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About this book

This book focuses on how digital technologies and rapid developments in artificial intelligence are shaping a new generation of cyber-physical systems based on the convergence among robots, sensors, and 3D printing. The book tells a story based on data and indicators to compare the resilience to this transformation in some key manufacturing regions. As a specific case study, the book discusses in length the transformation of the manufacturing processes in the Italian automotive industry. The authors conclude the book by providing policy implications for regions and cities.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The main aim of this book is to provide detailed evidence on the long-term resilience of Italian manufacturing, focusing, in particular, on the regions in the North-West (primary locus of Italy’s historical industrialization) and North-East (primary locus of industrialization in the 1980s and 1990s) of Italy. We study the case of the Piemonte region and also analyse the main trends in Lombardia, Emilia-Romagna, and Triveneto. Overall, this geographical macro-area accounts for about 27 million people, equivalent to the population in Benelux. The journey by train from Milano (capital city of Lombardia) takes 45 minutes to reach Torino (capital city of Piemonte), 60 minutes to reach Bologna (capital city of Emilia-Romagna), and 200 minutes to reach Venezia (capital city of Veneto). Milano and Torino can be considered an urban agglomeration (e.g. the Metropolitan Statistical Area of greater Boston which is about 110 km in diameter involves a mean work commute travel time of 45 minutes).
Aldo Geuna, Marco Guerzoni, Massimiliano Nuccio, Fabio Pammolli, Armando Rungi

Chapter 2. Digital Technologies and Industrial Transformations

Abstract
Over the past few decades, ‘digital technology’ has shaped the so-called Third Industrial Revolution—the first in the nineteenth century being characterized by steam and water, and the second at the beginning of the twentieth century being based on electricity and the emergence of mass production. In his book, The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum, suggests that it will be a further step in human production based on a complete integration between the cyber and physical dimensions. The fourth revolution has the potential to transform not only the way we produce and distribute things but also the dynamics of customer engagement, value creation, management, and regulation (Kagermann et al., 2013; Schwab, 2017a, 2017b). An historical account of the origins, history, and impact of cybernetics is beyond the scope and goals of this contribution (Ampère, 1843; Wiener, 1948a, 1948b; Simon, 1968). However, the idea of the new cyber-physical revolution or ‘Industry 4.0’ has been introduced, inspired by the transformations made in German manufacturing (Kagermann et al., 2013). Industry 4.0 has also been described as digital manufacturing, industrial Internet, smart industry, and smart manufacturing (Hermann et al., 2016; Nuccio & Guerzoni, 2019).
Aldo Geuna, Marco Guerzoni, Massimiliano Nuccio, Fabio Pammolli, Armando Rungi

Chapter 3. Participation in Global Supply Chains and the Offshorability of Italian Jobs

Abstract
Rapid technological progress fosters transformations in the organization of production, both within and across countries. In recent decades, the main consequence of such progress has been the fragmentation of production by tasks. Companies may decide to profit from the competitive advantages of alternative locations and to offshore segments of their production which, previously, were performed at home and/or within the firm.
Aldo Geuna, Marco Guerzoni, Massimiliano Nuccio, Fabio Pammolli, Armando Rungi

Chapter 4. Digital Manufacturing and the Transformation of the Automotive Industry

Abstract
This chapter explores the main markets for the production and use of robots and 3D printing technologies and presents a comparative analysis of the core robotics and 3D printing competence in the major world digital manufacturing sectors. We focus specifically on Piemonte and its efforts to develop CPS in the automotive sector, a traditional key driver of Italian industrial development. Particular attention is paid to the role of collaborative robots compared to the more traditional manufacturing robots already used heavily in automotive production.
Aldo Geuna, Marco Guerzoni, Massimiliano Nuccio, Fabio Pammolli, Armando Rungi

Chapter 5. The Way Ahead Towards Advanced Automation: Policy Implication for Core Italian Manufacturing Regions

Abstract
We are keen to avoid rehearsing the lists of general policy recommendations proposed by numerous reports written over the past few years on the development of the digital manufacturing. Here, we offer a concise set of actions that could be implemented in the short term, focusing particularly on the city of Torino and the Piemonte region, but as part of the larger macro-regional agglomeration in Northern Italy.
Aldo Geuna, Marco Guerzoni, Massimiliano Nuccio, Fabio Pammolli, Armando Rungi

Backmatter

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