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2018 | Book

Road Vehicle Automation 4


About this book

This book is the fourth volume of the sub series of the Lecture Notes in Mobility dedicated to Road Vehicle Automation. lts chapters have been written by researchers, engineers and analysts from all around the globe. Topics covered include public sector activities, human factors and challenges, ethical, legal, energy and technology perspectives, vehicle systems development, as well as transportation infrastructure and planning. The book is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium which took place in San Francisco, California (USA) in July 2016.

Table of Contents

Introduction: The Automated Vehicles Symposium 2016
The 2016 Automated Vehicles Symposium built on the successes of the predecessor meetings, with an even larger and more diverse roster of participants and a broader selection of breakout sessions. The plenary and poster presentations and breakout discussions continued to provide the meeting participants with the most up-to-date and authoritative information about the current international state of development of road vehicle automation systems, making this the essential meeting for industry, government and research people interested in the subject.
Steven E. Shladover, Jane Lappin, Robert P. Denaro

Public Sector Activities

Latest Development in SIP-Adus and Related Activities in Japan
In 2014, Japanese government initiated a research and development program on connected and automated driving systems. Progresses made in the first half of this 5-year program are described in this paper. For the second half of the program, large-scale field operation tests are being planned. Objectives, scope and opportunities for international participants during the field operation tests are introduced. Expected applications of connected and automated driving technologies to overcome societal challenges in the Japanese context, such as aging and declining population, are also described.
Hajime Amano, Takahiko Uchimura
Connected and Automated Driving in The Netherlands—Challenge, Experience and Declaration
The first half of 2016 The Netherlands had the presidency of the European Union and they have taken this opportunity to put Smart Mobility (connected and automated driving) on the agenda. During this presidency three events were organized: The EU Truck Platooning Challenge, The Experience and The Declaration of Amsterdam. In this chapter the events and their relation are described.
Tom Alkim
Policymaking for Automated Vehicles: A Proactive Approach for Government
During the 2016 Automated Vehicle Symposium, the authors organized a policy focused breakout session that included a discussion with public agency representatives, industry leaders, and policy experts about the challenges, opportunities and priority actions policy-makers should consider to prepare for the adoption of automated vehicles. The industry panel highlighted a number of policy actions including the appropriate role of government, data and education needs. The public agency discussion settled on a few key themes including the need to improve public education and outreach, conduct information sharing, enhance communication with industry, consider near and long-term impacts, and focus on early deployment opportunities.
Baruch Feigenbaum, Ginger Goodin, Anita Kim, Shawn Kimmel, Richard Mudge, David Perlman

Human Factors and Challenges

Impact Assessment
Automated vehicles can potentially transform the world’s road transportation system. Direct impacts include traffic safety, transport network efficiency, energy/emissions and personal mobility. Second order indirect impacts, such as the possibility of increased travel leading to more congestion and emissions, are of significant concern. This chapter discusses the direct and indirect impacts by applying systems thinking to the impacts of automated vehicles, presenting two case studies related to different aspects of automation: low speed shared shuttle and truck platooning.
Satu Innamaa, Scott Smith, Isabel Wilmink, Nick Reed
The Digital Driver of the Future—User Experience Research on Generation Z in Germany
Future vehicle drivers will use cars differently than today, since increasingly connected and automated cars will offer a totally new driving experience. Valeo tries to find out how a positive driving experience of tomorrow can look like, but the challenge is that users today are not always aware of what they will need, especially when it comes to situations they have never experienced before. This paper shows that it is not enough to ask people what they would want in their future cockpit in order to find out their possible needs. Instead, one needs to understand what might impact their way of driving such as their way of living in a digital age, commuting and communicating. Understanding the user experience of users being born and raised in a digital era and being part of a generation highly-connected such as the Generation Z will help to create intuitive vehicle cockpits for automated and connected cars. With this background, a UX research study of Generation Z was conducted including ethnographic research and classical qualitative market research methods, exposing the future digital driver’s needs.
Evin Bahar Guenes, Katharina Hottelart, Patrice Reilhac
Reducing Conflict Between Vulnerable Road Users and Automated Vehicles
This chapter presents a summary of AVS 2016 Breakout Session 14, Reducing Conflict Between Vulnerable Road Users and Automated Vehicles. The session was scheduled to run for 90 min with approximately 60 min devoted to a panel of four speakers and 30 min of general discussion. The four speakers presented on a range of issues related to the intersection of VRUs and AVs. Key points included the need to develop usable, cross-cultural methods for pedestrians and AVs to communicate, the need to identify areas of opportunity and challenge relative to the current state of driver/VRU interactions, the need for further development and human factors testing of pedestrian-enabled mobile technology, and the importance of ongoing field testing.
Justin M. Owens, Ryan Greene-Roesel, Azra Habibovic, Larry Head, Andrés Apricio

Ethics, Legal, Energy and Technology Perspectives

Model Legislation for Automated Driving
This book chapter proposes model bills to clarify the legal status of automated driving at both the state and federal levels in the United States. The chapter briefly describes this current status, critiques my earlier legislative language, identifies other relevant efforts, presents the model state bill, and then presents the model federal bill. These models principally address the legal status of automated driving rather than the range of other relevant issues. Since they are likely to evolve, current versions are available at
Bryant Walker Smith
The Environmental Potential of Autonomous Vehicles
Automated vehicle technologies are rapidly developing, and their emergence on the automotive landscape will likely be transformative in nature. Autonomous vehicles could provide better access to mobility that is not only significantly safer, but also potentially cheaper, cleaner, and more efficient. These technologies could play a leading role in addressing the enormous challenge of climate change, yet their ultimate environmental impact is an open question whose answer will be influenced by a large array of decisions yet to come. We have an opportunity now, while policy is in its infancy, to shape the direction of autonomous vehicles to ensure that the transformational change they will bring is overwhelmingly positive for the environment.
Aaron Hula, Lisa Snapp, Jeff Alson, Karl Simon
Energy Impact of Connected Eco-driving on Electric Vehicles
Transportation-related energy consumption and air quality problems have continued to attract public attentions. A variety of emerging technologies have been proposed and/or developed to address these issues. In recent years, electric vehicles (EVs) are deemed to be very promising in reducing traffic related fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, due to the use of electric batteries as the only energy source. On the other hand, recent research shows that additional energy savings can be achieved with the aid of Eco-driving system in a connected vehicle environment (e.g., Eco-approach at signalized intersections). However, most of the existing eco-driving research is only focused on the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles thus far. There is still lack of convincing evidence (especially with real-world implementation) of how these connected eco-driving technologies impacts the energy efficiency of EVs. To fill this gap, this chapter provides a real-world example of quantifying the energy synergy of combining vehicle connectivity, vehicle automation and vehicle electrification, by designing, implementing and testing an eco-approach and departure (EAD) system for EVs with real-world driving data.
Xuewei Qi, Matthew J. Barth, Guoyuan Wu, Kanok Boriboonsomsin, Peng Wang
A First-Order Estimate of Automated Mobility District Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impacts
A first of its kind, this study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission impacts of an Automated Small Vehicle Transit system on a campus area. The results show that the automated mobility district system has the potential to reduce transportation system fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, but the benefits are largely dependent on the operation and ridership of the personal rapid transit system. Our study calls for more research to understand the energy and environmental benefits of such a system.
Yuche Chen, Stanley Young, Xuewei Qi, Jeffrey Gonder
Shared Automated Mobility: Early Exploration and Potential Impacts
Automated vehicles, if shared, have the potential to blur the lines between public and private transportation services. This chapter reviews possible future shared automated vehicle (SAV) business models and their potential impacts on travel behavior. By examining the impacts of non-automated shared mobility services like carsharing and ridesourcing, we foster a better understanding of how current shared mobility services affect user behavior. This serves as a starting point to explore the potential impact of SAV services. Several key studies covering the topic are discussed. Although the future of SAVs is uncertain, this chapter begins the dialogue around SAV business models that may develop, which are informed by current shared mobility services.
Adam Stocker, Susan Shaheen
Shared Automated Mobility and Public Transport
Automated vehicle technology offers many opportunities to improve the quality of public transport. This chapter reviews key understanding and takeaways from an international workshop that took place in July 2016 at the Automated Vehicle Symposium in San Francisco, California, which focused on the ongoing development of shared automated mobility services and public transit. During the two-day workshop, speakers from the public and private sectors, academia, and non-governmental organizations presented key findings from their work. Discussion centered around the implications of the convergence of shared mobility and vehicle automation on the future development of public transport, funding, pilots, and policy implications.
Jessica Lazarus, Susan Shaheen, Stanley E. Young, Daniel Fagnant, Tom Voege, Will Baumgardner, James Fishelson, J. Sam Lott

Vehicle Systems and Technologies Development

Safety Assurance for Automated Vehicles
With the rapid progress in functional skills of automated driving, the question of how the safety of automated vehicles can be assured increasingly becomes a key factor to the introduction of automated vehicles (AVs) for public operations in real world environments. Until now, there have been no well-defined standards or commonly accepted procedures to validate the safety of automated vehicles. In a break-out session of the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2016 (AVS), different approaches to Safety Assurance from a variety of projects preparing for the introduction of AVs were presented. The session also included presentations with follow-up discussions on the requirements of safety assurance from societal perspectives and on the feasibility of satisfying such requirements within the current or expected technological constraints. A summary and some highlights of the session are provided below.
Hermann Winner, Ching-Yao Chan
Enabling Technologies for Road Vehicle Automation
Technology is to a large extent driving the development of road vehicle automation. This Chapter summarizes the general overall trends in the enabling technologies within this field that were discussed during the Enabling technologies for road vehicle automation breakout session at the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2016. With a starting point in six scenarios that have the potential to be deployed at an early stage, five different categories of emerging technologies are described: (a) positioning, localization and mapping (b) algorithms, deep learning techniques, sensor fusion guidance and control (c) hybrid communication (d) sensing and perception and (e) technologies for data ownership and privacy. It is found that reliability and extensive computational power are the two most common challenges within the emerging technologies. Furthermore, cybersecurity binds all technologies together as vehicles will be constantly connected. Connectivity allows both improved local awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle communication and it allows continuous deployment of new software and algorithms that constantly learns new unforeseen objects or scenarios. Finally, while five categories were individually considered, further holistic work to combine them in a systems concept would be the important next step toward implementation.
Cristofer Englund, John Estrada, Juhani Jaaskelainen, Jim Misener, Surya Satyavolu, Frank Serna, Sudharson Sundararajan
Infrastructure for Automated and Connected Driving: State of the Art and Future Research Directions
The integration of automated and connected vehicles on our existing road network is expected to impact traffic efficiency and safety. This upcoming new reality causes road operators, researchers, and policy makers to raise critical questions on the requirements and implications of automated and connected vehicles on the road infrastructure. We present a state of the art on this topic while considering both the digital and the physical infrastructure. A considerable research effort exists with respect to the digital infrastructure, while for the physical infrastructure it is scarce. Based on the state of the art, and a brainstorming workshop involving experts from different disciplines in the Netherlands, a detailed mind map is presented and recommendations for future research directions are suggested.
Haneen Farah, Sandra M.J.G. Erkens, Tom Alkim, Bart van Arem

Transportation Infrastructure and Planning

Understanding the Effects of Autonomous Vehicles on Urban Form
Predicting the future impact of Autonomous Vehicles on infrastructure and urban form is critical for decision makers at all levels of government. The Autonomous Vehicle (AV) is a disruptive technology in transportation and its impact could resonate through all levels of society and government. The impact on infrastructure spending and decisions is one of the greatest reasons for understanding the potential outcomes of the technology but, in addition, the potential of the technology to play a positive role for the less advantaged members of society is large if there is proper direction of the technology as it is implemented. Auto makers view the technology as something which offers their customers a higher level of convenience and safety and, as such, they are in heated competition to develop this technology. In order to understand and speculate on the systemic urban impact of this nascent transportation technology, a comprehensive methodology is required. This paper will present, substantiate and describe such methodology. We base our proposal on existing future envisioning techniques for business decision making, precedent discussions on the impact of AVs, and on visionary traditions of architectural and urban design. We do not intend a precise method for future prediction, but rather a useful and robust tool that can be used by decision makers to take better informed decision on maximizing benefits and mitigating problems of new transportation technologies with regard to the quality of urban environments.
Sara Costa Maia, Annalisa Meyboom
“AV-Ready” Cities or “City-Ready” AVs?
The session “‘AV-Ready’ Cities or ‘City-Ready’ AVs” at the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2016 in San Francisco addressed key aspects of road automation from an urban policy perspective. The aim of the session was to raise the awareness of urban policy needs within the automation community, as well as enabling urban policy makers to understand better the opportunities and issues related to automated, connected vehicles when drafting their cities’ policies in the area of automated road transport.
Siegfried Rupprecht, Stephen Buckley, Philippe Crist, Jane Lappin
Traffic Flow of Connected and Automated Vehicles: Challenges and Opportunities
Significant progress has been observed in recent years in the development of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs). Such progress has been publicized through the latest products/applications being released or announced by the industry. However, there is a limited knowledge on the impact of CAV technologies on surface transportation network performance. In particular, the technological specifications associated with CAVs and the response of drivers to such technologies are not well integrated into traffic flow models. These models are needed to assess and evaluate the safety and mobility impact on our roadway conditions. Accordingly, a more elaborate discussion is needed between three entities: (1) the industry partners leading the efforts in developing CAVs; (2) the academic traffic flow modeling community researching the impact of CAVs on traffic flow performance; and (3) the public/government agencies devising the standards and the rules to regulate the deployment of CAVs on our roadway network. This chapter summarizes the presentations of speakers from these three entities during the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2016 (AVS16) held in San Francisco, California on July 19–21, 2016. These speakers participated in the break-out session titled “Traffic Flow of Connected and Automated Vehicles”. The corresponding discussion and recommendation are presented in terms of the lessons learned and the future research direction to be adopted. This session was organized by the AHB45(3) Subcommittee on Traffic Flow Modeling for Connected and Automated Vehicles.
Simeon Calvert, Hani Mahmassani, Jan-Niklas Meier, Pravin Varaiya, Samer Hamdar, Danjue Chen, Xiaopeng Li, Alireza Talebpour, Stephen P. Mattingly
Potential Fleet Size of Private Autonomous Vehicles in Germany and the US
There are high expectations on autonomous vehicles promising a safer, more efficient and comfortable (auto)mobility experience. On the other hand it is important to discuss possible rebound effects going along with such a development. New user groups e.g. people who do not hold a driving license today, or are currently unable to drive because of physical and/or age-related constraints suddenly are enabled to “drive” a passenger car. In addition the past has shown that increasing efficiency and enhancing the comfort leads to a higher travel demand and subsequently more vehicle miles traveled. To support the research on the impact of autonomous vehicles on the transport system it is important to analyze the potential share of autonomous vehicles (AVs) on the passenger vehicle fleet in the future. The paper presents results from modelling private autonomous vehicle scenarios for the year 2035 for Germany and the US to estimate the number of vehicles within the fleet equipped with automation technologies Level 4 and higher (SAE in SAE International Standard J3016, 2014). A vehicle technology diffusion model has been developed to model an evolutionary and a rather revolutionary scenario which are distinguished by different market entry dates and AV technology take rates. Differentiating by passenger car segment, we introduce autonomous vehicles among new vehicles from 2022 resp. 2025 onward assuming an s-shaped market-take-up until 2035.
Stefan Trommer, Lars Kröger, Tobias Kuhnimhof
Simulation-Based Traffic Management System for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles
The paper presents an idea for a simulation-based traffic management system, which may be especially successful in the era of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs). The most important aspect of the system is its ability to evaluate traffic conditions for different traffic control strategies (e.g., different traffic signal settings, different route assignments) using fast traffic simulations and neural networks. It also employs metaheuristics (e.g., genetic algorithms) to find (sub)optimal traffic control strategies. Results of initial experiments show that building such traffic management system might be technically feasible and it may be especially successful in the era of CAVs, for which it may be possible to collect required traffic data and make accurate traffic predictions.
Paweł Gora
Road Vehicle Automation 4
Gereon Meyer
Sven Beiker
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