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2022 | Book

Road Vehicle Automation 8


About this book

This book is the eight volume of a sub-series on Road Vehicle Automation, published as part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility. Written by researchers, engineers and analysts from around the globe, the contributions are based on oral and poster presentations from the Automated Vehicles Symposium (AVS) 2020, held on July 27–30, 2020, as a fully virtual event. The book explores public sector activities, human factors aspects, vehicle systems and other related technological developments, as well as transportation infrastructure planning, which are expect to foster and support road vehicle automation.

Table of Contents

Introduction: The Automated Vehicles Symposium 2020
The 2020 Automated Vehicles Symposium represented a significant departure from its predecessors, since it had to be converted on short notice from an in-person meeting to a virtual meeting in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the originally planned content was retained in the process, although the activities were of necessity less interactive than in previous years. The plenary and poster presentations and breakout discussions continued to provide the meeting participants with the most up-to-date and authoritative information about the current international state of development and deployment of road vehicle automation systems, retaining its standing as the essential meeting for industry, government and research practitioners in the field.
Steven E. Shladover, Jane Lappin, Valerie Shuman

Part I: Public Sector Activities

The Challenges for Automated Driving Systems Realization in Japan; SIP-adus
SIP, or Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program is a 5 year R&D program led by the Japan government. SIP-adus, or automated driving system for universal service is a project for the realization for automated driving systems (ADS) with Government-Industry-Academia cooperation. We tackle various issues such as R&D, regulation reform, public acceptance creation, international cooperation for realization of cooperative ADS together. The project focused on cooperative R&D themes such as Dynamic Map, Safety assurance, Cybersecurity, and so on. The status of several examples of our challenge will be reported.
Seigo Kuzumaki
Policy and Regulation of Automated Vehicles: Spotlight on U.S. Federal and States
This chapter outlines the key developments and issues in the U.S. national, state and local automated vehicle (AV) policy landscape. There are a range of perspectives among U.S. government and private-sector stakeholders. Despite the wide range of viewpoints, the authors aim to underscore where there is agreement on key policy issues, and where there are opportunities for more discussion. Federal policy to date has focused on a voluntary system for ensuring safety of AVs. Federal regulatory actions have been limited to guidance documents, although the government recently proposed a safety framework for the automated driving system (ADS). States have varied in their approaches to AV policy and this chapter summarizes research coding state activities on a spectrum from more restrictive, such as California, to more permissive, such as Arizona. In the final section of the chapter the authors discuss the role of interstate coalitions. This Chapter is organized into five sections:
  • Section 1 Introduction
  • Section 2 National Landscape for Federal AV Legislation and Regulation
  • Section 3 State Automated Vehicles Policy and Regulation
  • Section 4 Regional Coalitions
  • Section 5 Conclusion
Mollie D’Agostino, Kelly Fleming, Kristin White, Marc Scribner, Baruch Feigenbaum
Regulation of In-Service Safety Risks of Automated Vehicles
Automated vehicles come with a range of safety risks, that could result in deaths or serious injuries on the road. Companies will seek to address these risks in the initial design of the automated driving system. However, automated vehicles will need to operate safely not just on day one, but throughout their lifetime on the road. On-road or “in-service” safety risks could result from degradation of the vehicle or changes to the outside environment. Companies developing automated driving systems will need to manage these ongoing safety risks; government will need to ensure appropriate regulation of these risks.
Marcus Burke

Part II: Business Models and Operations

Local Roadmaps for Autonomous Vehicles: Guidance for High-Impact, Low-Cost Policy Strategies
This chapter focuses on local policy roadmaps. While a significant body of policy has been developed at the national and state levels, very little policy work has identified policy for local government. In this context, this chapter reviews state of technology and policy development and offers potential policy concepts for local government. Suggestions from a workshop are offered and then dialogued in a structured format. This yields ideas for high-impact, low-cost policy solutions that can help cities better prepare for automation.
William Riggs
Artificial Intelligence for Automated Vehicle Control and Traffic Operations: Challenges and Opportunities
This chapter summarizes the presentations of speakers addressing such issues during the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2020 (AVS20) held virtually on July 27–30, 2020. These speakers participated in the break-out session titled “Artificial Intelligence for Automated Vehicle Control and Traffic Operations: Challenges and Opportunities”. The corresponding discussion and recommendations are presented in terms of the lessons learned and the future research directions to be adopted to benefit from AI in order to develop safer and more efficient connected and automated vehicles (CAV). This session was organized by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) Committee on Traffic Flow Theory and Characteristics (ACP50) and the TRB Committee on Artificial Intelligence and Advanced Computing Applications (AED50).
David A. Abbink, Peng Hao, Jorge Laval, Shai Shalev-Shwartz, Cathy Wu, Terry Yang, Samer Hamdar, Danjue Chen, Yuanchang Xie, Xiaopeng Li, Mohaiminul Haque
Autonomous Shuttles and Buses: From Demonstrations to Deployment
This chapter presents information on automated shuttles and buses, which are being piloted, demonstrated, and deployed in downtown areas, university campuses, business parks, entertainment complexes, and other areas. The chapter focuses on the presentations and discussions at a breakout session at the 2020 Automated Vehicle Symposium (AVS). The session and this chapter highlight the experience planning, procuring, operating, and evaluating automated shuttles and buses to help inform future decision-making. Many projects were on hold in 2020 as a result of the pandemic, or pivoted to food delivery or other alternate uses. Areas for additional research and ongoing information sharing are also summarized.
Katherine Turnbull, Cynthia Jones, Lily Elefteriadou

Part III: Vehicle Systems and Technology Development

Future Threats to Connected and Automated Vehicles
Automated Vehicles rely on intelligent systems to enable safe and efficient transportation. Thanks to robust perception and reliable communication, automated vehicles will reshape transportation services. However, the security of automated vehicles has to be guaranteed at the component level. In this chapter, we provide an overview of two threats to connected and automated vehicles (CAV), namely adversarial AI in perception system, and impact of Quantum Computer on CAV security.
Jonathan Petit, William Whyte
Generic Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Architecture for Heterogeneous Strings of Vehicles
Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) systems uses wireless connectivity to guarantee string stability for platooning, which Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) fails to provide. One of the constraints that hinders widespread adoption of CACC is that almost all developments and real validations have been done on strings of identical vehicles. This chapter summarizes the most recent efforts in the development of a generic control architecture that enables CACC on strings of vehicles of different makes/models/types, dynamics and powertrains. The developed hierarchical approach has demonstrated feasibility of CACC system on real vehicles, even at short time gaps. It is also robust in handling cut-in and cut-out maneuvers of other vehicles in public traffic.
Carlos Flores, Xiao-Yun Lu, John Spring, Simeon Iliev

Part IV: Policy and Planning

Public and Private Sector Collaboration to Advance Automated Driving Systems Testing and Deployment
This Chapter is intended to lay the background for meaningful conversations between public sector and private industry, to understand the barriers and needs for automated driving systems (ADS) and AV testing and evaluation. This includes understanding the capabilities that need to be implemented both in the ADS and on the roadway to support safe and effective ADS operation and understanding what is needed to design and conduct joint tests or pilots. This session aims to identify a path forward to overcome specific, private and public sector barriers, facilitate, and advance AV testing and deployment.
Kristin White, John Harding, Ted Bailey, Daniela Bremmer, Robert Dingess
Road Vehicle Automation 8
Dr. Gereon Meyer
Dr. Sven Beiker
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