Zudem zeigen die Interviews mit den Experten, dass der digitale Zwilling einen ganzheitlichen Einfluss auf Geschäftsmodelle einnimmt und ein hohes Potenzial durch den Einsatz der Technologie zu erwarten ist.

Robin Klostermeier, Steffi Haag, Alexander Benlian

35. Batch Chemistry and Reactions

In industrial glass productionindustrial glassproduction, a batch composed of a mix of raw materials is introduced in the furnace at high temperatures, to be converted into a glass melt, which will then be shaped into the desired article. The batch-to-melt conversionbatch-to-melt conversion is a critical process, involving a sequence of reactions (dehydration, solid-state reactions, formation of primary melt phases, dissolution of sand grains), the nature and rate of which depend on both thermodynamics and kinetics. Heat transfers to the batch are of major importance, as the rate of batch-to-melt conversion has a direct impact on the energy required for melting the glass, and therefore on the production costs. After the batch-to-melt conversion, the melt will contain a large amount of bubbles and dissolved gases, and a proper fining is required to obtain a product with good quality.In this chapter, the different reactions taking place during the batch-to-melt conversion and the fining of the melt are described. Specific attention is given to the heat transfer mechanisms, kinetics, and the silica (sand) grain dissolution mechanisms. The consequences of batch-to-melt and fining reactions in an industrial furnace (foaming, refractory corrosion) are also mentioned.

Oscar S. Verheijen, Mathieu Hubert

34. Industrial Glass Processing and Fabrication

Glass is among the most widely produced materials in the world, with a global annual production of over 100 million tons [34.1, 34.2]. Due to its versatility, it can be found in a wide range of applications, from the ubiquitous windows, screens or bottles to more specialized usages such as glass for sealing applications. Most of the industrially produced glasses are prepared using similar steps, via melting of raw materials, homogenization of the melt, conditioning, shaping and cooling. Numerous postprocessing steps such as cutting or polishing can be applied.Depending on the type of glass prepared and the quantity produced, the processing and fabrication techniques employed may differ greatly from one type of glass to another. Since the first man-made glass articles, some millennia ago, the processing of glass has been constantly improving to produce better, cheaper products, while decreasing the energy demand and the environmental impact of the glass fabrication process.In this chapter, the basics of industrial glass production are described, from the selection of the raw materials to the delivery of a homogeneous glass melt to the forming process. The different types of furnaces employed for different types of production are described, and the importance of process and furnace modeling in modern glass making is highlighted.

Mathieu Hubert

39. Glass Recycling

The main objective of this chapter is to give the reader a general overview of glass recycling activity. Industrial and academic results are presented, which are useful to open new possibilities of economic activities using glass waste for environmental benefits for the society. The greatest answer to master the environmental effect of glass wastes is to reuse them. Recycling of these wastes principally from glass bottles and flat glasses will benefit in safeguarding the earth's natural resources, diminishing landfill places, and saving energy and money. With a number of TV sets and computers attaining their end-of-life, electronic production is also challenged with the main difficulty of dealing with used devices.

Ronan Lebullenger, François O. Mear

1. The History of Glass

Glass production is 5000 years old. Until the 1st century BC when blowing appeared in the Middle East, glass objects were mainly ornaments and small containers for cosmetics. Tiberius created a glass industry in Rome to satisfy the local customers more easily. Very soon, the western European glassmakers learnt to make glass themselves instead of importing ingots and processing them in secondary workshops. The collapse of the Roman Empire did not mean the disappearance of a product that has proved so useful. The art of glass was renewed during the Middle Age: stained glass windows appeared in numerous churches and cathedrals that were built all over Europe. The crusades enhanced the movement with new techniques coming from the East.Glass was still made with sand and a flux but the flux changed from sodium to potassium salts produced by combustion of land plants instead of the Mediterranean coastal plants containing mainly sodium.This composition was still used with a few improvements like purification of the ashes when industrial soda ash was invented at the beginning of the 19th century. The same century saw very important progress in glassmaking and it led to a huge decrease in price to the point where everyone could buy glass panes for their windows at the end of this period. Melting processes were also much improved. Use of coal was common since the 18th century, but the furnaces themselves had not really changed until the Siemens brothers invented the regenerative gas furnace where gas was produced with a gas producer. Ten years later, the tank furnace, a close ancestor of present-day melting furnaces, was introduced.The forming processes had been improved since antiquity but the major changes occurred at the end of the 19th century when the processes were mechanized. As a result, the output increased spectacularly even after the end of the First World War, which took the lives of many glassworkers. Throughout the 20th century, the trend towards automation accelerated and melting tanks were applied to all types of glass. The middle of the century saw the revolutionary invention of float glass which laid the foundations for the modern glass industry.

Marie-Hélène Chopinet

28. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies of Glass

Nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) respectively) are powerful experimental probes of the atomic-scale structure of glass. This chapter provides a practical introduction to the current state of the art of these methods in glass research, and is intended to provide researchers with the basic knowledge needed to apply and interpret the results of these methods. Topics covered include the basic physics of spin resonance experiments, necessary instrumentation and sample considerations, representative experimental results, and methods of interpretation.

Josef W. Zwanziger, Ulrike Werner-Zwanziger, Courtney Calahoo, Alexander L. Paterson

Chapter 6. Sustainable Luxury: The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy on Luxury Consumption Motivations

Luxury, generally associated with hedonism, excess, and ostentation, has been often considered as incompatible with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), which is generally associated with sobriety, moderation, and ethics. Nevertheless, increased interest in sustainability has led more and more luxury companies to integrate CSR into their marketing strategies. The present chapter helps to advance knowledge on the compatibility between luxury and sustainability by (a) describing cases of luxury companies involved in CSR activities and (b) empirically testing whether consumers might react positively to luxury companies’ CSR initiatives. Our results show that consumers’ reactions to luxury brands’ CSR initiatives depend on whether consumers mainly buy luxury goods for internal (i.e., for their individual tastes) or external (i.e., related to their willingness to show status) motivations.

Carmela Donato, Matteo De Angelis, Cesare Amatulli

Chapter 5. Incorporating Cyber Resilience into Computable General Equilibrium Models

Most countries are becoming increasingly dependent on cyber inputs for business, government, and private pursuits. Disruptions of the cyber system can therefore have extensive economic consequences. Resilience is a major way to reduce consequences such as business interruption after the disaster strikes by promoting business continuity and recovery. One approach to analyzing and measuring its effectiveness is to incorporate resilience into economic consequence analysis models of various types, such as Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models. These models have several attractive properties that make them especially valuable, including being based on behavioral responses of individual producers and consumers, having a role for prices and markets, having the ` to trace economic interdependence, and being based on a non-linear structure that can reflect flexibility of various components. Cyber resilience is a case of economic resilience, pertaining to preventing: (1) supply-side reduction of cyber product and service disruptions to direct and indirect down-stream customers, which also reduces disruptions to the cyber sectors’ own direct and indirect up-stream suppliers; and (2) demand-side reduction by customers of their losses from cyber disruptions, which also reduces further upstream and downstream losses. We summarize established and new methodological advances in explicitly incorporating cyber resilience into CGE models. Several types of resilience are inherent, or already naturally included, in CGE models in relation to their core focus (e.g., substitution of inputs in relation to the input scarcity and the allocative mechanism of price signals). Other types of resilience are adaptive in terms of ad hoc reactions after the disaster strikes (e.g., business relocation and lining up new suppliers from within or outside the affected area). Our framework for incorporating various cyber resilience tactics into CGE models is based on economic production theory in relation to decisions regarding inputs and outputs. We explain the methodological refinements needed and provide real world examples of cyber resilience tactics.

Adam Rose

1. Auf dem Weg zum digitalen Geschäftsmodell: „Tour de Force“ von der Vision des digitalisierten Unternehmens zum disruptiven Potenzial digitaler Plattformen

Im Zeitalter der Digitalisierung verändern sich traditionelle produktorientierte Geschäftsmodelle in signifikanter Weise. Der vorliegende Artikel bildet den Grundlagenbeitrag für die aktuelle Ausgabe der Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik. Er liefert Erläuterungen zu Geschäftsmodellen einerseits und Basistechnologien der digitalen Transformation andererseits. Ausgehend von der Vision des datengetriebenen Unternehmens und einem Referenzprozess der digitalen Transformation werden Auswirkungen auf das Geschäftsmodell beschrieben, die Bedeutung unternehmerischer Ökosysteme herausgearbeitet sowie die Rolle digitaler Plattformen in solchen Ökosystemen und deren disruptives Potenzial für die Wirtschaft erläutert. Abschließend werden Handlungsempfehlungen für die Praxis und die Wissenschaft dargestellt. Die Ausführungen basieren zum einen auf existierender wissenschaftlicher Literatur und zum anderen auf den in den vergangenen Jahren am Bamberger Kompetenzzentrum für Geschäftsmodelle in der digitalen Welt durchgeführten Forschungsarbeiten. Sie sollen als Rahmenwerk dienen und dabei helfen, die einzelnen Beiträge dieser Ausgabe in einen Gesamtkontext zu setzen.

Alexander Pflaum, Esther Schulz

Chapter 6. Concluding Remarks on Social Entrepreneurship Theory Development, Teaching and Future Research

Ashta concludes the book and looks at the “So What” question. How does this realistic theory make any difference to other social entrepreneurship theories, education and research? Ashta’s first significant contribution in this chapter is to highlight the reasons for dynamism that emerged from this book. Second, this work combines the work on social entrepreneurship with that on microfinance to enable a richer understanding of both. Ashta’s third contribution is to show how this relates to management education to stimulate growth of social enterprises and reinforcing the need to make the prospective social entrepreneur prepared for success and failure. The fourth contribution is to amplify on the areas of research that the series of broad propositions has highlighted.

Arvind Ashta

Chapter 5. “Tend to prefer sane, masculine, caucasian (no offense to other flavours though)”: Racial-Sexual Preferences, Entitlement, and Everyday Racism

The second analytic chapter centers on interviewees’ encounters with racism and Islamophobia online, and identifies “racism on Grindr” as a gamut of recurring speech patterns that circulate on the platform. These patterns include persistent questions of origin, racial-sexual exclusions (e.g. “No Asians”), racial-sexual fetishes, links between immigrants and economic opportunism, and insults directed at a user’s race, nationality, or perceived religion. Encounters with racist speech are central to many immigrants’ experiences on socio-sexual platforms, and prompt some users to challenge hegemonic discourses on app.

Andrew DJ Shield

Open Access

Chapter 4. Business Informatics Principles

Business informatics consists of two major areas which are developing separately but are closely related and also to some extent integrated within information systems architecture in organisations. The first area is business solutions as core information systems for support of business operations – they consist of Enterprise resources planning solutions (ERP), Customer relationship management solutions (CRM) and other specialised solutions. The second area is Business Intelligence (BI). After describing the basic concepts of these information solutions/business information systems and their functionality, the chapter explains the emerging integration of business informatics and geo-informatics. Developments provided by solution providers are analysed and discussed. The chapter concludes with a bibliometric analysis of research which shows areas and dynamics of business informatics and GIS integration.

Simona Sternad Zabukovšek, Polona Tominc, Samo Bobek

Open Access

Chapter 10. Non-binding Decision-Making

Korthagen et al. introduce six quite successful digital tools used in decision-making processes. Three tools are used by political parties (Spanish Podemos, the Italian Five Star Movement and the German Pirate Party) aiming for direct democracy and more transparency. The other three tools are online participatory budgeting (PB) tools initiated by municipalities (the Brazilian city Belo Horizonte, the French capital Paris and the Icelandic capital Reykjavik). The authors place a strong focus on the participatory process and practical experiences. For a better understanding of these tools and how they are used in practice, interviews were conducted with administrators and researchers familiar with the respective tools. All tools except one, the Podemos tool, prove to have an impact on decision-making processes with the party or municipality. The authors explain this success rate by the fact that the tools are embedded in actual formal decision-making processes: the internal party decision-making process and the budgeting process of local democracies.

Iris Korthagen, Casper Freundlich Larsen, Rasmus Ø. Nielsen

Chapter 3. Professions and Modern Organisational Forms

Professions collectively constitute one type of organisational form developed within western modernity. This understanding shifts the previous discussion from proposed definitions justified by reference to individual professions, to see professions as an aggregate organisational design. Professions are compared in the discussion with five other organisational forms that have developed in the modern era—bureaucracies, unions, business, science and democracy. These different institutionalised forms are often said to be the opposite of professions, but more detailed study shows each of these forms overlaps with professions. This chapter bridges previous definitional analyses to subsequent discussion of professionalisation discourses and how these have been historically bundled. Viewing professions as one general type of organisational form challenges claims about professions as little more than occupational self-justification.

Edgar A Burns

Chapter 7. Biomethane—Future Trends

Given global greenhouse gas reduction pressures and incentives for renewables there are strong forces supporting the future growth of the global biomethane industry. This chapter deals with future technologies and uses of biomethane. Developments in improving anaerobic digesters, such as acid-phase digesters, are examined. Future sources of biogas from second-generation biofuels, including from algae and lignocellulosic biomass, are discussed. Following that discussion, technologies that could be used to improve the upgrading of biogas are included. These include energy-efficient methods such as in situ methane and enzyme enrichment. Future methods for storing biomethane, such as adsorbed natural gas and liquefied biomethane, are discussed. The book finishes with a recommended pathway for future biomethane development.

Sirichai Koonaphapdeelert, Pruk Aggarangsi, James Moran

2. Deutsche Fachbegriffe mit Erklärung und Definition

(Unterer) Toleranzgrenzwert für die Wahrscheinlichkeiten p = 99 %; C (Vertrauen in Testdatensatz) = 95 % eines einseitigen Toleranzintervalls beim Merkmal Festigkeit.

Ralf Cuntze

3. Deutsche Fachbegriffe in Englisch

Deutsche Fachbegriffe in Englisch

Ralf Cuntze

4. English Technical Terms with Definitions

statistically-based material property, above which at least 99% of the population of values is expected to fall, with a confidence level of C = 95%

Ralf Cuntze

2. Kaufinteressiert – die Vorbereitung einer Firmenübernahme

Storyline: Das Kapitel erzählt, wie die Übernahme der WWB GmbH 2010 begann. Ralf Sojka steigt als Assistent der Geschäftsführung in das Tiefbauunternehmen mit der Option ein, den Betrieb später vom bisherigen Eigentümer zu übernehmen. Während sich das operative Baugeschäft positiv entwickelt, tauchen erste Probleme bei der Angebotskalkulation auf.Informationen zum Unternehmenskauf: Der Leser erfährt, wie er übernahmebereite mittelständische Unternehmen mit Hilfe von Onlinebörsen ermittelt, anspricht sowie gründlich durchleuchtet (Firmenprofil, Due-Diligence-Prüfung).

Dirk Sojka, Ralf Sojka, Sonja Ulrike Klug

6. Hinzugekauft – werthaltige Schulden mit Plan

Storyline: Die Jahre 2015 bis Mitte 2016 sind überaus kritisch für die WWB. Die Abwendung der Insolvenz gelingt mit Hilfe eines cleveren Restrukturierungskonzeptes, das aus vielen Schritten besteht wie dem Hinzukauf spezieller Assets, dem Aufnehmen werthaltiger Schulden, dem Strecken von Verbindlichkeiten und einer Veränderung der Auftragsstruktur.Informationen zur Übernahme: Der Leser erfährt, wie man bei Kreditanträgen optimal mit Banken umgeht und wie man die Positionierung des Unternehmens strategisch optimiert.

Dirk Sojka, Ralf Sojka, Sonja Ulrike Klug

Chapter 15. Sustainable Polymer-Based Microfluidic Fuel Cells for Low-Power Applications

The growing demands of energy have generated interest in the development of miniaturized power sources. In this context, the potential of microfluidics for energy generation is immense. Microfluidic devices are very useful for manipulation and control of fluid flow at low Reynolds number which has immense application in industrial and biomedical domains. During laminar flow, mixing by turbulence is minimized and the only remaining mechanism for mixing is diffusion. Fuel cells which convert the chemical energy of a fuel into electric power have emerged as an alternative means of energy production. Miniaturized fuel cells offer several benefits over conventional methods such as portability and faster mass transfer. Hence, microfluidic fuel cell offers the possibilities of a fast start-up device for rapid energy generation with high power density, low cost, and disposability with minimum environmental impact. However, the use of appropriate fabrication method and suitable material in the development and successful implementation of microfluidic fuel cells is highly crucial. The material should be readily available, inexpensive, and adaptable for the fabrication process. In this chapter, we discuss polymer materials for microfluidic fuel cell design. The polymers are used as a material to design the fuel cell and as a proton exchange membrane along with assisting in oxygen transport as air-breathing layers. We will describe the above aspects in detail to look at the current challenges in microfluidic fuel cells and arrive at a solution which is simple and innovative for the low-power applications. Our aim is to emphasize sustainable polymers at low cost to realize the potential of microfluidic fuel cell devices.

Moumita Sardar, Ravi Kumar Arun, Ebenezer Olubunmi Ige, Preeti Singh, Gagan Kumar, Nripen Chanda, Gautam Biswas

Chapter 7. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates and Its Potential Applications

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are the emerging and sustainable biopolymers because of its biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and biological origin. There are many existing carbon sources which are inexpensive and readily available in nature; these include the waste organic acids, carbohydrates, fats, sugars, and oils. This chapter focuses on the use of all above-mentioned sources along with the agricultural waste residues such as lignocellulosic biomass and its pretreatment technologies for the efficient utilization of waste sources for the production of PHAs with maximum production yields. Further, the chapter discusses the effect of different fermentation processes like batch, fed-batch, and continuous processes on the yield of PHAs and the use of the mixed cultures in the specific processes. The major content of this chapter focuses on the applications of PHAs on articular cartilage repair, cardiovascular patch grafting, meniscus repair devices, molded products such as disposable needles, syringes, sutures, surgical gloves, gowns, and also the detailed study on the packaging applications. Therefore, the chapter discusses the different techniques and processes for the development and applications of PHA-based bioplastic with a view to develop the biocompatible and degradable medical aids and the biodegradable food packaging using sustainable and eco-friendly bioplastics for the sustainable future environment.

Chethana Mudenur, Kona Mondal, Urvashi Singh, Vimal Katiyar

Chapter 11. Bacterial Cellulose Based Hydrogel Film for Sustainable Food Packaging

Sustainable packaging has given vital importance for food protection, food safety, food property maintenance, regulatory compliance, and cost-effectiveness, with the aim of supporting long-term human and ecological health. On the other hand, hydrogel-based food package exhibited numerous advantages to protect fresh fruits and vegetables and continued to enhance their shelf life at ambient temperature. Hence, an effort has been given to discuss the development of bacterial cellulose (BCs)-based polysaccharide-polyol complex biomaterial for sustainable food packaging materials. A novel polymeric hydrogel film is prepared by modifying the existing polyvinylpyrrolidone—sodium carboxymethylcellulose (PVP-CMC) hydrogel film with the addition of BCs, which is designated as ‘PVP-CMC-BCs’. This book chapter mainly describes the use and efficacy of BCs-based hydrogel film for improved shelf life of soft and delicate fruits and vegetables. The efficacy of ‘PVP-CMC-BCs’ hydrogel film is evaluated on the basis of the ‘shelf life’ of table grapes, spinach, tomatoes, etc., as a confirmation test. It is evident from the results that ‘PVP-CMC-BCs’ hydrogel film can keep mostly all kinds of delicate fresh fruits and vegetables for 30 days without any physiological degradation in appearance. Thus, ‘PVP-CMC-BCs’ hydrogel film can be considered as an alternative to the conventional plastic packaging. Moreover, the present study introduces a new generation of bioplastic hydrogel film for sustainable food packaging for elusive agro-bio products.

Nabanita Saha, Oyunchumeg Zaandra, Smarak Bandyopadhyay, Petr Saha

Chapter 12. Green Composites Based on Aliphatic and Aromatic Polyester: Opportunities and Application

The extensive use of fossil-derived polymers rises carbon content in surroundings, which consequences in the market growth of green polymers. Generally, green polymers are used for their biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic nature and can be derived from naturally occurring materials and renewable resources, which create no pollution to the environment. However, the properties of biodegradable polymers such as aliphatic and aromatic polyester for various applications need to be modified with the aid of various routes. Further, the fabrication of green composites can be done using biodegradable polymers incorporating fillers, where the properties of biodegradable polymers can be tuned to a greater extent. The opportunities in the use of green composites have increased for obtaining tailored property targeting multi-purpose application. Green composites based on aliphatic and aromatic polyester provides a new outgrowth in the field of food and beverages industries, biomedical application, textile, paper coating, high engineering application, industrial application, and others. In this regards, the chapter will detail the prospects of various green composites based on aliphatic and aromatic polyester. Additionally, the chapter will focus to discuss various future aspects of green composites with its versatile application.

Tabli Ghosh, Shasanka Sekhar Borkotoky, Vimal Katiyar

Nachhaltigkeit und Innovation in China – mehr als nur ein Papiertiger?

Inwiefern sich Innovation und Nachhaltigkeit gegenseitig beeinflussen können, wird am Beispiel Chinas offensichtlich. Gleichzeitig birgt diese Wechselwirkung ein Verständnis Chinas, das in der öffentlichen Debatte über Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft des Landes international oft vernachlässigt wird. Inwieweit es China gelingt, aus dieser Kombination mehr als nur einen Papiertiger zu schaffen, bleibt fraglich. Daher widmen wir uns im vorliegenden Kapitel dieser Fragestellung zunächst anhand von Fallstudien im Bereich ökologischer Nachhaltigkeit, genauer anhand von Innovationen in der E-Mobilität sowie der Plastikindustrie. Anschließend dienen die Unternehmerpersönlichkeiten Jack Ma und Pony Ma als besondere Fallbeispiele, die Dimension der sozialen Nachhaltigkeit zu diskutieren. Es zeigt sich, dass China im Vergleich zu anderen wichtigen globalen Playern eine herausragende Rolle in der Implementierung von Nachhaltigkeit besetzt. Sowohl mit Blick auf die übergeordnete politische Agenda, die die Grundlage für diese positiven betriebswirtschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen schafft, als auch mit Blick auf einflussreiche Unternehmer, die in Eigenregie agieren, aber potenziell ganze Branchen beeinflussen können. Diese Beispiele sollen nicht über Chinas negative Auswirkungen seiner gewaltigen Wirtschaftsleistung wie beispielsweise CO2-Emissionen hinwegtäuschen, aber die Fragestellung aus einer Entwicklungsperspektive betrachten, die einen chancenreichen Weg für die Zukunft aufzeigt.

Marina Schmitz, Anna Tönneßen

Die Neugestaltung der Globalisierung. Chinas Konzept einer ökologischen Zivilisation

Der Beitrag widmet sich Chinas Neudefinition der Spielregeln für den internationalen Wettbewerb und dem Konzept einer ökologischen Zivilisation. Zudem wird gezeigt, dass Europa nur zu neuer Stärke finden kann, wenn sich Unternehmen intensiv mit dem chinesischen Markt beschäftigen und mit der Grundhaltung Chinas auseinandersetzen.

Alexandra Hildebrandt

Kapitel 4. Deutschland: Flankierung mit Nachhaltigkeitsansprüchen

Der Bundesrepublik Deutschland eilt in Europa einen Ruf als aktive Gestalterin rohstoffpolitischer Belange voraus. Als größte Volkswirtschaft und Industrienation des Kontinents genießt die Sorge um eine sichere Rohstoffversorgung eine hohe Aufmerksamkeit. Ob die von den verschiedenen Bundesregierungen gewählten Instrumente allerdings die angestrebte Sicherheit garantieren, ist umstritten.

Yann Wernert

Kapitel 2. Von der Interdependenz zur Kooperation? Theoretische Grundierung

Die Grundierung beginnt mit einem Überblick zur Geschichte der Rohstoffpolitik, die zugleich Einstieg und Orientierung bietet. Die großen historischen Linien sollen einen Eindruck von den langfristigen Entwicklungen in diesem Feld vermitteln, alte und neue Probleme aufzeigen, sowie Wendepunkte im Umgang mit der Rohstoffversorgung verdeutlichen. Diese Einführung wird im Kapitel 2.2 zum Forschungsstand dann weiter aufgefächert, und die Quellenlage zu den einzelnen Wirkungsbereichen der Rohstoffpolitik vorgestellt.

Yann Wernert

Kapitel 3. Frankreichs Rohstoffpolitik: Souveränität wahren

In diesem Kapitel wird zunächst die Historie der französischen Rohstoffpolitik von 1946 bis 2009 beachtet. Von den allgemeinen politischen Prinzipien, die ihren Niederschlag in diesem Feld finden, wird zur Vorstellung der drei tragenden Säulen dieser Rohstoffpolitik übergegangen, die dann im Folgenden durchdekliniert werden: Rohstoffdiplomatie, heimischer Bergbau, direkte Eingriffe. Ausgehend von diesen Fundamenten wird der Neuanfang analysiert, der im Jahr 2010 in die Wege geleitet wurde.

Yann Wernert

Chenzhou Fanlongdui Mining Co., Ltd. v. the Ministry of Land and Resources of the People’s Republic of China (Administrative Reconsideration Decision about the Land and Resources)—The Judicial Control over the Administrative Reconsideration Authority’s Revocation of the Mining Rights

No prohibitions are contained in the current laws and regulations against the establishment of mining rights with overlapping vertical projections. With regard to some overlapping mining rights that have been established for historical reasons, the administrative agencies, under the premises of safe production, environmental protection and the conducive utility of full and effective use of different types of mineral resources, should evaluate comprehensively the formation and geological conditions of mineral resources, show due respect toward the mining intentions, mining capacity and mining technology of different mining rights holders as well as the development rules of mineral deposits, and treat them differently.

Bixin Jiang, Yongwei Huang, Baojian Gen

Kapitel 22. Funktionale und elektrische Sicherheit

Die Elektrifizierung des Antriebsstrangs führt dazu, dass sowohl bereits bekannte aber auch neuartige Gefährdungen und deren Risiken über die verschiedenen Phasen des Produktlebenszyklus hinweg betrachtet, bewertet und als Sicherheitsaspekte bei der Auslegung eines elektrischen Antriebsstrangs und seinen Komponenten angemessen beachtet werden müssen. Die Funktionale Sicherheit (FuSi) vermeidet Gefährdungen durch funktionales Fehlverhalten, das sich unmittelbar aus fehlerhaften Elektrik-, Elektronik- bzw. Softwarebestandteilen des elektrischen Antriebsstrangs und seinen Komponenten ergeben könnte. Fahrzeuge, Infrastruktur und inzwischen auch der gesamte Kundendienstbereich werden im Hinblick auf die elektrische. Sicherheit stetig weiter verbessert. Jetzt muss sich das Augenmerk zunehmend auch auf andere Bereiche richten; insbesondere Rettungskräfte, Feuerwehren und Bergungsunternehmen stehen hier im Fokus.

Matthias Maihöfer, Volker Blandow

Kapitel 7. Brennstoffzelle

Die Brennstoffzelle ist ein Energiewandler, der die im Brennstoff (meist Wasserstoff) gespeicherte Energie mithilfe von Sauerstoff direkt in elektrische Energie umwandelt. Damit entfällt der übliche Energiewandlungsprozess von Kraftstoff in mechanische Energie (Verbrennungskraftmaschine) und anschließend über den Generator in elektrische Energie. Der Wirkungsgrad der Energiewandlung mittels Brennstoffzelle ist deshalb grundsätzlich höher. Für die bedarfsgerechte Verfügbarkeit der elektrischen Energie ist allerdings im Fahrzeug weiterhin eine Batterie notwendig, wenn auch mit geringer Kapazität. Bei den rein elektrischen Fahrzeugantrieben können sich Batterie und Brennstoffzelle als Energiespeicher beziehungsweise –wandler idealerweise ergänzen.

Joerg Wind

Kapitel 1. Motivation

In naher Zukunft werden elektrifizierte Antriebe vor allem in urbanen Zentren einen signifikanten Anteil darstellen. Die Vorteile der lokalen Emissionsfreiheit, einer tendenziell geringeren Lärmbelastung, das hohe Drehmoment und die Effizienz des Antriebs überzeugen weltweit immer mehr Autokäufer. In den wichtigsten Automobilmärkten wird die Entwicklung der elektrifizierten Antriebe allerdings nicht einheitlich und mit unterschiedlicher Geschwindigkeit verlaufen; zu unterschiedlich sind kulturelle Besonderheiten, Anzahl kaufbereiter Endkunden, Infrastrukturaufbau sowie die gesetzlichen Vorgaben und ihr jeweiliger Fokus.

Peter Gutzmer, Eike Todsen

A High-Performance Storage System Based with Dual RAID Engine

With the advent of the 5G, more and more applications use cloud storage to store data. Data becomes the cornerstone of the development of smart society. At the same time, these data have the characteristics of uneven generation rate, large write demand and low read requirement. The dynamic change of load during data storage has new requirements for storage architecture. This paper proposes a storage system that allocates strips in real time based on current load changes. Based on the traditional RAID layout, a dual-engine based high-performance storage system (DSH) is proposed. This system uses software and hardware co-processing architecture to implement strip allocation and address calculation. The strip allocation functions using software and the verification algorithm is implemented by hardware transfer to the FPGA through PCIE. Through experimental analysis shows that the DSH algorithm has a great advantage in saving CPU computing resources and saving disk energy consumption in the dynamic load storage environment.

Jingyu Liu, Jinrong Zhang, Juan Li, Lu Liu

Chapter 2. The Moral Basis for Taxation

This chapter attempts to consider some of the major moral issues involved in the imposition of taxation. It assumes prima facie that the rationale nowadays for a government imposing taxation derives from its responsibility to raise revenue for providing public goods, redistributing income/wealth to those who are in need or less well-off, promoting social and economic welfare, promoting economic stability, and creating a sound infrastructure for the development of business; and possibly, promoting fiscal harmonisation with other countries. These ideas suggest that the provision of public goods and services paid for by tax revenue inherently constitutes the moral basis for imposing taxation. The chapter goes on to examine definitions of ‘tax’ and ‘morality’, noting the development of morality as concept that changes over time, often subject to increased scientific knowledge, and continues by considering in depth the link between property and taxation, examining property rights, the concept of the ‘social contract’ and natural rights, the meaning of private property, and the idea of ‘tax as theft’—looking at in this latter context the ideas of St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas, together with libertarian and counter-libertarian arguments. The chapter then considers further the moral underpinning for the process of raising taxes and their use, examining in detail the ideas of Green (J Religious Ethics 12(2):146–161, 1984). The final sections offer some other possible viewpoints and concluding remarks.

Jane Frecknall-Hughes

Chapter 2. Major Achievements and Problems of Promoting Regional Development

Since the implementation of the strategy of coordinated regional development, prominent problems of every region have been effectively alleviated. Guided by the strategy of coordinated regional development, the proportion of economy of the central and the western regions in the national economy has remarkably increased. Comparable with the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, Yangtze River Delta Region and Pearl River Delta Region, a host of new regional economy growth poles such as the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Chengdu-Chongqing, Central Plains, Central-Southern of Liaoning, Shandong Peninsula, the West Coast of the Taiwan Straits have emerged. At the same time, on the basis of the four major regions, the country has implemented special support policies on areas with difficulties such as poverty-stricken areas and primarily established policy system for cross-administrative regions with difficulties.

Xiaowu Song, Shiguo Wu, Xin Xu

Chapter 1. An Overview of China’s Regional Development and Overall Pattern

China is a large country with a vast territory. Regional policies constitute an important part of the country’s macro-regulation policies. The regional development strategies after the founding of New China can be divided into three stages. After the founding of the PRC and before the reform and opening up, the state generally implemented a regional development strategy tilted toward the inland. From the reform and opening up to the end of the twentieth century, China’s regional development strategy was featured by prioritized development of coastal areas. In the following decade, the central government issued a series of major decisions to promote coordinated development among regions: Western Development Strategy implemented in 1999, the revitalization strategy of old industrial bases in the northeast region in 2003, and the strategy of promoting the rise of the central region in 2006.

Xiaowu Song, Shiguo Wu, Xin Xu

Chapter 4. The ‘Truth About Pakistan’: Knowledge Production and Circulation in Think Tanks

This chapter explores the knowledge production processes in International Relations, within think tanks. The chapter initially focuses on the increased visibility of think tanks in policy-making processes. Think tanks, because of the nature of their organization have firmly established themselves as arbitrors of knowledge. The vicious cycle of knowledge production and reproduction enables a constant circulation of ‘truth’ on representational identities. The chapter demonstrates that think-tank-based journals are among International Relations journals which have produced the most work on Pakistan. Through them, the discursive construction and reproduction of Pakistan’s representational identity, not only continues to demonstrate similar patterns as those in academic journals but also because of their wider reach, the ‘truths’ presented as common sense are transmitted beyond universities and policy-makers to the general global audience. In that sense these journals play a vital role in naturalizing representational identities. Consequently, these journals become important cogs in the knowledge production machinery through which ‘Pakistan’ is marketed not only to local audiences, which include policy-makers, academics and policy experts but to the general International Affairs reader across the globe.

Ahmed W. Waheed

Chapter 2. Implementation of EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) in Romania—European Qualitative Requirements

The EC (European Community) enacted the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) on September 23rd, 2000. This was aimed at maintaining and improving the biological and chemical status of natural waters until 2015. The main water resources in Romania are represented by surface waters such as rivers, lakes, and ponds, with the Danube River as main hydrographical axis and as a transboundary river. These water resources are influenced by the values of overland flows. About 94% of the drainage basins in Romania are located within the Danube catchment area (29% of its surface). With its water resources, Romania is ranked the 13th in Europe according to the yearly mean of water quantity distributed per resident (1840 m3/person/year). In sum, there are several categories of waters in Romania, such as: 55,535 km of permanent rivers (representing 70% of all water courses), 23,370 km of perennial rivers (30%); 117 natural lakes larger than 0.5 km2, with 52% of them located in Danube Delta; 255 reservoirs larger than 0.5 km2, 174 km of transitional waters and 164 km of coastal waters. The ecological status of Romania’s surface waters has been assessed as good and least good for about 64% of them, and only 2% have been classified as poor or bad. As regards the chemical status, about 93% of surface bodies of water have been declared good and only 7% in a bad status. The total length of rivers overlapping protected areas represents 15.3% of the total water courses length. There are 216 areas with protected habitats and species (occupying 14,437.26 km2 and 6.1% of Romania’s territory), where water is a major factor.

Gheorghe Romanescu, Cristian Constantin Stoleriu, Alin Mihu-Pintilie

Chapter 8. Romanian Danube River Floodplain Functionality Assessment

The floodplain of the Lower Danube was formed by the complex action of erosion and river accumulation, under the influence of the ascension trend of the river riverbed during the Holocene and the oscillation of the water levels and discharges. Almost full embankment and the construction of non-submersible dams have affected both the hydro-geomorphological system and the local and regional topo-climates, which is a pronounced phenomenon in the conditions of global climate changes. All these alterations have led to a significant transformation of the ecosystems. Transforming these ecosystems of the Lower Danube floodplain into dry land ecosystems has reduced their ecological, recreational, aesthetic and educational functions to only one function: the economic one. The natural capital of the Lower Danube floodplain has a productive capacity that must be known by its functional cells in order to avoid degradation, destruction under anthropogenic impact and to favor the sustainable use of its support capacity. Ensuring sustainable socio-economic development in the Lower Danube floodplain area is also based on knowledge of ecological sustainability, ecosystem integrity, environmental sustainability, ecological, and regional ecosystem balance. The ecological and economic resizing program of the managed areas of the Lower Danube floodplain was designed and launched to assist the Romanian Government in the long-term strategic planning process, to achieve the objectives of the Water Framework Directive and to effectively implement prevention, protection and mitigation of floods, mentioned in the National Strategy for Flood Risk Management. In this sense, a thorough and complex study, based on LiDAR measurements, hydraulic modeling and economic assessment, was conducted to evaluate the functionality of the floodplain as a whole and within agricultural units to determine the equipotential areas for flood-free future and sustainable development of the region. Thus, there were identified three types of areas: the first type represents the areas with only agricultural potential, the second type are, the areas with potential to be ecologically restored (to establish the natural flow of energy and circulation of matter) and the third one is a combination of the first two.

Cristian Trifanov, Alin Mihu-Pintilie, Marian Tudor, Marian Mierlă, Mihai Doroftei, Silviu Covaliov

Chapter 10. Regulatory Normative of Nanomaterials for Their Use in Biomedicine

With nanomedicines increasing in market value and disruptive potential, a rapidly moving field such as this will require engaging in the difficult task of responsible management and the development of appropriate guidelines, which falls into the jurisdiction of governmental agencies. While each is influenced by the countries politics and demands of the people, there are shared goals of improving market success, risk assessment, and safety optimization. In this chapter, we describe the regulatory landscape with regards to nanomedicines in various countries. We first start with the world’s nanotechnological leaders in North America, the European Union, and Asian and then discuss the notable strides taken by emerging countries where nanomedicines have caught the public eye.

Caitlin Lazurko, Manuel Ahumada, Emilio I. Alarcon, Erik Jacques

Chapter 4. Production Strategies for Commercialization of PHA

The most important criterion for large-scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is sustainability in terms of supply and cost. The sustainable production of PHAs could be achieved by utilization of renewable, inexpensive carbon substrates and adopting efficient extraction processes. The operational cost of PHAs production process can be significantly minimized by using high yielding strains and various process optimization strategies. This chapter focuses on various strategies used in literature for cost-effective sustainable production of PHA.

Geeta Gahlawat

Chapter 6. Examples of Scaling Strategies

After having analyzed each of the elements included in Phases I, II, and III, social entrepreneurs have gathered a significant amount of information about the business model they will use to design the scaling strategy. In this chapter we provide examples of established scaling strategies that social entrepreneurs might use when developing their strategy. This list is not exhaustive, but rather illustrates examples of market-based scaling strategies that can be constructed using our proposed three-phased approach. In this light, we will analyze three different scaling strategies: co-creation in low-income contexts, collective impact, and replicating business models. This chapter introduces one example case for each of these strategies.

Urs Jäger, Felipe Symmes, Guillermo Cardoza

Chapter 3. Phase I: Negotiating Impact for Resources

This chapter introduces the first step of the three phases to creating a scaling strategy. These three phases facilitate an “outside-in” perspective as, in the first phase, social entrepreneurs begin to compile their strategy by exploring actors with whom they can potentially negotiate impact in exchange for the resources needed to scale. This includes actors in the same geographical area where the social enterprise works, as well as national and international actors interested in the issues it addresses. A market approach assumes that the value of a social enterprise’s impact depends on how others evaluate impact. For example, a particular impact investor’s means of evaluating impact opens space to negotiate the amount of resources that they are willing to put toward the issue that the social enterprise is trying to tackle, and at what percentage interest. A contextual study can help social entrepreneurssocial entrepreneur map accessible sources of resources (i.e., public organizations, international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), private companies, individual impact investors, institutional impact investors, customers, etc.). These actors have economic and/or non-economic resources and are interested in negotiating the social enterprise’s impactimpact in exchange for these resourcesresources. The contextual study also helps social entrepreneurssocial entrepreneur understand the standards (i.e., which standards are in place and which are missing) for both financial and impact return (e.g., rates of interest, social impact indicators, etc.), and structure their negotiation and scaling strategies accordingly. Thus, phase I takes an “outside-in” approachoutside-in approach to scalingscaling by including an analysis of: impact, resources, standards, and negotiation.

Urs Jäger, Felipe Symmes, Guillermo Cardoza

Chapter 2. A Market Approach to Scaling Impact

A market approach to scaling argues that social entrepreneurs scale the impact of their enterprise by exchanging impact for resources. In this chapter, we explain how this approach expands the current understanding of contextual approaches to scaling social enterprises. We further explain how it contributes to the current literature on impact investment, particularly focusing on the relation between impact investors and social enterprises. Finally, we explain the three-phased approach to market-based scaling, how this differs from the popular concept of a business canvas, and how our three phased-approach can help teachers and practitioners create successful scaling strategies.

Urs Jäger, Felipe Symmes, Guillermo Cardoza

Kapitel 13. Makroökonomische Aspekte der CO2-Bepreisung

Die Effekte einer Bepreisung von CO2-Emissionen auf Wachstum, Beschäftigung und Einkommensverteilung können in intertemporalen Gleichgewichtsmodellen untersucht werden. Grundsätzlich lassen CO2-Preise die (Grenz-)Kosten der Unternehmen ansteigen. Soweit eine CO2-Steuer eingeführt wird, kommt es zu erheblichen Einnahmen für den Staat, sofern nicht das Aufkommen aus der CO2-Steuer weitgehend an die Steuerzahler in Form von Transferzahlungen zurückgegeben wird. Daher gehen die Investitionen zurück, soweit Kapital – also Maschinen und Anlagen – und Energieeinsatz als komplementär gelten. Einige Studien mit Bezug auf die USA sowie die Niederlande beziffern den sich ergebenden Rückgang des langfristigen realen Einkommens auf 0,1 Prozentpunkte des Realeinkommens. Hier geht es um Fragen der Kosten globaler Klimaneutralität und die makroökonomischen Aspekte der CO2-Bepreisung.

Paul J. J. Welfens

Kapitel 24. Fazit: Internationale Kooperation und Klimaschutzkonzept

Fokussiert wird beim Fazit auf eine neue internationale Kooperation und ein effizientes Klimaschutzkonzept. In diesem Kapitel werden alle Elemente der vorigen Kapitel zusammengeführt und es werden die wesentlichen Konsequenzen für ein System mit globaler Klimaneutralität bis 2050 dargestellt. Klimaneutralität lässt sich weltweit auf Basis von neun Eckpunkten erreichen, die neben klimapolitischen Aspekten auch bisher wenig thematisierte Verteilungsfragen beinhalten – Umverteilung zu Gunsten des Faktors Kapital sowie steigende Lohnungleichheit in vielen Ländern; sowie Aspekte der Innovationspolitik und der Weiterqualifizierung von Ungelernten plus individuellen Mitwirkungsmöglichkeiten zur Klimaabkühlung (Albedo-Effekt). Es besteht die Gefahr, dass auf Basis der bisherigen EU-Minderungsvorgaben bei der jährlichen CO2-Obergrenze um 2030 eine Art politisch herbeigeführter OPEC-Preisschock (Zertifikatepreisanstieg) entsteht: Hier sind dringend Änderungen notwendig. Die Rolle Indiens wird mit Blick auf die G20-Perspektiven betont und zudem werden Berechnungen zur Senkung des Zertifikatepreises als Folge eines Systems integrierter Zertifikatehandelssysteme aufgezeigt. G20+ ist sinnvoll, nämlich G20 plus Nigeria. Es gibt eine ganze Reihe von klar herleitbaren Schlussfolgerungen für eine G20-Zertifikatepolitik, ergänzt um CO2-Steuern und Regulierungen. Klimaneutralität bis 2050 ist nur möglich, wenn man auf Effizienz und G20-Kooperation mit sinnvollen Begleitmaßnahmen der Klimaschutzpolitik setzt.

Paul J. J. Welfens

Kapitel 4. Globale Erderwärmungsperspektiven

Die globalen Erderwärmungsperspektiven werden mit Blick auf vorliegende ökonomische Analyseergebnisse – STERN-Bericht und andere – thematisiert und auch wichtige G20-Aspekte angesprochen. Das Schmelzen des Inlandseises als langfristiges Klimaproblem wird betont. Die Fläche des Grönland-Eispanzers hat im Laufe von 30 Jahren enorm abgenommen, wie sich aus Satellitenaufzeichnungen der NASA ergibt. Der STERN-Bericht hat schon relativ früh aufgezeigt, wie in verschiedenen Szenarien die ökonomischen Analysen langfristige nationale und internationale Effekte der Erderwärmung quantifizieren können. Zudem wird die Struktur der globalen Energieemissionen nach Sektoren dargestellt und ausgewählte Aspekte der Erderwärmung werden thematisiert.

Paul J. J. Welfens

Kapitel 18. G20-Probleme bei der Klimaschutzpolitik

Die Internationalen Organisationen fehlten im Vorfeld des Ersten Weltkrieges, erst im Anschluss an diesen Krieg gründete man den Völkerbund; und erst nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg gründete man dann mehr Internationale Organisationen, und zwar diesmal auch unter Mitwirkung der USA. In Sachen Klimaschutzpolitik besonders wichtig dürfte die G20-Gruppe werden. Die G20-Perspektiven für eine Klimaschutzpolitik sind absolut unerlässlich und jede nationale Klimaschutzpolitik, die hier auf internationaler Ebene nicht anschlussfähig ist, kann nicht als nachhaltig nützliches Element auf dem Weg zu globaler Klimaneutralität betrachtet werden: G20 steht für 81% des Welteinkommens, 80% der globalen CO2-Emissionen und 60% der Weltbevölkerung. Betont wird, dass alle G20-Länder ein CO2-Zertifikatehandelssystem haben sollten und längerfristig alle nationalen/regionalen Zertifikatehandelssysteme miteinander im Interesse von Effizienzgewinnen integriert sein sollten.

Paul J. J. Welfens

Circular Economy in Malaysia

Circular economy is a concept that aims to improve resource efficiency by minimizing resource consumption and waste generation. The implementation of circular economy can be conducted at three levels: in single enterprise or group of enterprises, in a group of collocated firms and at the city or municipal level. Currently, implementation of circular economy in Malaysia is at firm level. There is a lack of legal framework on the implementation of circular economy in Malaysia. However, there are certain sections and regulations in Environmental Quality Act 1974, Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007 and in Environmental Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulation 2005, respectively, that promote resource circulation. Nationwide initiatives taken to promote circular economy are inclusion of integration of sustainable production and consumption, reduction of 40% of greenhouse gas emissions intensity from GDP compared to 2005 level and 22% of recycling of MSW, in Eleventh Malaysian Plan. Additionally, SWCorp has launched SWCorp Strategic Plan to promote sustainable solid waste management services, and CIDB has initiated CITP that has a target of incorporating 20% of recycled construction and demolition waste (tonnage) by year 2020 from baseline of 2016. Also, there are guidelines on coprocessing and proposals on establishment of industrial ecology by DOE. A few case studies show implementation of circular economy in manufacturing industries. The benefits of these implementations were reduction in energy and resource consumption, reduction in waste generation, protection of environment and human health, cost savings by reusing or recycling waste and additional profit gains by selling waste to potential buyers. Several opportunities of sustainable waste management and resource circulation have been highlighted in this chapter such as manufacturing of bioproducts and butanol from biomass to coprocessing between ELVs and construction industry. To successfully implement circular economy, top-down and bottom-up approach is required, and currently, Malaysia does not have explicit top-down and bottom-up approaches.

P. Agamuthu, S. B. Mehran

An Overview of Circular Economy in Mauritius

Solid waste management remains an ever-increasing issue in small island development states like Mauritius, with landfilling being the main disposal option as opposed to more sustainable solutions like recycling and resource recovery. This article provided an overview of circular economy, the initiatives taken towards promotion of recycling and the challenges faced by the recycling industry in Mauritius. While some recycling is carried out on the island, this is still in its infancy stage due to several obstacles faced by the recycling industry such as lack of financial incentives, lack of critical mass of recyclables and poor quality of recyclables. However, based on the several forthcoming projects to boost circular economy in Mauritius, it is expected that the solid waste management system is called for a major overhaul in the future, with major focus on recycling and resource recovery.

P. Kowlesser

Circular Economy: Nigeria Perspective

Nigeria is a lower middle-income country and is ranked as the largest economy in Africa with a gross domestic product of 444.92 billion ( www.imf.org ). The country is located on the western coast of Africa, has an area of 923, 763 km2 and is bounded by Benin Republic in the west, Niger Republic in the north, Cameroun in the east and Gulf of Guinea in the south.

Saheed A. Aremu, David O. Olukanni, Olubunmi A. Mokuolu, Olumuyiwa A. Lasode, Michael A. Ahove, Olasunkanmi M. Ojowuro

Introduction to Circular Economy and Summary Analysis of Chapters

One-way model of production and consumption has been dominating over the past one and a half century in the globe. In the supply chain in this one-way model, the goods are manufactured from raw materials in production processes, sold, used, and subsequently at the end of its lifetime as the specific product is discarded as waste to landfill or incinerated. The raw materials are once extracted from the nature, usually discarded at the end of the use of a particular product.

Sadhan Kumar Ghosh

Circular Economy Initiatives in Norway

Circular economy is a principle of economic activity that aims to ensure that resources remain in the economy for as long as possible. This may be achieved by reducing raw material consumption, waste generation, emissions and energy consumption. The waste and recycling industry represent the largest part of the circular economy today, and it is estimated that more than 600 million tons of wastes can be recycled or reused in Europe (EC 2015).

Kåre Helge Karstensen, Christian John Engelsen, Palash Kumar Saha

Circular Economy—Situation in Israel

Circular economy (CE) is still in its infancy in Israel. In the past years, the Israeli Ministry of Environmental Protection (IMoEP) and the Israeli Ministry of Economy and Industry (IMoE&I) have started consolidating numerous plans toward achieving CE. Yet the main activities in this field in the past three decades were related to waste management and recycling, in an effort for closing the municipal solid waste (MSW) loop as a significant key factor in achieving a CE. The measures that were taken have been mainly reflected in regulation and legislation conducted by the IMoEP for increasing the overall recycling rates in Israel. The case of Israel, however, illustrates that even when there is an extensive regulation including laws, economic penalties, and financial incentives such as landfill levy, this does not guarantee achievements or improvements in MSW treatment and promote CE. The development of suitable infrastructure to enable achievement of the desired results is necessary. This chapter presents the main steps taken to promote recycling and additional plans consolidated for achieving CE in Israel.

Shira Daskal, Ofira Ayalon

Circular Economy in Republic of Serbia and Region

The presented paper shows the current importance of the CE (circular economy) to the sustainable development of the Republic of Serbia. Following the European Commission’s decision back from 2015 regarding the transformation of the linear economy into the circular economy, several laws were introduced in Serbia and are in the process of implementation, with the goal to stimulate investments in the CE Waste Management. The amendments to the Waste Management Law also give significant contribution to the CE development. The Ministry of Environmental Protection has signed an cooperation agreement with the National Alliance for Local Economic Development (NALED) regarding sustainable development of the CE in Serbia. International cooperations with institutions such as GIZ, OSCE, etc., are as well of significant importance to the CE development. This paper provides a numerous examples of good CE practice in Serbia. Serbian Chamber of Commerce, through cooperation with the Permanent Conference of Cities and Municipalities (SCTM), gives their contribution to the development of CE by supporting various activities in the economic field and the green jobs openings. In the future development, period is expected that CE should significantly increase GDP.

Milan Pavlović, Miroslav Vulić, Aleksandar Pavlović

Solid Waste Management in Lao PDR: A Pathway Toward the Circular Economy

Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is a land-locked developing country in Southeast Asia. The total area of the country is 236,800 km2. The total population as of 2017 was 6.8 million (World Bank 2019). Since the last two decades, the economy of Lao PDR has been growing significantly. Economic growth, population increase, rapid urbanization, and changing lifestyle are major contributions to growing environmental problems, especially solid wastes. In Vientiane Capital, wastes are generated approximately 650 tons per day, and only half of them are collected and disposed of properly in the landfill (VCOMS 2018). The same situation can be seen in secondary provinces, such as Luang Prabang, Savannakhet, Champassak, and other provinces across the country.

Vatthanamixay Chansomphou

Circular Economy in Kenya

A circular economy is a system based on economic and industrial concepts that advocates reusing of products and raw materials so as to maximize the restorative capacity of natural resources. Circular economy attempts to minimize value destruction in the overall system and to maximize value creation in each link in the system. The main benefit of this kind of economy is the reduction of environmental pressure through minimizing emissions of harmful products such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and methane among others thus resulting into a cleaner world without rising temperatures and other corresponding negative consequences.

Michael K. Koech, Kaburu J. Munene

Circular Economy in Vietnam

The chapter presents the situation of waste generation and waste management in Vietnam, a middle-income country that has the fastest growth economies within the last 30 years. Along with the development, the country is now faced with the increase of waste in many types, especially the domestic waste, while the infrastructure for waste management is still inadequate. Vietnam has not any specific term on circular economy; nevertheless, the necessary of circle the natural resources has been emphasized in many momentous legislation documents and also found in many actual sub-models for recycle and reuse of waste. In fact, the volume of recycled materials in Vietnam is still small comparing to the input of the economy, and still far from its target on reducing the landfill rate of collected waste. Because of that, in the near future, Vietnam is still focused on 3R policy to build a proper infrastructure before applying the circular economy concept and frame for the sustainable development of the country.

Huynh Trung Hai, Nguyen Duc Quang, Nguyen Trung Thang, Nguyen Hoang Nam

Status and Development of the Circular Economy in Germany

What is circular economy? Wikipedia says: circular economy is a regenerative system in which resource input and waste, emission and energy leakage are minimised by slowing, closing and narrowing energy and material loops; this can be achieved through long-lasting design, maintenance, repair, reuse, remanufacturing, refurbishing, recycling and upcycling.

Michael Nelles, Abdallah Nassour, Gert Morscheck

Circular Economy of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Korea

Korean economy is characterized by the service-centered industrial structure and heavy industries are regarded as main source of economic growth. Rapid industrialization in Korea had been achieved by high rate of economic growth by export-driven heavy industry.

Seung-Whee Rhee

Circular Economy in Italy

Italy is located in the south-west part of Europe with a population of about 60.6 million of inhabitants and a gross domestic product of about 1,934,798 M US$ in 2017. Italy operates in the wider legal framework of the European Union (EU) legislation that is internationally recognized as one of the most advanced approaches in the sectors of environmental protection, sustainable development and waste management. The broad concept of sustainability entails, among the others, also the preservation of the environment quality and of the resources of the earth for the future generations. In this context takes places the concept of circular economy (CE) based on the circular use of resources. An important sector in which circular use of resource was successfully implemented since 1991 was the waste management. The directive 91/156/EEC (CD 1991) formally introduced in the legal framework of waste management the concept of the waste management hierarchy establishing the priority goals to be pursued with a hierarchic order in waste management (Fig. 1): Prevention, Reuse, Recycling, Recovery and Disposal. From the hierarchy was also extrapolated the 3R concept based on Reuse, Recycle and Recover. The same directive introduced also the concept of extended producer responsibility (EPR) that is another fundamental pillar for enhancing the recycling of waste. These basic concepts during the years were updated and improved but never replaced or repealed by the successive directives. Legal and economic support resulted key factors for a successful implementation of CE even if it is necessary to size these activities in each specific market. Large differences were detected in the sector of the municipal solid waste compared to the ones generated by industrial and commercial sectors. Long-term efforts which aimed to the implementation of the legal framework in the sector lead in about 8 years to a reduction of the amount of waste disposed of about 33%. Furthermore, latest data available shows that this positive trend is still increasing. Socio-economic indicators showed that there is a general decrease of waste generated and that the paradigm between the increase of GDP and families’ expenditures and waste generation is starting to be capsized. Different results were detected for the waste generated in industrial and commerce sectors. Even if the high level of recycling that in the 2014 was of about 85%, their effective prevention seems not to be successfully pursued yet.

Francesco Di Maria

Circular Economy for Sustainable Resource Management: The Case of Packaging Waste Sector in Thailand

The status of circular economy (CE) in Thailand is reviewed in this chapter. The current CE practices and policy instruments used towards sustainable resource management in Thailand are presented as well. CE indicators for Thailand are extensively studied and summarized in the paper. Based on the review, it is established that the existing policies and programs on CE are focused more towards 3R concepts and less on other sub-sects of CE such as products-as-services, next life sales, product transformation, collaborative consumption, etc. Currently, CE indicators are primarily based on 3R concepts, whereas it is recommended that the other sub-sects of CE should also be taken into consideration to measure the actual CE progress. Employing packaging waste in Thailand as a case study, the current circular economy practice and key barriers to CE implementation were assessed to propose appropriate policy measures for sustainable waste and resources management. There has been an increase in packaging waste in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, of which plastic poses a key challenge in the urban waste stream. The current flow of packaging waste is predominated by recycling as downcycling. Most packaging waste remaining at landfills is one-time-use packaging. According to the comprehensive assessment, consumers had positive attitudes towards 3R practices and were conscious of waste problems. Economic incentives and regulatory instruments in line with a new waste management policy framework are recommended to overcome the barriers hindering CE implementation. Packaging waste management policy framework and policy measures are established through this study.

Siwaporn Tangwanichagapong, Mohanakrishnan Logan, Chettiyappan Visvanathan

Integrated Waste Management in Bhutan

Bhutan is widely renowned for its carbon negative status in the environmental arena. However, owing to its geographical location as a Himalayan country sandwiched between China and India, the influence of globalization from the north and south has drastically increased the rate of urbanization and economic activities in Bhutan over the years. This paper provides an account on waste management, policy, and initiatives taken by government, NGOs, and enterprises in Bhutan. Different streams of wastes are emerging and in particular, municipal solid wastes are serious waste management issues in Bhutan with a shift in consumption patterns and increasing population rate. Apart from the National Environment Commission (NEC) acting as an apex body for regulating and monitoring waste management, similar initiatives have been taken by local governments, other government agencies, private enterprises, and non-governmental organizations (NGO) to create litter-free and healthy environment by implementing 3Es and 4Rs towards circular economy. The concept of circular economy in Bhutan got introduced with the Waste and Climate Change Project (WWC) of NEC and WWF Bhutan. The circular economy concept is the main philosophy of the National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) which aims to establish waste management as a national priority and provide information, logical steps and strategies required for its successful implementation. The NWMS aims to resolve data gaps, challenges, and issues between agencies regarding waste management. It would also ensure that waste management programmes are trickling down to the gross root systems fostering a national waste reduction, reuse, and recycling concept.

Ugyen Tshomo, Chhimi Dorji, Yogeeta Dahal

The Development of a Circular Economy in Australia

Elements of the circular economy have been in play for many years in Australia. These elements have included cleaner production programmes, waste to landfill levies (tax on landfill disposal), collection and recycling of household packaging and paper, metals recycling, regional waste strategies, infrastructure planning and investment, waste and recycling legislation and other regulatory interventions under state-based environment protection acts.

P. S. M. Vaughan Levitzke

Circular Economy in India

India is a fastest growing economy with unity in many diversities comprising of 28 states and nine union territories. The population in India as estimated in 2019 is at 1.37 billion based on the most recent UN data and 2011 census data. India is the second-most populous country. It is the seventh-largest country in the world, having total area of 3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi) measuring 3214 km (1997 mi) from north to south and 2933 km (1822 mi) from east to west. A land frontier of 15,200 km (9445 mi) and a coastline of 7,516.6 km (4671 mi) exist in India (Annual Report 2016–17).

Sadhan Kumar Ghosh

Solid Waste Management in Kabul

Many developed countries have made great strides in addressing waste management, particularly since the environment came onto the international agenda in the 1960s, and there are many good practice examples available for the international community to learn from. However, the initial focus was on waste after it had been discarded, whereas now attention has moved upstream, addressing the problem at its source through, for example, designing out waste, preventing its generation, reducing both the quantities and the uses of hazardous substances, minimizing and reusing, and, where residuals do occur, keeping them concentrated and separate to preserve their intrinsic value for recycling and recovery, and preventing them from contaminating other waste that still has economic value for recovery.

Hamidullah Nikzad

Status of Plastics Waste in Circular Economy in the USA

Circular economy, an economic system where waste is utilized as an economic input, is currently the subject of much interest. Methods to incorporate all wastes into circular economy have not been developed. This paper discusses the current status and options for including plastics wastes in circular economy in the USA. Utilizing some plastics wastes as fuel is the most feasible path to doing so at present. Completely closed-loop circular economy for plastics would require fundamental changes in how plastics-based products are designed and manufactured.

Serpil Guran, Ronald L. Mersky, Sannidhya K. Ghosh

Circular Economy in Canada

Canada, specifically Ontario, has become the first jurisdiction in the Americas to enact a comprehensive circular economy law, the Resource Recovery and Circular Economy Act, 2016 (“RRCEA”) (SO 2016 c. 12). Previously, waste diversion existed in Ontario under the Waste Diversion Act (“WDA”) (SO 2002, c 6), a government-managed scheme that was meant to oversee the diversion of target waste streams away from landfills. The WDA tasked Waste Diversion Ontario (“WDO”) to be the industry regulator, and the province designated industry-funded organizations (“IFOs”) as service providers to coordinate waste management activities for their respective industries. The fatal systemic flaw of this framework, however, was that these two bodies were placed between the “Producers” (namely the manufacturers, first importers, and brand owners) and the end-of-life supply chain. The RRCEA will allow the province to more effectively preserve and recover resources, divert materials from landfills, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from waste, with the overall aim of implementing a “circular economy.” Under the RRCEA, the Producers will be the primary resource recovery party, solely responsible for complying with the Ministry’s mandated obligations for resource recovery, with non-transferable liabilities. By naming the Producer as the operator of the product’s end-of-life (or “reverse”) supply chain, their decisions as to a product’s composition, content, and deconstruction attributes are now relevant to the waste management process—giving rise to an integrated circular economy market. Canada’s treatment of plastics gives interesting insight into how a circular economy might be implemented. Additionally, to address these requirements and liability issues, Producers are looking to Producer Responsibility Organizations (“PROs”) as waste management third parties to help address the new and often daunting obligations, as examined in this paper’s case study on the used tire industry in Ontario. To help implement RRCEA, Ontario has identified no less than 15 actions to help facilitate the smooth transition to a circular economy, with the express interest of creating scalable solutions which can then be mass-produced across North America.

Jonathan Cocker, Kimberley Graham

Developing the Circular Economy in the European Union

The European Union has adopted legislation and other supporting policies across a range of areas to facilitate the development of a Circular Economy. Building on earlier initiatives on waste management and resource efficiency, the policies coalesced in the 2015 Circular Economy Action Plan. This sets out a series of actions covering several issues, with a particular focus on resource efficiency, improved waste management and support for innovation. EU waste law has been revised promoting increased recycling, and most recently to tackling the growing problem of single-use plastics. However, while there are actions to support waste prevention, there are not legal targets on this issue. There are still challenges for joined-up action to deliver a Circular Economy. This includes addressing the nature of consumption by citizens, as well as technical issues such as how secondary materials meet objectives in chemicals and product legislation. A further challenge is the wide diversity of waste and materials management across the EU, such as very different recycling rates between countries. Delivering a Circular Economy means leaders needing to push with innovation and laggards needing help to achieve basic waste and material objectives.

Andrew Farmer

Circular Economy in China

Circular economy is devoted to improving resource efficiency and recycling rate. Its actions are being motivated by four major drivers: (i) regulatory control led by a mix of US states, European Union legislation, and China’s environmental law; (ii) competitive incentives for both cost decrease and technology innovation; (iii) stakeholder promotion related to brand reputation and greater transparency; and (iv) risks from supply chain broken caused by regional resource shortage and vis major event (Dauvergne and LeBaron in New Polit Econ 18(3):410–430, 2013). In China, these drivers and pressures have imposed evolution of circular economy.

Xianlai Zeng, Jinhui Li

10. Low-Carbon Transport: Trends and Prospects

Low-carbon transport is the transport sector’s response to the ecological civilization and green development strategies. This paper discusses latest developments in the transport sector, including restructuring, optimization of energy consumption patterns, development of low-carbon transport systems, low-carbon transport pilots, application of information technology in transport, and international cooperation in this sector, and analyzes the trends and prospects of low-carbon transport.

Quansheng Huang

2. Storm Resilience of Chinese Cities: Ranking and Analysis

In recent years, many cities in China have been hit frequently by storms and floods, leading to an increase in the attention of the academic circle and the general public to the resilience of cities. Based on the IPCC climate risk assessment framework, this paper creates a storm resilience index for cities with indicators such as storm disaster risk and city adaptability. It then ranks provincial capitals, municipalities, and pilot cities of the Sponge City Program and the Climate Resilient City Program in China by their storm resilience and divides these cities into the three categories of high-resilience, medium-resilience, and low-resilience cities. The resilience evaluation methods used here and the results thus obtained can be used by researchers and decision-makers to increase public attention to disaster risks faced by large and medium-sized cities in China during the urbanization process across the country.

Jianqing Zhai, Yan Zheng, Ying Li

7. Climate Resilient Cities: Water Security

A well-function urban water security system is central to a climate resilient city. This paper examines problem identification, systematic planning, policy implementation and coordination mechanisms related to water security and offers policy recommendations for the development of a climate resilient urban water security system. Such recommendations include promoting water conservation practices, building sponge cities, and updating urban planning and building standards.

Yongying Tian

A Rapid and Low Noise RANS-to-WMLES Condition in Curvilinear Compressible ZDES Simulations

The rapid and low-noise strategy of Deck et al. [9] for the RANS-to-WMLES switch compatible with compressible flow solvers on curvilinear grids is presented. It can be used both as an inflow condition or as an embedded resolved turbulence injection and combines Zonal Detached Eddy Simulation, Dynamic Forcing and Zonal Immersed Boundary Conditions (for roughness elements) approaches. The relaxation length is close to 7 boundary layer thicknesses on coarse grids and the feasibility on a 3-element high-lift airfoil is demonstrated. On a flat plate, no spurious acoustic footprint of the inflow is visible in the wall pressure spectra, of which the low-frequency part is obtained. The intermittent nature of wall turbulence is captured. The hybrid RANS/LES context makes the computational effort affordable for industrial applications, e.g. aeroacoustic studies.

Nicolas Renard, Sébastien Deck, Pierre-Élie Weiss

Chapter 2. The Role of Responsible Business Practices in International Business Relationships Between SMEs from Developed and Emerging Economies

The different institutional environments of developed and emerging economies may dictate the business practices of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). With national institutions’ current focus on better integrating SMEs into both international trade and sustainability goals, it is worth investigating the role socially and environmentally responsible business practices (RBPs) plays in SMEs’ international business relationships. The qualitative approach employed in this study reveals that environmental responsibility is not prominent in cross-border business relationships between Finnish and Russian SMEs, while social responsibility in part of ethics, transparency and partner responsibility is crucial for these relationships. The study thus contributes to the literature on responsibility in international business (IB) and international entrepreneurship (IE) by (1) suggesting that international business relationships can help raise the ethical behaviour of SMEs from emerging economies; (2) extending the research on sustainability-related issues in IB/IE towards emerging economies and the SME context; and (3) applying the institutional lens to explain RBP in international business relationships.

Maria Uzhegova, Lasse Torkkeli, Maria Ivanova-Gongne

Chapter 6. Desecuritization in Protracted Conflicts

This chapter focuses exclusively on desecuritization in environments dominated by routinized securitization. It examines both the top-down attempts of mainstream actors, and more importantly the under-examined audience-driven efforts and limitations. Specifically, it focuses on one hand why and how certain groups are willing and capable of breaking free of the conflict norms to engage in desecuritizing acts, and on the other the limitations they face and the main reasons why their efforts have not managed, so far, to have a major impact on the conflict. Particular emphasis is placed on the most recent and important audience-driven effort carried out by a civil society group, called Unite Cyprus Now.

Constantinos Adamides

Chapter 3. Reason and Number: African Reflections on Japan

On balance, Africans in the colonial and post-colonial period underwent a cultural process of soft Westernisation, rapidly converting to Western religions and acquiring Western tastes in music, cuisine, dance and dress. We say “on balance” because “Africans” as a category represents a miracle of diversity, but it is one which, methodologically, should not necessarily preclude the use of evidence about Africans in one part of Africa to formulate Africa-wide hypotheses. That is precisely a task this chapter has set itself. It is in this sense that we could also say, in missionary and colonial schools, Africans learned much more about history, philosophy, literature, and even classical Greek and Latin than about technology and applied sciences. But the Japanese in the Meiji and Post-Meiji period underwent a process of hard modernisation, which is skill-intensive. In Japan, first, the overriding goal was defined as “Rich Country, Strong Army” [fukokukyohei]; then, “Reason and Number” [jitsugaku] was identified as the means for achieving it. Japan’s leaders subsequently pursued the skills of production and strategies of military defence under the guidance of “Western Techniques, Japanese Spirit” [wakonyōsai]. While Nigeria and the Congo have produced cardinals who were considered as candidates for the papacy in the Vatican, the Japanese continued to produce high value-added products. In this chapter, we argue that the primary explanation for this disparity lies in the divergent responses to the challenges of modernisation in Meiji Japan and post-colonial Africa.

Seifudein Adem

On Systemological Approach to Intelligent Decision-Making Support in Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems

The presented study solves the actual scientific and technical problem of developing a new approach related to the creation of models, methods, and algorithms, as well as an application development platform for intelligent decision support in man-aging the process of maintenance, repair and upgrading to increase the efficiency of industrial equipment at all stages life cycle. Systematization of tasks, methods and means of maintenance and repair of Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems in the light of the equipment life cycle was build. Input effects and response systems, components, internal communications was identified. Systemological model of the process of maintenance and repair was formalized. To improve the efficiency of maintenance and repair, a method of continuous improvement of the process of maintenance and repair of the maintenance program has been developed. As a result of approbation, an increase in the efficiency and quality of equipment maintenance, a reduction in costs up to 15%, and an increase in the overall efficiency of the organization of maintenance and repair processes up to 20% were obtained, which is confirmed by the implementation certificates.

Alexey V. Kizim, Alla G. Kravets

Functionalization of Graphene—A Critical Overview of its Improved Physical, Chemical and Electrochemical Properties

Graphene, the 2D allotrope of carbon, is reported to be functionalized with a plethora of organic and inorganic species. This functionalization imparts significant improvement in the physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of graphene. The covalent and non-covalent functionalization of graphene with electron-rich organic moieties and heteroatoms is focused on different sections of this chapter. The focus is laid on the improvement in physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of graphene achieved through this functionalization. The enhancement in electrocatalytic activity of non-metal-doped graphene towards the oxygen reduction reaction, methanol oxidation reaction and photocatalysis is covered. Towards the end, the potential uses of functionalized graphene for selected applications like biosensors, fuel cells and dye-sensitized solar cells are also discussed.

Ramesh Kumar Singh, Naresh Nalajala, Tathagata Kar, Alex Schechter

Graphene-Based Advanced Materials: Properties and Their Key Applications

Since the last 500 years, science is becoming more and more dominant in our civilization and continuously making the life of human beings more convenient. Along with the numerous fundamental discoveries and innovations, twenty-first century will be evoked as technological achievements for a long time. Among the many outstanding scientific achievements, the introduction of graphene can be considered as one of the most important breakthroughs for this century. This single-atom thin 2D carbon nanomaterial is the foundation of all graphitic structures. Owing to its amazing physical and chemical properties, graphene has found applications in many scientific and technological fields, from medical science to aerospace engineering. However, scientists of the various disciplines are working hard individually and in collaborations around the globe to utilize and explore application potentials of the graphene and its derivatives (graphene oxide, graphene quantum dot, graphene nanoribbon, functionalized graphene etc.). In this chapter, some novel discoveries and innovations closely related to the graphene-based advanced nanomaterials for the real-time applications have been reviewed in detail, especially in contest of high-performance polymer blends, nanocomposites for catalysis, water splitting and 3D printings. In addition, a brief outline for the fabrication of graphene-based polymer blends and nanocomposites has also been discussed with appropriate citations for the further reading.

Santosh Kumar Tiwari, Nannan Wang, Sung Kyu Ha

Chapter 5. Kairos

Science communication is as much about the when as it is about the hows and whys. This chapter draws on the classical rhetoric notion of Kairos to help us think through some major ethical issues in science communication. Beginning with science communication’s uneasy relationship with persuasion, this chapter then considers the interaction of a fast-paced media landscape on the timing of science communication. Timing of communication matters to science communication as the when of communication is inextricably linked to both hype and urgency. The chapter closes with a discussion on the (historical) time in which the communication takes place, and how this relates to the (historical) time of our audience, because to be a good science communicator, the when really does matters.

Fabien Medvecky, Joan Leach

Open Access

Kapitel 3. Plattformbasierte Dienstleistungen

Dienstleistungen als Treiber des gesellschaftlichen Wandels

Peer-to-Peer-Dienstleistungsplattformen (P2P-Plattformen) stellen eine besondere Form von Dienstleistungsplattformen dar, die z. B. Geschäftsmodelle der Sharing Economy in seiner heutigen Form ermöglichen. Als Reaktion auf den aktuell herrschenden Begriffsdschungel rund um Sharing Economy und Dienstleistungsplattformen im Allgemeinen werden zunächst Begrifflichkeiten geklärt, bevor Aspekte des gesellschaftlichen Wandels diskutiert werden. Aufgrund iterativer Wechselwirkungen zwischen Sozialstrukturen und sozialen Akteuren werden die technischen, sozialen, ökologischen und ökonomischen Aspekte des gesellschaftlichen Wandels sowohl als Folge als auch als Vorbedingungen für das Aufkommen von P2P-Plattformen betrachtet. Abschließend werden in einem dritten Teil Chancen und Herausforderungen diskutiert, die sich aktuell und zukünftig durch P2P-Plattformen für die Gesellschaft ergeben. Dabei ist festzustellen, dass viele Aspekte sowohl Chancen als auch Herausforderungen mit sich bringen, die entsprechend abzuwägen sind.

Katinka Weissenfeld, Angelina Dungga, Jan Frecè

Chapter 5. Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage

If fossil-fuel-based hydrogen is to contribute for the long-term to a low-carbon economy, then progress must be made in technologies that ensure that the associated carbon is not released to the atmosphere. There has for many years been interest in the potential for carbon capture and storage (CCS). The chapter explains why hydrogen production from fossil fuels can yield carbon dioxide rich wastes that are very attractive candidates for CCS. The sector is also well-placed for the emerging interest in carbon capture and utilisation (CCU).

William J. Nuttall, Adetokunboh T. Bakenne

Chapter 10. Deep Decarbonisation—The Role of Hydrogen

Increasingly, there is concern that Western economies must find a path to near complete decarbonisation. In recent decades, many heavy industries have been off-shored, but increasingly this is recognised to be problematic at several levels. There is a need to find a path to low-carbon activity in hard-decarbonise sectors. One such prominent sector is steel-making, and this chapter examines the role that might be played by hydrogen in a low-carbon steel industry.

William J. Nuttall, Adetokunboh T. Bakenne

Chapter 13. Systems Engineering for Sustainable Mobility

Nowadays, sustainability has established itself in the automotive industry and has evolved to an indispensable part of it. In contrast with its initial understanding as ecological improvement during development and production of vehicles, it has emerged to an advanced concept that considers much more, for instance the interaction of vehicles with the superordinate system they are included in. Therefore, not only the reduction of the pollution as well as of the resource consumption, but also the impact on the societal, economic and environmental development are of great importance. The current product development in many companies is still characterized by the fact that different disciplines create several partial models of the same product and provide many information only in documents. Periodic synchronizations of common parameters and models are performed. Information related to sustainability even when it exists is not consistent and not represented in models, which can be used for synchronization points. Therefore sustainability is often not really taken into account along the product life cycle. In order to master the complexity of smart products, which arises from customer behavior and requirements, but also from legal requirements related to sustainability, a proposal is made for Systems Engineering to integrate sustainability to a greater extent. Based on the main research directions over sustainability, such as innovative design concepts including alternative propulsions for less pollution, the safety and driver assistance for resource efficiency and life protection, the mastery of networked vehicles for instance to control the interaction of car with its superordinate system, adapted and even new methods as well as processes are needed in order to link Systems Engineering with Sustainability. This paper presents proposals of product development processes that take Systems Engineering methods into account as well as sustainable mobility. The prerequisites to realize such a product development process are described, whereby the whole product development cycle from the product concept down to disposal is taken into account.

Alain Biahmou

Chapter 8. Emergence of Product-Service Systems

Product-Service Systems (PSSs) are a new emergent way to innovate traditional products and to extend the company portfolio, by reducing time and cost while offering high quality and meeting the expectations of both customers and stakeholders, which have to be considered during the design and development process (Complex systems concurrent engineering. Springer, London, pp. 321–328, 2007 [1]). A further challenge is to close loops between Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) and Service Lifecycle Management (SLM) by providing feedback from service delivery to the beginning-of-life phase of products, or defining a structured procedure to coordinate product and service development activities. The objective of this chapter is to provide a common understanding about PSSs, to deepen the Servitization process and its main features, and to understand how PLM and SLM can be integrated to define future organization of PSS-oriented companies. The final aim is to present PSS as a new business model, which companies can adopt to innovate their products and to enlarge their offer to the market, according to a consumer-oriented approach.

Margherita Peruzzini, Stefan Wiesner

Chapter 4. System of Systems Modelling

The design, manufacturing and through-life support of modern engineering systems such as an aircraft or a frigate are complex, multifaceted and may change over time. These engineering systems are working in an environment that has multiple individual users, complicated supply chain, many government and socially affected stakeholders. In essence, these systems are working as a system of interacting semi-autonomous systems each of which are governed by their individual set of rules and could operate with different enterprise structures. Engineers trying to apply the theory of systems engineering to “design” a system of systems find the outcome often unpredictable and uncontrollable, as the linked systems operate with high degree of independence. System operations are embedded in business networks that are evolving and changing all the time. Individuals and organisations participate voluntarily in the networks. They can come and go at any time without warning. This highly uncertain relationship requires a different approach. This chapter will address the modelling requirements to design, develop, implement and operate a complex system that interacts with many socio-technical systems. The methodology is illustrated by two case studies.

John P. T. Mo, Ronald C. Beckett

Chapter 12. Technology Nationalization in the Space Sector: The Brazilian Perspective

Brazil as an emerging country needs to catch up with technology to extend its position on the international market, especially in the space sector. The Technology Nationalization Framework (TNF) is a strategy for nationalization and industrialization of high technology products. The TNF is meant to assure that strategic technologies, that are currently lacking, will be designed, produced, and operated in Brazil as long as needed, without the risk of export bans or unavailability of components. The framework is based on reengineering with subsequent transfer to the national industry. The strategy starts with the identification of strategic technologies in relation to technologies already present in Brazil. For the nationalization process of these technologies a decision-making process is needed taking into account available resources and competencies. In this chapter the TNF will be introduced and explained, while also a pilot project is described in which the TNF strategy is applied.

Timo Wekerle, Luís Gonzaga Trabasso, Luís E. V. Loures da Costa

Chapter 10. Systematic Development of Product-Service Systems

Main problems occurring in Product-Service Systems (PSSs), are due to an inadequate requirements analysis and lack of a strong PSS conceptual design. Problems vary from exceeding budgets, to missing functionalities, unsuccessful market launch, or even project abortion. Furthermore, the special characteristics of a PSS have to be considered already at an early stage of the development process. Requirements Engineering (RE) and design methodology as well as supporting Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) need to establish a common perception of the targeted PSS. At the same time, the inner complexity of PSS leaves requirements analysis, design activities and development tasks fragmented among many disciplines and sometimes conflicting, unstable, unknowable or not fully defined. In this context, a concurrent, transdisciplinary and collaborative design of PSS is required to create feasible and successful solutions. The objective of this chapter is to present a structured approach to face the specific challenges of PSS development in detail, to elaborate a general framework that features a systematic approach for PSS development, and to consider the effects of changes in specific product and service design on a systematic PSS development process.

Margherita Peruzzini, Stefan Wiesner

Enhancing the Service Life of Aged Asphalt Concrete by Micro Crack Healing and Recycling

Aging of the asphalt cement in the pavement changes the quality of asphalt concrete from flexible to stiff and the pavement will be susceptible to all types of distresses. Recycling is considered as a good alternative to enhance the pavement for additional service life. Recycling agent can provide the required flexibility and increase its micro crack healing potential. In this investigation, aged asphalt concrete was recycled with two types of additives, carbon black CB and styrene Butadiene rubber SBR. Two set of Cylindrical specimens have been prepared, the first set has 102 mm diameter and 63.5 mm height while the second set has 102 mm diameter and 102 mm height. The first set was subjected to repeated indirect tensile stresses (ITS) at 25 °C and tested under stress level of 138 kPa, while the second set practices repeated compressive stresses (CS) at 40 °C and tested under three stress levels of (69, 138, and 207) kPa. All the specimens were tested in the pneumatic repeated load system PRLS and constant loading frequency of 60 cycles per minute. The loading sequence for each cycle is 0.1 s of load duration and 0.9 s of rest period. After 1000 load repetitions which allowed for the initiation of micro cracks, the test was terminated. Specimens were stored in an oven for 120 min at 60 °C to allow for crack healing by external heating. Specimens were returned to the PRLS chamber and subjected to another cycle of stresses repetition. The impact of crack healing was measured in terms of the change in Resilient Modulus Mr under ITS and permanent deformation under CS before and after healing for each recycling agent. It was concluded that Mr under repeated ITS increases by (25, 30, and 20) % for aged, CB treated and SBR treated mixtures respectively after healing. On the other hand, the permanent deformation under repeated CS decreases by (31, 43, and 45) %, (6, 49, and 10.6), (19, 24.5, and 13.2) % for aged, CB treated and SBR treated mixtures under stress levels of (69, 138, and 207) kPa respectively after healing.

Saad Issa Sarsam, Mostafa Shaker Mahdi

Investigation on the Use of Crumb Rubber and Bagasse Ash in Road Construction

The naturally occurring materials like aggregates, sand, bitumen, etc. are depleting day by day due to its extensive usage in various civil infrastructural and building construction projects. On the other hand, the disposal of industrial and domestic waste in an eco-friendly way is a thrust area for researchers and has ample scope for its utilization as an alternative to the conventional exhausting natural materials. A number of researchers have already reported the potential use of various waste materials in road construction. The present study is an attempt to report the obtained results from extensive literature review upon the use of waste materials like tyre rubber, bagasse ash, in road construction. Furthermore, as a sustainable construction method, the experimental investigation on studying the effects of adding scrap rubber and bagasse ash as a partial replacement to bitumen and filler in the bituminous mixes respectively done by using the Marshall stability testing machine. The results obtained from the comparative study showed that scrap rubber can be used in road construction as a partial alternative to bitumen but the additions of bagasse ash lower done the strength & quality of the bituminous mix. So it is concluded that scrap rubber can be effectively used in the road construction as an alternative to bitumen but the use of bagasse ash is not been recommended in bituminous layers.

M. Patil Akshay, Anand B. Tapase, Y. M. Ghugal, B. A. Konnur, Shrikant Dombe

Investigation on the Use of E-Waste and Waste Plastic in Road Construction

The amount of e-waste and waste plastic caused by technological and industrial development is increasing day by day. One of the low-cost and most effective way to exclude such waste and protect the environment is recycling, wherein its advantageous use in the road construction sector by replacing conventional exhausting materials can be a good eco-friendly alternative. In the initial stage, an attempt to state the potential use of various waste material reported by the number of researchers is done from an extensive literature review. Furthermore, to check cost effectiveness along with sustainable construction method, the experimental investigation on studying the effect of partial replacement of filler and bitumen by e-waste and waste plastic in the bituminous mixes respectively is done by using Marshall Stability testing machine. To check the suitability of e-waste and waste plastic in road construction, the results obtained from the Marshall Stability testing machine for the number of trials were interpreted in respect to its stability, flow value, % V.M.A., % air voids, bulk density, etc. It was observed that partial replacement of conventional material with e-waste is possible which not only the increase in strength but also gives a cost-effective solution towards the e-waste disposal. Advantageous use of plastic is well documented in the available literature and is again confirmed from the present work.

Shrikant Dombe, Anand B. Tapase, Y. M. Ghugal, B. A. Konnur, Patil Akshay

27. Gegenüberstellung

der nassen und trockenen Hochofengas-Feinreinigung

Karl-Rudolf Hegemann, Ralf Guder

Chapter 4. Urban Governance in Latvia: Feeling Urban and Thinking Rural

UrbanisationUrbanisation is affectingGovernance not only countries with high number of residents but also with small number. The aim of the research is to explore urbanisationUrbanisation and shrinking cityShrinking cities tendencies in a country with small number of residents in the context of globalization and urbanisationUrbanisation. The “donut effect” will be explored in the capital cityCities Riga and ten municipalities nearby. The main research question is to what extent can the classical understanding and perception of urbanisationUrbanisation be applied to small societies and countries, and what kind of effects does the urbanisationUrbanisation create in such dynamically developing countries. There are several interdependent problems, such as the new patterns of urban–rural relations, as well as cityCities discourse in a small country. The suburbanized ring municipalities included in the research are not only an extension of Riga’s economic geography, but also play an important role to ensure qualitative microclimate around the capital cityCities. Due to these reasons, it is significant to coordinate growth strategies of municipalities around Riga. However, coordination of growth strategies is still lesson to be learned.

Iveta Reinholde, Malvīne Stučka

Effect of Salt Water on Unconfined Compressive Strength for Cement Kiln Dust

CKD is a fine cement powder produced in large amounts as a by-product during cement manufacturing. It is mainly composed of oxidized, anhydrous and micron-sized particles. It is considered a major health hazard where the Ministry of Environment recommended its beneficial utilization uses or getting rid of it.The maximum load, which can be transmitted to the soil by foundation, depends on the resistance of soil to the shearing deformation and compressibility. In this study, unconfined compression strength tests were performed on fresh CKD samples.Different factors affecting the samples preparing process were investigated in the current experimental study including the amount of water required to form the samples and the type of the mixing water (fresh water and salt water). The percentages of water were 50%, 60% and 70% from CKD sample weight.Due to the proximity of most of the cement factories in Egypt to the sea, the experimental study confirmed that using the salt water in unconfined compressive strength test for the CKD is the most favorable method. Also, the tests proved the ability to utilize the CKD rather than disposal in landfills. Results of the performed experimental study showed that, using of salt water/seawater leads to increase the unconfined compressive strength and decreasing the failure strain.

Mahmoud E. Hassan, Ayman L. Fayed, Mohamed Y. Abd El-Latif

The Impact of Recycled Plastic Waste in Morocco on Bitumen Physical and Rheological Properties

Morocco is getting into the circular economy and wants to increase its overall recycling rate from 5% to more than 20%. Today we find that plastic waste production reaches the level of 1 million tons per year from which only 20 to 30% is recovered (Moroccan Federation of Plastics Processing 2016). In addition, we have the road sector in Morocco, where huge quantities of pure bitumen used increasingly, which affects greatly the economic balance of the country.Therefore, this work enables us to study the impact of the addition of recycled plastic materials into the composition of bitumen in order to reduce the quantities of pure bitumen consumed and to recover plastic waste while improving the characteristics of bitumen used in road construction.At first, the focus has been oriented to determine the abundance of recycled thermoplastic waste in Morocco, taking into account the needs of the existing plastics industries before analyzing the effect of adding different rates of recycled waste, namely Polypropylene (PP), Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and Polystyrene (PS), to a conventional 35/50 quality bitumen.Basic rheological parameters such as penetration, softening point, elastic recovery and ageing (RTFOT) helped to determine the changes caused by each rate of plastic addition to the pure bitumen.Tests showed that the penetrability of modified bitumen decreases, and its softening point as well as its elastic recovery increases, so as a result, the thermal sensibility and the aging rate of the new bitumen mixture decreases.

Nacer Akkouri, Khadija Baba, Sana Simou, Nassereddin Alanssari, Abderrahman Nounah

Oxides of Carbon Entrapment for Environmental Friendly Geomaterials Ash Derivation

Environmental friendly, environmental efficient, and sustainable civil engineering works have been studied with a focus on utilizing the derivatives of solid waste recycling and reuse to achieving infrastructural activities with low or zero carbon emission. The direct combustion model, which is a solid waste incinerator sodium hydroxide-oxides of carbon entrapment model (SWI-NaOH-OCEM) developed in the cause of this research has achieved a zero carbon release. It has been shown that CO and CO2 emission during direct combustion can be entirely entrapped during the derivation of solid waste based supplementary cementing materials used as replacement for ordinary Portland cement in soft soils re-engineering works. This is achieved via the affinity between sodium hydroxide and oxides of carbon which gives rise to baking soda. Geomaterial ash has been synthesized for use in soft soil re-engineering with no hazardous emissions. The overall assessment of the present review work has left the environment free of the hazards of CO and CO2 emission. It was shown that these supplementary cementing materials derived from solid wastes improve the engineering properties of treated soft clay and expansive soils. It has been shown that solid waste recycling and reuse is a hub to achieving environmental friendly, environmental efficient and sustainable infrastructural development on the global scale.

Kennedy Onyelowe, A. Bunyamin Salahudeen, Adrian Eberemu, Charles Ezugwu, Talal Amhadi, George Alaneme

Utilization of Solid Waste Derivative Materials in Soft Soils Re-engineering

Environmental degradation resulting from CO2 emission and the constant collapse of foundation of facilities more especially pavements in Nigeria and across the world has posed serious threat to the overall economic growth of the developing nations. More so, Nigeria and the developing world lack an efficient solid waste disposal mechanism and policies hence indiscriminate disposal of waste on landfills poses yet another threat. The water resources in the developing countries is fast threatened by lack of engineered waste disposal facilities in different locations resulting to water pollution and its unhealthy consequences. This review work has brought to bear the interrelations between these problems. Geotechnical engineering in this paper promises to serve as a locus to bring these threatening environmental conditions into workable and beneficial stream. First, this paper tries to outline selected solid waste materials from which geomaterials utilized in the stabilization of soft soils, concrete production and asphalt modification are derived, by direct combustion or crushing. Secondly, the utilization of these derivatives, which serve as alternative cement in stabilization of soft soils, partial replacement for Portland cement in concrete production and modifier in asphalt production presents construction successes devoid of CO2 emission because these materials are eco-friendly. Lastly, by adapting the use of these materials in soft soil, concrete and asphalt strength improvement, the solid wastes find a disposal path through the recycling process and eventual utilization as geomaterials, concrete additives and asphalt modification materials sources. Research results have shown that these materials derived from solid waste, because of their high aluminosilicate content, improve the mechanical and strength properties of soils, concrete and asphalt.

Kennedy Onyelowe, A. Bunyamin Salahudeen, Adrian Eberemu, Charles Ezugwu, Talal Amhadi, George Alaneme, Felix Sosa

Applications of Recycled Sustainable Materials and By-Products in Soil Stabilization

The notion of sustainable and eco-friendly infrastructures is gaining impetus in the geotechnical engineering research field. Nowadays, employing recycled or waste materials, obtained from the natural sources, are widely used as an alternative method in construction in recognition of the green concept. It is evident that transport infrastructure projects require large amounts of materials and natural resources and consume large quantities of energy. On the other hand, large volumes of wastes are produced daily. In this paper, the beneficial effects of certain agricultural, domestic, industrial, construction, mineral and marine wastes in geotechnical applications, particularly in soil stabilization are discussed. Both methods of treatment are applied to improve the engineering properties of soil to make it suitable for construction. Another goal of this paper is to make a comparison between the effects of different types of waste materials for improving weak soil, and highlight the concept of sustainability to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, landfill cost and greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, many recycled materials and by-products are considered, and their advantages and drawbacks in soil stabilization are explained. In addition, the key results of many laboratory studies conducted on stabilized soil with waste materials are reported; and their effects on soil stabilization without or with a mixture of conventional stabilizers are discussed. The recent applications of wastes or recycled materials are also outlined. Finally, the future trend for employing recycled materials in infrastructure construction is presented.

Reem Alqaisi, Thang M. Le, Hadi Khabbaz

“A Literature Review on Solid Waste Management: Characteristics, Techniques, Environmental Impacts and Health Effects in Aligarh City”, Uttar Pradesh, India”

India is known as one of the most heavily settled countries in the world. It appears to be the second country to have the highest number of residents. With the total population of about expected data 1.37 billion in 2019. The management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in India has encountered problems. Each year, the population grew by 3–3.5%, as this factor arises, the rate of solid waste generation also rise up to 1.3% in Aligarh city, Uttar Pradesh a large number of ingenious factors like, rapid urbanization, rapid population density, rapid commercialization, uneven living standards and also enlargement of industrialization has created destructive consequences in terms of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste generations which are estimated at about 415 tons per day.This paper emphasizes the waste characteristics, techniques, adverse environmental impacts, health risks, poor waste management practices and also problems associated with the solid waste management system at the municipal level.The findings from this study indicates failure of the existing facilities due to lack of concern, high volume of waste generation, deficient collection space, delayed sanctioning of new landfill sites and a number of open-dump sites which generate fires. The innuendos of the waste management practices in the city are discussed.

Harit Priyadarshi, Sarv Priya, Ashish Jain, Shadab Khursheed

Planquarium: A Context-Aware Rule-Based Indoor Kitchen Garden

Planquarium is a context-aware indoor kitchen garden system, where a user can grow fresh plants and vegetables without prior knowledge. Further, the Planquarium will take care of the plants that are inside it using a Rule-Based Context-Aware environment, that is capable to monitor different aspects of the plant and can provide an ideal environment for the plant inside. Different plants have different requirements therefore, we have integrated profiling systems so that a person can select a plant and the Planquarium will adjust itself accordingly. Initially, we have deployed temperature, humidity, moisture, water and light(Artificial sunlight full spectrum) sensors to monitor the plants. In the future, we can further add soil quality monitors to optimum growth. Planquarium is suitable for congested smart cities, smart homes and for people who care for organic food.

Rahat Khan, Altaf Uddin, Ijaz Uddin, Rashid Naseem, Arshad Ahmad

Chapter 20. Regulating Water Security in Unconventional Oil and Gas: Common Challenges, Trade-Offs, and Best Practices from Around the Globe

This volume addresses the growing need to improve understanding of effective regulatory and policy regimes in relation to water used to operate unconventional hydrocarbon operations around the world. As the chapters in this book clearly show, legal, policy, regulatory, and political issues surrounding the use of water for hydraulic fracturing are present at every stage of operations. These include direct impacts related to the procurement of water for use in hydraulic fracturing, the collection of flowback and produced water, and the safe disposal via treatment, reuse or sale, or otherwise, of produced or other wastewaters. Also important are more indirect impacts including those related to air quality, induced seismicity and local community support. This book analyses and compares various approaches to these issues from around the globe to glean insights into common difficulties and best practices to develop and advance the interests of all stakeholders, including the natural environment and present and future generations. While it is not possible (or advisable) to simply transfer aspects of law and governing institutions from one place to another (the “cut and paste” approach), there is value in the comparative examination and understanding of legal regimes. International law may also have a role here in terms of helping to create a clear framework for water security in the context of regulating unconventional energy production that individual states can tailor to their local conditions.

Chad Staddon, Regina M. Buono, Elena López Gunn, Jennifer McKay

Chapter 7. The Assessment and Acquisition of Water Resources for Shale Gas Development in the UK

Shale gas is conjectured to potentially improve the UK’s security of natural gas supply’s status by substituting up to half of natural imports by 2035. This paper explores the subsequent demands upon freshwater resources, the process of resource acquisition by operators and the prerequisite procedural of assessment. This is followed by a water management case study of Cuadrilla Resources, the leading shale gas operator in the UK before concluding comments.

Jenna Brown

Chapter 11. Disposal of Water for Hydraulic Fracturing: Case Study on the U.S.

In 2012, the U.S. oil and gas industry produced approximately 3.4 × 109 cubic meters (m3) of water, equivalent to 9.1 × 106 m3 per day and greater than six times the amount of water treated by the City of Houston, Texas. This “produced water” consists of drilling or completion fluids that exit a well shortly after it is brought into production, along with water occurring naturally in the rock formation that exits with the oil and/or gas. Produced water can be contaminated by hydrocarbons, metals, radioactive material, and salts, which can make recycling and disposal difficult. In this chapter, we will discuss two aspects of produced water handling—regulation and technology—specifically focusing on five U.S. regions—the Permian, Eagle Ford, Bakken, Marcellus, and Niobrara. We will explore various disposal practices used in each region and consider how the regulatory framework influences those practices. The focus will be on regulations in six states – Texas, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Colorado, and Wyoming – with jurisdiction over the above regions. Just as the regions have remarkably different geology, and therefore different quality of produced water, these six states also have different regulatory frameworks. To illustrate these differences, we undertake a detailed exploration of the regulations in Texas and Pennsylvania and compare other states’ regulations where appropriate. The analysis highlights the complexity of produced water regulation, treatment, and disposal within the United States.

Romany Webb, Katherine R. Zodrow

Chapter 2. Water-Energy Nexus: The Role of Hydraulic Fracturing

This chapter considers some challenges attendant on optimising water-energy trade-offs in hydraulic fracturing, focusing on the interplays between constantly evolving technologies (e.g. use of treated effluent, brackish water or even waterless methods) and regulatory systems, using the Eagle Ford shale play in Texas as a case study. Regulators and higher level policy-makers often have conflicting preferences associated with the specific trade-offs (environmental, economic and social) that come within their purview. Therefore, it is very important to understand the basic trade-offs of the water-energy nexus when addressing nexus issues such as energy resources mining and production, water production, treatment and allocation, power plant construction and environmental impacts.

Ahmed M. Mroue, Gabrielle Obkirchner, Jennifer Dargin, Jordan Muell

Chapter 5. Frac Water Acquisition in the Major U.S. Unconventional Oil and Gas Plays

This analysis fills a vital gap in the existing literature by examining in detail methods and pathways by which unconventional oil & gas producers in the U.S. commonly source the water used in hydraulic fracturing completions. The authors leverage large data sets, their practical professional and research experiences, and conversations with well-placed industry sources to describe the prevalent business models and contractual structures under which oil and gas producers obtain frac water. Geographically, the study focuses on five world-scale unconventional oil and gas basins: the Bakken play in North Dakota, the Niobrara in Colorado, the Eagle Ford in south Texas, the Marcellus in Appalachia, and the Permian Basin in West Texas and Eastern New Mexico.

Gabriel Collins, Julie A. Rosen

Chapter 4. Global Conflicts Surrounding Hydraulic Fracturing and Water

In a little more than a decade, hydraulic fracturing has unlocked significant worldwide reserves of hydrocarbons, increased the stability of energy supplies, and generated billions in economic returns, but has also delivered one other aspect: widespread controversy over the process and its potential consequences. For industry, hydraulic fracturing represents an unprecedented technological evolution that has forever changed energy production. But for many, it underscores a growing concern over the impacts of oil and gas production on water, and public opposition is often closely linked to water risks. This opposition is now global in its influence, which cannot be ignored by policymakers or industry. This chapter analyzes the primary areas of conflict and public concern over hydraulic fracturing, as well as regulations and mechanisms for resolution. Among the topics discussed are trends towards the complete ban of hydraulic fracturing. Bans, while often overturned, illustrate the intensity of the conflict and the risks of failing to understand the driving elements of these efforts and potential resolutions. This chapter also considers issues related to use of water in arid environments, mandatory disclosure of water volumes and chemical components, baseline testing of local water supplies, induced seismicity, contamination risks related to hydraulic fracturing and disposal of waste materials, noise pollution and residential proximity to operations, and methods of resolving or minimizing conflict and opposition. Controversies are examined in Texas, Colorado, New York, the United Kingdom, and Spain. Addressing the sources of social resistance and resolving them through meaningful and transparent policy mechanisms are critical elements of continued worldwide production. The reputation of the process is critical given the scope of production, social media, and the consequences for cities, industry, and citizens living in and around production zones.

James D. Bradbury, Courtney Cox Smith

Chapter 13. Unconventional Oil and Gas: Interactions with and Implications for Groundwater

The actual and potential impacts of the “shale revolution” on groundwater supplies are subject to intense scholarly debate in scientific, legal, and policy domains. Unconventional development of shale gas through the dynamic combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling will continue as a fundamental component of energy policy in the United States, particularly with regards to notions of energy independence and security. At a regional level, the water-related risks associated with hydraulic fracturing operations include impacts on water quality and quantity. This chapter examines the potential implications of hydraulic fracturing operations for groundwater drinking supplies through direct, indirect, and natural contamination pathways, including subsurface migration of methane, accidental surface spills, leak-off implicating fracturing fluids, well-casing integrity, and water table interactions with produced water. These effects are controversial because the best available scientific research is often contradictory, offering both support and opposition to establishing a causal relationship between contamination pathways and hydraulic fracturing. Regulatory uncertainty and challenges in establishing legal causation further contribute to the difficulties associated with detecting, monitoring, and assigning liability for groundwater contamination. This chapter examines the science behind the conduits that could impact drinking water supplies and analyzes regulatory regimes that monitor groundwater interactions with unconventional oil and gas development.

Brett A. Miller

Chapter 3. The Human Right to Water and Unconventional Energy

Hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas is an emotive subject, generating passionate arguments both pro and con. Some scholars argue that a ‘human right to water’ (HRW) approach could usefully enshrine in law the priority of human needs over industrial uses, in hydraulic fracturing and other sectors. This chapter explores the existing status of the HRW in international law and in the constitutions and statutes of some nations around the world. It appears that attempts to link struggles over HF’s impact on water resources with the HRW have so far foundered on a lack of clear unambiguous HRW declarations that can be tried in courts of law.

Robert Palmer, Damien Short, Ted Auch

Chapter 1. Regulating Water Security in Unconventional Oil and Gas: An Introduction

The last 20 years have seen dramatic growth in the production of oil and gas from shale, as production techniques developed in the latter half of the twentieth century have advanced under largely favorable economic conditions. Hydraulic fracturing is a well stimulation technique in which sand and other proppants suspended in fluids are forced at high pressure through cracks in shale rock to free hydrocarbons to flow to the surface. This requires significant volumes of water and presents challenges for protecting nearby humans and the environment from water, air, and noise pollution, as well as other effects of the activity. Legal, policy, and regulatory issues related to the use of water for hydraulic fracturing are present at every stage of such “unconventional” operations. Operators must understand the legal, political and hydrological context of their surroundings, gain community cooperation or confront social resistance, procure water for use in the fracturing and extraction processes, collect flowback and produced water, and dispose of these waters safely. A recent study found significant increases in water use for hydraulic fracturing and wastewater production in major shale gas and oil production regions, with attendant increases in water-use intensity over time (i.e., water use normalized to the energy production) (Kondash et al. 2018). The water volumes required for hydraulic fracturing are only likely to grow over time, as will the challenges of meeting that demand, and of disposing of wastewater associated with that production. This book considers how regulators and other decision makers have addressed many of these issues, considering varying legal frameworks, political systems, social acceptance, and geologies around the world (Fig. 1.1).

Regina M. Buono, Elena López Gunn, Chad Staddon, Jennifer McKay

Chapter 12. Regulating the Disposal of Produced Waters from Unconventional Oil and Gas Activities in Australia

Production of unconventional petroleum resources in Australia comprises the exploration for and extraction of shale gas and coal seam gas (CSG, also known as coalbed methane). This chapter examines the issues associated with produced water from CSG and shale gas extraction, which differ greatly in both content and regulation. In examining the regulation of produced water from the extraction of CSG, only the Queensland jurisdiction will be assessed, since it is the only jurisdiction where production is occurring. Due to a moratorium on shale gas exploration and extraction in the Northern Territory, the regulation of produced water from shale gas exploration and production in Western Australia and South Australia is considered, with a particular focus on Western Australia given the advanced development of shale gas exploration in that state. This chapter provides an overview of unconventional petroleum resources (UPR) in Australia, and the regulation of UPR exploration and production in Queensland, Western Australia, and South Australia. It considers issues relating to produced water from both shale gas and CSG production and analyses the legal and environmental issues related to produced water in shale gas and CSG activities.

Tina Soliman Hunter, David Campin

An Enhanced Recycling Folded Cascode Amplifier

A recycling folded cascode amplifier comprising a local common-mode feedback technique with NMOS, working in a triode region is presented. The proposed amplifier shows enhanced performance as compared to the recycling folded cascode amplifier and OTA based on the local common-mode feedback structure with increased gain, GBW without additional power dissipation. The proposed amplifier performance is verified by the LTspice simulator tool with TSMC 180 nm CMOS process parameters. Performance of this amplifier when compared with CFRFC amplifier shows 202.9% GBW, 15.1 dB dc gain improvement with 30 pF load. The proposed amplifier has low fabrication cost and less verification time.

Praveen Soni, Shweta Gautam

Behaviour of Low Density Polyethylene Aged Under UV Radiation

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is a usual material used within high voltage insulation systems. Like all polymers, this material may be aged after working under high voltage for a long time. The ageing process of this material is essentially caused by external factors. The exhibition to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of these factors. This work investigates the effect of this constraint on the electrical and mechanical properties of LDPE after UV-ageing. This paper includes the sample preparation process, the ageing of samples under identical conditions for up 380 h and finally the analysis of electrical and mechanical properties after the ageing process. The obtained results show that these properties are considerably affected by the ultraviolet radiation.

Ferhat Slimani, Abdallah Hedir, Mustapha Moudoud, Amina Loucif

Chapter 22. MXenes for Environmental and Water Treatment Applications

Since the first discovery of two-dimensional (2D) MXenes, about 30 different structures of this group have been synthesized to date. Owing to their unique mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties, many successful attempts have been focused on using MXenes in water treatment and environmental remediation applications. However, more efforts are still needed to address the stability, biocompatibility, and reusability of MXenes in aqueous media. This chapter discusses the latest research progress in the application of MXenes in pollutants adsorption/remediation, photodegradation, and membrane separation. An overview is given on recent experimental/computational attempts to explore the potential of MXenes in water treatment applications and highlight the challenges and opportunities of these advanced 2D architectures. This chapter highlights new avenues for more innovative developments of MXene materials in environmental applications.

Kashif Rasool, Ravi P. Pandey, P. Abdul Rasheed, Golibjon R. Berdiyorov, Khaled A. Mahmoud

Applying Life Cycle Assessment to Simulation-Based Decision Support: A Swedish Waste Collection Case Study

A method of integrating life cycle assessment into a simulation-based decision support system has been developed to help decision makers take environmental impact into account during daily operations. The method was demonstrated in a real-world case study involving eight different trucks, which were selected and maintained by the case company. The trucks used different fuels, namely diesel, biodiesel, vehicle gas, and electricity. Compared to conventional diesel trucks, those using biodiesel emitted 37% less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Gas trucks reduced GHG emissions by a further 40%. Overall, electric trucks have the lowest emissions. This paper also addresses the development of the methodology for this study. In particular, comparisons are made regarding the selection of different functional units and system activity mapping. Ways of achieving more accurate conclusions in future studies are discussed.

Yu Liu, Anna Syberfeldt, Mattias Strand

Exploring the System Dynamics of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) with Machine Learning (ML) Techniques—A Framework for a Hybrid-Approach

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is one of the driving forces of the digital revolution in terms of the areas of application that already exist and those that are emerging as potential. One can envision the application field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS), so which potential role can AI play in the context of IS systems and how can AI support/contribute to the facilitation of IS systems, which is explored in more detail in this paper. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify problem-/improvement driven fields of action in the context of IS and to present the current state of ICT tools for IS systems with corresponding implications. This led to the selection of suitable Machine Learning (ML) techniques, proposing a general framework of a combinatorial approach of Agent-Based Modelling (ABM) and ML for exploring the system dynamics of IS. This hybrid-approach opens up the simulation of scenarios with optimally utilized IS systems in terms of system adaptability and resilience.

Anna Lütje, Martina Willenbacher, Martin Engelmann, Christian Kunisch, Volker Wohlgemuth

Gamification for Mobile Crowdsourcing Applications: An Example from Flood Protection

In recent years, the application field of mobile crowdsourcing has developed and expanded. Mostly volunteers take on small tasks to reach a larger goal or solve a problem using a mobile device. Mobile crowdsourcing applications exist in many different areas and are also used in environmental protection and disaster control. One of the biggest challenges of mobile crowdsourcing is to win volunteers for a project and keep their motivation high in the long run. Gamification is a concept that is often used to increase motivation. It uses game-typical elements in non-game contexts to address different motivators. The application possibilities of Gamification are versatile and various application areas have not yet been developed. In this paper, the motives of volunteers in mobile crowdsourcing projects are analyzed and gamification as a possibility to increase motivation is investigated. In doing so, different game design elements are analyzed with regard to their motivational influences on motives of mobile crowdsourcing. Finally, the findings will be used to develop a concept for the gamification of a mobile crowdsourcing application.

Leon Todtenhausen, Frank Fuchs-Kittowski

Chapter 3. Alloys for Aircraft Structures

This chapter deals with the metallic materials used for structural aircraft components. The main features of fixed-wing aircrafts will be recalled, with a specific focus on the properties and relevant applications of the so-called light alloys. Aluminum and magnesium alloys will be considered, as concerns the main aspects of extraction metallurgy, material processing, and tempers. The applications in aircraft structures will be discussed, also to highlight the development in composition and processing routes that these two classes of alloys have undergone to meet the requirements of the new aircraft structures. In this regard, an important role has been played by laminate composites, using aluminum alloys as metallic component. For these materials too, the main processing steps will be presented, to demonstrate their influence on the mechanical properties of the final products. A separate chapter (Chap. 4 ) is dedicated to titanium alloys. This choice relies on the fact that, although part of the light alloys group, titanium alloys are used not only for structural parts but also for gas turbine aero-engines.

Stefano Gialanella, Alessio Malandruccolo

Chapter 4. Titanium and Titanium Alloys

Titanium and titanium alloys are fundamental constituents of several parts of aircrafts, owing to their unique combination of properties: high specific strength, low coefficient of thermal expansion, moderate density, long fatigue life, creep strength, fracture toughness, and excellent corrosion resistance induced by the spontaneous formation of a TiO2 surface passivating layer. An indirect proof of the great interest for titanium alloys as fundamental aerospace materials can be inferred from their wide range of applications, from structural components to engine parts. This interest is bound to continue in the future, sustained by the ongoing research focused on the development of new alloys, like Ti-aluminides, exhibiting improved properties, compliant with the design requirements emerging even from novel priorities, like fuel saving and reduction in air pollution. This chapter is entirely dedicated to titanium and its alloys, with particular focus on metallurgical issues and production processes. Furthermore, like for the other light alloys seen in Chap. 3 , the main applications in the aerospace field are presented.

Stefano Gialanella, Alessio Malandruccolo

Open Access

Chapter 1. Agrarian Metabolism: The Metabolic Approach Applied to Agriculture

The main aim of this chapter is to describe the theoretical and methodological bases that support the research contained in this book and developed through the following chapters. The rationale of the need for a new perspective on the evolution of Spain’s agricultural sector over the last century, focused on sustainability, from a social and ecological perspectives, rather than its growth capacity is explained in detail. To tackle this question, a biophysical perspective is adopted, using the Social Metabolism approach. A new theoretical–methodological proposal that arises from the fusion of metabolic approaches and Agroecology is presented, including also social and economic variables, and that we have called Social Agrarian Metabolism The chapter follows with a deep discussion on the organization and dynamics of the agrarian metabolisms by using the concepts of flows and funds. The concepts of flows, which include energy and materials that are consumed or dissipated during the agrarian metabolic process, and funds elements, which are dissipative structures that use inputs to transform them into goods, services, and waste are portrayed. Sustainability consists of meeting the needs of society by producing biomass flows without deteriorating the fund elements that originate them. We have distinguished four fund elements that function in an articulated manner whose detailed analysis is carried out in the following chapters. The chapter ends with a deep description of some methodological specifies, such scale and boundaries and sources of information, regarding to the agrarian metabolism.

Manuel González de Molina, David Soto Fernández, Gloria Guzmán Casado, Juan Infante-Amate, Eduardo Aguilera Fernández, Jaime Vila Traver, Roberto García Ruiz

Open Access

Chapter 5. Environmental Impacts of Spanish Agriculture’s Industrialization

This chapter is focused in the environmental consequences of the industrialization of the Spain’s agriculture. The changes in the quantity and quality of energy and material flows described in the previous chapters have contributed to the deterioration of the quality of the land fund element, which supports the provision of ecosystems services, including the production of biomass. Contribution of recycled N, P, and K to total nutrient inputs in Spanish agroecosystems declined along the twentieth century with a clear surplus of N, P, and K, resulting in a lower nutrient efficiency use and a generalized environmental pollution (e.g. nitrate leaching, NH3,and N2O emissions). Soil organic carbon in Spanish agroecosystems is relatively low, indicating that these soils are at a degradation threshold. The increase in NPP resulting from intensification, together with massive feed imports do not compensate the lost of soil organic carbon due to an increased mineralization predicted under a scenario of climate change and the spread of irrigation, because of the breakdown of the balance between the uses of biomass and the preferential use of feed to nourish poultry and pigs. Agriculture intensification not only has resulted in a progressive decline of energy returns in the form of biomass, but also in the externalization of the environmental impact due to the outsourcing of the land cost of food through massive imports of biomass from other regions, mainly South America.

Manuel González de Molina, David Soto Fernández, Gloria Guzmán Casado, Juan Infante-Amate, Eduardo Aguilera Fernández, Jaime Vila Traver, Roberto García Ruiz

Chapter 5. “This Is the Next Me”: The Evolution of AI in the Whedonverses

Perdigao examines how the multiple worlds of Joss Whedon, spanning more than twenty years, represent a “progressive awakening” about the Singularity, the moment when “human life will be irreversibly transformed” by the pace and impact of technological change (Vinge). The evolution of Whedon’s depictions of AI in Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1997–2003), Dollhouse (2009–2010), Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), and season four of Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (2013–), which features Life Model Decoys (LMD), highlights how the writer, director, and producer envisions a posthuman future and the future of television.

Lisa K. Perdigao

Chapter 2. Landfill Vernacular

This paper makes the case for Landfill Vernacular – the hybrid style of construction that combines locally-sourced natural materials with objects reclaimed from waste, as demonstrated at Bantar Gebang landfill in West Java, Indonesia. This technique is used to build small homes and workplaces for the people working in the informal recycling industry. Utilising photographs and referencing existing literature the paper argues that within these humble dwellings reside the seeds of a potential contribution to making urban housing more affordable, particularly in informal settlements. The background for this research discusses the housing challenges facing low-income communities, with an emphasis on the situation in Jakarta. Next, the conditions in the waste picker villages at the landfill are described, and then argues that the neighbourhoods and buildings there represent an emerging vernacular. Next the paper introduces BGBJ, the social enterprise that the author has been involved with for the last 4 years. This project has attracted hundreds of international and domestic visitors and is currently establishing an upcycling workshop in the landfill to assist construction projects. The discussion involves the potential of waste as a construction material and expands on the opportunities to: (a) educate the next generation of vernacular builders, and (b) improve the quality of reclaimed material available for building. The conclusions drawn from the research suggest that landfill vernacular can be developed into a technique suitable to help other groups in need, such as refugees from natural or manmade disasters.

John Devlin

Chapter 7. Designing for Vernacular Landscape Through Ecosystem-Approach: A Case of Floating Settlements at Dal Lake, Kashmir

Indian vernacular and traditional knowledge systems, born out of long years of practice, have harmonized themselves with the local ecology. An amalgamation of various cultural, social, ecological and historical layers are distinctly visible at Dal Lake, Jammu and Kashmir. Though primarily known for tourism activities, Dal Lake houses about a thousand families, living on silted islands, whose socio-economic sustenance is dependent on water. The lake influences the everyday lives and activities of people such as cultivation, going to school, crafts, and trade. Local cultural practices of this region possess a historical continuity and have acquired ecological wisdom to adapt to their surroundings. Over time, it is not only the community that has come to depend on the resource, but small ecosystems have been generated as a response that befits Dal Lake. The threat of total eutrophication and high levels of pollution in the lake has resulted in a symptomatic response of rehabilitating this floating community away from its cultural resource. Although it is necessary to curb pollution levels, this isolation of human and natural systems might have adverse consequences. This paper aims to highlight the understanding of the environment in the philosophy of Kashmiri vernacular. Through these learnings, the authors propose three design strategies to sustainably inhabit Dal Lake and integrate the lake in lives of Dal dwellers, the people of Srinagar as well as the floating populations of tourists. The design attempts a vernacular landscape of sustenance and resilience for one of the few floating villages in India.

Tanya Talwar, Sanjeev Singh

Chapter 3. Eco-friendly Scapegoats

This chapter demonstrates how collective guilt can be wielded to undermine the potential of and desire for collective action—how, paradoxically, collective guilt can be a powerful individualizing force. Through analysis of public relations campaigns and marketing, I illustrate how corporations have intentionally employed rhetorics of personal responsibility to contain political pressure and diffuse demands for more corporate accountability. The strategic dispersal of accountability into individual acts of “eco-friendly” consumerism both provoke and alleviate collective guilt for the individual, yet mitigate environmental damage in only the most minimal and marginal of ways. Collective guilt, I argue, calls for collective action.

Tim Jensen

Kapitel 8. Risiken der Energieerzeugung und Auswirkungen auf Klima und Umwelt

Jegliche Form der Umwandlung und Nutzbarmachung von Energie im industriellen Maßstab stellt einen massiven Eingriff in die Natur dar und hat unterschiedlichste Umweltbelastungen und Risiken zur Folge. Der Einsatz fossiler Energieträger wirkt sich auf das globale Klima aus, der Einsatz von Kernenergie birgt das Risiko eines Betriebsunfalls mit weitreichenden und schwerwiegenden Folgen und der Ausbau regenerativer Energien ist nicht ohne Konsequenzen für die Natur. In diesem Kapitel sollen die unterschiedlichen Umweltbelastungen und Risiken im Einzelnen betrachtet werden.

Ulrich Blum, Eberhard Rosenthal, Bernd Diekmann

1. Mission, History, Trends, Markets, and Costs

The prosperity of a nation needs mechanization in general [1.1]. However, a first step should address agriculture [1.2].

Karl Theodor Renius

Investment and Production Cooperation Between the Countries in the Baltic Region: Current State and Problems

In the article the author tried to focus on one of the key aspects of world economic development—the emerging regional multipolarity. The fact of modern progressive growth of Russian economy is undeniable; therefore, the author sees particular interest in the method of analysis of the place and role of European countries, transnational companies and national firms in the Baltic region in the sphere of investment and production cooperation with each other and with Russia. The scientific novelty of the work is determined by the author’s approach and the author’s method of research based on the combined use of comparative geographic, statistical, mathematical and historical-geographical methods, which make it possible to determine the current sectoral interests and preferences of the countries of the region, changes in the attitude of the different EU countries to each other, to Russia and various subjects of the regional economy. The analysis of the data presented in the article clearly indicates still insufficient use of Russia’s potential in the field of cross-border cooperation and in strengthening the country’s economic position in the Baltic region. In addition, it is now understood that the activation of cooperation between the EU and Russia in high-tech production spheres should be the main element of the interaction within the framework of investment and production and other integration processes in the Baltic.

Vladimir I. Chasovsky

Refining the Composition of Recycled Spent Lubricants Mixed with Alumina Nanofluids for Machining Purpose

Machining lubricant is used in the manufacturing industry for lubrication and cooling which are crucial in operations such as grinding and cutting process. However, machining lubricant lose efficiency in months due to thermal degradation and contamination. To recycle the used machining lubricants while enhancing the performance, the mixture of nanofluids (N) based Al2O3 with better thermal properties to synthesize with the recycled spent lubricants (RSL). This study suspended Al2O3 nanofluids in five base ratios of recycled spent lubricants (i.e. 40:60, 45:55, 50:50, 55:45 and 60:40) by ultrasonic homogenies. The two main parameters in cooling rate performance are thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity. The thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity are then measured at temperature range of 30 to 60 ℃. The highest enhancement of thermal conductivity in 60:40 (N:RSL) was evaluated to be 18.5% higher than the 40:60 (N:RSL) base fluid at the temperature of 60 ℃. However, the enhancement of dynamic viscosity was measured to be 2.4% for 60:40 (N:RSL) at 60 ℃ temperature. Therefore, this study recommends the use of recycled spent lubricants based Al2O3 as cutting fluid in the ratio of 60:40 for application in machining operations.

Lim Syh Kai, Nurrina Rosli, Ahmad Razlan Yusoff

A Closed-Loop Supply Chain Model for Manufacturer-Collector-Retailer with Rework, Waste Disposal, Carbon Cap and Trade Regulation

The importance of an industrial system that is both economically and environmentally sustainable has gained considerable attention in this last decade. In this paper, we address a closed-loop supply chain in which the manufacturer produces the brand-new product and the retailer sells it through the market. A collector will collect the used product from the consumer and sends it to the manufacturer to be remanufactured or refurbished. The used items which have not passed the acceptable quality level of the collector will be considered as a waste and need to be disposed. The defective item produced through the manufacturing system will be reworked. In order to restrict carbon emissions generated by the production phases in this system, trade regulation and carbon cap are used. The proposed model simultaneously optimizes the quality level of the product that should be produced by the manufacturer and the pricing decision of the retailer to maximize the total joint profit of the supply chain. A numerical example is taken to illustrate the proposed model.

Niimas Ayu Frensilia Putri Adam, Wakhid Ahmad Jauhari, Cucuk Nur Rosyidi

Investigation on the Effect of Multiple Passes in Plain Waterjet Cleaning of Paint

Paint removal process in automotive coating is widely used in vehicle component recycling industry. The need of utilization and recycling the automotive component without producing secondary pollution from the paint removal process is recently become a major concern globally. Water jet cleaning is a new method for paint removal and getting recognition because of environmental friendly and it is better than mechanical cleaning such as sand blasting, brushing with water, hydropneumatic cleaning, controlled dry sanding, low pressure water projection and low pressure water spray. The present study focuses on the investigation of effect of multiple passes in plain water jet cleaning on paint removal process. A new method of multiple passes treatment is applied in plain water jet cleaning to access its effect on surface roughness and paint removal rate. It was found that, with increasing of number of passes, the surface roughness and paint removal rate is slightly increase. It is also found that the increase in water jet pressure will increase the surface roughness and paint removal rate. This is probably because increasing pressure will leads to more energy to remove the paint. It is found also that the increase in traverse rate increase the surface roughness and decrease paint removal rate. Based on the present study, it is a high prospect to apply multiple passes of paint removal using plain water jet in automotive industry.

Mohd Nazir Mat Nawi, Hafiz Husin, M. A. Gebremariam, Azmir Azhari
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