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2018 | Book

Relay Tuning of PID Controllers

For Unstable MIMO Processes

Authors: Prof. Dr. M. Chidambaram, Dr. Nikita Saxena

Publisher: Springer Singapore

Book Series : Advances in Industrial Control

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About this book

This book presents comprehensive information on the relay auto-tuning method for unstable systems in process control industries, and introduces a new, refined Ziegler-Nichols method for designing controllers for unstable systems. The relay auto-tuning method is intended to assist graduate students in chemical, electrical, electronics and instrumentation engineering who are engaged in advanced process control. The book’s main focus is on developing a controller tuning method for scalar and multivariable systems, particularly for unstable processes. It proposes a much simpler technique, avoiding the shortcomings of the popular relay-tuning method. The effects of higher-order harmonics are incorporated, owing to the shape of output waveforms. In turn, the book demonstrates the applicability and effectiveness of the Ziegler-Nichols method through simulations on a number of linear and non-linear unstable systems, confirming that it delivers better performance and robust stability in the presence of uncertainty. The proposed method can also be easily implemented across industries with the help of various auto-tuners available on the market. Offering a professional and modern perspective on profitably and efficiently automating controller tuning, the book will be of interest to graduate students, researchers, and industry professionals alike.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction
Abstract
Process control is the study and the application of automatic control in the field of chemical engineering. The main purpose of process control is to control a process at the desired operating conditions, safely and efficiently maintaining the environmental and product quality requirements.
M. Chidambaram, Nikita Saxena
Chapter 2. Relay Control System
Abstract
This chapter describes the basic concept of the relay auto-tuning method. The mathematical basis of the method is discussed in detail along with the implementation of the relay auto-tuning method on scalar systems as well as the decentralized and centralized controlled multivariable systems. The effect of higher-order harmonics and the method to incorporate the effects are explained with the help of a simulation study. In addition, the approach of the designing controller for multivariable systems along with the robustness analysis is reviewed.
M. Chidambaram, Nikita Saxena
Chapter 3. Auto-Tuning of Unstable SOPTD Systems
Abstract
In this chapter, an improved relay auto-tuning method, considering the higher-order harmonics, is proposed for different classes of the second-order unstable systems.
M. Chidambaram, Nikita Saxena
Chapter 4. Decentralized PID Controllers for Stable Systems
Abstract
An improved analysis of simultaneous relay auto-tuning method is proposed to calculate the maximum controller gains for two-input two-output (TITO) system.
M. Chidambaram, Nikita Saxena
Chapter 5. Decentralized PID Controllers for Unstable Systems
Abstract
The chapter deals with the design of the decentralised PID controllers for the unstable system. The method focuses on incorporating the higher-order harmonics in evaluating the ultimate gain of the process. It is observed that the higher-order harmonic have significant affect on the system performance and the incorporation of the same improves the performance tremendously.
M. Chidambaram, Nikita Saxena
Chapter 6. Centralized PID Controllers for Unstable System
Abstract
This chapter presents a method of designing the centralized control system for the unstable system using the relay auto-tune method incorporating the effect of higher-order harmonics. The method of simultaneous auto-tuning of the four controllers is proposed for designing the TITO centralized control system. The limit cycles are obtained in the outputs with the same frequency but with different amplitude and time shift. The simulation studies on two TITO examples to evaluate the improved performances are presented. The robust behaviour of the proposed controller is analysed by using the inverse maximum singular value versus frequency plot.
M. Chidambaram, Nikita Saxena
Chapter 7. Refined Ziegler–Nichols Tuning Method for Unstable SISO Systems
Abstract
The chapter proposes a method to improve continuous cycling method for tuning the PID controllers for unstable first-order plus time delay (FOPTD) and second-order plus time delay (SOPTD) systems.
M. Chidambaram, Nikita Saxena
Chapter 8. Tuning Rules for PID Controllers for Unstable Systems
Abstract
This chapter proposes the tuning formula for the parameters of the PID controller for a first-order plus time delay unstable system. The correlations between controller settings (K c, τ I and τ D) and the system parameters (gain, time delay and time constant) are proposed so that there is no need to perform the second test to calculate the update controller gain as done in the previous chapter. In addition, to improve the ZN continuous cycling method, correlations between the controller parameter and the ultimate values of the control system gains (K c,max, P u) are proposed. These can be applied by the using the results of the single relay feedback test or the stability criteria.
M. Chidambaram, Nikita Saxena
Chapter 9. Auto-tuning of Decentralized Unstable System With Refined ZN Method
Abstract
This chapter describes the decentralized multivariable control design scheme using the two tests relay auto-tuning method for the TITO unstable system.
M. Chidambaram, Nikita Saxena
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Relay Tuning of PID Controllers
Authors
Prof. Dr. M. Chidambaram
Dr. Nikita Saxena
Copyright Year
2018
Publisher
Springer Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-10-7727-2
Print ISBN
978-981-10-7726-5
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7727-2