The article is published in the original.
Ultra wideband (UWB) technology has been adopted in many wireless communication and localization systems in indoor and outdoor areas. In this paper, based on the application in outdoor near-ground environments, the main path loss models are discussed according to the analysis of the propagation environment and received UWB signal. The path loss calculation model by combining the multi-waves with the threshold is proposed. With the outdoor experimental measurements and data processing, the path loss exponents are determined and the path loss characteristics are discussed.