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2023 | Book

Research Developments in Sustainable Aviation

Proceedings of International Symposium on Sustainable Aviation 2021

Editors: T. Hikmet Karakoc, Siripong Atipan, Alper Dalkiran, Ali Haydar Ercan, Navatasn Kongsamutr, Vis Sripawadkul

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Book Series : Sustainable Aviation


About this book

Sustainable aviation is a long-term strategy aimed at providing innovative solutions to the challenges facing the aviation industry. The International Symposium on Sustainable Aviation is a multi-disciplinary symposium that presents research on current sustainability-based issues and future trends in the field of aviation from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. The conference provides a platform offering insights on a broad range of current issues in aviation, such as improving aircraft fuel efficiency, fostering the use of biofuels, minimizing environmental impact, mitigating GHG emissions, and reducing engine and airframe noise. ISSA allows researchers, scientists, engineers, practitioners, policymakers, and students to exchange information, present new technologies and developments, and discuss future direction, strategies, and priorities in aviation and sustainability.

Table of Contents

A Short Review on Sustainable Aviation and Public Promises on Future Prospects

Sustainability is an essential concept in environmental, social, economic, and management literature and is being encouraged by a growing awareness of the environmental damage caused by unsustainable economic growth models. Environmental sustainability involves providing resources to both present and future generations without endangering the health of the planet’s ecosystems. The aviation industry is frequently researched in terms of economic and environmental awareness to mitigate its adverse effects on monetary systems, governmental structures, the atmosphere, biological communities, and human societies. The public interest in the future of aviation is utilizing nontraditional environmentally friendly sources, such as cutting-edge fuels, and innovational engines in aircraft to increase engine efficiency, reducing aviation industry fuel consumption; also, developing, producing, and employing green products, while optimizing air traffic management and trajectory, additionally applying taxation and sanctions for non-sustainable operations are written on the other side of the coin.

Selcuk Ekici, Alper Dalkiran, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Research on the Effects of Flight Procedures on Noise Contour Map Around Tan Son Nhat International Airport

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has stated in Annex 16 that noise in the aviation environment is a critical issue that has far-reaching consequences for the community’s livelihood and health, particularly for those living near the airports. An accurate evaluation of both the intensity and extent of the noise is extremely necessary to take action to prevent noise increases caused by flight operations. Dealing with that problem, this paper is a comprehensive study on the establishment of an airport noise map based on the recommendation of the ICAO, which applies to Tan Son Nhat International Airport and all airports in Vietnam in the future. Through the calculation and analysis of two flight procedures NADP 1 and NADP 2 equivalent to ICAO A and ICAO B, the noise contours generated from flight operations were successfully simulated.

Kiet La-Tuan, Anh Tran-Tien
Free Vibration Characteristics of a Variable-Span Morphing Wing

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest to morphing wing technology. Telescopic span morphing mechanism may cause some dynamic instability problems. This study analyzed the dynamic characteristics of span-morphing wings. The differential transformation method is employed to obtain the natural frequencies of the system. The Euler-Bernoulli beam is used as structural model. The unswept cantilevered wing is modeled as three-stepped beam model. Prior to analyzing the free vibration characteristics of bending-torsion coupled three-stepped Euler-Bernoulli beam, validation cases are performed. Several span configurations of Goland and HALE wings are analyzed, and natural frequencies are obtained. Based on the results of this study, it can be stated that the increasing wingspan decreases the natural frequencies in a significant margin. The findings of the numerical analyses show that there is a significant difference in natural frequencies between fully retracted and fully extended wing configurations.

Damla Durmuş, Metin O. Kaya
Aero-Engine Emission Calculation Method and Its Limitation Analysis

With the rapid development of modern civil aviation market, aero-engine emission is an important index for airworthiness. Whether in the engine design stage or in the airline practical application, how to accurately predict the engine emission is an important task. In this paper, the typical and widely used engine emission calculation methods and their limitations are analyzed, focusing on three calculation methods, including T3-P3 calculation method, fuel flow calculation method, and multi reactor model calculation method. Based on the above analysis, suggestions for improving the accuracy of engine emission calculation methods have been put forward.

Sanmai Su, Kaiheng Liang, Rongzhang Xie
APC E-Rostering System

The APC E-Rostering System has been developed as a tool to manage the scheduling of air traffic controllers (ATCOs). The Provincial Approach Control Center is taking into account the conditions of fatigue of air traffic controllers which are designated by the Civil Aviation Authority of Thailand (CAAT) as an important. The Provincial Approach Control Center is very diverse in the air traffic control operations of officers because there are a large number of air traffic control services in 17 areas. This makes managing air traffic controllers to be able to operate in all areas under conditions of fatigue extremely complicated. Therefore, it is imperative to develop tools to assist in the scheduling of air traffic controllers. This is why we, who consist of air traffic controllers and program developers, have jointly developed the APC E-Rostering System as a managing tool. During the development of this system, we have gained valuable experiences with practical solutions. So we consider this system an interesting case in application of operations research.

Titapong Chureeganon, Khemmarat Chunganuwat, Kacha Pinprasert, Chananporn Boonchaisiriporn, Potchara Aungaphinant
Sustainable Aviation of Textile Industry: Life Cycle Assessment of the Pollutants of a Denim Jean Production Process

In this study, environmental effects of denim jean production process are evaluated by applying the life cycle assessment protocols. The impacts that originate from the denim industry are eliminated by mechanical, chemical, thermal, and biological recycling processes. The challenges of the recycling procedures were examined by life cycle assessment methods, and relevant environmental impacts for denim jean textile industry were calculated and discussed by using the SimaPro software.

Delia Teresa Sponza, Nefise Erdinçmer
Effects of Alternative Aviation Fuels on Environment and Enviro-economic

This study investigated the effects of alternative aviation fuels such as methanol on the environment and enviro-economic aspects. Experiments were conducted with a methanol-gasoline fuel blend at full engine load. Assessment of environmental and enviro-economic effects was exhibited that the addition of methanol was slightly increased, while the emission of CO2 value per power considerably decreased. According to the obtained results, the environmental effect of CO2 per year was calculated to be 45.11 tCO2/year and 45.47 tCO2/year for gasoline and methanol blend. Furthermore, it was calculated to be $901.203/year and $908.48/year enviro-economic cost of gasoline and methanol blend, respectively. However, the CO2 per power of the engine decreased from 872.71 to 865.10 g/kWh with the addition of methanol. These results show that further analysis needs to understand the effects of methanol as an alternative fuel additive.

Selçuk Sarıkoç
Assessment of Oxygenated and Nanofluid Fuels as Alternative/Green Aviation Fuels

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of oxygenated and nanofluid fuels as alternative and green aviation fuels. In this respect, the effect of oxygenated and nanofluid fuels’ experimental results and fuel properties were reviewed in the internal combustion engines which can be used as the engine for unmanned aerial systems. It can be concluded that oxygenated fuels can be supplied extra oxygen at high altitudes. Thus, incomplete combustion can be avoided with oxygenated fuels such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol which included extra oxygen in their chemical structure. Furthermore, nanofluids can improve the combustion process due to the catalytic effects of nanoparticles which have superior properties such as high thermal conductivity, high surface area, and droplet evaporation. Overall, the oxygenated and nanofluid fuel can improve the combustion process and engine performance at high altitudes, so the air vehicles can reach higher altitude, or further distance, or carry more useful load.

Selçuk Sarıkoç
An Evaluation of Particle Image Velocimetry in Terms of Correlation for Aviation

Non-intrusive flow measurement techniques gain importance in fluid mechanics from day to day. Among the non-intrusive flow measurement techniques, particle image velocimetry has a special place. In particle image velocimetry, correlations and image processing are done after experiments. Image processing is one of the fundamental steps in PIV processes. Selecting the right correlation type is significant from the viewpoint of results. This paper mainly deals with correlations used in particle image velocimetry experiments. Correlation types were given in table. Important results and concluding remarks from the viewpoint of aviation sector were clarified.

Onur Yasar, Selcuk Ekici, Enver Yalcin, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Software Assessment for Particle Image Velocimetry for Aviation Industry

Particle image velocimetry is both quantitatively and qualitatively flow velocity measurement technique that uses various software programs. Software packages that exist in particle image velocimetry experiments can be used for various purposes. Analyzing, post-processing, image processing, modeling, and computational fluid dynamics are prominent purposes. Choosing the right software and steps mainly affects the results. In this study, software programs that are utilized in particle image velocimetry studies were investigated and explained. Software programs were listed in table, and the main findings for aviation sector were revealed.

Onur Yasar, Selcuk Ekici, Enver Yalcin, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Dye Visualization of Flow Structure of a Circular Cylinder Oscillating at Re = 1000

In this study, the flow structure behind a circular oscillating cylinder is investigated experimentally. Dye-injected flow area was visualized with a line type continuous laser and captured with a high-speed camera. The cylinder was controlled by the active flow control method. This control method was provided by oscillating the cylinder at 90-degree angles at four different rotation rates (FR = 0.8, 1.7, 2.5, 3.3). The study was carried out at Reynolds number Re = 1000 considering the geometric dimension and flow velocity. In the study, it was determined that with the increase of the rotation rate, the vortex shedding in the cylinder wake region decreased in the flow direction and the irregular flow structure around the body was controlled. Also, it was seen that vortexes around cylinder become more and more smaller with increasing rotational ratio.

Cemre Polat, Dogan Burak Saydam, Mustafa Soyler, Coskun Ozalp
Aerodynamic Performance Predictions of Mars Helicopter Co-axial Rotor in Hover by Using Unsteady CFD Simulations

The aim of this study is to investigate the complex flow physics and performance characteristics of co-axial rotors in Martian atmospheric conditions using SU2. Both steady-state and unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for the Martian helicopter (MH) co-axial rotor. 3-D rotor geometry is generated by using the airfoils defined by CST method, and the CFD simulations are carried out for hover condition by using SU2 open-source CFD flow solver. The numerical results are compared with the available experimental data, and detailed discussions of the flow characteristics are also presented.

Onur Küçükoğlu, Sergen Sakaoğlu, Nilay Sezer Uzol
Numerical Validation Study of a Helicopter Rotor in Hover by Using SU2 CFD Solver

One of the challenging problems in sustainable aviation electric air vehicle design for eVTOLs is to obtain accurate solutions both for aerodynamic performance of rotors/propellers and for complex flow field around rotating blades. Flow field around a model rotor is investigated by performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations by using an open-source CFD flow solver, SU2. Two numerical approaches, rigid motion (RM) and rotating frame (RF), are used and described. Validation of the inviscid computational simulations is done by comparisons of pressure distributions with the available experimental data. Analyses are conducted for different angular velocities and collective pitch angles.

Yunus Emre Sunay, Nilay Sezer Uzol
Sustainable Materials Used by Additive Manufacturing for Aerospace Industry

The aerospace industry has been the pioneer of human life with its high technology. The sector in which the developments in materials science find the first application area and where research and development studies are carried out intensively is the aerospace industry. Developments in materials science are at the primary point in realizing the current performance of aircraft. The developments in additive manufacturing technologies and the applications of these technologies also play an important role in the aerospace industry. Additive manufacturing technologies offer important opportunities in the sector where complex geometries, a low number of parts without mass production, and lightness are at the forefront. The use of additive manufacturing technologies in the manufacture of aircraft structural parts, components, and equipment, where polymer-based materials are increasingly used, offers sustainability, cost reduction, and topology optimization opportunities. In this study, short carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic matrix specimens were produced by the FFF method. The changes in the mechanical and thermal properties of short fiber reinforcement were investigated. Studies have been carried out to develop environmentally friendly materials that can be used in the aircraft cabin interior equipment.

Alperen Doğru, Mehmet Özgür Seydibeyoğlu
Integration of Sustainability and Digitalization in Air Logistics: Current Trends and Future Agenda

Digitalization and sustainability are two important concepts that affect the entire supply chain, and, therefore, they should be considered together. As one of the most critical elements of supply chains, logistics operations need consideration in terms of transforming through digitalization while taking sustainability goals into account. This study especially focuses on air logistics operations. Although sustainability in air logistics in terms of analysing environmental, social and economic impacts is a popular topic, there is a gap in the literature related to integration of sustainability and digitalization in air logistics operations. In order to fulfil the gap in the literature and to contribute in the research field, this study conducts a content analysis to reveal the current trends and future agenda for sustainable air logistics in the digital era. In order to do that, VOSViewer program is used for bibliometric analysis. At the end of the study, potential research themes are proposed.

Volkan Yavas, Yesim Deniz Ozkan-Ozen
Design of PI Controller for Longitudinal Stability of Fixed-Wing UAVs

Small aircraft without onboard pilots are called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs have been used in various applications of civilian and military. The controlled movement of UAVs can be divided into pitching, yawing, and rolling actions. The pitch control motion includes longitudinal stability, which is the ability to maintain the equilibrium of UAV pitch motion (nose up or down) after disturbances. Without the proper control of longitudinal stability, it can lead to system instability, causing the UAV stalling and loss of attitude. To solve instability problem, the adaptive feedback controller (e.g., Proportional-Integral (PI)) used in industrial systems can be applied. This paper proposes the design and analysis of the PI controller to maintain the longitudinal stability of the fixed-wing UAV during disturbances. The mathematic pitch motion behavior of UAVs is analyzed by the derived state-space model. The obtained results show that the designed PI controller could improve the UAV longitudinal stability and eliminate the disturbance effects by reducing the overshoot, steady-state error, and settling time, leading to the UAV stability improvement.

Veena Phunpeng, Wilailak Wanna, Thongchart Kerdphol
Effect of Work Shift Rotating on Fatigue Levels of Aircraft Mechanics in Line Maintenance

The research was to study the affect of work shift rotating on the fatigue of aircraft mechanics in line maintenance. The Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI) questionnaire was used as a tool to determine fatigue levels of aircraft mechanics in line maintenance. The 5 fatigue dimensions according to the SOFI model, including lack of energy, physical exertion, physical discomfort, lack of motivation, and sleepiness, were measured by 20 expressions. The data were collected from 184 aircraft mechanics of 2 airlines who work in Don Mueang International Airport. There are three types of shift system examined, including (1) swing shift with slow rotation, (2) permanent shift with slow rotation, and (3) swing shift with fast rotation. The results show that the swing shift has no effect on the level of fatigue. However, the shift rotation has an influence on the level of fatigue.

Monchai Suraratchai, Tutchakorn Siripanichsutha, Pornnipa Voraprapaso
Strength Analysis of a Wing Structure for a Single Turboprop Normal Category Aircraft

This paper presents the wing design and structural analysis of a single turboprop aircraft with a maximum take-off weight of 2200 lbs. The wing structure of the aircraft is a conventional mid-wing configuration of a straight trapezoidal planform with an aspect ratio of 0.6. The analysis involved determining the loads acting on the wing structure (the aircraft’s flight envelope and the wing’s critical loading condition according to Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 23). The wing CAD model, composed of the aircraft wing components of the spar, ribs, and skins including its layout, was developed and analyzed based on available 7075T6 aluminum sheets using the SolidWorks software. The results for the wing’s critical loading condition showed that the wing tip displacement was less than 5% of the half-wingspan with a margin of safety of 0.5 and mass of 117.97 lbs, which was less than the expected mass (132 lbs).

Vis Sripawadkul, Phacharaporn Bunyawanichakul
Applying Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composites with Microsphere Particles to UAV Components

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are being employed in various industries. However, the strength-to-weight ratio of UAV materials can cause an extra (insufficient) use of energy during flight operations. In the manufacturing process, composite materials can replace conventional materials (e.g., plywood, aluminum, titanium) with similar or higher performances. The characteristics of the composite can be enhanced by applying the reinforcing material, matrix, and production techniques. This research proposes a hand lay-up technique in combination with vacuum bagging to produce better composite material based on glass fibers. The influences of glass microsphere (GM) fillers on the mechanical properties of composite materials are investigated. The experimental results are carried out using a universal testing machine (UTM). It is found that the quantity of GM particles affects the composite mechanical properties, bending strength, fracture strength, and toughness.

Veena Phunpeng, Wipada Boransan, Thongchart Kerdphol
Decision-Making Modeling in Emergency “Unlawful Interference”

The authors present a new approach to modeling decision-making in flight emergencies. The decision-making methods are applied for building integration models under conditions of certainty, risk, and uncertainty for search optimal solutions. The individual and collaborative solutions of operators provide the reliability and optimality of the result solutions. The optimal solutions in emergency “unlawful interference” using decision-making models for the air traffic control officer are obtained.

Tetiana Shmelova, Maxim Yatsko, Yuliya Sikirda, Eizhena Protsenko
Green Practices Adoption Among Leading Green Airlines

Air transport can cause negative effects on the environment, primarily because of greenhouse gases emission. Therefore, many airlines have adopted green practices to prevent or mitigate these effects. This article collected data from environmental reports of the top 10 environmentally friendly scheduled airlines ranked by the atmosfair organization. The content analysis results reveal that the airlines have adopted various green practices both related and not related to flight operation.

Teeris Thepchalerm, Phutawan Ho
Design and Testing of Multiple Web Composite Wing Spar for Solar-Powered UAV

Polymer matrix-fiber reinforcement composites are known for their high strength-to-weight ratio, so it is a great option to increase the efficiency of the wing structure especially for solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This research aims to examine the mechanical properties of composite materials manufactured by hand lay-up and vacuum bagging technique at room temperature, which will be the same as the in-house low-cost UAV wing production process in the coming future. Mechanical properties’ result from the coupon test based on ASTM standard is used to create a multiple web wing design with the highest load factor and a manufactured wing spar prototype in one cure cycle for sandbag testing. Spar web structure is made of polyurethane foam core and plain weave carbon fiber sandwich structure. Unidirectional carbon fiber was added to the top of the web to improve compressive strength of the wing spar. The sandbag test result of wing spar is good agreement with the calculation, the wing can withstand 1.3 safety factor and 2.5 load factor as expected.

Varissara Wongprasit, Nasapol Thanomwong, Chinnapat Thipyopas
Comparative Study Between Aluminum and Hybrid Composite for UAV

Most of the materials used in the aviation industry are made of durable and lightweight materials known as composite materials. However, the properties of classical composite materials (i.e., carbon fiber/epoxy composite) need to be improved to achieve the sustainable development goal regarding aviation technology. To enhance the properties of composites, the hybrid composite material is introduced to perform superior properties (e.g., stiffer and lighter). This research proposes the study of hybrid composite materials laminating with graphite fillers. The relative temperature and curing vacuum pressure are typically controlled. Additionally, two different directions of the carbon fiber fabric (i.e., [−45°/45°]4s and [0°/90°]4s) are investigated with regard to how the ply orientation of composite laminate affects its mechanical properties. As a result, it is found that the mechanical properties are enhanced when adding the graphite fillers to composite laminates. Specifically, the flexural strength of a hybrid material is higher than the classical carbon fiber composite laminates without graphite fillers. By placing the [0°/90°]4s orientation of the carbon fiber in a hybrid composite, it yields a higher strength, leading to durable performance. Moreover, the fracture of the hybrid composite can trigger significant damage on the fiber fabric when the hybrid composite specimen is subjected to a load.

Veena Phunpeng, Karunamit Saensuriwong, Thongchart Kerdphol
Static and Modal Analysis of UAV Composite-Based Structures

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) wing must be strong to support heavy take-off weight and high impact load on landing. Hence, the wing is considered as a crucial structure to deal with lift force. Conventionally, the UAV wings were made from heavy metals. Nowadays, the wing structure should be lightweight to fly a longer distance, improving flight operations. To fill in this research gap, this paper proposes a sustainable utilization of composite materials for constructing UAV wings. The static and model structures of the wing are analyzed. The finite element method is used to analyze the UAV wing structure. The wing structure deformations, stresses, and strains are investigated through the ANSYS® Workbench software. Finally, to avoid the relative UAV component failure, the natural frequency analysis is demonstrated.

Veena Phunpeng, Sireegorn Sumklang, Thongchart Kerdphol
A More Electric Aircraft Application: Starter/Generator

The More Electric Aircraft (MEA) concept aims for more efficient, more reliable, and more environmentally friendly aircraft that come with an increased demand for electric power. The conventional electric power production system is not sufficient enough and needs to be improved. The relatively new starter/generator (SG) system comes forward with a better solution. It provides not only efficient generator operation but also starter operation is secured. In this study, a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with flux-weakening operation is simulated as SG on MATLAB/Simulink environment, for required necessities of future SG machine design. The outcomes have shown that the SG design should be discussed as a whole system that consists of the SG, controller, and power electronics. Hence, the SG simulation on system level is highly recommended.

Ufuk Kaya, Eyyup Oksuztepe
Safety Culture and Safety Management System in Aviation

Aviation is an activity in which a person, a machine and the environment must be managed in a way that is compatible with each other for the purpose of a task or service. The share of each of these components in the successes, failures and accidents achieved in aviation activities is undeniable. However, aviation is one of the areas where human factors are more prominent, especially in aviation. Therefore, the development of aviation safety and aviation culture and the development of capabilities to identify the interest of safety management in accidents and incidents are necessary in order to prevent aircraft accidents. Thus, the necessary measures are taken to prevent recurrent events, and more such experiences are used to prevent similar events from happening again. The aim of this study is to examine the positive impact of the safety management system and safety culture in civil aviation.

Emre Nalçacıgil, Betül Kaçar
Airline Service Quality Attributes

Quality of services play an important role for airlines to sustain their passenger experiences and increase passenger satisfactions. It is important to explore attributes and assessment of airline service quality. Focus-group meetings with air carriers and regulators were used for collecting primary data. The review of literature relevant were incorporated to strengthen the research results. Reliability, assurance, tangible, empathy, and responsiveness are suitable for monitoring the service level along the passenger journey. PDCA cycle would be integrated to improve the level of service.

Araya Sakburanapech, Narinisara Thongpa, Prawit Otanalai
The Influence of Fuels Containing Fatty Acids Ethers on Fuel Systems

The corrosive effect of mixed diesel fuels, which contain fatty acid methyl esters, on materials of fuel systems, such as copper, aluminum, their alloys, steel, and rubber (grades A1, C1, SKN-18 SKN-40) is comprehensively considered in the study. Corrosion activity was studied by the method of static immersion in fuels containing up to 30% of fatty acid methyl esters of various origins. Biodiesel fuel is prone to microbiological damage due to high hygroscopicity and composition, which impairs performance and reduces shelf life. The corrosiveness of biodiesel fuel is insufficiently known; therefore, this study is relevant. Tests of microbiological damage were carried out by the method of cultivation on dense nutrient media in Petri dishes. Factors of microbiological damage that affect its degree in mixed diesel fuel need additional study.

Daryna Popytailenko, Olena Shevchenko
Exposure Potential of Environment by Entropy Continuity for Cruise Altitude of Aircraft Engine

The generation of entropy due to irreversibility in energy systems is basically shaped as a dimension of environmental parameters, and this is the main source of environmental vocabulary. Aircraft engines are especially affected by the changing weather conditions of altitude, and this process is an important potential in terms of environmental effects caused by engines. In this study, firstly, entropy-based performance analyzes were developed depending on the flight processes of a piston engine exposed to environmental effects for the each process of the flight. In the analyzes made, it was seen that while the exergy efficiency changed by 30.1% depending on the number of revolutions, the entropy change was realized as 85.82%. This change represents an 84.52% change in fuel consumption. In addition, the improvements that can be achieved in engine performance with effective parametric controls of the engine are evaluated in terms of both efficiency and entropy load. At the end of the study, the results of the entropy exposure, especially related to the process analysis, were evaluated.

M. Ziya Sogut
Examining Thermo-Economic and Environmental Performance of Piston Engine Considering LNG Fuel Transition of Aircraft

The sectoral pressures created by the awareness of global warming and climate change have made it important to control emissions in the aviation industry. In this study, the effects of LNG use in reciprocating aircraft engines as an alternative fuel were handled with a thermodynamic approach and performance analyzes were made. In particular, it was observed that the LNG conversion of the engine provides an advantage of 21.4%, while it provides an advantage of 53.72% in emissions. In the study, especially evaluations were made on the performance effect.

M. Ziya Sogut
Breaking the Aircraft Vortex Wake Near the Ground: Mitigation of Turbulence Wake Hazard

Vortex hazard is one of the dangers that aircraft must avoid. The trailing vortices in ground proximity can maintain their strength for a long-time cause of the bottlenecks of airport capacity. Understanding the three-dimensional instability of a vortex pair is necessary to find the methods of vortex hazard mitigation. The direct numerical simulation (DNS) was performed to observe the dynamics in the scenario of a vortex pair with the Crow instability descending to the ground. The effect of sinusoidal waves from the Crow instability perturbs the foundation of the secondary vortex structures that arise into vertical loops, called vortex tongues. The vortex tongues rotate around the primary vortex structures, due to the primary vortex induction, and mutually interact with each other. Thus, the vertical Ω-loop structures are generated and eventually slowly decay in time.

Theerawit Tekitchamroon, Watchapon Rojanaratanangkule, Vejapong Juttijudata
Beyond Technology: Digital Transformation in Aerospace and Aviation

This is a conceptual study based on extensive review of various survey reports on aspects related to digital technologies in aerospace and aviation industry. In the beginning of the paper, theoretical description about digital evolution has been discussed and described as change levels. The study shows the characteristics of business and the successful digital adoption, as well as how they use digital technology for the growth of the organization in aerospace and aviation. Digital challenges and consequence of Covid-19 pandemic have been discussed. The paper also indicates different perspectives of digital transformation and its relevance. References of different studies and examples of different organizational readiness have been used to justify that there are several aspects of organization, have to be considered for the success of digital transformation. At the end of the paper, the conclusion draws attention to the importance of other aspects, apart from technologies, for digital organizational transformation in the aerospace and aviation industries.

Pasit Suebsuwong
Circulation Control Flap: En Route Toward Sustainable High-Lift Devices

Circulation control flap by means of a blown jet over a flap offers an alternative way to augment lift and reduce wing weight, hence sustainable aviation. The purpose of this study was to examine flap configuration (dual-radius flap, DRF) and effect of blown jet on lift augmentation and drag via CFD. The lift was further augmented by blown jet. The study revealed that the optimal flap configurations depended on the momentum coefficient, i.e., low momentum coefficients preferred large r2 flap configuration, while high momentum coefficients preferred small r2 flap configuration. Blown jet also reduced the drag at maximum lift, though as the momentum coefficients of the blown jet increased, the form drag increased due to stronger adverse pressure gradients induced.

Akanit Nimmanmongkol, Chinnapat Chumsing, Vejapong Juttijudata
Sustainability Indices for Airport Sustainability Evaluation

Demand for air transport is increasing steadily with technological advances and the increase in the global trade. Parallelly, there is an ambition for continuous growth and increase of infrastructure capacity by aviation companies, government agencies, and business circles. The understanding of sustainability, which takes into account the environmental and social impacts as well as economic concerns for businesses, is becoming widespread. The airline transportation industry is one of the sectors that come to the fore due to the magnitude of its environmental impacts. Airports, on the other hand, are an important focal point to examine sustainability impacts, especially air pollution and noise, due to landing and takeoff and many activities taking place in between. In this study, a new set of airport sustainability indices is developed by using extant research and expert opinion.

Orhan Yücel, Alper Dalkiran, Seval Kardeş Selimoğlu, T. Hikmet Karakoc
An Approach to Optimizing Aircraft Maintenance

Maintenance costs, which account for a significant percentage of operational costs, largely depend on the reliability of aircraft systems. This study explores the optimization of maintenance task intervals of aircraft systems using the average operational cost per unit time as a measure of efficiency. Efficiency was determined using the exponential and Erlang probably density functions. Analytical and simulation results show that for the Erlang model, there is a minimum that corresponds to an optimal aircraft maintenance task interval while for the exponentials model the maintenance interval tends to infinity.

Onyedikachi Chioma Okoro, Maksym Zaliskyi, Serhii Dmytriiev
In Search of Environmental Protection Element in the Thai Aviation Law: A Result from CORSIA

Thailand’s participation in the carbon offsetting and reduction scheme for international aviation (CORSIA) has prompted the Civil Aviation Authority of Thailand to regulate airlines. Before passing any regulation, the first two concerns are (1) selecting the legislation to serve as a foundation for passing the subordinate law and (2) ensuring that the chosen legislation is equipped with economic and punishment mechanisms to enforce the regulation effectively. This paper examines the International Civil Aviation Organization publications as well as legislation and subordinate laws in France, the United States of America, and Australia in order to propose a solution for Thailand.

Lalin Kovudhikulrungsri, Jantajira Iammayura, Krittika Lertsawat, Kornwara Boonsiri, Navatasn Kongsamutr, Prangtip Rabieb
Seamless Passenger Experience for the Airport Environment: Research at DARTeC

Surveillance systems have been used in daily life for security purposes. There is a wide range of applications such as visual tracking, crowd area tracking, queue detection, and face recognition that are used to integrate within the airport. In recent years, tracking passenger in airports have become more and more automated. Face detection and recognition in visual tracking framework is a significant pipeline for digital aviation. Despite the importance of that, there remains a lack of the presence of occlusion regarding previous research. The challenges have been increased due to Covid-19 restrictions and the necessity of mask-wearing. In this paper, we have developed a facial recognition system for the DARTeC environment, which is one of the subclasses of our seamless passenger experience at the airport research.

Fatma Gul Amil, Zeeshan Rana, Yifan Zhao
Critiques and Challenges of Air Transport Liberalisation Policy in Thailand

This study determines the impact of national air transport liberalisation policy implementation on the country’s airline market landscape in Thailand by taking key stakeholders’ opinions as prime recipients. The mixed research method was undertaken by utilising qualitative and quantitative data collected from both primary and secondary sources. The collected data was analysed by content analysis. Key findings reveal that the policy has led to economic and air transport growth noticeably, gained by lower regulatory entry barriers inducing more competition in the market, domestically and internationally. However, a number of small domestic routes were abandoned, and a price war in the domestic market has been witnessed during the past 6 years (2014–2019). For the international market, invasions from foreign low-cost carriers and Middle East carriers are still the key challenges. The critiques of the country’s air transport liberalisation policy from airlines and the government share some common views on success issues of the policy but many contradictions on failure ones. More holistic and integrated policy from the ruling government and continuous improvement of regulatory functions, especially for economic regulation, are expected to be effective solutions.

Navatasn Kongsamutr
Digitalization in the Way of Aviation Sustainability

Digitalization and sustainability are among the most popular topics of discussion in aviation. With the technological development in recent years, aviation businesses have had to adapt to digital transformation. While digital transformation affects all processes, its effect on environmental sustainability has begun to be observed. The two processes, which have to be carried out together by investigating the effects of digitalization on environmental sustainability, whether positive or negative, should be solved without creating additional costs to businesses and without encountering greater consequences later on. In line with the sustainable development goals of the United Nations, a roadmap to global goals has been prepared all over the world. Due to the carbon emission created by the aviation industry, environmental sustainability efforts have gained more importance. In order for both processes to be carried out together without any problems, examples of digitalization applications were examined, and their positive and negative effects on sustainability were discussed. In this study, the concepts of sustainability and digitalization are discussed first separately and then together, as are the difficulties that digitalization will bring, as well as the contribution of digitalization to sustainability in aviation.

Rafet Demir, Serap Gürsel, Hakan Rodoplu
Effect of Phase Change Material Dimension on Maximum Temperature of a Lithium-Ion Battery

In this study, the effect of phase change material dimension on the maximum temperature of a lithium-ion battery was investigated. The Newman, Tiedemann, Gu, and Kim (NTGK) model was used to predict the maximum battery temperature. The battery was discharged from 100% state of charge to 0% state of charge at 3C-rate and 300 K. Phase change material was used to maintain maximum battery temperature within safe temperature limits. Results showed the effect of PCM width on the maximum battery temperature and temperature distribution. Results also revealed that the 40 mm PCM cooled battery showed better cooling performance owing to its low maximum battery temperature and more uniform temperature distribution.

Uğur Morali
Global, Regional, and Local Issues of ICAO Balanced Approach to Aircraft Noise Management in Airports

In 2001, the 33rd Session of the ICAO Assembly adopted a new policy for aircraft noise control globally, referred to as the “balanced approach” to noise management. The ICAO balanced approach guidance contains the explanation of its elements. The goal also is to identify the noise-related measures that achieve the maximum environmental benefit – aircraft noise exposure reduction at any specific airport most cost-effectively. Airports are usually located within or close to the limits of large urban areas; in better case, a distance to existing noise-sensitive land usage (residential or recreational) may provide human protection from noise exposure and minimize the adverse impacts of their noisy operations. Inside the zone of noise management, it is necessary to organize a set of plans or general programs for noise protection locally that govern urban planning and management with respect to airport activities.

Oleksandr Zaporozhets
Fuel Consumption Analysis of Gradual Climb Procedure with Varied Climb Angle and Airspeed

This paper provides fuel consumption analysis of an aircraft during climbing phases with gradual climb procedure. The analysis is based on BADA aircraft performance model and applied to an A320 aircraft climbing performance with varied true airspeeds optimal to the flight altitudes. The acceleration and angle of climb at specific altitudes were consequently varied with altitudes and calculated using numerical techniques. The comparisons of the fuel consumptions of continuous climbing with gradual reduced climb angle procedure and with constant climb angle procedure were presented. The results showed that the gradual climb procedure provides better fuel-saving by 8.1% of the climbing fuel compared to the continuous climb of constant climb angle procedure. It is suggested that the procedure can be improved with optimization of varied true airspeed, acceleration, angle of climb, and aircraft thrust.

Siripong Atipan, Pawarej Chomdej
Investigation of Turbofan Engine Emissions at Different Cruise Conditions for Greener Flights

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are responsible for anthropogenic global warming, which occurs primarily due to combustion process of fossil fuels for human needs. These gases induce global warming by creating a greenhouse effect. Limiting greenhouse gas emissions from all sources is necessary for a sustainable planet. Aviation is one of the elements in transportation to limit the emissions in the sector. During flight and ground operations, aircraft engines generate exhaust gases. In today’s commercial aircraft, the turbofan engines are the most frequent kind. The operation of airplanes with turbofan engines can be organized to minimize emissions. Therefore, in this work, turbofan engine associated exhaust gas emissions were calculated in a range of flight speed and altitude and presented comparatively with respect to a baseline point for potential reduction of adverse impact of airplanes with turbofan engines on the environment.

Ali Dinc, Ibrahim Elbadawy, Mohamed Fayed, Kaushik Nag, Rani Taher, Yousef Gharbia
Effects of Strategic Alliance Membership on the Environmental Performance of Airlines

In recent years, the world has started to grapple with the climate crisis, and the concept of environmental sustainability has gained importance in every field. The concept of sustainability in aviation has also brought the concept of environmental performance. While the environmental performance of airline companies is being measured voluntarily today, it will be measured mandatorily in the future. Global strategic alliances affect member airlines in various ways and levels in this regard. Membership of global alliances may have the potential to contribute positively to more environmentally sustainable aviation in the framework of airlines operations. In addition, global alliances have common goals for their members to contribute to environmentally sustainable aviation and share these with their stakeholders. In this study, we evaluate the prospective effects of Oneworld Alliance on its members’ environmental performance, focusing on the impact of joint sustainability commitment of the alliance on its members’ environmental efforts.

Serap Gürsel, Gamze Orhan
Safety Factor Analysis in Ramp Operation with AHP Approach

Many different groups of individuals occupy airport ramps, each with a different purpose but all working toward the same objective. Everyone wants to be efficient and safe, so it’s simple to see how all of these tasks happening at the same time on a crowded ramp may become dangerous. Due to the complexity and ambiguity of factors, we present the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in this study to construct a weight model for safety considerations by assessing and selecting the value of various aspects. This paper serves as a stronger base for managing personnel.

Ilker Inan, Ilkay Orhan
Evaluating Total Load of Aviation Operators by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)

In today’s modern aviation operator environment, the tasks of the aviation operator have shifted from active involvement to information management and supervision. Heavy information flow and transfer during operations can confuse operators, especially when making decisions. The operator’s total load system (information, communication, mental, task, and workload) has also been considerably altered in tandem with these developments. Unbalanced operator load systems, poor situation awareness, untimely decision-making, and high-stress levels are associated with the highly automated system. For this purpose, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) survey was distributed among three groups of aviation operators, namely, (i) less skilled pilots, (ii) skilled pilots, and (iii) ATCOs. The AHP was applied by creating a 2-level hierarchy with 5 main criteria and 19 sub-criteria to evaluate and weigh the critical characteristics of the operators’ total load model.

Omar Alharasees, Utku Kale
Experimental and Analytical Principles of Improving Waste Management Technologies in the Technosphere

This article provides research on waste dumps of transport infrastructure in Kyiv, and microorganisms, which are recommended to be used to neutralize petroleum products and solid organic waste, were specifically separated. The essence of the work was the selection of such strains of microorganisms that were able to absorb hydrocarbons from solid, liquid, and gaseous petroleum products without the formation of toxic products. We propose to use the potential of microorganisms, which are characterized by wide adaptation reactions in different environmental conditions, in particular, a powerful synthesis of biologically active compounds. Specifically separated and researched microorganisms-fuel destructors allow the development of cheap technologies for the utilization of diesel and aviation fuel, which is quite cost-effective for oil refineries, transport enterprises, and fuel supply facilities.

Ihor Trofimov, Sergii Boichenko, Iryna Shkilniuk, Anna Yakovlieva, Sergii Shamanskyi, Tetyana Kondratyuk, Oksana Tarasiuk
Investigation of Electromagnetic Effect of Lightning on Aircraft by Finite Element Method

Lightning is a rapidly developing discharge event in the atmosphere between clouds, between clouds and earth or from cloud to sky. During the flight, aircraft may also be exposed to lightning strikes. A lightning strike can cause severe damage to critical and essential systems of any aircraft. In this study, electric field intensity and electrical potential values created by lightning strikes on an aircraft are calculated by the finite element method. The electric field intensity values have changed depending on the flight position of the aircraft. The roll and pitch positions of the aircraft increase the probability of a lightning strike. If lightning protection is strengthened in areas with high electric field intensity and system installation is performed considering lightning zones, the damage caused by lightning to aircraft can be reduced in order to enable safe flight of the aircraft.

Semen Memis, Ozcan Kalenderli, Ozkan Altay
Research of Tribological Characteristics of Modern Aviation Oils

The relevance of this work consists in creating a methodology for assessing the quality of aviation lubricants by expanding the list of their standardized indicators, which include tribological properties of lubricants. The estimation of commodity batches of aviation hydraulic oils was performed on the basis of operational indicators. Research of experimental lubricant samples was carried out on the software-hardware complex for estimation of tribological characteristics of triboelements, for which a software for control of stepper engines was developed, and visual on-line estimation of kinetics of change in the basic tribological indicators of tribocontact is offered. The antifriction, rheological, energy, and antiwear characteristics of the friction contact in the conditions of rolling with sliding are analyzed, and the most significant indicators influencing the linear wear of contact surfaces are determined. An empirical relationship for determination of the linear wear of friction pairs has been obtained. It is established that the most significant tribological indicators that affect the wear of triboelements include SWF, friction coefficient, effective viscosity of the oil, volumetric temperature of the oil in contact, and the thickness of the boundary lubrication layers.

Oksana Mikosianchyk, Olga Ilina
Evaluation of Nanostructured Materials: PEM Fuel Cell Applications

The increase in energy demand day by day, the rapid depletion of fossil energy sources, and the environmental pollution they cause during their use have increased the search for alternative energy sources. Fuel cells, which directly convert the chemical energy of the fuel into electrical energy, come to the fore among alternative energy sources. Among the fuel cell types, proton exchange membrane type fuel cells (PEMFC) have been a technology frequently applied by researchers, with the advantages of high energy efficiency, low operating temperatures, and no waste other than pure water. With the development of nanostructured materials and their use in existing technologies, the bottlenecks of the systems can be overcome. In this study, nanostructured materials used in PEMFCs were evaluated. The evaluation was made using the analytic hierarchy process method. Among the alternatives compared, metal-based nanomaterials were found to be more advantageous than others.

Murat Ayar, Ozge Yetik, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Overview of Hydrogen-Powered Air Transportation

This study provides an overview of hydrogen’s utilization in the aviation industry. The aviation industry is still dependent on carbon-based fuels today. Kerosene, which is used as an aircraft fuel, is not environmentally friendly due to the greenhouse effect and is not a renewable energy source. Sustainable aviation fuels are being investigated as a possible replacement for kerosene fuel. Hydrogen is the most promising energy carrier among these alternative fuels. Many research has been performed in the aviation industry to be utilized as fuel in aircraft and airports. This study presents a summary of the findings into using hydrogen energy in airports and aircraft, as well as its future viability.

Hursit Degirmenci, Alper Uludag, Selcuk Ekici, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Evaporative Hydrocarbon Emission of Gasoline During Storage in Horizontal Tanks and Their Energy and Environmental Efficiency

The evaporation of petroleum products during storage and transportation is usually between 1% and 6% of total anthropogenic emission sources. Up to 40% of hydrocarbons emitted by road transport evaporate from fuel tanks and fuel systems of cars with gasoline engines. Such emissions lead to significant pollution of the environment and can cause fire hazards. In the context of the global problem of depletion of energy resources and the associated environmental degradation, the relevance of this problem is not in doubt and only confirms that the reduction of gasoline losses from evaporation remains an important environmental and economic problem. The solution to it requires the introduction of the latest scientific achievements and improvement of petroleum products evaporation capture technologies.

Sergii Boichenko, Dubrovska Viktoriia, Shkyar Viktor, Iryna Shkilniuk, Anna Yakovlieva, Oksana Tarasiuk
Technologies for Alternative Jet Fuel Production From Alcohols

Modern tendencies in air transport concerning the necessity of transition from conventional oil-derived fuel to alternative one are considered. The article analyzes a variety of available today renewable feedstock and the technological processes of its processing, which are used today for the production of alternative aviation fuels. The comparative analysis of characteristics of technological processes of alternative jet fuel production based on biomass was done. Processes of alcohol (ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-butanol) production from renewable plant feedstock and processes of its further conversion to alternative jet fuel are considered. It was shown that today two types of alcohol jet fuels are produced: alcohol to jet-synthesized paraffinic kerosene and alcohol to jet-synthesized kerosene with aromatics. It was shown that today application of alternative aviation fuels produced from alcohols is allowed in blends with conventional oil-derived jet fuels in quantities up to 50%.

Anna Yakovlieva, Sergii Boichenko, Vasyl Boshkov
Analysis of World Practices of Using Liquid Hydrogen as a Motor Fuel for Aviation

This article provides research on some world practices, challenges, advantages, and disadvantages of using hydrogen as a fuel for aviation. The essence of the work is to highlight the current stage of hydrogen technologies and their readiness to serve the global purpose of significant greenhouse gases reduction by 2050. To scale the hydrogen-powered aircraft industry, several technological and infrastructural unlocks need to happen, especially within the accumulation and storage technologies.

Sergii Boichenko, Ihor Trofimov, Anna Yakovlieva, Oksana Tarasiuk
Waste-Free Technology for the Production of Building Materials by Mining and Processing Plants

The purpose of the study is to develop a waste-free technology for the production of building materials by mining and processing plants. The emission spectral analysis method was used to determine the chemical composition of mining waste and substantiate the possibility of using waste as raw material for the production of new products – building materials. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of mining waste showed the possibility of using them as raw materials for the production of fiberglass. The method of waste utilization with the production of type D fiberglass for mining and processing plants is proposed. The method includes extraction of rock from the dumps of stone crushing plants, fine grinding of waste to a fraction of 0.1–0.5 mm, extraction of iron (III) oxides on a magnetic separator, adding B2O3 and MgO in appropriate proportions, and supply of raw materials to the glass furnace for the production of fiberglass. Waste-free technology for the production of building materials by mining and processing plants, which includes the production of gravel, the production of fiberglass based on the proposed method of waste disposal, and the production of pigment for paints from extracted iron oxide (III), is proposed.

Oksana Vovk, Kostiantyn Tkachuk, Oksana Tverda, Andrii Syniuk, Eduard Kukuiashnyi
Research Developments in Sustainable Aviation
T. Hikmet Karakoc
Siripong Atipan
Alper Dalkiran
Ali Haydar Ercan
Navatasn Kongsamutr
Vis Sripawadkul
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