Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Quality & Quantity 1/2019

07-03-2018

Religion and ethnicity at work: a study of British Muslim women’s labour market performance

Authors: Sami Miaari, Nabil Khattab, Ron Johnston

Published in: Quality & Quantity | Issue 1/2019

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

The literature on British Muslim women’s labour market experience suffers from four lacunae: the inadequate analysis of the multi-layered facets of their identities and the disadvantages they face; the narrow range of labour market outcomes studied (primarily labour market participation and unemployment); a lack of recent studies on the integration of Muslim women, educated in the UK and with English as their first language, into the labour market; and the absence of material on several sub-groups due to the lack of data, notably Arab, Christian Indian and White-British Muslim women. Using a large sample of data from the 2011 British census, the analyses presented here suggest that most non-White women face significant labour market penalties, with religion having a greater impact on labour market outcomes than race/ethnicity; Muslim women were the most disadvantaged, compared to other religious minorities, more so in relation to unemployment levels, part-time jobs and out of employment history, than in relation to occupational class and over-qualification. The results also suggest that the penalties facing Muslim women shaped by their ethnicity; not all Muslim women were similarly disadvantaged.
Footnotes
1
In the final model, we have analysed all of the sample including those who were underqualified. Because we only interested in overqualification as a form of labour market penalties, we do not report the results for the underqualification. These results can be made available upon request.
 
2
Separate censuses were conducted in Scotland and Northern Ireland, and those parts of the UK are excluded from this study.
 
3
Whether one regression coefficient is significantly different from another can be evaluated using the 2SE test—for each coefficient calculate the range of values within ± 2SE of the estimated value, and inquire whether the two value-spans overlap. If they do not—as with the coefficients for Muslim Arab and Muslim Black African, on the one hand, and for Muslim White-British and Indian, on the other, then the differences are statistically significant. Muslim-Arabs and Black-Africans were significantly more likely to be unemployed than Muslim-Indians and White-British.
 
4
An additional finding is that some of the Muslim groups had significant positive coefficients for being in posts for which they were severely under-qualified—i.e. lacked the qualifications that were the norm for such jobs. This probably reflects that they were being employed within a minority ethnic enclave labour market, where social/family networks were more important than qualifications in the allocation of employment.
 
5
Many Black Africans are Muslims; most Black Caribbeans are Christians.
 
Literature
go back to reference Ahmad, F.: Modern traditions? British Muslim women and academic achievement. Gend. Educ. 13(2), 137–152 (2001) CrossRef Ahmad, F.: Modern traditions? British Muslim women and academic achievement. Gend. Educ. 13(2), 137–152 (2001) CrossRef
go back to reference Algan, Y., Dustmann, C., Glitz, A., Manning, A.: The economic situation of first and second-generation immigrants in France, Germany and the United Kingdom*. Econ. J. 120(542), F4–F30 (2010) CrossRef Algan, Y., Dustmann, C., Glitz, A., Manning, A.: The economic situation of first and second-generation immigrants in France, Germany and the United Kingdom*. Econ. J. 120(542), F4–F30 (2010) CrossRef
go back to reference Allen, C.: From race to religion: the new face of discrimination. In: Abbas, T. (ed.) Muslim Britain: Communities Under Pressure, pp. 49–65. Zed Books, London (2005) Allen, C.: From race to religion: the new face of discrimination. In: Abbas, T. (ed.) Muslim Britain: Communities Under Pressure, pp. 49–65. Zed Books, London (2005)
go back to reference Andriessen, I., Nievers, E., Dagevos, J., Faulk, L.: Ethnic discrimination in the Dutch labor market its relationship with job characteristics and multiple group membership. Work Occup. 39(3), 237–269 (2012) CrossRef Andriessen, I., Nievers, E., Dagevos, J., Faulk, L.: Ethnic discrimination in the Dutch labor market its relationship with job characteristics and multiple group membership. Work Occup. 39(3), 237–269 (2012) CrossRef
go back to reference Archer, L., Francis, B.: Challenging classes? exploring the role of social class within the identities and achievement of British Chinese pupils. Sociology 40(1), 29–49 (2006) CrossRef Archer, L., Francis, B.: Challenging classes? exploring the role of social class within the identities and achievement of British Chinese pupils. Sociology 40(1), 29–49 (2006) CrossRef
go back to reference Arrighi, B.A.: Understanding Inequality: the Intersection of Race/Ethnicity, Class, and Gender. Rowman & Littlefield (2001) Arrighi, B.A.: Understanding Inequality: the Intersection of Race/Ethnicity, Class, and Gender. Rowman & Littlefield (2001)
go back to reference Becker, G.S.: The Economics of Discrimination. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1957) Becker, G.S.: The Economics of Discrimination. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1957)
go back to reference Bertrand, M., Mullainathan, S.: Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? a field experiment on labor market discrimination. Am. Econ. Rev. 94(4), 991–1013 (2004) CrossRef Bertrand, M., Mullainathan, S.: Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? a field experiment on labor market discrimination. Am. Econ. Rev. 94(4), 991–1013 (2004) CrossRef
go back to reference Blackaby, D.H., Leslie, D.G., Murphy, P.D., O’Leary, N.C.: Born in Britain: how are native ethnic minorities faring in the British labour market? Econ. Lett. 88(3), 370–375 (2005) CrossRef Blackaby, D.H., Leslie, D.G., Murphy, P.D., O’Leary, N.C.: Born in Britain: how are native ethnic minorities faring in the British labour market? Econ. Lett. 88(3), 370–375 (2005) CrossRef
go back to reference Blommaert, L., Coenders, M., Van Tubergen, F.: Discrimination of Arabic-named applicants in the Netherlands: an internet-based field experiment examining different phases in online recruitment procedures. Soc. Forces 92(3), 957–982 (2014) CrossRef Blommaert, L., Coenders, M., Van Tubergen, F.: Discrimination of Arabic-named applicants in the Netherlands: an internet-based field experiment examining different phases in online recruitment procedures. Soc. Forces 92(3), 957–982 (2014) CrossRef
go back to reference Boeckmann, I., Misra, J., Budig, M.J.: Cultural and institutional factors shaping mothers’ employment and working hours in postindustrial countries. Soc. Forces 119, 1301–1333 (2014) Boeckmann, I., Misra, J., Budig, M.J.: Cultural and institutional factors shaping mothers’ employment and working hours in postindustrial countries. Soc. Forces 119, 1301–1333 (2014)
go back to reference Borjas, GJ.: The economics of immigration. J. Econ. Lit. 32(4), 1667–1717 (1994) Borjas, GJ.: The economics of immigration. J. Econ. Lit. 32(4), 1667–1717 (1994)
go back to reference Brah, A.: ‘Race’ and ‘Culture’ in the gendering of labour markets: South Asian Young Muslim Women and the labour market. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 19(3), 441–458 (1993) Brah, A.: ‘Race’ and ‘Culture’ in the gendering of labour markets: South Asian Young Muslim Women and the labour market. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 19(3), 441–458 (1993)
go back to reference Brah, A., Phoenix, A.: Ain’t Ia woman? revisiting intersectionality. J. Int. Women’s Stud. 5(3), 75–86 (2013) Brah, A., Phoenix, A.: Ain’t Ia woman? revisiting intersectionality. J. Int. Women’s Stud. 5(3), 75–86 (2013)
go back to reference Budhwar, P.S., Mellahi, K., Forstenlechner, I., Al-Waqfi, M.A.: “A job interview for Mo, but none for Mohammed” religious discrimination against immigrants in Austria and Germany. Pers. Rev. 39(6), 767–784 (2010) CrossRef Budhwar, P.S., Mellahi, K., Forstenlechner, I., Al-Waqfi, M.A.: “A job interview for Mo, but none for Mohammed” religious discrimination against immigrants in Austria and Germany. Pers. Rev. 39(6), 767–784 (2010) CrossRef
go back to reference Byron, R.A.: Discrimination, complexity, and the public/private sector question. Work Occup. 37(4), 435–475 (2010) CrossRef Byron, R.A.: Discrimination, complexity, and the public/private sector question. Work Occup. 37(4), 435–475 (2010) CrossRef
go back to reference Chevalier, A.: Measuring over-education. Economica 70(279), 509–531 (2003) CrossRef Chevalier, A.: Measuring over-education. Economica 70(279), 509–531 (2003) CrossRef
go back to reference Chiswick, B.R.: The effect of americanization on the earnings of foreign-born men. J. Polit. Econ. 86(5), 897–921 (1978) CrossRef Chiswick, B.R.: The effect of americanization on the earnings of foreign-born men. J. Polit. Econ. 86(5), 897–921 (1978) CrossRef
go back to reference Chiswick, B.R., Miller, P.W.: Immigrant earnings: language skills, linguistic concentrations and the business cycle. J. Popul. Econ. 15(1), 31–57 (2002) CrossRef Chiswick, B.R., Miller, P.W.: Immigrant earnings: language skills, linguistic concentrations and the business cycle. J. Popul. Econ. 15(1), 31–57 (2002) CrossRef
go back to reference Connor, P., Koenig, M.: Explaining the Muslim employment gap in Western Europe: individual-level effects and ethno-religious penalties. Soc. Sci. Res. 49, 191–201 (2015) CrossRef Connor, P., Koenig, M.: Explaining the Muslim employment gap in Western Europe: individual-level effects and ethno-religious penalties. Soc. Sci. Res. 49, 191–201 (2015) CrossRef
go back to reference Crenshaw, K.: Mapping the margins: intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanf. Law Rev. 43(6), 1241–1299 (1991) CrossRef Crenshaw, K.: Mapping the margins: intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanf. Law Rev. 43(6), 1241–1299 (1991) CrossRef
go back to reference Crompton, R., Harris, F.: Explaining women’s employment patterns: ‘orientations to work’ revisited. Br. J. Sociol. 49, 118–136 (1998) CrossRef Crompton, R., Harris, F.: Explaining women’s employment patterns: ‘orientations to work’ revisited. Br. J. Sociol. 49, 118–136 (1998) CrossRef
go back to reference Dale, A., Fieldhouse, E., Shaheen, N., Kalra, V.: The labour market prospects for Pakistani and Bangladeshi women. Work Employ Soc. 16(1), 5–25 (2002a) CrossRef Dale, A., Fieldhouse, E., Shaheen, N., Kalra, V.: The labour market prospects for Pakistani and Bangladeshi women. Work Employ Soc. 16(1), 5–25 (2002a) CrossRef
go back to reference Dale, A., Shaheen, N., Kalra, V., Fieldhouse, E.: Routes into education and employment for young Pakistani and Bangladeshi women in the UK. Ethn. Racial Stud. 25(6), 942–968 (2002b) CrossRef Dale, A., Shaheen, N., Kalra, V., Fieldhouse, E.: Routes into education and employment for young Pakistani and Bangladeshi women in the UK. Ethn. Racial Stud. 25(6), 942–968 (2002b) CrossRef
go back to reference Dale, A., Lindley, J., Dex, S.: A life-course perspective on ethnic differences in women’s economic activity in Britain. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 22(3), 323–337 (2006) CrossRef Dale, A., Lindley, J., Dex, S.: A life-course perspective on ethnic differences in women’s economic activity in Britain. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 22(3), 323–337 (2006) CrossRef
go back to reference Dale, A., Ahmed, S.: Marriage and employment patterns amongst UK-raised Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi women. Ethn. Racial Stud. 34(6), 902–924 (2011) CrossRef Dale, A., Ahmed, S.: Marriage and employment patterns amongst UK-raised Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi women. Ethn. Racial Stud. 34(6), 902–924 (2011) CrossRef
go back to reference Darity, W.A., Mason, P.L.: Evidence on discrimination in employment: codes of color, codes of gender. J. Econ. Perspect. 12(2), 63–90 (1998) CrossRef Darity, W.A., Mason, P.L.: Evidence on discrimination in employment: codes of color, codes of gender. J. Econ. Perspect. 12(2), 63–90 (1998) CrossRef
go back to reference Dustmann, C., Fabbri, F., Preston, I., Wadsworth, J.: Labour Market Performance of Immigrants in the UK Labour Market. Home Office, London (2003) Dustmann, C., Fabbri, F., Preston, I., Wadsworth, J.: Labour Market Performance of Immigrants in the UK Labour Market. Home Office, London (2003)
go back to reference Fieldhouse, E.A.: Ethnic minority unemployment and spatial mismatch: the case of London. Urban Stud. 36(9), 1569–1596 (1999) CrossRef Fieldhouse, E.A.: Ethnic minority unemployment and spatial mismatch: the case of London. Urban Stud. 36(9), 1569–1596 (1999) CrossRef
go back to reference Fieldhouse, E.A., Tranmer, M.: Concentration effects, spatial mismatch, or neighborhood selection? exploring labour market and neighborhood variations in male unemployment risk using census microdata from great Britain. Geograph. Anal. 33(4), 353–369 (2001) CrossRef Fieldhouse, E.A., Tranmer, M.: Concentration effects, spatial mismatch, or neighborhood selection? exploring labour market and neighborhood variations in male unemployment risk using census microdata from great Britain. Geograph. Anal. 33(4), 353–369 (2001) CrossRef
go back to reference Fingleton, B., Garretsen, H., Martin, R.: Recessionary shocks and regional employment: evidence on the resilience of UK regions. J. Reg. Sci. 52(1), 109–133 (2012) CrossRef Fingleton, B., Garretsen, H., Martin, R.: Recessionary shocks and regional employment: evidence on the resilience of UK regions. J. Reg. Sci. 52(1), 109–133 (2012) CrossRef
go back to reference Fox, J.E., Moroşanu, L., Szilassy, E.: The racialization of the new European Migration to the UK. Sociology 46, 0038038511425558 (2012) CrossRef Fox, J.E., Moroşanu, L., Szilassy, E.: The racialization of the new European Migration to the UK. Sociology 46, 0038038511425558 (2012) CrossRef
go back to reference Fox, J.E.: The uses of Racism: whitewashing new Europeans in the UK. Ethn. Racial Stud. 36(11), 1871–1889 (2013) CrossRef Fox, J.E.: The uses of Racism: whitewashing new Europeans in the UK. Ethn. Racial Stud. 36(11), 1871–1889 (2013) CrossRef
go back to reference Franks, M.: Crossing the borders of whiteness? White Muslim women who wear the Hijab in Britain today. Ethn. Racial Stud. 23(5), 917–929 (2000) CrossRef Franks, M.: Crossing the borders of whiteness? White Muslim women who wear the Hijab in Britain today. Ethn. Racial Stud. 23(5), 917–929 (2000) CrossRef
go back to reference Gottschalk, P., Greenberg, G.: Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. Rowman & Littlefield, New York (2008) Gottschalk, P., Greenberg, G.: Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. Rowman & Littlefield, New York (2008)
go back to reference Groot, W., Van Den Brink, H.M.: Overeducation in the labor market: a meta-analysis. Econ. Educ. Rev. 19(2), 149–158 (2000) CrossRef Groot, W., Van Den Brink, H.M.: Overeducation in the labor market: a meta-analysis. Econ. Educ. Rev. 19(2), 149–158 (2000) CrossRef
go back to reference Heath, A., Cheung, S.Y., Britain, G.: Ethnic Penalties in the Labour Market: Employers and Discrimination. CDS, New York (2006) Heath, A., Cheung, S.Y., Britain, G.: Ethnic Penalties in the Labour Market: Employers and Discrimination. CDS, New York (2006)
go back to reference Heath, A., Martin, J.: Can religious affiliation explain ‘ethnic’ inequalities in the labour market? Ethn. Racial Stud. 36(6), 1005–1027 (2013) CrossRef Heath, A., Martin, J.: Can religious affiliation explain ‘ethnic’ inequalities in the labour market? Ethn. Racial Stud. 36(6), 1005–1027 (2013) CrossRef
go back to reference Hooks, B.: Ain’t I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism, vol. 3. South End Press, Boston (1981) Hooks, B.: Ain’t I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism, vol. 3. South End Press, Boston (1981)
go back to reference Jeffrey Hill, E., Märtinson, V., Ferris, M.: New-concept part-time employment as a work-family adaptive strategy for women professionals with small children. Fam. Relat. 53(3), 282–292 (2004) CrossRef Jeffrey Hill, E., Märtinson, V., Ferris, M.: New-concept part-time employment as a work-family adaptive strategy for women professionals with small children. Fam. Relat. 53(3), 282–292 (2004) CrossRef
go back to reference Johnston, R., Manley, D., Jones, K.: In search of Britain’s Muslim ghettoes. Environ. Plan. A 48, 0308518X16651873 (2016) Johnston, R., Manley, D., Jones, K.: In search of Britain’s Muslim ghettoes. Environ. Plan. A 48, 0308518X16651873 (2016)
go back to reference Kain, J.F.: Housing segregation, Negro employment, and metropolitan decentralization. Quart. J. Econ. 82, 165–197 (1968) CrossRef Kain, J.F.: Housing segregation, Negro employment, and metropolitan decentralization. Quart. J. Econ. 82, 165–197 (1968) CrossRef
go back to reference Kalter, F., Kogan, I.: Ethnic inequalities at the transition from school to work in Belgium and Spain: discrimination or self-exclusion? Res. Soc. Stratif. Mobil. 24(3), 259–274 (2006) Kalter, F., Kogan, I.: Ethnic inequalities at the transition from school to work in Belgium and Spain: discrimination or self-exclusion? Res. Soc. Stratif. Mobil. 24(3), 259–274 (2006)
go back to reference Koopmans, R.: Does assimilation work? sociocultural determinants of labour market participation of European Muslims. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 42(2), 197–216 (2016) CrossRef Koopmans, R.: Does assimilation work? sociocultural determinants of labour market participation of European Muslims. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 42(2), 197–216 (2016) CrossRef
go back to reference Lehrer, E.L.: Religion as a determinant of economic and demographic behavior in the United States. Popul. Dev. Rev. 30(4), 707–726 (2004) CrossRef Lehrer, E.L.: Religion as a determinant of economic and demographic behavior in the United States. Popul. Dev. Rev. 30(4), 707–726 (2004) CrossRef
go back to reference Lerner, M., Menahem, G.: Decredentialization and recredentialization: the role of governmental intervention in enhancing occupational status of Russian immigrants in Israel in the 1990s. Work Occup. 30(3), 3–29 (2003) CrossRef Lerner, M., Menahem, G.: Decredentialization and recredentialization: the role of governmental intervention in enhancing occupational status of Russian immigrants in Israel in the 1990s. Work Occup. 30(3), 3–29 (2003) CrossRef
go back to reference Lindley, J., Dale, A., Dex, S.: Ethnic differences in women’s demographic, family characteristics and economic activity profiles, 1992 to 2002. Labour Mark. Trends 112(4), 153–166 (2004) Lindley, J., Dale, A., Dex, S.: Ethnic differences in women’s demographic, family characteristics and economic activity profiles, 1992 to 2002. Labour Mark. Trends 112(4), 153–166 (2004)
go back to reference Lindley, J.K., Dale, A., Dex, S.: Ethnic differences in women’s employment: the changing role of qualifications. Oxf. Econ. Pap. 58(2), 351–378 (2006) CrossRef Lindley, J.K., Dale, A., Dex, S.: Ethnic differences in women’s employment: the changing role of qualifications. Oxf. Econ. Pap. 58(2), 351–378 (2006) CrossRef
go back to reference Maxwell, R.: Caribbean and South Asian identification with British society: the importance of perceived discrimination. Ethn. Racial Stud. 32(8), 1449–1469 (2009) CrossRef Maxwell, R.: Caribbean and South Asian identification with British society: the importance of perceived discrimination. Ethn. Racial Stud. 32(8), 1449–1469 (2009) CrossRef
go back to reference McBride, A., Hebson, G., Holgate, J.: Intersectionality: are we taking enough notice in the field of work and employment relations? Work Employ Soc. 29(2), 331–341 (2015) CrossRef McBride, A., Hebson, G., Holgate, J.: Intersectionality: are we taking enough notice in the field of work and employment relations? Work Employ Soc. 29(2), 331–341 (2015) CrossRef
go back to reference Meer, N., Modood, T.: Refutations of racism in the ‘Muslim Question’. Patterns Prejud. 43(3–4), 335–354 (2009) CrossRef Meer, N., Modood, T.: Refutations of racism in the ‘Muslim Question’. Patterns Prejud. 43(3–4), 335–354 (2009) CrossRef
go back to reference Model, S., Lin, L.: The cost of not being Christian: Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in Britain and Canada. Int. Migrat. Rev. 36(4), 1061–1092 (2002) CrossRef Model, S., Lin, L.: The cost of not being Christian: Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in Britain and Canada. Int. Migrat. Rev. 36(4), 1061–1092 (2002) CrossRef
go back to reference Modood, T.: Multicultural Politics: Racism, Ethnicity and Muslims in Britain. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh (2005) Modood, T.: Multicultural Politics: Racism, Ethnicity and Muslims in Britain. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh (2005)
go back to reference Moosavi, L.: The racialization of Muslim converts in Britain and their experiences of Islamophobia. Crit. Sociol. 41(1), 41–56 (2015) CrossRef Moosavi, L.: The racialization of Muslim converts in Britain and their experiences of Islamophobia. Crit. Sociol. 41(1), 41–56 (2015) CrossRef
go back to reference Neckerman, K.M., Kirschenman, J.: Hiring strategies, racial bias, and inner-city workers. Soc. Probl. 38(4), 433–447 (1991) CrossRef Neckerman, K.M., Kirschenman, J.: Hiring strategies, racial bias, and inner-city workers. Soc. Probl. 38(4), 433–447 (1991) CrossRef
go back to reference Nielsen, CP.: Immigrant over-education: evidence from Denmark. J. Popul. Econ. 24(2), 499–520 (2011) CrossRef Nielsen, CP.: Immigrant over-education: evidence from Denmark. J. Popul. Econ. 24(2), 499–520 (2011) CrossRef
go back to reference Pager, D., Karafin, D.: Bayesian bigot? statistical discrimination, stereotypes, and employer decision making. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 621(1), 70–93 (2009) CrossRef Pager, D., Karafin, D.: Bayesian bigot? statistical discrimination, stereotypes, and employer decision making. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 621(1), 70–93 (2009) CrossRef
go back to reference Peach, C.: Britain’s Muslim population: an overview. In: Abbas, T. (ed.) Muslim Britain: Communities Under Pressure, pp. 18–30. ZED Books, London (2005) Peach, C.: Britain’s Muslim population: an overview. In: Abbas, T. (ed.) Muslim Britain: Communities Under Pressure, pp. 18–30. ZED Books, London (2005)
go back to reference Peach, C.: South Asian migration and settlement in great Britain, 1951–2001. Contemp. South Asia 15(2), 133–146 (2006a) CrossRef Peach, C.: South Asian migration and settlement in great Britain, 1951–2001. Contemp. South Asia 15(2), 133–146 (2006a) CrossRef
go back to reference Peach, C.: Muslims in the 2001 census of England and Wales: gender and economic disadvantage. Ethn. Racial Stud. 29(4), 629–655 (2006b) CrossRef Peach, C.: Muslims in the 2001 census of England and Wales: gender and economic disadvantage. Ethn. Racial Stud. 29(4), 629–655 (2006b) CrossRef
go back to reference Phelps, ES.: Inflation Policy and Unemployment Theory: the Cost-Benefit Approach to Monetary Planning. MacMillan, London (1972) Phelps, ES.: Inflation Policy and Unemployment Theory: the Cost-Benefit Approach to Monetary Planning. MacMillan, London (1972)
go back to reference Read, J.G.: Cultural influences on immigrant women’s labor force participation: the Arab-American case 1. Int. Migrat. Rev. 38(1), 52–77 (2004) CrossRef Read, J.G.: Cultural influences on immigrant women’s labor force participation: the Arab-American case 1. Int. Migrat. Rev. 38(1), 52–77 (2004) CrossRef
go back to reference Reay, D., Hollingworth, S., Williams, K., Crozier, G., Jamieson, F., James, D., Beedell. P.: A darker shade of pale?'Whiteness, the middle classes and multi-ethnic inner city schooling. Sociology 41(6), 1041–1060 (2007) CrossRef Reay, D., Hollingworth, S., Williams, K., Crozier, G., Jamieson, F., James, D., Beedell. P.: A darker shade of pale?'Whiteness, the middle classes and multi-ethnic inner city schooling. Sociology 41(6), 1041–1060 (2007) CrossRef
go back to reference Reskin, B.F., McBrier, D.B., Kmec, J.A.: The determinants and consequences of workplace sex and race composition. Ann. Rev. Sociol. 25, 335–361 (1999) CrossRef Reskin, B.F., McBrier, D.B., Kmec, J.A.: The determinants and consequences of workplace sex and race composition. Ann. Rev. Sociol. 25, 335–361 (1999) CrossRef
go back to reference Reskin, B.F.: Labor markets as queues: a structural approach to changing occupational sex composition. Am. Sociol. Rev. 52(2), 195–210 (2001) Reskin, B.F.: Labor markets as queues: a structural approach to changing occupational sex composition. Am. Sociol. Rev. 52(2), 195–210 (2001)
go back to reference Ridgeway, C.L.: Interaction and the conservation of gender inequality: considering employment. Am. Sociol. Rev. 62, 218–235 (1997) CrossRef Ridgeway, C.L.: Interaction and the conservation of gender inequality: considering employment. Am. Sociol. Rev. 62, 218–235 (1997) CrossRef
go back to reference Salway, SM.: Economic activity among UK Bangladeshi and Pakistani women in the 1990s: evidence for continuity or change in the family resources survey. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 33(5), 825–847 (2007) CrossRef Salway, SM.: Economic activity among UK Bangladeshi and Pakistani women in the 1990s: evidence for continuity or change in the family resources survey. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 33(5), 825–847 (2007) CrossRef
go back to reference Spierings, N.: How islam influences women’s paid non-farm employment: evidence from 26 Indonesian and 37 Nigerian provinces. Rev. Relig. Res. 56(3), 399–431 (2014) CrossRef Spierings, N.: How islam influences women’s paid non-farm employment: evidence from 26 Indonesian and 37 Nigerian provinces. Rev. Relig. Res. 56(3), 399–431 (2014) CrossRef
go back to reference Spierings, N., Smits, J., Verloo, M.: Micro-and Macrolevel determinants of Women's employment in Six Arab countries. J. Marriage Fam. 72(5), 1391–1407 (2010) CrossRef Spierings, N., Smits, J., Verloo, M.: Micro-and Macrolevel determinants of Women's employment in Six Arab countries. J. Marriage Fam. 72(5), 1391–1407 (2010) CrossRef
go back to reference Tomaskovic-Devey, D., Zimmer, C., Stainback, K., Robinson, C., Taylor, T., McTague, T.: Documenting desegregation: segregation in American workplaces by race, ethnicity, and sex, 1966–2003. Am. Sociol. Rev. 71(4), 565–588 (2006) CrossRef Tomaskovic-Devey, D., Zimmer, C., Stainback, K., Robinson, C., Taylor, T., McTague, T.: Documenting desegregation: segregation in American workplaces by race, ethnicity, and sex, 1966–2003. Am. Sociol. Rev. 71(4), 565–588 (2006) CrossRef
go back to reference Tyrer, D., Ahmad, F.: Muslim women and higher education: identities, experiences and prospects. A Summary Report, Liverpool John Moores University and European Social Fund, Liverpool (2006) Tyrer, D., Ahmad, F.: Muslim women and higher education: identities, experiences and prospects. A Summary Report, Liverpool John Moores University and European Social Fund, Liverpool (2006)
go back to reference Van Tubergen, F., Mass, I., Flap, H.: The economic incorporation of immigrants in 18 western societies: origin, destination, and community effects. Am. Sociol. Rev. 69(5), 704–727 (2004) CrossRef Van Tubergen, F., Mass, I., Flap, H.: The economic incorporation of immigrants in 18 western societies: origin, destination, and community effects. Am. Sociol. Rev. 69(5), 704–727 (2004) CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Religion and ethnicity at work: a study of British Muslim women’s labour market performance
Authors
Sami Miaari
Nabil Khattab
Ron Johnston
Publication date
07-03-2018
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Quality & Quantity / Issue 1/2019
Print ISSN: 0033-5177
Electronic ISSN: 1573-7845
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-018-0721-x

Other articles of this Issue 1/2019

Quality & Quantity 1/2019 Go to the issue

Premium Partner