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Revitalizing Indian Agriculture and Boosting Farmer Incomes

Editors: Ashok Gulati, Ranjana Roy, Shweta Saini

Publisher: Springer Singapore

Book Series : India Studies in Business and Economics

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About this book

This open access book provides an evidence-based roadmap for revitalising Indian agriculture while ensuring that the growth process is efficient, inclusive, and sustainable, and results in sustained growth of farmers’ incomes. The book, instead of looking for global best practices and evaluating them to assess the possibility of replicating these domestically, looks inward at the best practices and experiences within Indian states, to answer questions such as -- how the agricultural growth process can be speeded up and made more inclusive, and financially viable; are there any best practices that can be studied and replicated to bring about faster growth in agriculture; does the prior hypothesis that rapid agricultural growth can alleviate poverty faster, reduce malnutrition, and augment farmers’ incomes stand? To answer these questions, the book follows four broad threads -- i) Linkage between agricultural performance, poverty and malnutrition; ii) Analysing the historical growth performance of agricultural sector in selected Indian states; iii) Will higher agricultural GDP necessarily result in higher incomes for farmers; iv) Analysing the current agricultural policy environment to evaluate its efficiency and efficacy, and consolidate all analysis to create a roadmap. These are discussed in 12 chapters, which provide a building block for the concluding chapter that presents a roadmap for revitalising Indian agriculture while ensuring growth in farmers’ incomes.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

About the Book

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 1. Introduction
Abstract
Although agriculture accounts for about 16.5% of overall GDP in the country (2019–20), it remains central to the Indian economy as it still engages about 44% of the work force (in 2018–19; it was 47% in 2015–16) as per Labour Bureau, GOI. India is also going to be the most populous country in the world by 2027, according to population projections by the UN, and ensuring food security for this large mass of humanity is a daunting task, more so when it also has the largest number of poor and malnourished in the world (as per World Bank’s Development indicators). An average Indian household spends about 45% of its expenditure on food (this ratio stands at 60% for the poor in bottom expenditure group) (NSSO 2011). No wonder agriculture remains critical for India as it has implications not only for farmers in terms of their income, but also for consumers, especially with respect to ensuring food security to the poor and the malnourished.
Ashok Gulati, Shweta Saini

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Chapter 2. Synthesis Chapter
Abstract
As stated in Chap. 1, the study presented in this book has four pillars and each pillar builds up sequentially and progressively. It starts by evaluating the relation between per capita agricultural GDP and the twin problems of poverty and malnutrition.
Ashok Gulati, Shweta Saini, Ranjana Roy

Linking Agricultural Growth, Poverty and Malnutrition in India

Frontmatter

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Chapter 3. Linkage Between Agriculture, Poverty and Malnutrition in India
Abstract
Despite the high economic growth rate over the last 10–15 years, a large section of the population remains undernourished. This has raised questions regarding the quality of India’s growth story, especially in terms of its inclusiveness, and its impact on the poor and the malnourished.
Ashok Gulati, Ranjana Roy

Analysis of Six States

Frontmatter

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Chapter 4. Performance of Agriculture in Punjab
Abstract
Punjab had been a star performer in agriculture during the heydays of the green revolution. Its agricultural GDP grew at 5.7% per annum during the period from 1971–72 to 1985–86, which was more than double the growth rate of 2.31% achieved at all-India level in the same period. It was Punjab’s spectacular performance, first observed in large wheat surpluses and then in rice, that helped India free itself from food aid under the PL 480 and its associated political strings. Punjab became a symbol of India’s grain surpluses, giving India much needed food security. But after 1985–86, the green revolution showed signs of waning and Punjab’s agricultural growth slowed to 3% per annum over the period 1985–86 to 2004–05, almost the same as achieved at the all-India level. But the real challenges to Punjab’s agriculture emerged when its growth crashed to just 1.6% per annum during 2005–06 to 2016–17, which was less than half the all-India agricultural GDP growth of 3.6% over the same period. Owing to the earlier years of high agricultural growth, Punjab had one of the lowest poverty ratios (7.7% in rural Punjab) as per Tendulkar poverty line in the country in 2011–12, which was almost one-third the level of poverty at the all-India level. Providing food security to the country and reducing its own poverty to the lowest levels within India has been Punjab’s most laudable achievements.
Ashok Gulati, Ranjana Roy, Siraj Hussain

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Chapter 5. Performance of Agriculture in Gujarat
Abstract
There have always been large disparities in India’s agricultural performance at the state level because of varying resource endowments and levels of investment in the creation of rural infrastructure. States like Punjab and Haryana performed well in the 1960s and 1970s, while Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh have been star performers during the post-2000 period.
Ashok Gulati, Ranjana Roy, Siraj Hussain

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Chapter 6. Performance of Agriculture in Madhya Pradesh
Abstract
Madhya Pradesh emerged as the state with the highest growth rate in agriculture. Long clubbed with the so-called BIMARU group of poor northern, central and eastern states, MP successfully broke ranks to set a scorching pace of growth, which has been unparalleled in the past quarter-century. Understanding the factors that helped to drive this growth and drawing lessons for other states at similar levels of development is the main objective of this chapter. Madhya Pradesh’s agricultural GDP increased at 8.1% per annum during 2005–06 to 2016–17, surpassing even record holder Gujarat’s 6% agricultural growth in the same period. The last three years have been even more spectacular: agricultural GDP increased at 11.8% per annum. Keeping this background in mind, this chapter has used secondary data published by the government to study the composition, sources and drivers of agriculture growth in Madhya Pradesh and the lessons that can be drawn for developing states. Although MP has recorded a significant decline in poverty rates from 53.6% in 2004–05 to 35.7% in 2011–12, there is still much to be done to improve the livelihood of the rural population. Moreover, MP’s per capita income is low, standing at Rs. 51,798 per annum (FY14 at current prices) as compared to the national annual average income of Rs. 74,380. Although it is much better than that of Bihar (Rs. 31,199) and Uttar Pradesh (Rs. 36,250), it remains way below top-performing states like Sikkim (Rs. 176,491), Maharashtra (Rs. 114,392), Haryana (Rs. 133,427) and Gujarat (Rs. 106,831). Therefore, the study also makes policy suggestions to bolster agricultural growth in MP.
Ashok Gulati, Pallavi Rajkhowa, Ranjana Roy, Pravesh Sharma

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Chapter 7. Performance of Agriculture in Uttar Pradesh
Abstract
Uttar Pradesh is an agrarian economy where 47% of the population is directly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Even though the share of agriculture in overall GSDP has dropped to only 12% in TE 2017–18, agriculture still remains an important sector because the income of a substantial section of the workforce still comes from this sector.
Ashok Gulati, Prerna Terway, Siraj Hussain

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Chapter 8. Sources and Drivers of Agricultural Growth in Bihar
Abstract
Agriculture dominates Bihar’s economy, providing employment to 53.6% of the total workforce, higher than the national average of 46.9% (Labour Bureau 2015–16).
Anwarul Hoda, Ashok Gulati, Shyma Jose, Pallavi Rajkhowa

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Chapter 9. Drivers of Agricultural Growth in Odisha
Abstract
Odisha is the ninth largest state in India with a share of 4.7% of India’s total landmass. In terms of population, it is the eleventh largest comprising 3.47% of India’s total population, of which more than 83% is rural (Census 2011).
Anwarul Hoda, Ashok Gulati, Harsh Wardhan, Pallavi Rajkhowa

Taking Agri-GDP to Farmer Incomes

Frontmatter

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Chapter 10. Going Beyond Agricultural GDP to Farmers’ Incomes
Abstract
An average Indian farm size is 1.08 ha (Agricultural Census 2015–16), and it has been shrinking over the decades (it was 2.3 ha in 1970–71).
Ashok Gulati, Shweta Saini, Ranjana Roy

Agricultural Policies and Way Ahead

Frontmatter

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Chapter 11. Indian Agriculture Under PM Modi 1.0 2014–2018
Abstract
There has been no dearth of promises, slogans, new programmes and schemes ever since Mr. Narendra Modi commenced his first innings in 2014 as India’s Prime Minister.
Shweta Saini, Ashok Gulati

Open Access

Chapter 12. Way Forward
Abstract
While the chapters until now in this book tell us about what the situation is and what explains the situation, this chapter builds on these and proposes suggestions for the future.
Ashok Gulati, Shweta Saini
Backmatter
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Metadata
Title
Revitalizing Indian Agriculture and Boosting Farmer Incomes
Editors
Ashok Gulati
Ranjana Roy
Shweta Saini
Copyright Year
2021
Publisher
Springer Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-15-9335-2
Print ISBN
978-981-15-9334-5
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-9335-2

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