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About this book

This book contains selected papers presented during the World Renewable Energy Network’s 28thanniversary congress at the University of Kingston in London. The forum highlighted the integration of renewables and sustainable buildings as the best means to combat climate change. In-depth chapters written by the world’s leading experts highlight the most current research and technological breakthroughs and discuss policy, renewable energy technologies and applications in all sectors – for heating and cooling, agricultural applications, water, desalination, industrial applications and for the transport sectors.Presents cutting-edge research in green building and renewable energy from all over the world;Covers the most up-to-date research developments, government policies, business models, best practices and innovations;Contains case studies and examples to enhance practical application of the technologies.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Leading Role of ISESCO in the Field of Renewable Energy and Promotion of the Concept of Green and Sustainable Cities in the Islamic World

Honarary Chairman of World Renewable Energy Network (WREN) and Director General of ISESCO

H. E. Abdulaziz Othman Altwaijri

Chapter 2. Energy Policies at Crossroads: Will Europe’s 2030 Targets and Framework be in Line with the Paris Climate Agreement?

In November 2016, the European Commission presented the Clean-Energy-for-All-Europeans Package. It consists of eight legislative proposals which should define targets and policy and regulatory frameworks for the EU’s climate and energy policies up to 2030 and beyond. Recasts of the existing Renewable Energy Directive and the Energy Efficiency Directive, as well as proposals for a new energy market design, which should be fit for renewables, are among the key elements of the package, which aims at replacing the existing 2020 framework. The package includes 2030 targets for greenhouse gas reduction (at least 40%), energy efficiency (at least 27/30%) and the share of renewables in gross final energy consumption (at least 27%). In contrast to the 2020 framework, the EU-wide renewables target would no longer be underpinned by binding national targets but should be reached in a joint effort with a new governance system.Since the proposal was submitted to the European Parliament and the European Council for the legislative procedures which had to end in an agreement before the elections in May 2019 for the European Parliament, controversial debates were taking place. The intention was to finalise the legal procedures before the end of 2018. Parliament and Council decided about their respective opinions about the various pieces by February 2018. Afterwards, compromise negations took place, before the whole package was eventually accepted by both bodies.Among the most controversially discussed topics was the ambition level of the proposals and whether or not it is in line with the commitments signed by the EU and all its Member States in the context of the Paris Agreement. Industry stakeholders not only from the renewable energy sector and environmental NGOs have proposed significantly higher targets in order to stay “well below 2 °C” of global warming until the end of the century. They also suggested continuing binding national targets or—as a compromise—enacting a very strict governance system.I shall present and evaluate the 2030 framework decision process and the results. And I shall end with some policy recommendation still to be considered in the ongoing debate.

Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes

Chapter 3. Field Test, Dynamic Simulation and Fatigue Analysis of a Small Wind Turbine Operating in a Highly Turbulent Environment

A performance test, aero-structural simulation and fatigue analysis was done on a 135 W SWT (small wind turbine) in a turbulent environment. The results showed an increase in average power output with increasing turbulence intensity (TI), and this was more pronounced at TI values above 25%. The increase in power was more pronounced at higher wind speeds (>7 m/s). A FAST model was used for simulation. There was a good correlation between the FAST model and field test, and the error was never more than 20% for lower wind speeds and 8% for higher wind speeds. NREL Turbosim, FAST and Crunch were used to run the dynamic simulations and rainflow counting for the GFRP (glass fibre-reinforced polymer) blade fatigue DEL (damage equivalent load) evaluation. It was found that the fatigue root MOOP (moment out-of-plane) DEL for this particular site was more than double that of IEC NTM (normal turbulence model) Class C wind for most of the wind speeds. The root MIP (moment in plane) did not change regardless of the turbulence intensity; however near higher wind speeds, the frequent cut-out of the machine caused an increase in root MIP DEL.

Tebogo Pooe, Mitsumasa Iino, Abdulrhman Elawady

Chapter 4. Evaluation of Performance Losses and Degradation of Aged Crystalline Si Photovoltaic Modules Installed in Minas Gerais (Brazil)

This paper investigates and compares crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) module performances for two distinct cases, part of a PV reliability project relating modes of degradation to climate data in Brazil. The selected installations provide the opportunity to directly evaluate and contrast the losses, reliability, and durability of modules operating for a long period (~15 years) for the same distributed power applications. The focus is on modules (a) from two installations, (b) operating under the same climate conditions, (c) with modules from two different manufacturers, (d) manufactured and installed at about the same time, but (e) with very different resulting observed changes in their operational and physical characteristics over their long field exposures. The PV modules were located in a tropical climate zones, at northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Visual inspections of the two module populations concluded that one set (Case A) had almost no encapsulant discoloration and few indications of delamination and corrosion. In contrast, the other set (Case B) had significant yellowing and browning, widespread areas of delamination, and fairly extensive interconnect corrosion regions. These visual observations correspond to the measured changes in the electrical characteristics, with those from the first set having an average annual loss in power of 0.4–0.5% while those modules from the second set having average annual power losses in the range 2.3–3.7% over their installation time. Encapsulant discoloration and delamination provided the first clues to the measured differences in module performance and can be attributed to the existing climate conditions of high incidence of high ultraviolet (UV) radiation and high ambient temperatures. The module-encapsulated degradation mechanisms have been analyzed and identified using complementary electrical, physical, and chemical characterization of the module components (encapsulated glass). Distinct differences between the two cases were established. The encapsulation browning (Case B) was followed by delamination and interconnect corrosion, and the associated chemical changes are reported. The causes for the differences between the two module types are identified based upon the critical module material properties and their long-term exposure under these climate conditions.

Antonia Sônia A. C. Diniz, Denio A. Cassini, Michele C. C. de Oliveira, Vanessa F. C. de Lins, Marcelo Machado Viana, Daniel Sena Braga, Lawrence L. Kazmerski

Chapter 5. The Bioclimatic Approach in Developing Smart Urban Isles for Sustainable Cities

The rapid trends of urbanisation have catastrophic consequences on the ecology of our cities. Air-conditioning systems are extensively and inefficiently used. The large amounts of energy consumption and the reckless exploitation of natural resources are leading to increased emissions of ozone-depleting gases and carbon dioxide emissions, which are polluting our planet and enhancing the effects of global warming.This chapter will present the bioclimatic approach in achieving a smart urban isle as a basic unit for the development of sustainable cities of the EU ERANET project “Smart bioclimatic low-carbon urban areas as innovative energy isles in the sustainable city” (SUI). It will outline the project and demonstrate the approach of achieving bioclimatic urban isles through the Cyprus case study. The main aim of the SUI project is to develop sustainable cities through balancing locally the energy systems. Thus, the project aspires to move forward with the urban energy and CO2 reduction.The study will focus on the bioclimatic approach, which is one of the three cornerstone procedures (Bioclimatic Design, Smart Grids and Management Platform), on which the project is based. It will exemplify how the various aspects of the bioclimatic design and the utilisation of the beneficial aspects of the surrounding environment are exploited and applied on defined urban isles, as a basic unit of the city.

D. K. Serghides, S. Dimitriou, I. Kyprianou, C. Papanicolas

Chapter 6. Plug&Play: Self-Sufficient Technological Devices for Outdoor Spaces to Mitigate the UHI Effect

Over the period since the foundation of the University “La Sapienza” of Rome to date, the progressive expansion of the urbanized areas to its surroundings has led to a strong acceleration of the soil sealing process, implemented with artificial materials such as asphalt or concrete used for the construction of buildings and settlement roads. The climate surveys show that around the city of studies in the last 50 years, the climate has become warmer due to the less vegetal transpiration and evaporation and the wider waterproof surfaces. In fact, despite the parts with vegetal covering and their evapotranspiration, the heat produced by the air conditioning in synergy with the city traffic and with the absorption of solar energy by dark surfaces in asphalt and concrete contributes to the local climate changes of La Sapienza, causing in summer the effect of “urban heat island” (UHI). The research project took as its starting point the current condition of the building heritage of the university campus by defining a framework of outdoor interventions aimed at transforming it into a resilient university city, able to protect its inhabitants—students and professors in charge of the work—the soil, and internal infrastructure from the risks of the UHI. The research provides a series of meta-design scenarios for the identification and development of strategies and outdoor solutions to be implemented with traditional materials such as vegetation and water and innovative ones such as cool materials for the regeneration of outdoor spaces while respecting cultural, educational, and historical values of the university campus. In addition to the definition of a meta-design framework, the research proposes a micro-architecture, self-sufficient from the energy point of view, able to contribute to the mitigation of the UHI phenomenon, thanks to the creation of a functional space serving the university community whose internal microclimate acts on Universal Thermal Comfort Index (UTCI) values.The architectural device is characterized by a smart roof through which the production and storage of electricity required for the operation of the air handling system for heating and cooling of indoor spaces are ensured. The integrated technological Thermal Active, called Plug&Play, combines passive mitigation strategies such as shadowing and natural ventilation, with an electric heating/cooling system powered entirely by a renewable energy source such as solar radiation. The integrated design of the technological system allows to locate the mechanical components in the outer layer of the roof or floor, ensuring ease of installation, repair, and monitoring.In addition, the Plug&Play system aims to expand the traditional concept of the floor and roof, from a simple barrier of protection against atmospheric agents to an active device able to produce energy and control indoor comfort. The micro-architecture proposed, thanks to the prefabrication and integration of the components, can be applied in different urban scenarios to ensure simple functionality (e.g., info point, small shops) and to mitigate the overheat produced by the UHI.

Alessandra Battisti, Flavia Laureti, Giulia Volpicelli

Chapter 7. Smart Homes and Regions as Building Blocks for 100% Renewable Energy Globally

This chapter gives evidence that in contrast to the old big and centralized approach with large power stations, there is now a solution possible which starts bottom-up. Individual houses are no longer only consuming electricity but will also produce electricity with PV systems on their roof—they become prosumers. The same happens with multi-family houses, offices, and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Small battery systems increase significantly the self-consumption. Adjacent prosumers will be able to exchange power. Next level is the area of municipalities also integrating nearby wind farms and green-field PV plants to leverage the seasonal electricity production. Larger battery systems and power-to-gas facilities enable progressively the balanced supply and usage. Communication and exchange of electricity and gas between various municipalities will enable the 100% supply by renewable sources of the needed electricity, mobility (once electrified), and heat for the individual countries. Energy-intensive industries will be located near to GW-scale off-shore wind and/or PV farms.

Winfried Hoffmann

Chapter 8. Climate Change: An Overview of Potential Health Impacts Associated with Climate Change Environmental Driving Forces

Background: Climate change is the “biggest global health threat of the twenty-first century; many observers expect that earth will warm to at least 2 °C (3.6 °F) over the preindustrial average; rainfall patterns will change; extreme weather events will become more frequent; sea levels will rise, with increased flooding in coastal areas; and so forth. Such changes may have serious repercussions for children and families worldwide. Climate change entails a wide variety of public health risks, authorities and other stakeholders thus need to understand current and projected impacts of climate change and their implications for health to prepare and implement a variety of responses to ensure an optimal level of adaptation. Examples of such responses include early warning systems, emergency management plans and provisions and health systems strengthening; other preventive measures include safer housing, flood protection, vector control, and improved surveillance.Objectives: (a) To review the direct and indirect impact of climate change on health, (b) to provide evidence of climate change and related infectious diseases, (c) to highlight on the serious diseases correlated with climate extremes, (d) to provide an evidence for estimating disease burden and risk factors correlated with climate change, and (e) to review climate change health impacts on developed and developing countries with more focus on middle East.Methodology: This paper uses a systematic review of different studies and journal articles addressing climate change issue, besides reviewing the publications addressed by global and international health institutions and organizations, such as WHO Organization, CDC, and NIH. Findings are synthesized, summed up, and interpreted to generate the evidence. Different key words were used to synthesize the inputs, such as climate change, infectious diseases, developing countries, developed countries, Middle East, and burden of disease.Key findings: Climate change is expected to cause approximately 250,000 additional deaths per year between 2030 and 2050, approximately 87 million people were displaced due to extreme weather events between 2008 and 2011. WHO estimates that every year about 150,000 deaths occur worldwide in low-income countries due to adverse effects of climate change, such as malnutrition, floods, diarrheal diseases, and malaria. FAO estimates that by 2030, up to 122 million more people could be forced into extreme poverty because of climate change. Direct health effects will be temperature-related illness and death, extreme weather-related health effects, and airborne-related health effects. Indirect health effects are water and foodborne, vector-borne, and rodent borne diseases, food and water shortage, and nutritional and mental health effects. Excess mortality due to heat waves is greatest in the elderly and those with low immunity. This mortality occurs because of CVD or cerebrovascular or respiratory diseases. Winter mortality was reported to be 10–25% higher than those in summer, due to CVD, circulatory and respiratory diseases, and influenza outbreaks. In terms of Burden of disease, measured by DALYs, climate change is estimated to have caused the loss of over 150,000 lives and 5,500,000 DALYs (0.3% of deaths and 0.4% of DALYs, respectively).The Middle East is going to experience climate change threatening basic life, due to reduced surface water hitting agriculture and resulting in crop failure and might lead to starvation and poverty. Lack of available drinking water will increase cholera and other waterborne diseases. The government could respond by importing more water at a financial cost but also an environmental one, as it requires transport, causing again the release of CO2. UAE has one of the highest levels of GHG emissions per capita; however, there are only limited impacts on infectious and diarrheal diseases in the UAE due to relatively low baseline levels of these climate-sensitive diseases. The major impacts of climate change in the UAE are expected to be increased heat stress.Conclusion: Climate change has enormous and diverse effects on human health. Rises in temperature and sea level and extreme weather events such as floods cause water logging and contamination, which in turn exacerbate diarrheal diseases. Vector-borne diseases and other communicable disease will be the result of climate change. Poor and poorer nations will be more impacted due to fragile health systems and resources.

Jazla Fadda

Chapter 9. Simultaneous Clean Water and Power Production from Seawater Using Osmosis: Process Simulation and Techno-economic Analysis

In this work, process simulation and cost analysis of an osmotic-driven process for simultaneous clean water and power generation from seawater using the concept of solute-gradient method are developed, with the aim of determining its potential application at the industrial scale. The simulations were carried out by Aspen Plus® software, considering a plant size corresponding to 1 MW power generation, using ethanol–water as the draw solution. Different draw solution regeneration techniques are investigated with the aim of minimizing the thermal requirements while respecting the threshold purity of the extracted water. It is shown that, by optimizing the inlet draw solution flow rate and concentration, power densities of about 5 W/m2 can be obtained using hollow fine fiber membrane, with a projected cost of electricity around 152 €/MWh. Economic analysis, based on Saudi Arabia water cost, shows that the process profitability is strongly affected by the water selling price, which needs to be at least 1.7 €/m3 in order to have the cumulative cash position equal to zero at the end of the plant lifetime (25 years). Nevertheless, it is suggested that both water and power could be industrially produced in a profitable way (DPBP less than 5 years) with a drinking water selling price equal to 2 €/m3, which is about 30% higher than the current value yet a realistic one in the near future.

Elena Barbera, Luca Zorzetto, Adel O. Sharif, Alberto Bertucco

Chapter 10. Cooling of PV Panels for Performance Enhancement of Grid-Connected Systems

Cooling techniques of photovoltaic (PV) panels have received more attention from researchers due to their positive results on the efficiency of the PV panel. Examples of these techniques are the use of hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) configurations, nanofluid-based PV/T and nano-PCM-based PV/T. These techniques vary in enhancement rate and cost-effectiveness. Higher complexity is described for nano-PCM and nanofluid-based configuration. This paper aims to present two different innovative designs to cool PV panels and efficiently enhance the performance and elongate the lifetime of the PV panel with grid-connected configuration. The two systems are nanofluid-based PV/T and nano-PCM and nanofluid hybrid PV/T.

Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Ali H. A. Alwaeli, Ali Najah Al-Shamani, Mohd Yusof Hj. Othman

Chapter 11. Plasmonic Coupling Enhanced Absorption and Fluorescence Emission in Thin Film Luminescent Solar Concentrator

This research studied plasmonic composite structures of red dye molecules and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for thin film luminescent solar concentrator (LSC). The plasmonic coupling between the red dye molecules and Au NPs was established through controlled spacing, surface plasmon resonance enhanced local photon mode density, and multiple excitation of red dye molecules. The plasmonic composite thin film LSCs were fabricated using spin coating. Two types of structures, homogenous and multilayer layered plasmonic composite thin film LSCs, were studied. In the homogenous LSC, the Au NPs doping concentration distribution controlled spacing between Au NPs and red dye molecules. The multilayered plasmonic composite, transparent polymer spacer layer of 0.0, 30 ± 5 and 60 ± 5 nm was placed between the red dye molecules and Au NPs film to control volume of red dye molecules experienced plasmonic interaction. Spectroscopic and confocal microscopic characterizations probed localized and macroscopic behavior of plasmonic composite structurers. The thin film LSC edge emission measurements assessed the plasmonic coupling enhanced emission for thin film LSCs and their correlation established optimum plasmonic coupling between red dye molecules and Au NPs. Plasmonic interaction improved optical absorption of the plasmonic composite thin film LSC by ~12% moreover independent spacer layers thickness. The fluorescence emission of plasmonic composite structure enhanced by 13, 20, and 25% for spacing layer 0.0, 30 ± 5 and 60 ± 5 nm, respectively. The electrical characterization of this plasmonic thin film LSC followed optical characterizations.

S. Chandra, S. J. McCormack

Chapter 12. Addressing the Energy Challenges: Needs and Perspectives

The quest for long-term sustainable energy supplies and the imperative of environmentally sound energy use are the two main interrelated aspects of the vital energy discussion that underpin today’s global agenda. Energy considerations are of paramount importance to key global concerns such as climate change, sustainable development, poverty reduction and economic growth.Sustainable development underlines the need to manage energy resources judiciously; on the other hand, no development can occur without access to basic energy services. Access to energy is required in all economic and social sectors, and inequality in capacity to access energy resources, and to utilise such resources for development purposes, results in further inequality in wealth distribution, be it in terms of social welfare or economic competitiveness.It is to be recalled that, globally over 1.3 billion people still remain without electricity access and more than 95% of them are either in Africa or Asia. Recognizing that access to energy services in developing countries is essential for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, which would help to reduce poverty, the United Nations launched the ‘Sustainable Energy for All’ Decade (SE4ALL). Furthermore, the revived interest in alternative and renewable energy resources, combined with the substantial advances in the related science and technology in recent decades, justifies the priority given to addressing energy sustainability and access also reflected in the new set of SDGs that includes energy (Goal 7).

Osman Benchikh

Chapter 13. The Impact of the Rise of Using Solar Energy in GCC Countries

The research and the prototype projects in the GCC countries were in place since 1970s which first were started in Kuwait, followed by Saudi Arabia in the 1980s, United Arab Emirates in the 1990s, and Bahrain, Oman and Qatar in twenty-first centuries. Now all GCC countries had conducted a relatively large project in Solar and Wind Energy, especially Kuwait (currently about 70 MW among a plan of 2000 MW by 2030), UAE (currently about 300 MW among a plan of 2500 MW by 2030) and Saudi Arabia (with an ambitious renewable energy target of 3450 GW by 2020 with a further 6000 GW envisioned by 2023 and to 200,000 MW by 2030). Such an acceleration in the use of solar and wind energy would have an impact. Major impacts are: (1) Major reduction in the solar electricity prices in the region. (2) More investors in renewable energy business. (3) Rise of innovative design of houses to utilize its structure in installation and integration of renewable energy devices. (4) Rise of many service and maintenance of solar technology companies. (5) Establishment of new academic programs and courses in solar and other Renewable Energy technologies in the higher education institute and technical organizations. (6) More concern and studies on disturbances to the main grid due to solar connection. (7) Major reduction in Carbon footprint per capita in GCC countries. (8) Use of more efficient and low consumption household and industrial devices. (9) Boost in battery industry for solar electricity storage.

W. E. Alnaser, N. W. Alnaser

Chapter 14. Architectural Education for Sustainability

Owing to the need for sustainable environments in cities and other settlements, the real challenge for twenty-first-century architecture and architectural education is to ensure that, during the student’s education, serious attention is placed on the relationship between architecture and society and in the wider context of sustainability. In the last two decades, the growing awareness of the reciprocal relationship between architecture and the urban environment has led to the restructuring of both undergraduate and graduate programmes in architectural education, and the current architectural directives and associations require undergraduates and graduates to study the urban and social dimensions of architectural design. However, even when architects and educators take the urban environment into consideration, their main focus is on the visual aspect alone. In fact, it is equally as important for the design to fulfill the physical, social, emotional and spiritual needs of the people who use the environment and to ensure local distinctiveness together with a sense of place. In line with these points, this paper, following a critical review of the conventional type of architectural education, using the author’s own teaching experiences in two different architectural schools and based on research and observations at the University of Michigan, a university that is well-known for its environmental sensitivity and who presents positive efforts towards sustainable environments, also makes recommendations towards a ‘greener’ and more ‘sustainable’ focus within architectural education.

Derya Oktay

Chapter 15. Dutch Efforts Towards Sustainable Schools

While the goal of improving the energy performance of schools is crucial, achieving overall performance improvement in terms of both energy and comfort is also of uttermost importance given that the primary role of a building is the provision of a comfortable working and living safe. In this paper, results from ongoing research on sustainable, nearly zero-energy (nZE) and even energy-positive school buildings in the Netherlands are presented. The paper presents the energy results of 23 schools. The obtained results from this research were compared with those of earlier evaluation conducted on sustainable schools in other countries. The result from the research indicates that there are real possibilities to reduce the energy demand of schools.

Wim Zeiler

Chapter 16. Demand-Side Energy Flexibility Management of Office Buildings

Applying decentralized renewable energy in the built environment is a good approach to reduce the CO2 emissions. However this is not without restrictions towards the stability of the energy grid. Using the flexibility within energy generation, distribution infrastructure, renewable energy sources and the built environment is the ultimate sustainable strategy within the built environment. However, at the moment this flexibility on building level is still to be defined. The IEA Annex 67 defines this specific flexibility. Our research is aimed at developing, implementing and evaluating process new control strategies for improving the energy interaction within the building, its environment and the energy infrastructure by effectively incorporating the occupants’ needs for health (ventilation) and comfort (heating/cooling). A bottom-up approach, starting from the user up to the smart grid, offers new possibilities for using buildings’ energy flexibility to stabilize the electrical grid. New intelligent process control concepts are necessary which make use of the dynamic possibilities offered by multi-agent systems in combination with building energy management systems. Increasing demand for electrical energy use in buildings and the corresponding carbon emissions has further emphasized the need for the implementation of strategies that improve the energy performance of buildings. Demand-side management (DSM) strategies, which aim to actively manage user behaviour and how appliances consume energy, is a rapidly growing concept with the potential to contribute worthwhile improvement in building energy performance. A coordinated distributed demand-side management strategy framework for cooling in combination with a battery electrical storage system is presented and implemented in an office building in order to test the concept. The results showed that DSM strategies can be applied while maintaining thermal comfort.

Wim Zeiler

Chapter 17. Toward Green Building and Eco-cities in the UAE

Dubai achievements have been undoubtedly fascinating. It has grabbed the world’s attention with most astonishing story of transformation starting from a barren desert to constructing the world’s tallest building. Which encouraged creating a healthy and sustainable development, which is all about achieving a balance between economic development and environmental protection.Dubai government has announced its objective to transform Dubai into a smart city with an eco-friendly economy, aiming to make it the most sustainable city in the world by 2021. Abu Dhabi and other Emirates are also striving to construct its own fully sustainable cities.Sustainable project is simply “a building that minimises its environmental impact by reducing energy and water consumption, and minimising waste production.”In January 2011, Dubai Municipality made the Green Buildings Regulations and Specifications mandatory for governmental buildings and voluntary for private ones. However, in March 2014, when a total of 44 green governmental buildings had been constructed, the municipality made the regulations mandatory for all new buildings in Dubai. The Green Buildings Regulations and Specifications address different aspects of green building design, such as ecology and planning, building vitality, energy, water, materials, and waste.Dubai’s Green Buildings Regulations and Specifications, which are now available on the Dubai Municipality website www.dm.gov.ae , encourage all developers to build toward a greener tomorrow, safeguarding future generations and at the same time not having a negative impact on the occupant’s health. It addresses different aspects of green building design, starting from ecology planning, building vitality, resources effectiveness in energy, water and material, and waste management. Dubai has included the environment as part of its general strategic plan—which includes a number of sub-plans, initiatives, and projects that aim to improve the environmental conditions in the emirate and reduce the energy consumption by 30% within 2030.Green buildings and green building materials are vital parts of Dubai’s strategic plan to become a green city. The challenges presented by sustainable urban development are huge. Urban planning, transportation infrastructure, quality of life, and the use of renewable energy are just few of many strategies they are working on to steer today’s urbanization toward sustainability. Green building and green cities are a part of long-term national initiative to build a green economy in the UAE under the slogan: “A green economy for sustainable development.”

Riadh H. AL-Dabbagh

Chapter 18. Renewable Energy in Africa: Changing Support Systems

Given that there are 54 very different countries in the continent of Africa, ranging from the very poor to the relatively affluent, with varying levels of political stability and economic development, it is difficult to make generalisations. However, one thing is clear: Africa has a very large renewable energy potential, which, if properly developed, can help mitigate some of the major social, environmental and economic problems it faces, including rising energy demand and climate change, poor energy access and environmental pollution, while creating sustainable employment.

Terence Cook, David Elliott

Chapter 19. Measure the Embodied Energy in Building Materials: An Eco-Sustainable Approach for Construction

This paper highlights how the use of materials and building components often implicates the growth of embodied energy necessary to their construction, which is not always adequately compensated by a decrease of operational energy because incorporated energy can be almost half of the total energy used in a building’s life cycle and, sometimes, it even exceeds operational energy. The paper highlights how searching only for “operational” energy efficiency does not sufficiently guarantee environmental sustainability of the intervention. The intervention is heavily influenced by embodied energy whose knowledge must drive, since the beginning, the decision-making process towards more sustainable design choices.For this matter, the EPDs are important tools, made according to the TC350 standards that establish the steps to consider in order to measure the embodied energy during the life cycle of the material. In this paper are described in detail the steps established by the TC350 (product stage, construction stage, use stage, end-of-life stage, reuse-recovery), together with the system limits (cradle-to-gate, cradle-to-gate with options, cradle-to-grave), and the mandatory and optional steps. The paper examines 395 EPD files, observing that in practice, many steps are not considered, and are limited to product stage and construction stage.

Francesca Scalisi, Cesare Sposito

Chapter 20. Optimizing Building Form for Integration of Solar Photovoltaic in the Design of a Textile Industry in Katsina, Nigeria

Energy as the backbone of world economic growth and development has resulted to depleting fossil fuel reserves, heavy CO2 emissions and climate change. The industrial sector consumes over 50% of global delivered energy with its consumption growing by an average of 1.4% each year. Textile industries consume 25% of the delivered electricity use of non-energy intensive manufacturing industries. These factories extensive envelopes remain unexploited even as various available technologies and strategies exist to produce cost-effective energy solutions. This study aims to provide a design framework for optimizing building form for architectural integration of Building-Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) in designing a textile factory. The design parameters studied include plan layout, roof type, façade type, external building features, location, size, tilt angle, orientation and shading factor. The technology studied is crystalline silicon cell with an average commercial efficiency of 15%. Visual analysis is used to analyse the integration potential of BIPV while the analysis for optimizing BIPV performance is conducted using PVGis® tool by Joint Research Center (JRC) to calculate the electricity generation potential of the BIPV systems under different combinations of values of the design parameters and Autodesk Ecotect is used to determine the self-shading factor of the different roof types. The results show that these solar photovoltaic systems could be integrated into the tilted roof, skylight, façade walls, façade glazing and external device of the factory’s building envelope. Optimum electricity is generated when modules are placed on surfaces with a tilt angle of 16° and an orientation of −4° (South −0°) with the crystalline silicon cell having a potential to generate an average monthly of 18.95 kWh/m2 of electricity. The lean-to roof with rectangular plan performs best providing the largest surface for BIPV integration with no self-shading.

Amina Batagarawa, Yusuf Ahmed Abdulkarim, Musa Lawal Sagada

Chapter 21. Storage for Community Electricity: A Comparison Between Batteries and Mini Pumped Hydro

For electrification of rural communities that are remote from the grid distribution network, renewable energy-based mini-grids are a cost-effective option. These can be based on solar PV, wind or biogas/biofuels. In some cases, a hybrid system using a combination of different technologies makes sense in order to achieve a better match between supply and demand. However, the predominance of evening lighting loads means that energy storage is also required. For large-scale grid storage, pumped hydro is the most cost-effective option, but at smaller scale, this technology is not competitive with batteries. This investigation set out to find the crossover size at which batteries and pumped storage have similar overall costs, when used for off-grid communities.The paper employs case studies where mini pumped storage would be an option, and compares the cost-effectiveness relative to batteries. Detailed costs were calculated for pumped hydro installations of different capacities, and compared with battery costs (for both lead-acid and lithium-ion technologies) using HOMER software. Energy losses in comparable systems were also taken into account in the evaluation. Depending on various factors, pumped storage appears to be competitive for off-grid community storage above around 200 kWh. Nevertheless, the likely reduction in lithium-ion battery costs mean that in the future, battery storage could be competitive with pumped storage at larger sizes.

Gülce Onbaşılı, Arthur Williams, Sandeep Dhundhara

Chapter 22. Urban Microclimate and Thermal Comfort in the Social Housing Districts of Rome: The Combined Effect of Built Form and Urban Materials

This work explores the interdependencies, at the neighbourhood scale, between the built form and the urban materials with microclimate and thermal comfort in the social housing districts of Rome (Italy). Indeed, in Italy, as well as in other European countries, most of the urban expansions happened during the second half of the twentieth century thanks to public investments. Therefore, these neighbourhoods represent nowadays a relevant part of the built-up footprint and they accommodate many inhabitants. Moreover, these suburban social housing districts, designed by important architects, have been widely investigated by researchers, architects and practitioners focusing on sustainable transformation and regeneration. This attention was due to the observation that such public building stock is the ideal environment to test urban renewal strategies and sustainable design methods based on thermal analysis tools at urban scale for Mediterranean climate since each district is distinguished by unitary design that gives it morphological, typological and technological homogeneity. Furthermore, in Southern Europe, outdoor areas and public spaces are culturally considered as the extension of one’s living spaces and for this reason are of fundamental importance for mankind social life and inhabitants’ living quality. This is even more significant, given the urban population growth. Such growth poses serious issues, e.g. urban heat island effect on urban areas, and, for this reason, urban microclimatic conditions and inhabitant well-being in the existing city are of primary importance. The effects of urban materials and built form on microclimate and outdoor thermal comfort have been widely investigated by building physics and urban physics but more often without approaching the interdependencies between the two disciplines at multi-scale level. In parallel to these, work on the environmental performance of built form has progressed in recent years to include not only the building itself but also other components of the urban space scaling up to a wider scale of analysis. Key urban form and material-related microclimatic consequences of existing suburban social housing districts of Rome are explored and strategies to optimize their interdependencies towards better outdoor thermal environment performance are presented. Thus, this study investigates the effectiveness of different design strategies in order to improve outdoor comfort conditions with respect to microclimatic factors. Simulations of three case study districts are performed with ENVI-met model v.4 software. Results demonstrated a significant variation of microclimatic conditions and thermal comfort index (PMV) due to the implementation of specific site-appropriate design strategies, such as green and blue surfaces, and cool materials, on both buildings and public space. These findings will contribute to promoting a climate-sensitive design perspective towards urban renewal strategies, taking into account the Mediterranean climate and distinctive features of the above-mentioned districts.

Michele Morganti, Federica Rosso

Chapter 23. A Technical Evaluation of Performance Characteristics for Pump as Turbine Application

It is very important to gain a better understanding of pump series of different specific speeds when running in reverse mode. The pump is running in reverse mode to serve as turbine for mechanical rotational energy generation in the hydropower and processing plants. This review chapter employs a technical analysis as a tool to evaluate pump when running in reverse mode by assessing the technological development gathered from the literature. The operational parameters discussed include head, flow rate, power, efficiency, and specific speed. The number of modified pump components includes the blade angle, impeller size and tips, edges of shroud and hub plates, volute casing attached with guide vanes, and modified inlet casing rings and eye enlargement. The internal characteristics also occurred in the form of swirl flow between blades and discharge part, time dependent on flow circulation, radial and axial thrust, blade angle variation, pressure pulsation, cavitation effects, and energy losses between blades, volute casing, and discharge part. Furthermore, the conversion methods discussed were related to pump efficiency, specific speed and constant values to predict the head and flow rate. The conversion methods are mostly used to select the off-the-shelf pumps to run as turbine. Therefore, this paper provides the technological development of running the pump in reverse mode that would give insights for further studies in the four knowledge areas that include operational parameter characteristic, pump component modification, internal flow characteristics at the full- and part-load conditions, and also the development of conversion methods related to pump geometry, fluid properties, performance and system curves to improve the off-the-shelf pump selection.

Ombeni J. Mdee, Cuthbert Z. M. Kimambo, Torbjorn K. Nielsen, Joseph Kihedu

Chapter 24. Performance Improvement of Contra-Rotating Small Hydroturbine

Pico hydropower, which generates about 100 W–1 kW, is called new energy in Japan, and there are a lot of places suitable for the pico-hydropower in agricultural water and a small stream. Efficiency of the pico-hydroturbines is lower than that of large one and it can be used in wide flow rates range. There are inline agricultural water and small water-supply system for mountainous village, which use the high elevation over 30 m from the dam, in Tokushima Prefecture of Japan. In this research, we designed the inline small hydroturbine using the contra-rotating rotor, which can be applied for the above facility with 2 inches’ pipe. The maximum static pressure efficiency over 64% was obtained by the experiment in the previous research. In order to improve the performance of small hydroturbine, the tip clearance and solidity are varied from the base model using the numerical analysis model, and the numerical analysis is conducted with steady condition to reduce the computational cost. It is found that the efficiency increases about 10% with the decrease of the tip clearance from 1.0 mm to 0.5 mm at the design flow rate 1.0 Qd. The solidity of each front and rear rotor is optimized and the numerical analysis is conducted with the unsteady condition for the best solidity combination model. The maximum total pressure efficiency over 68% is obtained for the best solidity model at the 1.25 Qd. The pressure distribution in axial direction of each type of the model is investigated by the numerical analysis results.

Toru Shigemitsu, Tomofumi Ikebuchi, Ding Nan, Takuji Hosotani

Chapter 25. Low-Cost Solar Selective Absorbers by Electrodepositing Technique

In recent years interest has increased in the production and characterization of high-thermal-stability selective surfaces that have high solar absorptance (α) and low thermal emittance (ε). Different techniques such as thermal evaporation, spray pyrolysis, chemical techniques, ion-beam sputtering, etc. have been utilized to prepare several coatings of high α and low ε values. Solar energy is inexhaustible source of energy. The power from the sun intercepted by the earth is larger than the present consumption rate on the earth. This makes it one of the most promising of the unconventional energy sources. The objective of this research is to study solar selective coatings used in solar thermal collectors, i.e., black nickel coatings using copper substrates. In this work, we investigated the preparation and characterization of black nickel (BN) coatings used in solar thermal collectors. The overall goal has been to obtain efficient absorbers by using low-cost techniques. Reflectance measurements were used to evaluate both (α) and (ε) of the coatings. The measurements of total or diffuse reflectance of samples were performed with instruments equipped with integrating spheres. Electrodeposited (ED) Ni-black on Cu substrate has a moderate selectivity (α/ε = 2.63, when α = 0.95). The durability tests were carried out in the form of elevated temperature exposure in air (250 °C), temperature cycling (30–100 °C), and humidity tests (up to 90% RH). The coatings have been re-characterized after ageing tests, using spectrophotometry and other techniques, such as X-ray techniques. Durability testing of the ED Ni-black coatings indicates that they are sensitive to humidity testing (HMT), and significant changes in (α) or (ε) also occurred during thermal ageing. ED of BN on Cu substrate showed degradation toward the durability tests. In this research, low-cost solar selective absorbers (ED of BN on Cu) have been obtained. And we tried to get rid of some structures or materials which are harm to the environment, that is, car batteries, by using lead sheets [from recycled car battery] as an anode during ED of BN coating.

Kamil M. Yousif, Sayran A. Abdulgafar

Chapter 26. Effects of Mirror Geometry on the Optical Efficiency of a Linear Fresnel Reflector (LFR)

The linear Fresnel reflector (LFR) is a concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) technology, which benefits from a relatively simple and low-cost design. It typically comprises of a single receiver tower and several linear mirror elements. In comparison to more conventional solar concentrators, such as the parabolic trough or solar power tower, the LFR has a lower optical efficiency. However, there are numerous parameters, which influence an LFR’s optical performance: mirror width, mirror spacing, mirror number, mirror curvature and receiver height. In many LFR designs, these parameters are not properly analysed with the solar field configuration generally being taken from a known solar power plant or prototype. One of the main reasons behind this is the complexity associated with ray tracing, which would be needed to investigate fully the optics of the system, including surface reflections and shadowing. Comprehensive optical analyses using Monte Carlo ray tracing techniques are both computationally and time intensive, but there is a growing set of ray tracing tools designed for CSP systems. This provides opportunities to achieve gains in efficiencies by investigating system performance for different mirror configurations and sun positions. In this study, SolTrace, a specialised software tool developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is used to evaluate the FRESDEMO pilot LFR plant located at the Plataforma Solar de Almería, Spain. The FRESDEMO plant comprises of 25 mirror element rows and covers an area of 2100 m2. A number of simulations of the FRESDEMO plant have been carried out before, but this study investigates potential gains in optical efficiency that could have been achieved through varying mirror numbers and widths. Furthermore, the performance of flat mirrors versus variable curved mirrors is investigated. Optical errors are established and compared for a range of different configurations. An outcome from the study is a set of alternative design scenarios to increase the optical efficiency of the LFR, and practical implications of these changes are evaluated.

M. P. G. Sirimanna, J. D. Nixon

Chapter 27. The Energy Transition in Morocco

The energy sector is a vital element, its performance conditions that of the rest of the economy and the well-being of society. Indeed, it is the key factor of economic and social development. The supply of energy (all forms combined) in the best conditions (continuity, quality, price) is a driver of productivity and competitiveness of companies and social balance. On the other hand, the energy deficit and the fragility of the sector will have an opposite impact. The main characteristic of energy is that it is both an input and an output. The availability of primary energy is a central factor in providing final energy cheaply and in sufficient quantities. Morocco’s energy deficit has pushed it to adopt an energy plan, the stated objectives of which are the minimization of dependence on conventional energy, the reduction of the energy bill, and the budget deficit, without forgetting the elimination of the trade deficit. Indeed, since political independence, the country’s energy dependence has steadily increased, creating a climate of uncertainty and insecurity about the future evolution of the economy and society. The development model based mainly on conventional energies has reached saturation, generating very low growth rates and creating social and regional disparities. The energy plan adopted in recent years by the Moroccan authorities is a serious alternative to overcome the problems. The energy sector in Morocco is dominated by fossil fuels, almost entirely imported, which cover 88.5% of the country’s primary energy consumption in 2014 (oil 61.9%, coal 21.3%, gas 5.3%) renewable energies contribute 8.8% and electricity imports 2.7% (International Association of Hydropower (IAH). State of hydropower report, 2016). The energy plan basically consists of a recomposition of the weighting of energy sources; on the horizon, renewable energies must be half of the primary energy sources. Morocco has adopted in 2016 a national strategy for sustainable development (NSSD) which sets ambitious targets: 5000 MW of solar in 2030; transition from the wind capacity of 280 MW in 2010 to 2000 MW in 2020, or 14% of total electrical capacity; and development of waste utilization (International Association of Hydropower (IAH). State of hydropower report, 2016). By 2030, Morocco has set a program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This strategy is available in the various sectors of renewable energies: wind, solar, and hydroelectric. Morocco imports 95% of the energy consumed, and hydrocarbon production in the kingdom is almost zero. This situation led it to embark on a program of development of renewable energies and energy diversification in order to no longer depend essentially on fossil fuels (Report of Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment (MEMWE), 2014). The purpose of this article is to present the energy transition in Morocco by highlighting the state of play of the energy sector with related costs (financial, economic, social, regional, and environmental), with a synthetic presentation of the new orientation based on renewable energies.

A. Laaroussi, A. Bouayad

Chapter 28. Energetic Performance Optimization of a H2O-LiBr Absorption Chiller Powered by Evacuated Tube Solar Collector

Electric vapor compression systems have been used for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) in many facilities including commercial, residential, and industrial buildings for comfort. However, these systems contribute the largest share of energy consumption in buildings, leading to additional burden in the generation and distribution lines of electric systems especially during the peak load period in the summer of hot climate regions. One alternative for air conditioning is the use of absorption chillers which are driven primarily by thermal energy that can be access from various sources such as solar, biomass, waste heat, and geothermal heat. Single-effect H2O-LiBr absorption chillers have been commercialized and manufactured by several industries many years back. Recently, there is rapid deployment trend of renewable energy such as solar to power the absorption chillers in many facilities for energy saving. Since absorption chillers are designed to be driven by hot water or steam, deployment of solar thermal collectors as the primary thermal energy input necessitates proper configuration strategies and optimization. This involves selection of appropriate size (area) and type of the solar collector unit for a given chiller capacity or cooling requirement. In this regard, this paper presents an optimization of a 35.2 kW Yazaki WFC-SC10 single-effect H2O-LiBr absorption chiller driven by evacuated tube solar collector. The optimization aimed at finding the optimum size of the evacuated tube solar collector according to the chiller nominal capacity at maximum coefficient of performance (COP), which represents the measure of performance of cooling systems from energy point of view. Using the operational parameters and the range of operating conditions of the Yazaki WFC-SC10 chiller, the COP of the chiller is optimized, taking into account the internal operating parameters of the chiller such as temperatures and mass fraction of LiBr or solution concentration. These parameters are associated with solution crystallization, which is detrimental to the operation and reliability of H2O-LiBr absorption machine. The results indicate specific collector area of about 2.2 m2/kW of cooling for the optimum COP. Sensitivity analysis shows that there is risk of solution crystallization by integrating solar collector field larger than 117 m2 in places where solar radiation is up to 1000 W/m2 based on the considered chiller.

Nasiru I. Ibrahim, Fahad A. Al-Sulaiman, Farid Nasir Ani

Chapter 29. Design and Construction of a Small Stand-Alone Wind Turbine Using Scrap Materials

The main objective of this paper is to report on designing and construction of a stand-alone home-sized wind turbine (WT) in Jordan using scrap materials. The designed WT has to deliver a predetermined amount of AC kWh. The used generator is a 600 W, 12 V automobile DC generator with suitable charge controller, battery storage, and an inverter. For a small wind turbine to be effective, it must produce energy across a wide range of wind speeds. It must be able to generate energy from winds that are switching directions and gusting. It must also be very quiet, so that it will not disturb people living nearby, and it certainly helps if it is pleasing to the eye as well. The main design input data are energy demand of 160 kWh per month and the average wind speed of 6 m/s. Based on the input data, the capacity factor (CF) of the system, rotor diameter (D), gearbox ratio (GR), and power curve have been determined. It is found that CF, D, and GR are equal to 0.372, 2 m, and 2.5, respectively. The performed economic analysis of the system shows that the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is about 4.6 USD cents/AC kWh, and the payback period is about 4 years. The constructed wind turbine from used materials would be an attractive demonstration project of renewable energy, which will encourage the use of stand-alone wind generation in unserved areas in developing countries.

Ali Hamzeh, Sadeq Hamed, Zakaria Al-Omari

Chapter 30. RenovaBio Opportunities and Biofuels Outlook in Brazil

Brazil is the second largest producer of biofuels in the word, after the USA. Biofuel production in the country was boosted in the 1970s by public policies such as Pro-Alcool (considered a successful policy to strengthen ethanol production). However, the competitive prices of fossil fuels and ethanol shortages due to high sugar prices have created market insecurity concerning investments in ethanol production and also in the supply side. Brazil produced 28.3 billion litres of ethanol and 3.8 billion litres of biodiesel in 2016. The production percentage increase in the last decade were 25% and 840% for ethanol and biodiesel, respectively, showing a stagnation in ethanol sector and technological advances and viability increase in biodiesel sector. To retake the expansion biofuel in Brazil, a governmental program, RenovaBio, was created to encourage private investments in the sector, including advances in second and third generation of biofuels, and also help the country meet decarbonization goals according to the Paris Agreement. Unlike Pro-Alcool, the program intends to push biofuels production without focusing on a specific type. Although it expects to retake the Brazilian expansion in biofuels, the real impact in the sector is still unclear. The goal of this article is to understand the sector in Brazil in the last decade and how RenovaBio could affect the first, second and third generation of biofuel production. The key concept of RenovaBio is to reduce the carbon emission and improve life-cycle performance of biofuels. The program provides an opportunity for the biofuel producer to commercialize decarbonization credits (CBIO) in the market. The CBIO is generated by the difference between fossil fuel CO2e emission (baseline) and its biofuel substitute. The higher this difference, the more CBIO could be issued and commercialized. Therefore, as cellulosic ethanol usually presents a smaller carbon footprint compared to first-generation ethanol, the viability of advanced biofuels could possibly increase. By these means, RenovaBio could lead to a reduction of ethanol prices and a real expansion of biofuel technology development and production in Brazil.

Fernando Henriques Salina, Isabela Aroeira de Almeida, Felipe Ribeiro Bittencourt

Chapter 31. Evolution of Photovoltaic-Thermal Hybrid Solar Technology for the Tropics: A Case Study of Malaysia

Solar energy has been accepted as one of the sources of energy of today. One of the technologies is photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) hybrid solar technology. It is one of solar energy technologies which has the potential for future energy applications. New technology developments in solar energy utilization are expected to result in the improvement of both electrical and thermal performances of the collectors at lower production cost. The current popular technology converts solar energy into electricity and heat separately. The effort has been made to generate electrical and thermal energy simultaneously by using photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) hybrid system. The synchronization of PV/T system led to the development of PV/T air-based and PV/T water-based systems and PV/T with nano-fluid-based systems. This paper presents an overview of PV/T systems, including the photovoltaic-thermal combination system (PV/T Combi), with a combination of photovoltaic panel with air- and water-based systems as one unit. This paper also describes our experience in introducing the system for cottage industry in Malaysia. The research activities on the PV/T systems were carried out at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, since the early 1980s.

Mohd Yusof Hj. Othman, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Mohd Hafidz Ruslan, Sohif Mat, Suhaila Abdul Hamid

Chapter 32. Feasibility Study into Design, Development and Testing of an Indirect Multi-Rack Solar Dryer for Agricultural Products

This paper describes the design considerations, followed by the results achieved during its testing and finally a comparison between those experimental results and a computational simulation. The design of the solar dryer was developed with the use of CAD drawing software. The wood-structured unit consists of a front-pass collector, glazed with a 0.6 mm polycarbonate sheet and a copper absorber plate of 0.85 m2 area, and a drying chamber, which holds four wooden aluminium-meshed trays for the drying of different products. The unit was tested under artificial and natural conditions. For the former, an artificial lighting equipment was used to simulate 760 W/m2 solar irradiation and for the latter the unit was tested under direct sun exposure. The temperature achieved on the absorber plate was 67 °C, while the air temperature reached during the indoor test at inlet, tray 1, tray 2, tray 3, tray 4 and outlet was 26, 44, 42, 40.5, 39 and 37 °C, respectively. The results show that it took 14 hours to reduce the moisture content of 2,69 kg of sliced bananas from 78% to 16.9, 17.8 17.7 and 21.2% on trays 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively and to 20.2% with open sun drying. The thermal efficiency of the designed solar dryer was 37% and the dryer efficiency 14%. The results achieved during the indoor test were compared with a test under natural conditions and a computational simulation (CFD). In both cases similar tendencies were found, showing that the manufacturing was successfully achieved.

Hossein Mirzaii, Juan Pablo Nojek Barbieri

Chapter 33. Production of Hydrogen Using Solar-Powered Electrolysis

A solar-powered electrolysis (SPE) unit was modelled to provide 58,400 kg of hydrogen to run the fuel cell bus fleet in Lea interchange garage in London on a yearly basis. Experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) module and the electrolyser. An energy balance of the electrolysis unit was calculated to give 47.82 kwh/kg and used to model a 2.98 MW photovoltaic system required to run the electrolysis process. Cost analysis was conducted to show that steam methane reforming cost £1.14/kg while solar-powered electrolysis cost £15.76/kg of hydrogen gas.

D. A. Udousoro, Cliff Dansoh

Chapter 34. City of Sydney Decentralised Renewable Energy Master Plan

Decentralised energy master planning is an important process for cities who want to implement decisive steps towards a 100% renewable energy future which can be achieved by a combination of energy efficiency and decentralised renewable energy.

Allan Jones

Chapter 35. Workshop “Smart Energy Cities and EU GCC Cooperation Opportunities” Within the WREC 2018

The workshop “Smart Energy Cities and EU GCC Cooperation Opportunities” took place on Tuesday, 31 July 2018 within the framework of World Renewable Energy Congress 2018 (WREC 2018) and was chaired by Dr. Haris Doukas—Network’s Research Collaboration Specialist. The workshop dealt with Smart Energy Cities (SEC) which are expected to play a key role in the efforts towards low-carbon economies in both regions, EU and GCC.

Haris Doukas

Chapter 36. A Pricing Method for the Electricity from Renewables to Be Used After Feed-In Tariffs

One of the important problems concerning the use of renewables is how the electricity from renewables is priced after a system of feed-in tariffs expires. It should be taken into account that the amount of power generation from some sorts of renewables is difficult to control so the demand side of the market may play a role. We propose a pricing method for the electricity fed into the grid, focusing on photovoltaic generation in the residential sector. It applies coalitional game theory, in particular concepts of the core and the Shapley value. Under the systems using these concepts, the players may try to control the demand for electricity to obtain larger payoffs.

Yoshihiro Yamamoto

Chapter 37. Disclosing the Immaterial Resilience of Sustainable Architecture for a New Renovation Processes of the Inland Mediterranean Areas

Recently it has been assisted to a general tendency to the growing of touristic request in the inner Mediterranean areas, as well as a crescent research of high-quality services, especially for the quality of life and wellness during the travel. These aspects have led to a major awareness of what the traveller wants to find in the place that has chosen, making the vacation a real “experience” based on particularity. Among the positive aspects that involve thinking about the territory as an environmental system capable of resilience, one of the main is the reference to an organic vision that allows integration, enhance and direct towards common objectives, solutions and interventions that, alone, risk to create discontinuity. If we analyse the problems of the sensible contexts, characterized by the large cultural heritage, by the environmental fragility and by the strong anthropic pressures or depopulation (touristic and archaeological areas/the inner villages), beside the material capacity of the cities and buildings to react to the disasters, it has emerged the same priority to implement the meaning of the resilience including in a new holistic approach also oriented to the immaterial issue. In order to promote the balanced quality of the cities, to ensure both environmental and social sustainability of built environments, to implement the regeneration of small towns and buildings, the enhancement of immaterial resilience has to become the new driver of the holistic approach, not only for the rehabilitation after disasters but to avoid immaterial damages.The paper will share the experience of Vivimed project, a transnational cooperation project financed by Interreg Program It-Fr, focusing on the enhancement of common, tangible and intangible assets, both in this regard to their natural potential (sun, wind, sea, water, land, habitats, plants, animals, ecosystems and landscapes), both in terms of their cultural heritage, which over the centuries has strengthened their uniqueness and the territorial identity. This is the basis for the dissemination of a competitive model, for the development of a network of eco-green infrastructure and sustainable use. A model that can be exported to other contexts present in the Italian and Mediterranean hinterland, where naturalistic potentialities and resources linked to the authenticity of the places are dominant, but not adequately valued in the logic of a green-circular economy (and/or conscious tourism). Thanks to the results of Vivimed project, we try to enrich and integrate minimum requirements in the Albergo Diffuso regulations with the criteria of environmental, architectural and social quality, stimulating the networking of material and immaterial resources present in the territory.

Antonella Trombadore

Chapter 38. Application of DC–DC Boost Converter to Photovoltaic Pumping System

One of the most famous and important application of solar energy systems is water pumping. It is often used for irrigation or to supply water in countryside or private firm. However, the cost and the efficiency are still a concern, especially with continued variation of solar radiation and temperature throughout the day. Then, the improvement of the efficiency of the system components is one of the different solutions to reducing the cost. Several research studies suggest the use of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms to track the output maximum power point (MPP) of the PV panel. In this paper, we will present a detailed definition of each element of a PV pumping system, and we will present the different MPPT algorithm used in the literature. Our system consists of a PV panel, a boost converter, a motor-pump set and a storage tank.

Sarah Abdourraziq, Mohamed Amine Abdourraziq

Chapter 39. The Impact of Dust’s Physical Properties on Photovoltaic Modules Outcomes

In this article, an experimental analysis was carried out to evaluate the impact of the dust accumulation on the PV modules on the resulted energy losses. The dust used in the experiments was collected from three specific location of Sultanate of Oman. Samples of fly and participated dust from three sites were collected for a period of 3 months for the purpose of assessing their physical properties.The results showed that 64% of the total dust particles were 2–63 μm in diameter. The effect of dust deposition on photovoltaic modules has also yielded mixed results from one location to another. The concentration of the surface mass of the deposited dust on the photovoltaic unit is limited to less than 1 g/m2; the reduction in energy outcomes was limited. The maximum daily decrease in efficiency was 0.05% for the samples examined, and when compared to neighbouring countries is considered a small value. The results showed that the photovoltaic cells exposure to outdoor conditions longer than 3 months caused the PV module yield to decrease by 35–40%. Therefore, it is recommended that there be periods of cleaning the cells not exceeding 3 months. The study concluded that the use of photoelectric systems in the studied sites is a feasible and economical option.

Hussein A. Kazem, Miqdam T. Chaichan, Ali H. A. Alwaeli

Chapter 40. Performance Simulations of Different Energy Flexibility Sources in a Building with the Electrical Grid

In this paper, simulations of the performance of a building that has different energy flexibility sources is conducted. The building is a simulated single-family house located in Helsinki-Finland. The building’s energy system components include on-site energy generation from renewable energy (PV panels, solar thermal collector and a small wind turbine), energy storage (electric battery and a hot-water storage tank HWST) and heating devices (ground-source heat pump and electric heater), interacting with a bidirectional electric grid.An energy management system (EMS) is developed for optimizing the system’s energy flexibility performance at each time step considering the current states and the future forecast of the system’s energy generation, demand, storage and the electrical grid. The objective function in the studied case is to minimize the operational energy cost. The EMS is a model predictive controller (MPC) based on Successive Linear Programming (SLP), which plans the energy flow for the next 24-h sliding window with 0.1 h time step. The SLP method approximates the scheduling as a linear optimization problem with continuous non-linear constraints.In the current study, different HWST volumes and battery capacities are investigated in order to find the effect of the storage capacity on the system’s economic performance. The developed EMS is found to be very fast and efficient for simulations of the whole-year performance of the energy system. It is concluded that increasing the size of the battery is more effective than increasing the size of the HWST. In addition, the larger size of the tank showed an adverse effect on the total yearly income as smaller tanks are found to be more viable. This is mainly due to the used configuration of the HWST that combines both the space heating and domestic hot-water use, in addition to the limitation in the heat pump supply temperature to lower than 60 °C.

Reino Ruusu, Sunliang Cao, Ala Hasan

Chapter 41. Mathematical Modeling of Temperature Effect on Algal Growth for Biodiesel Application

Microalgae biomass is promising feedstock for the industrial production of biodiesel. Hence, research and development are needed in several domains especially optimizations of growth conditions including temperature effect for mass scale operation (biomass production, harvesting, lipid extraction, etc.). Since in Middle East region, seasonal temperature variation as well as more rapid daily fluctuations are liable to modify the growth conditions of microalgae in outdoor culture and hence affect production efficiency. Therefore, in this study, a mathematical model was developed to calculate how the algae sp. (Chlorella kessleri) will react at different temperatures. The model integrates Monod model and Arrhenius equation, and as such it describes the relationship of algal growth rate with culturing temperature and limiting nutrient concentration. The apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factors were calculated to be 2537 cal/mol and 0.0077 day−1, respectively. The developed models could be useful to visualize the effective impacts of temperature on outdoor algae culture.

S. M. Zakir Hossain, Nader Al-Bastaki, Abdulla Mohamed A. Alnoaimi, Husny Ezuber, Shaikh A. Razzak, Mohammad M. Hossain

Chapter 42. Waste-to-Energy Solutions in Uppsala, Sweden

Sweden has a long history of system solutions and policymaking within sustainability, beginning from the first ban on emissions of untreated sewage in 1956. One example of an area where Sweden has long experience is sustainable waste management. The Swedish waste management systems today consist of materials recycling, bioprocessing of organic waste to biogas and compost and energy recovery. Presently, only 0.7% of the household waste ends up in landfills. This paper presents the waste management in Uppsala and the Uppsala innovation system. Recovered energy from the incineration process is used for district heating, district cooling and electricity, while the produced biogas from organic waste is used as fuel for city buses. Uppsala, the fourth largest city in Sweden, with a population of almost 220.000 inhabitants in the municipality is a leader in sustainable development and a centre for innovation with its two leading universities. An excellent innovation system with one of the worlds’ top-ranked incubators is supporting the emergence of novel solutions with the latest technology in addition to the well-established systems.

Mofoluwake Ishola, Cecilia Tilli

Chapter 43. Geo-Climatic Early-Design Tools and Indicators

The paper introduces a simple methodology to include passive cooling dissipative solutions in early design phases. In order to fulfil this objective, specific Key Performance Indicators (KPI), which are able to analyse the geo-climatic potential of heat sinks, are reported. These indicators are based on the calculation of residual local climate cooling demand—such as introduced by the author in previous works. The specific techniques considered in this paper are natural ventilation, both for comfort and environmental cooling, direct evaporative systems and earth-to-air heat exchangers. The presented method compares these solutions using typical local climate conditions and can be applied before the definition of specific building, from early-design phases. These indicators may be included in bioclimatic tools to optimise the use of passive solutions in early-design phases such as building programming. In addition, an analysis based on a set of reference locations in the Mediterranean area will be included by considering a performance-driven approach to early design, in order to combine KPI in both an environmental and a technological design approach. In this analysis, specific requirements for each considered technology will be defined in order to include a guideline for designers. Finally, climate-change weather forecast will be considered in order to analyse the resilience of the proposed passive cooling solutions under future climate scenarios defined by IPCC. For this analysis, the software Meteonorm is used to generate the morphed typical weather conditions, and the proposed indicators will be applied to study the effect of climate change on the local geo-climatic potential of passive cooling dissipative systems.

Giacomo Chiesa

Chapter 44. New Horizons for Renewable Energies in Morocco and Africa

Morocco has a strategic location in the North West of the African continent and is only 14 km from Europe, across the Strait of Gibraltar. In addition, it is characterized by its varied hilly relief and the length of its coasts (3500 km). So, it has available a important solar and wind potential.Morocco imports more than 96% of its energy needs and its electricity consumption increases by about 6% per year. After setting up an appropriate institutional and legal framework, in 2009, a large-scale solar energy use strategy was launched by the creation of the “Moroccan Agency for Solar Energy” (MASEN) to develop renewable energies. This politic permits Morocco to promote regional integration between sub-Saharan African and European countries. It is based mainly on the increase in the contribution of renewable energies to national electricity consumption and the development of the clean energy economy.MASEN is responsible for implementing the Royal vision for renewable energy. By gaining expertise in solar and wind energy development and optimizing the price of electricity, MASEN is strengthening Morocco’s advantageous position in the renewable sector in Africa and international level.In the horizon, a full renewable energy option will be fully discussed based on what is feasible and appropriate for Morocco. Already several business contracts were made in utilizing PV application, Solar Thermal CSP System and Wind Energy.The twenty-first century will be a century of less and less water, sustainable development and environmental emigration. Morocco is known for its know-how in the dam construction and its renewable energy model. The sharing of these skills with African countries will contribute to its development, consequently to the reduction of its greenhouse gas emissions.

Hassan Nfaoui, Ali Sayigh

Chapter 45. Developing Energy Control and Optimisation Methodology for Built Environment of the Future

A built environment is formed by the buildings and other structures constructed by humans including water and drainage systems, power systems, communication systems and transportation systems, whereas building itself accounts for 30–40% of total global energy consumption. This implies that controlling and optimising the amount of energy consumed or utilised in buildings is the first step in realising an energy efficient built environment. This will not only save cost by minimising the level of re-enforcement on the supply system or reduction in the bills incurred by the occupant, but ultimately reduce the amount of CO2 emission. Generally, energy efficiency strategies in buildings can be broadly classified into passive and active measures. Passive energy efficiency strategies rely on materials or system that consumes less energy to perform their function such as the use of highly efficient thermal insulations, building retrofitting, glazing and passive heating and cooling, among others. Active energy efficiency seeks to use and optimise energy more intelligently, to achieve the same results; they rely on sensors that gather data on occupants such as behaviour and activities, using techniques such as big data analytics, predictive algorithms, internet of things and wireless sensor networks, among others. This paper explored these methods and proposed a hybrid of both passive and active energy efficiency strategies, together with occupant’s awareness and feedback in optimising energy usage in buildings while ensuring flexibility and level of comfort on the part of the occupants.

Monday Ikhide, Alex Egaji, Abdullahi Ahmed

Chapter 46. Performance Optimization of Concentrated Photovoltaic-Thermal (CPV-T) System Employing Phase Change Material (PCM) in Hot Climate

Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system is cooled through a phase change material (PCM) and associated improvement in energy performance is presented in this article. The CPV-PCM system is tested experimentally in extremely hot weather of Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE), where the outside ambient temperature reached up to 55 °C under direct sun for three consecutive days. A commercial grade paraffin-based PCM with melting point in the range of (58–60) °C is integrated in the container attached to the back of the CPV panel to absorb the heat and cools the CPV while melting. The energy performance of the cooled CPV-PCM system is compared to that of non-cooled CPV to determine the increased energy outputs due to cooling produced by PCM. CPV and CPV-PCM yielded total energy efficiency of 30% and 60%, respectively, indicating the advantage of including PCM into CPV design. A 2-D conjugate heat transfer model employing enthalpy-based formulation is developed and validated with the experimental data. The validated numerical model is employed to identify optimum PCM types (paraffin, salt hydrate, and fatty acids), and optimize PCM container configurations for different heat intensities. The optimum PCM thickness of different tested PCMs: paraffin, fatty acid, and salt hydrate (SP) required for complete melting and solidification in the range of 55–60 °C was found to be 6, 9, 20 cm, respectively. The SP was found to be the optimum type of PCM employing less amount of material to achieve the same cooling performance, however, disadvantages of SP need to be considered.

Shaimaa Abdel Baqi, Ahmed Hassan, Ali Hassan Shah

Chapter 47. Assessment of Habitants’ Thermal Comfort Through Different Treatments of Flat Rooftops in Residential Buildings

Among different types of roofs for residential buildings, flat roofs are found to be the most common in the Middle East. Flat roofs are an ancient form mostly used in arid climates and allow the roof space to be used by habitants. However, leaving the rooftop of a high or low building without any treatment against weather fluctuation causes thermal discomfort of the habitants beneath. Rooftops without any other treatment are widely applied in residential building, although habitants strive to find a proper solution based on multiple criteria. This study investigated different alternatives of treatments for flat rooftops in residential buildings against multiple criteria from the case study area of Amman in Jordan. DesignBuilder software for environmental analysis is employed to define the effective rooftop treatment according to the best thermal comfort. It is chosen as it has advantages over other software. This study uses the environmental simulation of five alternative rooftop types in hot arid climate. The five alternatives are rooftop with shed, green rooftop, rooftop with compact insulation, rooftop with tile, and rooftop without any treatment. The criteria used to show the interior spaces thermal comfort by assessment of the thermal performance, heating load, and cooling load in each alternative. Results show that green rooftop achieved the best thermal performance in the interior spaces for the total of heating and cooling loads, but unfortunately the cost of construction and maintenance is too high. However, the second alternative was rooftop with compact insulation with less construction cost, then rooftop with tile. The rooftop with shed showed the highest thermal efficiency only in summer.

Dana K. Amro, Suheir M. S. Ammar

Chapter 48. Integrating Sustainability and Renewable Energy Systems with Architecture Form and Urban Design: Greening the Central District of Irbid, Jordan

Promoting sustainability principles and utilizing renewable energy systems are witnessing prosperity and nourished industry worldwide. However, renewable energy systems in Jordan are still preformed as alienated superimposed elements on the architecture superstructure that in many cases alter the architecture form. Such mode of deployment provokes the dilemma between preserving the architectural form and compromising its aesthetic manifestation in favor of economic and environmental benefits. On the other hand, architecture education scope in this regard is largely focused on the technical aspects of sustainability and renewable energy systems without an interest in investing effort on authentic integration with architecture design. Hence, in an attempt to rethinking sustainability as an integrated part in the conceptual process of architecture and urban design, an urban design project was assigned to the fourth-year architecture students at Jordan University of Science and Technology. The project, Greening the Central District of Irbid aimed at locating and urban renewal of the central district of Irbid city based on sustainable design principles. Furthermore, the project aimed at theoretically developing possible ways of integrating the renewable energy systems within the architectural form. Due to the complex situation of the city and the uncontrolled sprawl, the project brief inquired students to delineate the central district of Irbid based on analyzing the existed physical situation of the city. Methods of surveying and analysis included GIS, concept mapping technique, map and spatial analysis, urban form analysis, network analysis, and land use analysis. The collected data and the analysis were then presented in a SWOT form and matrix analysis. Students then had to redesign the central district of the city based on the sustainable design principles and integrating the renewable energy systems within the architecture form itself. Furthermore, students were expected to come up with design strategies and guidelines that merge the physical and socioeconomic aspects of the urban fabric with major sustainable measures that might lead to greening the central district of the city. Through the project and the process of design, students had to expand their knowledge about the renewable energy resources systems, benefits, and technical requirements before suggesting ways of integrating them in the architecture and urban form. The proposed projects show creative solutions and outstanding possibilities of integrated renewable energy systems such as grid structural systems and smart elevations as well as power generator walkways.

Anwar Ibrahim, Hikmat Ali

Chapter 49. Abu Dhabi Schools: Optimization of Building Form for Energy Efficiency

This paper tackles the issue of increased building energy in schools via optimization of building form. The methodology at the outset included an extensive survey that covered all schools under ADEK authority, in addition to statistical analysis that helped define the possible building form variables and their ranges in order to investigate the optimum architectural forms. Finally, a computer hour-by-hour simulation was conducted to test and optimize the impact of the different building form variables. This helped in improving energy savings with consideration to improving other sustainability factors to create healthy and cheerful environment for the students. The focus of this paper is the initial stage, which is the survey of the ADEK schools and the analysis of the case studies; a pilot energy simulation was conducted on the case studies to test in principle the potential impact of the derived variables on energy consumption. The investigation was based on Abu Dhabi environmental conditions with respect to ADEK school’s requirements and Estidama green building guidelines. The results revealed that building form variables such as form geometry, spacing between building masses, form axes direction, and aspect ratio, in addition to WWR, could help achieve the targeted energy savings while enhancing the connection to daylighting, greenery, and natural air.

Meriem Rahmani, Khaled A. Al-Sallal

Chapter 50. Efficiency of Microstructured Sunlighting Systems in Different Climatic Zones

Two-sided microstructures on windowpanes have been developed for redirecting sunlight into the depth of rooms in order to improve daylighting (Klammt et al., Appl Opt 51:2051–2056, 2012; Helmut, Renew Energy Environ Sustain 2:29, 2017). In a joint research project, comprehensive sunlighting systems for windows are developed, integrating microstructures in double-glass units. The fixed units redirect sunlight without tracking to the ceiling and the depth of the room and avoid glare. The system works for all solar altitudes and therefore can be applied in locations of all latitudes and climate zones. The study compares the energy efficiency of the sunlighting system in different locations. The design tool of sun-path diagrams is used to define the annual hours of direct sunlight on windows in the main orientations (N, E, S, W). This theoretical figure is corrected by the sunshine hours taking into account the annual time of covered sky of typical climatic regions. Thus, actual hours of insolation (and light redirection) for the main window orientations are defined for cold, temperate, and tropical climates. Simulation tools, based on goniometrical measurements of prototypes, are applied complementary to calculate the illuminance distribution of typical rooms for certain times and solar positions of the year. Assuming a daylight-dependent control of artificial lighting the energy savings by sunlight redirection are defined in comparison to conventional window and solar control systems. In conclusion the influence of latitude and climatic zone on the energy efficiency of microstructured sunlighting systems is demonstrated.

Helmut F. O. Mueller

Chapter 51. Hybrid Method to Solve a Two-Stage Stochastic Biofuel Hub-and-Spoke Network Problem

The production of biofuels is a feasible alternative to fossil fuel utilization. One of the main barriers to achieve cost-effective large-scale biofuel production systems is devising a reliable biomass logistics network. The efficiency in the biomass production and transportation is a key factor to increase biofuel market expansion. This paper proposes an efficient solution algorithm based on tabu search and simplex method to solve a two-stage stochastic biomass-to-biorefinery hub-and-spoke network problem. The hub-and-spoke distribution network takes advantage of economies of scale in transportation; however, the computational complexity when solving realistic scenarios grows exponentially. The proposed tractable algorithm aims to support the design and management of large-scale, second-generation biomass supply chains (SCs) that are mindful of the trade-offs that exist between biomass quality and supply chain costs. A case study in Texas is presented and preliminary numerical experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms one of the most utilized algorithms to solve this type of problems. In the experiments, the tabu search and simplex method-based algorithm (TS-SM) reduces the cost by 0.58% and the solution time by 85% in comparison with the standard L-shaped algorithm (LS). The TS-SM algorithm has potential for solving large-scale instances such as regional or interstate cases based in the time improvements presented in the preliminary results.

Mario Aboytes-Ojeda, Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

Chapter 52. The Conflict Between Aesthetics and Sustainability: Empowering Sustainable Architecture with Aesthetics to Enhance People’s Lifestyle and Sustainable Behavior

Climate change is the most pressing global issue that we are facing in the current era. The profession of architecture has a great responsibility to save the Earth of this global disruption.Despite architecture having come a long way in sustainability, it still lacks any holistic approach to this problem. This chapter explores one of the needs that is related to the process of defining an aesthetic philosophy of sustainable architecture. We examined some techniques and methods that can be applied for green solutions and analyzed if they are aesthetically accepted in the world of design. Compatible with the potential usage of these methods, we found some limitations and challenges from an aesthetical point of view. The question: will you sacrifice aesthetics for efficiency, were raised. We found most of the time a conflict between two main goals of architectural design, aesthetics and sustainability. The results show, for example, that most of the people by nature would go with aesthetics and cultural values rather than efficiency and saving energy methods. This led us to emphasize the fact that we should widen the range of considerations on technical aspects and sustainable methods and work strongly together with other professionals at every phase of the design process. Although technical and environmental aspects in building design are very important, we cannot ignore the social, cultural, and aesthetics values. We agree that sustainability opens new horizons for architecture, but this should be by hold hands to guide, not by detain. In order to create an effective and desirable sustainable architecture, architects should go beyond checklists and materials codes. Architecture needs a new “style” emerging from a new sustainable aesthetic philosophy.

Shaden Abusafieh

Chapter 53. The Influence of Roof Fenestration on Daylight Distribution in an Atrium Space Under Tropical Sky Conditions

A parametric study was done to evaluate the daylight performance in atrium buildings focusing on the effect of roof fenestration on the atrium space under a range of sky conditions. The interaction between various roof configurations and daylight conditions inside the atrium space was also studied. In achieving this objective, the work began with a field study using scale models under real sky conditions in a tropical region. The data produced were used to simulate more complex conditions by running a simulation study using the IES-3178 VE-Pro (IESRadiance) program suite for daylighting simulations on a full-scale atrium. The photometry and geometry of the test modules were carefully reproduced. The surrounding and daylighting environment of the physical model under real sky conditions were also simulated. The evaluation of daylight performance under real sky conditions was very challenging due to dynamic changes and fluctuations in sky conditions throughout the day. The changes were controlled in the simulation studies by maintaining a 2% atrium surface reflectance in order to study the transmittance by the roof fenestrations.For real sky conditions, the factors considered were atrium design such as the form, skylight shapes, floor height, surface reflectance and glazing transmittance. After the real sky study, a comprehensive simulation was conducted in a much more complex environment which included many parameters from both indoor and outdoor conditions. The external factors refer to sky conditions and the sun’s position such as solar altitude and elevation with respect to time.Four models were developed to perform the daylighting performance analyses. The models used different roof fenestration designs and structural truss systems: flat, pitched, pyramidal-gridded and saw-tooth. It was found that structured roof forms reduce daylight levels in the atrium well by 55%. A high contribution of daylight penetration occurs at the centre nearest to the atrium opening. The transmittance of the atrium roof structure also decreased the illuminance level at the lowest corners of the atrium space by 50%. Under overcast skies, the illuminance levels decrease even more at the corners of the atrium floor, especially for the north- and west-facing atrium surfaces for all types of roofs. Not surprisingly, the flat roof performed well in maintaining the acceptable limit of maximum light utilisation and was most consistent in terms of light distribution across the atrium floor. Meanwhile, the pyramidal-gridded roof type performed better in terms of daylight contribution at approximately 50%. The pitched roof was found to be less consistent and had poor distribution, especially at low transmittance levels. These results will aid the atrium designer in making decisions on the optimal design strategy for daylighting and energy efficiency.

J. Yunus, A. Zain-Ahmed, S. S. Ahmad

Chapter 54. Techno-Economic Study of a Biogas-Based Polygeneration Plant for Small Dairy Farms in Central Bolivia

This paper presents a techno-economic feasibility study of a polygeneration plant proposed for an association of dairy farmers in Bolivia. The systems have been designed in an integrated approach and are based on the resource recovery utilizing available cow dung. The production of biogas is proposed using “low cost” tubular digesters. The biogas is used for the production of electricity and heat in a 40 kWel internal combustion engine. Heat from the exhaust gas is recovered to drive an absorption cooling system for milk refrigeration and for a bio-slurry drying system. The final services are biogas, electricity, cooling and fertilizers. The techno-economic analysis focuses on determining the levelized cost of the services and compare them with the subsidized and non-subsidized prices of other competitive services in the market. Sensitivity analyses for the services prices are carried out to see the influence of the feedstock handling cost and the subsidies on investment capital. Once the selling prices of the services are defined, the payback period of investment capital is determined. The results show that the biogas and electricity costs were found lower than the subsidized prices of similar services in the market while the cost of cooling was found slightly higher. From the sensitivity analysis we have that the feedstock handling cost can be increased from 10 to 18 USD/ton while maintaining the biogas price below the subsidized LPG price, and applying subsidies to the investment capital allows reducing the rest of the services costs. The payback period is around 3.5 years when a subsidy of 15% is applied in the investment capital and the services are sold at the subsidized prices of the conventional services. Our study has shown that under the conditions of the Bolivian market it is feasible the installation of a polygeneration plant. On the other hand, a market without or with reduced subsidies for the conventional services makes the proposed system more feasible and competitive.

J. Villarroel-Schneider, Brijesh Mainali, J. Martí-Herrero, Anders Malmquist, Andrew Martin, Lucio Alejo

Chapter 55. Performance Gap and nZEB Compliance of Monitored Passivhaus in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Italy

The near Zero Energy Building (nZEB) standard is required for all buildings from 2020. The Passive House (PH) standard is a well-established low-energy building standard, having been designed over 25 years ago, and could potentially be used to achieve the nZEB standard in combination with renewables.By comparing measured performance with design predictions, this chapter considers if there is a performance gap for a number of monitored properties and assesses if the nZEB standard can be achieved by following the well-established PH scheme. Analysis is carried out based on monitoring results from real buildings located in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Italy, respectively, with particular focus on the indoor air quality including the assumed and measured indoor temperature and heating periods for both standards as recorded during a full annual cycle.An analysis is carried out also on the Energy Performance Certificates of each of the dwellings to determine if they meet the near Zero Energy Building primary energy consumption targets set in the respective jurisdictions.Each of the dwellings is certified as complying with the passive house standard, and accordingly has very good insulation levels, heat recovery and ventilation systems of greater than 75% efficiency and an airtightness of less than 0.6 air changes per hour at 50 Pa.It is found that indoor temperature and relative humidity were within the comfort boundaries set in the design stage, while carbon dioxide concentrations are sometimes higher than the values suggested by EN 15251 standard for comfort class I especially in bedrooms.

S. Colclough, V. Costanzo, K. Fabbri, S. Piraccini, P. Griffiths, Neil J. Hewitt

Chapter 56. How Can Reflected Light Modify Solar Gains in a Compact Urban District?

Urban sprawl has become a major concern worldwide. The historical solution is the compact urban district, current in the old centers of many European cities. Their compactness presents many advantages that must be preserved for an efficient urban design. However, the compact urban district seems to be more challenging regarding daylight availability (Patriarche Mesure et modélisation de la lumière naturelle dans les canyons urbains. PhD thesis, ENTPE, Vaulx-en-Velin (France), September 9, 2014) and solar gains (Beckers et al. Sustainable building for a cleaner environment. Springer, Cham, 2018). The study here presented has been realized in Rue des Tonneliers, a street of Old Bayonne, a heritage city in the southwest of France. Its compact morphology and high density have deserved an urban retrofitting project enhancing the livability of the district and its energy performance.The historical city tends to be irregular, and the semantic information necessary to reconstruct it as a case study is usually scarce. For this work, an urban survey through mobile and aerial scanners has been carried out, followed by the construction of a colorized point cloud used as a reference to build an accurate three-dimensional urban model. The semantic information for this case study was obtained by determining the actual reflection coefficients, by means of photographic techniques. This method permits to reproduce an accurate reflection coefficient map of the façades.The precision of the model geometry and semantics introduces new difficulties at the time of setting up the simulation procedure. It is important to reflect on the correct location of the calculation points taking into account the aimed results, since using a simplified method could lead to false results. A 3D model that accurately reproduces the morphology and semantics of the urban scene is easily modifiable by changing the reflection coefficients or altering the WWR (window to wall ratio). Modifying the actual scenario in order to simulate solar gains over facades may help evaluate the energy efficiency and urban comfort through passive design.Two different possibilities of urban retrofitting in a compact urban district based on architectural decisions have been explored. The level of detail needed for radiative analysis (solar gains) will be discussed. Therefore, a geometrically and semantically rich 3D model has been recommended for a complete analysis. The result may help to evaluate the energy consumption demand through passive energy methods.

Benoit Beckers, Jairo Acuña Paz y Miño, Claire Lawrence

Chapter 57. Study of Corrosion Effect of Micronal® Phase Change Materials (PCM) with Different Metal Samples

Micronal® is a material designed for temperature regulation applications and its performance has been investigated in buildings (Cabeza et al. Energy Buildings 39:113–119, 2007). This wax mixture, classified as organic paraffin, is contained in small vessels with the core PCM and a hard coating (Micronal PCM BASF, Intelligent temperature management for buildings, 2012). Micronal® is an ideal candidate to use in solar applications due to the low melting point (20.9–25.8 °C), high heat fusion (119 kJ/kg) and non-toxic behaviour. In the past, the behaviour of Micronal® between different materials for 722 days has been investigated (Browne et al. Energy Procedia91:113–121, 2016). This experiment has been carried out to study the compatibility of the commercial PCM Micronal® with various common container materials following the ASTM G1-01. The container materials tested were copper, brass, aluminium, stainless steel and mild steel for a period of 1073 days. Stainless steel sample was determined to be the most suitable due to its negligible corrosion rate. Aluminium, copper and brass can encapsulate Micronal; however caution is advised as the maximum corrosion rate was found to be 0.70 mg/cm2year, 2.44 mg/cm2year and 2.26 mg/cm2year, respectively. Furthermore, SEM imaging has been used for a greater insight into the initial stages of corrosion which are not initially visible to the naked eye. From the results, it can be observed that copper, brass and aluminium samples have been corroded by pitting and this is well matched to the gravimetric analysis. No corrosion was observed in stainless steel samples.

Rebeca Salgado, Hoda Akbari, Maria C. Brown, Isobelle Reid, Sarah J. McCormack

Chapter 58. Metal Coordination Complexes: A Bottom-Up Approach Tailored Towards Solar Energy Applications

Luminescent downshifting (LDS), a passive design approach, focused on improving the short-wavelength response of photovoltaic technologies through the application of retrofitted photoluminescence layers has undergone a recent renaissance. Previously limited by the lack of viable candidates, the recent advancements in synthetic chemistry and nanomaterials have renewed interest in the once dormant application. In this work, a series of 30 phenanthroline-based heteroaromatic ligands were evaluated in terms of their optical properties and suitability for LDS applications. Three of the materials fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in LDS devices, displaying luminescent quantum yields in the range of 0.80–0.95: with the structures absorbing heavily over the 300–500 nm range. Given the active role of ligands in sensitizing metal coordination centres, during the formation of coordination complexes, the ligands catalogued and evaluated herein could provide a welcome breath of renewed interest in the application of LDS layers to a range of commercial and noncommercial photovoltaic technologies. Other molecules within the family of ligands catalogued, showcased a large degree of non-radiative energy transfer, making them potential candidates for solar thermal applications, whereby localized heat generation and transfer is a favourable consideration.

James Walshe, Pauraic Mc Carron, Hind Ahmed, Sarah Mc Cormack, John Doran

Chapter 59. External Quantum Efficiency Measurements and Outdoor Characterisation for PV Luminescent Downshifting Devices

In this paper, LDS layers (100 ± 05 μm) of Violet Lumogen dye encapsulated into PMMA polymer with different concentrations, 0.082, 0.044 and 0.170% w/w, were prepared by drop casting onto glass substrates. Layers were deposited on top of crystalline silicon cells to improve their performances. External quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements showed an enhancement for wavelengths where the violet dye is absorbing at 290–420 nm. From the outdoor characterisation, the highest gain in overall efficiency η (%) was recorded for PV/LDS device with a concentration of 0.082% w/w which shows an increase of 15% (relative) compared to the corresponding reference cell. Also a relative increase of 19% in the short-circuit current was outdoor measured for this device.

H. Ahmed, J. Doran, S. J. McCormack

Chapter 60. Domestic Demand-Side Response: The Challenge for Heat Pumps in a Future UK—Decarbonised Heating Market

It has become a major point of interest and possible bone of contention that in a future near-decarbonised electricity network, i.e. approaching 100% reduction in emissions by 2050, a low carbon space heating market will be enabled through the deployment of electrically driven heat pumps. It is recognised that such a vision will place a significant extra burden on the existing electricity network. This will be especially true of the low-voltage network at Distribution System Operator level, e.g. 11 kV or below, but as such systems do not operate in isolation, challenges will also be seen at the Transmission Operator level as well. This may be further complicated by the perceived rapid deployment of electric vehicles well before 2050.Building insulation programmes will reduce heating loads, but experiences have illustrated that current UK best practice lags somewhat behind our European counterparts. Energy demands for heat pumps would therefore reduce and efficiencies would increase depending on the depth of retrofit. The rates of retrofit may require 2050 targets to be met by active energy systems rather than the passive roles of insulation. Demand-side management in its many shapes and forms becomes part of the solution. The thermal mass of buildings can be deployed to understand duration of off-times after a period of heating while maintaining thermal comfort. Understanding end-user behaviour is critically important in this process as it is believed that the smart learning of the behaviour of the building can be subtly tailored to end-user needs. Selective fabric retrofits and selective occupancy controls can adjust these parameters, further giving an element of control to the end-user while satisfying electricity network operator needs.The deployment of energy storage is also an option. Heat pumps and water storage (or sensible heat) trials and experiments reveal both noticeable heat losses from the tanks and large sizes of tanks for significant scales of time management. Finding the space for larger tanks in typical UK housing types would be challenging. However, aggregation of large numbers of these units that are electricity network controlled (at the distribution operator level for example) has the potential to reduce individual storage volumes, thus potentially realising greater social acceptance. Novel materials, e.g. phase change or thermochemical, will deliver further reductions in size, and low-temperature thermal networks may upgrade heat pump performance and increase energy efficiency. Hybrid heat pumps or gas-driven types (adsorption or absorption) will utilise existing gas networks that may be increasingly decarbonised with biogas or hydrogen deployments.Domestic and local photovoltaic (PV) system deployment would provide electricity network relief when accompanied by energy storage. Thermal storage will satisfy thermal comfort needs when operating with heat pumps while battery deployment may operate with electric vehicles and/or electric heat pumps at times of local grid congestion. Such batteries and electric vehicles will also become demand-side response units in their own right, the latter whether you are at home or not, with vehicle-to-grid technology. This paper will link these aspects and others into viable pathways to the decarbonisation of domestic space heating in the UK. It will highlight current progress and research gaps and offers some recent comparisons with Ireland where biogas may offer an alternative scenario.

Neil J. Hewitt, Nik Shah, Donal Cotter, Chris Wilson, Khoa Le, Raymond Byrne, Paul MacArtain, Ming Jun Huang

Chapter 61. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Valorisation of Rapeseed Meal for the Co-Production of High Purity Lignin and Saccharide-Rich Aqueous Solutions

This work addresses a novel process for the co-production of lignin and oligosaccharides from rapeseed meal, examining the effects of the temperature (150–210 °C), reaction time (0–60 min) and catalyst amount (1–4 mol/L, CH3COOH) on the process. The yields to gas, liquid and solid varied by 0–18%, 22–64% and 34–74%, respectively. The solid consisted of high purity lignin (26–88 wt.%) together with unreacted cellulose (0–28 wt.%), hemicellulose (0–28 wt.%) and proteins (11–28 wt.%). Increasing the temperature and/or reaction time produced an increase in the liquid yield and a decrease in the solid yield due to the solubilisation of the cellulosic and hemicellulosic contents of the feedstock. Acetic acid exerted a positive catalytic effect, promoting the solubilisation of cellulose and hemicellulose and preventing humins formation. The relative amounts (wt.%) of C, H, O and N in the solid fraction shifted between 46 and 63, 5.8 and 6.4, 28 and 42, and 2 and 6, respectively. The progressive solubilisation of cellulose and hemicellulose produced an increase in the proportion of C together with a decrease in the amounts of H and O in the solid product, which also accounted for the increase and decrease observed in the proportions of phenols and sugars, respectively. An optimum was found at 186 °C using an acid concentration of 1 mol/L and a total reaction time of 2 min. These conditions maximise the solubilisation of cellulose and hemicellulose without altering the lignin content of the solid, thus allowing the selective and simultaneous production of high purity (85 wt.%) lignin together with a rich oligossacharide (51 °C-wt.%) solution.

Javier Remón, Avtar S. Matharu, James H. Clark

Chapter 62. Gas-Fired Heat Pumps as a Replacement for the Condensing Boiler

There have been many attempts to commercialise and introduce heat-driven (particularly gas-fired) heat pumps over three decades. There are now two domestic systems on the market from Robur with others under development. The different types are reviewed, the markets assessed, and the barriers to wider uptake are discussed. Other options for future heating systems proposed within the UK are a range of electric heat pump developments and fuel cell/micro CHP units. Moving to an all-electric decarbonised electricity grid is shown to require a vast investment to perhaps triple the capacity of the electricity infrastructure and whilst possible in the long term cannot secure the emission reductions essential in the medium term. The case is proposed for a mixed heating solution with both gas-fired and electric heat pumps, also hybrids being used well into the 2040s. New-built houses will be almost exclusively electric and will need integration with advanced storage to supply domestic hot water. Older properties with higher heat loads will either use hybrid electric heat pumps, gas boiler systems, or gas-fired heat pumps. The proposed mix, whilst not being the minimal emission route, is much more affordable and a pragmatic solution to domestic heating.In addition, the research on a low-cost compact carbon-ammonia adsorption heat pump being carried out at the University of Warwick is described and the latest results discussed.

R. E. Critoph, S. J. Metcalf, A. Rivero Pacho

Chapter 63. Cross-Border Education in the Field of Renewable Energies Using a Dynamic Simulation Software

Globalization is not only affecting trade and commerce, but also education. An increasing number of universities around the world offer Master courses for international students. Due to very different technical, cultural, and social backgrounds many challenges are encountered by students and teachers alike. Advanced didactics and innovative teaching tools are required to master these problems. In the field of renewable energies, dynamic simulation software can offer interesting solutions.

Andreas Wolf, Andreas Witzig, Daniel Moreno

Chapter 64. A Bi-fluid PV/T Solar Collector and Its Potential Application in Solar Drying

A bi-fluid PV/T solar collector incorporates two types of working fluid (air and water) under the same PV/T solar collector. In addition to the electricity generated, this type of collector enables the production of thermal energy in the form of heated air and water. The use of both fluids (bi-fluid) also creates a greater range of thermal applications and offers options in which three modes of fluid operation, namely, the air mode, the water mode, and the simultaneous mode (air and water), can be produced depending on the energy needs and applications. In this paper using a validated mathematical model, we have simulated the performance of a glazed single-pass bi-fluid PVT solar collector in terms of its temperature output and thermal energy performance when operated simultaneously. In the simulation we have used amorphous silicon polycrystalline PV panels operated under typical hot climatic conditions, of Perlis, Malaysia. We found that, when both working fluids are operated at its optimum flow rate (air mass flow rate of 0.027 kg/s and water mass flow rate of 0.0066 kg/), the PV/T solar collector could produce an average of 40–53 °C air output temperature in addition to hot water output between 50 and 70 °C. By taking into account both thermal and electrical energy of the collector, for 2 m2 collector aperture area, on average, the PV/T collector could produce in total of 11 kWh thermal energy and 1.2 kWh electrical energy during the day. It is important to note that the working fluid cools down the PV cells temperature which leads to increase in electrical efficiency. In hot climate, space heating is not required for typical residential and commercial building applications. The potential application of the PV/T bi-fluid solar collector is seen in a solar drying system for fruits, crops, vegetables, and marine products. From the simulation, the air temperature range is clearly within the average temperature requirement for solar drying. In addition to air heating, the heat output from the hot water can be supplied into the chamber via water to air heat exchanger arrangement, thus enhancing the drying rate by reducing the moisture content inside the drying chamber. The warm water leaving the chamber can be stored for later usage or for different useful application. In this paper two designs of bi-fluid PV/T solar collector integrated with a greenhouse drying chamber are presented. Future studies will include detail simulation and experimental work of the proposed drying systems.

Hasila Jarimi, Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar, Saffa Riffat

Chapter 65. Utilization of Biomass Energy in Cement Production: A Pathway Towards Sustainable Infrastructure

The most consumed material after water is concrete, with billions of tons used every year. The most important component and main binder for concrete is ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The production process of OPC is highly energy intensive, and one of the major contributors to the world’s anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. These high emissions are as a result of the calcination of raw materials and the burning of fossil fuels, making the production process a sustainability threat to the environment. Also, the use of fossil fuel in cement production is responsible for the high cost associated with its finished products. As the demand for cement is expected to increase exponentially in the coming years, it is paramount to find alternative ways to reduce the embodied energy and carbon of cement by the use of alternative green fuels.One of the alternative green initiatives to make the production of OPC more sustainable is by replacing fossil fuels with green options such as biomass energy. Biomass are agricultural and agro-industrial materials which are readily obtained and does not require high processing compared to that of fossil fuels. Also, recent studies have shown the viability of using biomass as a renewable energy source for different applications and can reduce the carbon emission significantly compared to other types of fuels. In addition, biomass energy is more practical and cheaper for cement production compared to other possible green energy alternatives.This paper shows that having a greener cement production is achievable with the use of biomass as a renewable source of energy, however, posed with challenges that can be solved. The sustainable initiative of using biomass energy in cement production will lead to our infrastructures being resilient and sustainable for this generation and generations to come. It was concluded that partial use of biomass energy for cement production will lead not only to the reduction of the overall carbon emissions and energy usage but will also reduce significantly the cost of cement.

Adeyemi Adesina, Paul Awoyera

Chapter 66. Blade Optimization of a Small Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Using the Response Surface Method

The hybrid renewable energy system considered in the present study mainly consists of wind turbines, solar panels, a small hydro turbine, and an energy storage system (ESS). The integration of various renewable energy sources complements the discontinuities between the energy sources, thus producing a stable energy supply. Recently, small wind turbines having vertical axes are attracting attention because of low cut-in speeds, low noise output, low cost, and high flexibility. In the present study, the blade optimization of a 1.5 kW vertical-axis wind turbine has been performed in order to improve the turbine performance used in a hybrid renewable energy system. Two design variables, which are used to define the shape of the turbine blade, are introduced in order to increase the turbine power performance. The power coefficient is selected as an objective function for the present optimal design of the turbine blades. The Response Surface Method (RSM) combined with three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is introduced to find out the optimum shape of the turbine blades. To analyze the three-dimensional flow field of the wind turbine, the general analysis code, SC/Tetra, is employed. An SST turbulence model is applied to estimate the eddy viscosity. Throughout the shape optimization of the turbine blade, the power coefficient of the turbine is increased by decreasing the local losses around the blade. It is found that the optimum point of the design variables corresponds to the maximum thickness location of 24% and the chord length of 210 mm on the response surface. Consequently, the performance of the wind turbine using the optimized blade improved the power coefficient of 12.7% compared to that of the reference model.

Chul-Kyu Kim, Sajid Ali, Sang-Moon Lee, Choon-Man Jang

Chapter 67. Enhancing Energy Utilisation in Building with Combining Building Integrated PV and Air Source Heat Pump for Underfloor Heating Using Phase Change Materials

Installation of renewable energy to building heating systems with cost-effective and affordable ways is becoming an ever-growing factor. Heat pump (HP) is a high energy efficient renewable energy device which can be a renewable-based alternative to fossil fuel boilers in buildings. Air source heat pumps (ASHPs) as a promising solution achieve the carbon reduction target in the domestic sector, but the limitation of electricity consumption and low supply flow temperatures (for most of the standard ASHPs the supplied heat temperature is around 55 °C) will hinder the implementation of ASHP for domestic applications and replace the existing fossil boiler. With 20% of households using heat pumps, the peak grid demand increases by 7.5 GW (14%) making extra burden to the grid. However, the low temperature water supply by ASHP can benefit to the underfloor heating in the building, which provides the most indoor thermal comfort environment. The building integration of photovoltaics (BIPV) is another type of renewable energy, where the PV elements actually become an integral part of the building, by simultaneously serving as building envelope material and acting as power generator. There is a growing consensus that the generated electricity by photovoltaic should provide electricity at the point of use, therefore the BIPV power can be used to drive ASHP. However, the on-site production of solar electricity is an intermittent source, typically the greatest may not be at or near the time of a building’s peak loads for residential demanding. A thermal store is necessary for storing the heat produced by ASHP during the daytime and discharge the heat for later usage. In addition, the high temperature in BIPV need to be regulated in order to avoid the reduction of the solar power conversion efficiency. Phase change materials (PCMs) absorb a large amount of energy as latent heat at a relative constant phase transition temperature and are thus used for passive heat storage and temperature control. PCMs incorporated into BIPV and underfloor heating system in buildings may be suitable for regulating the PV temperature rising and storing the heat from ASHP for underfloor heating.A two-dimensional temperature-based finite-volume numerical simulation model has been developed and experimentally validated for PCM energy store and temperature regulation. Using electricity generated by BIPV to drive the ASHP and store the thermal energy to thermal mass of PCM in underfloor heating system has been studied considerably in this paper. It has been found that the effect of using cooling coil of ASHP (evaporator) to augment the temperature regulation in BIPV keeps PV electricity efficiency at a high level. This paper summarises the results of a detailed theoretical investigation and analysis of solar energy production and storage control in buildings. An optimised combination of using solar power to drive ASHP and store the heat in PCM for underfloor heating could improve the energy efficiency of PV through temperature regulation and may achieve a cost-effective and affordable heating system the building.

Ming Jun Huang, Neil J. Hewitt

Chapter 68. Climate Change Adaptation: Prioritising Districts for Urban Green Coverage to Mitigate High Temperatures and UHIE in Developing Countries

Urbanisation and the increasing population contribute to the occurrence of the well-documented phenomena of urban heat island effect (UHIE). Heat-related problems have become a global issue as prolonged exposure to extreme high temperatures increased the percentage of mortality and morbidity in cities worldwide. The purpose of this study is to prioritise urban areas that are at high risk for heat-related incidents, particularly in Cairo Governorate, Egypt. It also intended to investigate the implementation of urban green coverage (UGC) strategies such as green open spaces, trees, green roofs, and vertical walls. UGC would contribute to mitigating UHIE in developing countries. The methodology includes a review on the UHI problems, along with the cooling benefits the UGC can produce. In addition, the study adopts the Australian model developed by A. Norton et al., in 2015, which states that a high-priority area can be identified by the intersection of three factors: (1) high daytime/night-time surface temperatures (heat exposure), (2) most vulnerable sections of the society to extreme heat (vulnerability), and (3) zones with many users active outdoor (behavioural exposure). However, in Cairo City, it was difficult to assess the behaviour of population in outdoor public spaces. Therefore, the study follows “Crichton’s Risk Triangle” conducted by Morabito et al., 2015, to identify high-risk areas based on the intersection of three layers. The triangle’s three components are (a) high daytime/night-time surface temperatures (hazard), (b) total exposed population in a city (exposure), and (c) subpopulations at risk of being harmed during extreme heat (vulnerability). In the simulation, the risk assessment method simplifies the process of constructing the GIS database as it is composed of layering system. Hence, this study takes into account several vulnerability factors such as the distribution of the elderly and very young population and the deprivation index of Cairo districts. In the development of a heat-related vulnerability index (HVI) map for Cairo districts, it was done by overlayering the natural hazard layer (land surface temperature in summer) with spatial demographic data using GIS Software. Results of risk maps of Cairo were presented and showed normalised HVI values ranging between 0.0 and 1.0, which can be categorised into five risk levels (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high). Results also indicated that 13 out of the 46 districts in Cairo are at very high/ high risk, while only five districts have a very low-risk probability. Finally, the study develops a tool to map the population vulnerability to extreme heat events in Cairo city resulting from UHIE, which identifies high-priority risk areas that requires urgent intervention by applying more UGC as a significant action to mitigate UHIE in cities and adapt to climate change risks.

Mohsen Aboulnaga, Mona Mostafa

Chapter 69. Operational Strategies for a Large-Scale Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine During Icing Conditions

The global wind energy capacity installed in mountainous and subarctic regions is predicted to be 26% of the total 711.8 GW of cumulative power, which is expected to be installed by the end of 2020. Power losses due to ice deposition on wind turbine blades can reach up to 25% during severe icing conditions, and ice buildup poses risks because of ice throw and component wear. The impact of ice accretion on wind turbines strongly depends on the rate of accumulation and the time duration of an icing event. There is a significant amount of research on modelling ice-induced power losses accounting for either the accumulation of ice on blades or the analysis of power production data. However, there is limited work on identifying the best operational strategies during icing periods. This paper shows how the operation of a large-scale horizontal-axis wind turbine is affected by different icing events and investigates different operational strategies for reducing ice-induced power losses. The considered operational strategies include utilisation of anti-icing, operation shutdown and rotor rotational speed modifications. The NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 5 MW reference turbine is used for simulating a large-scale horizontal-axis wind turbine. Ice accretion, aerodynamic analysis and anti-icing power demand calculations have been simulated using lewINT and JavaFoil. Blade element momentum theory is used to evaluate wind turbine power performance. Ice shapes have been created for temperatures of −5 and −20 °C, considering wind speed of 15 ms−1, liquid water contents of 0.2–0.36 gm−3 and a median volume diameter of 36.10−6 m. The ice-induced losses are calculated and compared to the power required for anti-icing, thus identifying when it is preferable in comparison to an alternative strategy such as shutting down the turbine. Choosing a suitable strategy for a particular icing condition will help wind turbines to be operated more efficiently in Cold Climates.

D. B. Stoyanov, H. Sarlak, J. D. Nixon

Chapter 70. Use of Phase Change Materials for Solar Systems Applications

In this research the use of multiple phase change materials (PCM) for the heat management of solar panels was investigated. The research mainly focused on setting up accurate CFD models in ANSYS fluent of various designed systems. Two different types of containers were designed, the first one being a container with honeycomb compartments to separate the different PCMs and the second was a container with circular compartments. The method used to simulate the models in ANSYS fluent was validated by conducting an in-lab experiment. Experimental results were compared to the numerical results and the accuracy was found to be sufficient. In total, two different sets of PCMs were used to conduct the investigation, the first one being composed of capric–lauric, capric acid and paraffin–micronal and the second set being composed of the following industrial PCMs: organic-a17, organic-a24 and organic-b28. In total four models were simulated in ANSYS, the first model being the honeycomb (HC) structured container made of steel with the first set of PCMs, the second model being the HC container made of steel with the second set of PCMs, the third model being the HC container made of aluminium with the second set of PCMs and finally the last model being the circular container made of steel with the second set of PCMs.It was found that the HC container with the second set of PCMs when both made of steel or aluminium had the quicker solidification and melting process. Overall, these two processes occur at higher rates when using multiple phase change materials than when using a single one.

Edward J. Guionneau, Hoda Akbari, Sarah J. McCormack

Chapter 71. Quantum Dots Solar Cells in Solar System to Convert Light into Electricity

Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor material with nano-crystal characterized by high absorption coefficient, retention time and re-emission in a desired direction with tunable spectrum. These characteristics render QDs favorable for concentrating solar radiation in the desired direction to form a quantum dot solar concentrators (QDSC). The extent of absorption and re-emission determines their effectiveness as concentrators. The QD effectiveness is influenced by type, shape, size, dot concentration and optical path length through the device. In order to optimize design of QDSC, the optimum doping concentration of QD in the QDSC devices is crucial. QDSC can be integrated to solar cells to improve PV integration and penetration to buildings. The QDSC embedded into glazing can help harvest solar energy by PV cells without affecting the occupants’ visual communication to outdoors thereby embodying energy producing transparent glazing. The aim of this paper is to review state of the art of QDSC integrated with solar cells applied in buildings. Several types of QDSC characterized by sizes, shapes and material will be discussed and analyzed based on their concentration effectiveness, visibility and environmental impact. The challenges faced by QDSC in terms of building integration i.e., cell overheating by concentrated radiation and the contemporary solutions will be discussed. The article helps building designers and system integrators assess the merits of the QDSC based solar cells in terms of system integration, energy production and visual comfort.

Amira R. AbouElhamd, Ahmed Hassan, Khaled A. Al-Sallal, Saleh T. Mahmoud

Chapter 72. Optical Coupling Sensitivity Study of Luminescent PV Devices Using Monte Carlo Ray-Tracing Model

The optimization of optical coupling between photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and luminescent devices such as luminescent solar concentrators (LSC) and luminescent downshifting (LDS) layers is important and can affect their performance significantly. An LSC of 60 × 60 × 3 mm and LDS of 100 × 100 × 0.01 mm both doped with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and coupled to PV solar cells have been modelled. The performance and optical coupling sensitivity of these luminescent PV (LPV) devices were studied by changing the air gap thickness (G) between the luminescent layer and PV solar cell using a Monte Carlo Ray-Tracing (MCRT) algorithm. The host materials were epoxy and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymers for the LSC and LDS, respectively, with a refractive index of 1.5. LPV devices were irradiated by standard AM1.5 global solar radiation. The highest optical efficiency and solar concentration ratio obtained for the LSC device were 2.8% and 56% respectively. Both were decreased to 2.2% and 43% when G was increased from 0 to 0.5 mm. For G = 0.5–2 mm, the optical efficiency and solar concentration ratio decreased to 1.85% and 36%, respectively. In the LDS device, an optical efficiency of 82% was achieved when there was no air gap between the luminescent device and the PV solar cell. Efficiency dropped to 76% when G increased to 0.1 mm and further decreased to 66% for G = 2 mm. The total performance deduction (ΔP) was respectively 37% and 19% for LSC and LDS when G increased from 0 to 2 mm which showed that the LSC was more sensitive than the LDS to optical coupling.

Mehran Rafiee, Subhash Chandra, Hind Ahmed, Keith Barnham, Sarah J. McCormack

Chapter 73. Titanium Oxide Film Deposition by Low-Power APS Equipment Using Air Working Gas and Rechargeable Lead Battery

Renewable energies seem to be the only way to increase sustainable electrification; in fact almost 13% of the world’s population do not have access to electricity. Recently, solar cells, especially Si type, have been widely used. However, they require a complex and costly manufacturing. Dye-sensitized solar cells’ (DSSC) constitution is not complex and can be affordably manufactured and maintained, even by the end users, thus suitable for low-income and remote areas people.In order to develop a cost-effective and environmentally friendly titanium oxide film (TiO2) deposition process for the fabrication of DSSC that can help providing reliable access to electricity, a 2-kW class atmospheric thermal plasma spray (APS) equipment, using air as working gas and rechargeable lead battery, was designed. Moreover, suction powder feeder was used instead of mechanical one. As a matter of fact, commercial APS equipment is very large and expensive since it is designed for film deposition (such as aluminum oxide (Al2O3)) on large-scale structures such as bridges and gas turbine engines. Previously, as a basic study, TiO2 film deposition by the 1-kW class APS equipment using air working gas and grid-connected electric power was conducted and it was confirmed that TiO2 film with lamellar structure could be deposited. In this study, in order to confirm the practicability of the rechargeable battery as the electric power source and to enhance the properties of the deposited Titania, a 2-kW APS equipment using air as working gas and rechargeable lead battery was developed and TiO2 film deposition was carried out. Consequently, compared to the like-for-like grid-powered equipment and using the same input power (1 kW), the use of a lead battery coupled with an inverter in the upstream did not show any influence on the plasma jet.Using this battery-powered equipment, a strong film with lamellar structure and enough photocatalytic properties could be deposited on a 304 stainless steel substrate; this could be confirmed via methylene-blue decolorization test as well as X-ray diffraction.Finally, a DSSC using the deposited TiO2 film was assembled and electric power was generated. From these results, this technique was proved to be suitable for the fabrication of low-cost photovoltaic devices to help electrifying remote areas sustainably.The ultimate goal is to make a standalone film deposition process independent of any external unclean source of energy.

Zine Elabidine Ettayebi, Yoshimasa Noda, Yasutaka Ando, Mitsumasa Iino

Chapter 74. Economic and Ecologic Assessment of a Biomass-Based CHP System for a Hotel Resort on the Andaman Islands, India

Most small islands and island nations rely heavily on fossil fuels to supply their energy demands, which have to be transported to the islands by ships [1]. This implies higher energy costs and less stable fuel supply, while greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are further increased too. In consequence, the socio-economic development of islands is hindered due to low energy autonomy [2]. Additionally, islands are particularly threatened by rising sea levels because of climate change [3]. Island inhabitants and their administrations are therefore especially motivated to switch from fossil fuel to renewable energy systems based on local resources.

Moritz Wegener, Yan Zhang, Antonio Isalgue, Anders Malmquist

Chapter 75. Improving the Performance of Cogeneration System in Sugar Factory by the Integration of Superheated Steam Dryer and Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

Superheated steam drying has previously been shown to improve the performance of the cogeneration system in sugar factory because it can reduce bagasse moisture content, which increases the efficiency of the steam generation unit, and recover water that would be lost with flue gases. The performance of this system depends on the degree of superheat in the extracted superheated steam, which is the difference between the superheated steam temperature and the saturated steam temperature at the same pressure. In this paper, an investigation is made into the use of parabolic trough solar collector to increase the temperature of superheated steam for drying bagasse. A case study under consideration is that of a system that processes 100 t/h of sugar cane. The pressure and temperature of steam generated from the steam generation unit are, respectively, 4.5 MPa and 440 °C. This system requires 42 t/h of water in the juice extraction unit. The outputs of the unit are 112 t/h of diluted sugar juice and 30 t/h of moist bagasse. The amount of saturated steam at 200 kPa required for the evaporation unit is 37.3 t/h. If 6 MW is generated by the steam turbine, a system with only superheated steam dryer consumes 2.325 kg/s of dry bagasse consumption and recovers 0.282 kg/s of water. If the solar direct beam irradiation is 500 W/m2, the integration of the parabolic trough solar collector with the aperture area of 1000 m2 results in the reduction of dry bagasse consumption by 0.027 kg/s or 283 ton/year compared with the system without parabolic trough solar collector. Furthermore, 0.089 kg/s of more water is recovered. The simple payback period for this system is 6.36 years.

Somchart Chantasiriwan, Sarocha Charoenvai

Chapter 76. Fermentable Liquid Energy Carriers by Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Depolymerisation of Several Biomass Carbohydrates

This work addresses the production of fermentable liquid aqueous solutions by microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of cellulose and hemicellulose and alginic acid. A reactivity comparison was established at different temperatures (160–210 °C), reaction times (0 and 5 min) and solid/water ratios (1/20 and 1/10 g/g). The nature of the carbohydrates and the hydrothermal conditions exerted a significant influence on the reactivity, which increased as follows: cellulose < hemicellulose < alginic acid. The operating conditions did not influence the global conversion obtained during hydrothermal treatment of cellulose. Conversely, the temperature and reaction time played an important role when processing hemicellulose or alginic acid. In these two cases, increasing the temperature and/or reaction time increased the overall conversion and liquid and gas yields. The liquid hydrolysates were made up of a mixture of oligosaccharides (DP3–6 and DP > 6) and mono-/disaccharides, carboxylic acids, ketones and furans. While the chemical composition of the hydrolysates produced from hemicellulose was not affected by the microwave pre-treatment, all the liquids having a high concentration of DP > 6 oligosaccharides, the microwave conditions substantially influenced the composition of the liquids produced from cellulose and alginic acid. The former contained high proportions of oligosaccharides and saccharides, while the latter comprised water-soluble DP > 6 oligomers/oligosaccharides, saccharides, carboxylic acids and furans. The yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima was used to assess the fermentability of the hydrolysates. All the hydrolysates were fermentable and their efficiency decreasing as follows: cellulose (high/low saccharides/inhibitors proportion) > hemicellulose (high/low oligosaccharides/inhibitors proportion) > alginic acid (low/high saccharides/inhibitors proportion).

Javier Remón, Fabio Santomauro, Christopher J. Chuck, Avtar S. Matharu, James H. Clark

Chapter 77. PV Module Temperature Prediction at Any Environmental Conditions and Mounting Configurations

Photovoltaic (PV) module temperature is known to significantly affect its power output and efficiency, while it has been shown to depend mainly on the ambient temperature, the solar irradiance incident on the PV plane and the wind speed, while to a lesser extent on the wind incidence angle and various other environmental parameters as well as PV module structural characteristics, module type, etc. The mounting configuration has been shown to play a significant role in the PV temperature developed and the power output. This paper presents an algorithmic approach for the prediction of PV module temperature at any environmental conditions based on the energy balance equation taking into account PV orientation, windward and leeward side, heat convection by natural and air forced flow, heat conduction and the radiated heat by the PV module. The results are compared to measured data under various outdoor conditions of ambient temperature, solar irradiance and wind speed. In addition, the predicted PV temperature is compared to predicted values from existing models. The robustness of the simulation algorithm developed in the prediction of PV module temperature is presented and its clear advantage over empirical models, which are fine-tuned for the exact experimental conditions and/or experimental set-ups under which they were developed, is illustrated. Furthermore, the coefficient f which relates the PV module temperature with the solar irradiance on the PV plane and the ambient temperature is examined for various configurations of free-standing fixed and sun-tracking PV system as well as building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV), illustrating essential differences in this and in the temperature developed in the PV module.

E. Kaplani, S. Kaplanis

Chapter 78. Potential of Adsorption Refrigeration System for Off-Grid Cooling Applications

Lack of cold-storage facilities for food products, vaccines, medicines and artificial insemination services is a serious problem in many developing countries. FAO estimated that 32% of food produced in the world was wasted in the year 2009 while the IEA reported that more than 20% of the world’s population lacked access to electricity in the year 2010. Among them 57% lived in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Water-ammonia kerosene and gas-driven absorption systems have been used to store vaccines. However, they do not meet the minimum standards established by WHO on Performance, Quality and Safety for the required +2 °C to +8 °C temperatures. PV-powered cooling systems preserve vaccines more efficiently and in an environmental friendly manner. However, batteries are needed. Batteries live shorter than refrigerators, implying extra costs. Also, PV systems have low possibility of being manufactured in most developing countries. Adsorption refrigeration systems have shown great potential to meet cooling needs in off-grid locations. They can utilise low-temperature waste heat and renewable energy sources like solar thermal energy to providing cooling.A single-bed water-cooled condenser adsorption refrigerator prototype, which utilises CaCl2-ammonia pair has been developed and tested in the laboratory. Experiments have been conducted for desorption temperatures ranging between 75 °C and 100 °C and desorption time of 1–4 h using an electric tape heater. The effect of desorption temperature and desorption time on the cold chamber temperature have been analysed and discussed. At desorption temperatures of 85 °C and higher and desorption time greater than 1 h, the cold chamber of the prototype attained temperatures between 2 °C and 8 °C, which is a suitable range for storage of food products and vaccines. Temperatures below 0 °C, which are suitable for ice production, were obtained at desorption temperatures greater than 95 °C and desorption times of 2 h and higher. Desorption temperature lower than 85 °C can be used for air conditioning applications as they have attained cold chamber temperatures below 15 °C for desorption time greater than 1 h. The tested desorption temperatures are common temperatures, which can be attained by flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors.

Michael John, Cuthbert Z. M. Kimambo, Trygve M. Eikevik, Ole J. Nydal, Joseph Kihedu

Chapter 79. Deposition of Porous Photocatalytic TiO2 Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Low-Powered Atmospheric Plasma Spray Equipment

Oxide films have been used for corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance and thermal barrier coatings of bridges, semiconductor manufacturing equipment, engines and so on. Besides they start to be utilized as functional film such as photovoltaic device, solid electrolyte and gas sensor. However, because of its excellent chemical stability, alumina film has been practically used. Recently, because of its excellent photocatalytic properties, TiO2 film was successfully applied to antimicrobial coating and photovoltaic device for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC).Authors have been developing electric power generating systems using renewable energy devices such as small-scale hydro and DSSC (Ando et al., Vacuum 80:1278–1283, 2006). For lifetime elongation of the small-scale hydro and low-cost DSSC manufacturing in this area, development of alumina film and TiO2 film deposition process using atmospheric plasma spray (APS) is thought to be effective. However, since solid materials such as powder and wires are used as feedstock in the case of thermal spray, the flame should have enough thermal energy to melt the feedstock during flight (Ando et al., Front Appl Plasma Technol 7:75–80, 2014).Therefore, high-power (over 30 kW class) APS equipment has been thought to be demanded so far. In our previous study, in order to achieve a low-cost APS system, we developed a 1 kW class APS equipment; it is very difficult for small company to introduce APS equipment because of its high initial cost.The purpose of this study is to create TiO2 film which is suitable for DSSC. In this study, to develop a deposition process for oxide film with practical strength, 1 kW class APS equipment was carried out. To increase the power conversion efficiency of DSSC, a porous titanium dioxide with a wide band gap is typically used; the large surface area of the TiO2 ensures the absorption of sufficiently large number of dye molecules for efficient harvesting of radiant energy. Surface morphologies of the TiO2/NaCl film was evaluated using optical micrographs.Consequently, it was confirmed that the photocatalytic porous TiO2 film could be deposited and its conversion efficiency was high in comparison with the film deposited with our conventional dense TiO2 film without addition and removal of NaCl particles. Additionally, it was confirmed that conversion efficiency of the DSSC using the porous TiO2 film was high in comparison with our previous study using dense TiO2 film.

Alabi Kelvin Oluwafunmilade, Zine Abidine, Yasutaka Ando, Yoshimasa Noda, Mitsumasa Iino

Chapter 80. Achievement of Low-Energy Buildings in High-Latitude Countries Through Passive Solar Systems

The architecture and civil engineering design of buildings are crucial for their energy needs. To create low-energy buildings, it is necessary to take into account geographical and climatic conditions, including availability of solar energy. The architecture, shape, structure and materials of a building can all help to use solar energy both when its availability is small and to protect a building against overheating when there is excess solar energy. Well-thought-out design and construction of a new building are the most simple ways of reducing building energy needs. Utilization of solar energy should be done in a passive and planned way. Not all standard passive solar systems are effective solutions in high-latitude countries. Passive systems in the form of solar buffer spaces can be recommended. Regular solar buffer spaces in the form of greenhouses can be attached to buildings at the south side in moderate climates. However, in high-latitude countries, the climatic conditions can be more severe in winter (too low ambient air temperature and solar irradiance) and in summer (too high ambient air temperature and solar irradiance) so that a specific type of buffer spaces is necessary. In the case of severe winter and high latitude, the buffer spaces should be incorporated into the interior of the building (not attached to it). They should contain two cuboid subspaces with a transparent partition between them, or with no partition but with a specific internal overhang designed carefully to protect the interior of the building against too much solar irradiation in summer and not to block the sun in winter. Any building of cuboid shape should have a main façade exposed to the south; the extension in direction east–west to direction south–north should be in the range from 1.5:1 to 2:1. In the case of glazed semi-cylindrical façades, the extension of the glazed façade should be limited by the range of azimuth angles of the sunrise and sunset in winter (in December) in a given geographical location. The paper underlines the role of solar energy in the energy balance of a building, in reducing the energy needs of a building in a passive way. When energy needs are really reduced significantly then innovative energy systems can be introduced. Modern solar passive technologies help us to realize ideas that have already been discovered in the past, by traditional architecture and civil engineering methods.

Dorota Chwieduk

Chapter 81. Advancements and Challenges Affecting Wind Turbine Implementation in the GCC Countries

GCC countries have recently started to take the renewable energy way, contrary to their most important possession of non-renewable energy. Sustainable, green and smart buildings are the main topics that governments are interested in. In this respect, the growing populations and growth in the urbanization in these nations have increased the demand for energy. Integrating renewable energy sources is a challenge that has to be overcome to achieve the pronounced energy targets for each country in the region. Wind technology deployment in this region had to fight for legitimacy among more fully established alternatives. It has come into practice as the technology itself has been developed to operate efficiently in low wind speed areas. In spite of these technological breakthroughs and modest improvement but challenges to achieve, cost-effectiveness in the more moderate wind speed regimes located closer to large load centres still exist, while avoiding transmission congestion points as much as possible. Many attempts to install these systems have been successful. Hurdles still hold back the deployment of more wind systems across many promising locations in the GCC. Wind technology has faced many barriers such as cost, siting, transmission and market entry. However, many of those disappeared as the cost is coming down over the years. Public awareness in the GCC region has improved which encouraged investors to start installing these systems. This paper discusses the feasibility of the anticipated improvements in technology that will be seen in the next decade, which could make it more attractive to all investors at the region and placed recommendations for efficient systems that could bring into service windfarms able to meet the energy target for those countries.

Abdul Salam Darwish

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