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2023 | Book

Road Vehicle Automation 10


About this book

This book is the tenth volume of a sub-series on Road Vehicle Automation, published as part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility. It gathers contributions to the Automated Road Transportation Symposium (ARTS 2022), held on July 18-21, 2022, in Garden Grove, USA, CA. Written by researchers, engineers and analysts from around the globe, this book offers a multidisciplinary perspectives on the opportunities and challenges associated with automating road transportation. It highlights innovative strategies, including public policies, infrastructure planning and automated technologies, which are expected to foster sustainable and automated mobility in the near future, thus addressing industry, government and research communities alike.

, which are expected to foster sustainable and automated mobility in the near future, thus addressing industry, government and research communities around the globe alike.

, which are expected to foster sustainable and automated mobility in the near future, thus addressing industry, government and research communities around the globe alike.

Table of Contents

Introduction: The Automated Road Transportation Symposium 2022
In 2022, the Automated Road Transportation Symposium returned to a traditional face-to-face meeting format after two years of virtual meetings caused by the global pandemic. The plenary presentations and breakout discussions continued to provide the meeting participants with the most up-to-date and authoritative information about the current international state of development and deployment of road vehicle automation systems, retaining its standing as the essential global meeting for industry, government and research practitioners in the field.
Steven E. Shladover, Jane Lappin, Valerie Shuman
Correction to: Introduction: The Automated Road Transportation Symposium 2022
Steven E. Shladover, Jane Lappin, Valerie Shuman

Part I: Public Sector and Policy Activities

Towards Social Deployment of Automated Driving Systems – SIP-adus Activities in Japan –
This is a summary report on the latest SIP-adus activities. Cross-Ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP) is led by the Japanese government. SIP-adus is one of the SIP themes, which is on connected and automated driving. The 2nd phase of SIP started in 2018, and SIP-adus is composed of the 4 pillars, which are technology development, public acceptance, international cooperation and field operational tests. As for technology development, it has the 4 focus themes, which are dynamic traffic environment information, traffic environmental data portal, virtual validation platform for safety assurance and evaluation methodology of intrusion detection system. In this report, dynamic traffic environment information and field operational tests are focused.
Yoichi Sugimoto, Seigo Kuzumaki
Regulatory Framework and Safety Demonstration Principles in France
Automated road transport mobility will develop only if fundamental conditions are fulfilled: acceptance by users and citizens, economic sustainability, contribution to a more sustainable mobility and last but not least, demonstration of its safety. Fulfillment of these conditions needs to be addressed by policymakers through regulations, standards, guidance, assessments and stakeholders’ involvement. France built its regulatory framework on this balance by assuming safety will be the main factor for other conditions for the development of automated road transport systems to be reached. This paper presents how France has set up its national framework for the development of automated road mobility, integrating various policy challenges in a safety-first based approach.
Elsa Lanaud, Xavier Delache
Public Sector Integration of Connected and Automated Vehicles: Considerations, Benefits and Sharing Data Across Borders
As the transportation landscape changes, accommodations for Connected and/or Automated Vehicles (CAV, AV and CV) must be considered. For this paper, CAV is referring to the technology available on the roadway now and what is anticipated soon – mostly the SAE International Levels 1 and 2 (SAE Levels of Driving Automation™ Refined for Clarity and International Audience). CAV considerations for freight and multimodal will not be discussed in this paper. The dynamic nature of CAV Levels 3, 4 and 5 leaves much to research. Public sector agencies in the United States are shifting focus to automated mobility, but with an increasing focus on near-term market ready technologies. Public outreach and education, coordination with Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), policy and legislation and cross-border collaboration are also integral considerations.
Lisa Miller
Unscrambling the Automated Vehicle Policy Puzzle: AV Policy Development and Regulation in a New Normal
An Automated Road Transportation Symposium (ARTS) breakout session entitled “Unscrambling the Automated Vehicle Policy Puzzle: AV Policy Development and Regulation under a New Normal” provided an overview of federal, state, and local policy. At the federal level, speakers discussed regulatory status, federal transportation policy points, and an industry prospective for federal action. During the second half of the breakout session, speakers provided perspectives and details about state and local efforts to design and implement AV systems that address societal goals, which include environmental benefits, reduced congestion, and improved mobility for all people.
Katherine Kortum, Baruch Feigenbaum
Paradigm Shift Beyond Business-As-Usual for Automated Road Transportation to Contribute to Climate-Neutral Smart Cities
One of the major challenges for society today is to reach environmental goals. Around the world governments aim to reduce transportation emissions and are investing in a diverse set of strategies, including connected cooperative and automated mobility. Many discussions about automated road transportation technologies revolve around automation feasibility, improving safety and improving the efficiency of transport networks, but we have not fully explored the potential of automation as a catalyst or enabler to transform society to an ecologically sustainable state. This chapter discusses ways that connected and automated technologies can address climate concerns as addressed at the ARTS22 workshop on automated road technologies and climate change.
Jaap Vreeswijk, Danielle Chou, Wolfgang Backhaus, Isabel Wilmink, William Riggs
Enhancing Mobility with Automated Shuttles and Buses
This chapter presents information on demonstrations, pilots, and deployments of automated shuttles, with a focus on enhancing mobility for all users. Automated shuttles continue to be introduced in downtown areas, university campuses, business parks, entertainment complexes, and other areas. Automated buses are being tested in selected corridor applications. The chapter is based on the presentations and discussions at a breakout session at the 2022 Transportation Research Board (TRB) Automated Road Transportation Symposium (ARTS). The ARTS breakout session, Enhancing Mobility with Automated Shuttles and Buses, highlighted projects addressing the needs of all users, including individuals using wheelchairs, those with limited or no eyesight, and those with other disabilities. The information presented in this chapter will assist in evaluation of this mobility option to help inform decision making, identify research needs, and support future developments.
Katherine F. Turnbull
Innovation Strategies and Research Trends for Connected, Cooperative and Automated Mobility in Europe
Exploring the forefront of innovation strategies and research trends, the future of connected, cooperative, and automated mobility (CCAM) in Europe promises to revolutionize the transportation landscape, paving the way for sustainable, efficient, and inclusive transportation systems [1]. Therefore, this chapter discusses the challenges and solutions for the deployment of CCAM technologies in Europe related in particular to coordination and cross sector stakeholder engagement. Despite the technical advancements and numerous Research and Innovation (R&I) and testing activities, multiple barriers remain, such as limited demand, lack of technical maturity, scattered research efforts, and inadequate demonstration and scale-up. The CCAM Partnership plays a crucial role in overcoming these obstacles by creating a unified, long-term R&I agenda. Under the umbrella of the CCAM Partnership 18 projects have been funded so far. The project objectives and thematic assignments corresponding to R&I priorities identified by the Partnership, are described in this paper. Furthermore, the role of the FAME project supporting the European CCAM ecosystem by fostering knowledge exchange, best practices, and international collaboration is highlighted. Finally, the CCAM ecosystem with respect to the R&I projects will be discussed.
Carolin Zachäus, Stephane Dreher

Part II: Business Models and Operations

The Trip Characteristics of a Pilot Autonomous Vehicle Rider Program: Revealing Late Night Service Needs and Desired Increases in Service Quality, Reliability and Safety
A substantial and growing body of literature has provided educated guesses and transportation demand modeling about how riders might behave in autonomous vehicles (AVs). No studies to-date have explored how riders behave when given access to rides in these new modes of transportation, and how AVs can help address lingering transportation challenges in the city, such as transit deserts, congestion, and increased sustainable modes of transport. This paper evaluates a first-of-its-kind program, offering passengers autonomous rides in Cruise vehicles between the hours of 11:00pm-5:00am when transit services are less prevalent. Results indicate that more than 76% of reported travel by AV riders was mode substitution, largely diverting from rideshare and transit. Over 55% of trips replaced rideshare travel—most of these trips were for social/recreational and shopping/errands. These results suggest that most AV trips may not create induced or latent demand but rather provide an opportunity to address network gaps and last mile connectivity. The results hold additional promise as the importance and popularity of new shared vehicle solutions emerge in the marketplace.
William Riggs, Niel Schrage, Shivani Shukla, Shannon Mark

Part III: Vehicle Technology Development and Testing

Surrogate Measures of Automated Vehicle Safety
Surrogate measures of traffic safety replace collision statistics as a means of assessing the safety of a roadway, intersection, vehicle, or mobility system. Effective and consistent surrogate measures of traffic risk and safety that will be useful to ADS stakeholders — including AV developers, traffic infrastructure developers and managers, regulators, legislators, and the public — will have a number of essential characteristics, including monotonicity and scalability.
Trailing indicators, such as collision statistics, are a poor methodology for improving safety, In addition, the use of trailing indicators incurs pain and loss on society, and is not an ethically acceptable approach. Leading indicators, based on non-collision interactions, include: Traffic Conflicts, Time-to-Collision (TTC), Post-Encroachment Time (PET), Instantaneous Safety Metric (ISM), harsh accelerations and turns (generally measured by an inertial measurement unit (IMU)), AV Control System Disengagements, and near-misses or near-crash events.
Surrogate measures, reviewed here, gather, process, and in some cases predict traffic movement, or control system behavior, and produce a (sometimes quantitative) score reflecting the riskiness or safeness of the behavior of vehicles in traffic.
Erik K. Antonsson
Introducing ODD-SAF: An Operational Design Domain Safety Assurance Framework for Automated Driving Systems
Over the past years, there has been an increasing acceptance on the need for scenario-based testing to ensure safe performance of Automated Driving Systems (ADS). This is a departure from earlier conceptions where number of miles driven was being considered as the only way of demonstrating safety. As ADS show a great degree of variety in their complexity, use cases, as well as Operational Design Domain (ODD), a scalable and pragmatic approach for safety assurance of ADS, the ODD-SAF, is therefore proposed. The ODD-SAF relies on the ODD description and leverages on the EU and UNECE discussions around ADS safety requirements and assessment methods to generate behavioural competencies for the overall safety assurance. The approach extends with the identification of test scenarios, classified into nominal, critical and failure types, and pass-fail criteria, leveraging for example the concept of rules of the road and safety models for driving behaviour. It is suggested that a SAF should incorporate each of the categories of the test scenarios to ensure confidence in the performance of the ADS.
Matteo Oldoni, Siddartha Khastgir
Automated Vehicle Testing & Data Collection Efforts
We summarize presentations from an international slate of speakers at the 2022 Automated Road Transportation Symposium on the topic of testing and data collection efforts for automated vehicles (AV), referred to throughout the chapter as automated driving systems (ADS), connected automated vehicles (CAV), cooperative driving automation (CDA), and connected, cooperative and automated mobility (CCAM). Projects covered in this chapter include an ADS Data Acquisition & Analytics Platform developed at UCLA, the European data sharing initiatives linked to the EU funded projects ARCADE and FAME, the Data For Road Safety (DFRS) initiative and the two EU funded projects HEADSTART and SUNRISE focusing on AV safety assessment.
Xin Xia, Stephane Dreher, Jiaqi Ma, Stefan de Vries, Guoyuan Wu, Chris Schwarz

Part IV: Transport System Planning

Inconsistency of AV Impacts on Traffic Flow: Predictions in Literature
In the literature, automated vehicle (AV) modeling studies tend to depict positive impacts of AV technologies on traffic. However, recent field experiments of production AVs (production vehicles with automated driving features) showed negative impacts on traffic flow stability and capacity. These inconsistencies may hinder the development and deployment of AV technologies. To identify major causes of the discrepancy, a breakout session was held at the 2022 Transportation Research Board (TRB) Automated Road Transportation Symposium (ARTS). Leading researchers from academia, industry, and government agencies were invited to present their thoughts on the issue. This book chapter summarizes the essence of the presentations and discussions at the breakout session. It provides insights into the modeling and simulation of AVs, AV technology development, and traffic management in the era of AVs.
Xiaowei (Tom) Shi, Hao Liu, Meng Wang, Xiaopeng Li, Biagio Ciuffo, Daniel Work, David Kan
Interactive Traffic Management for Highly Automated Vehicles
This chapter summarizes part of the presentations and discussions that took place at the Automated Road Transportation Symposium 2022 (ARTS22) during the breakout session titled “Interactive Traffic Management for Highly Automated Vehicles”, complemented with further material and reflections by the authors.
The chapter deals with traffic management in the presence of highly automated vehicles capable of driverless operation in specific Operational Design Domains (ODD). The aim is to present and discuss challenges related to the design and implementation of traffic management measures from multiple perspectives, covering the exchanged messages, the digitization of traffic codes and regulations, the impact on efficiency, and the human factors and reactions to traffic management measures. The potential to increase and optimize the performance of highly automated vehicles by providing external information will also be explored by introducing the concept of Distributed ODD attribute Value Awareness (DOVA).
Tom Alkim, Claudio Roncoli, Torsten Geissler, Siddartha Khastgir, Risto Kulmala
Road Vehicle Automation 10
Gereon Meyer
Sven Beiker
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