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2023 | Book

Road Vehicle Automation 9


About this book

This book is the ninth volume of a sub-series on Road Vehicle Automation, published as part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility. It gathers contributions to the Automated Road Transportation Symposium (ARTS), held on July 12-15, 2021, as a fully virtual event, and as a continuation of TRB's annual summer symposia on automated vehicle systems. Written by researchers, engineers and analysts from around the globe, this book offers a multidisciplinary perspectives on the opportunities and challenges associated with automating road transportation. It highlights innovative strategies, including public policies, infrastructure planning and automated technologies, which are expected to foster sustainable and automated mobility in the near future, thus addressing industry, government and research communities alike.

Table of Contents

Introduction: The Automated Road Transportation Symposium 2021
In 2021, the Automated Vehicles Symposium was succeeded by the Automated Road Transportation Symposium (ARTS21), which was produced entirely by the Transportation Research Board. With the continuing disruptions from the global pandemic, it was again produced as a virtual online meeting. The plenary presentations and breakout discussions continued to provide the meeting participants with the most up-to-date and authoritative information about the current international state of development and deployment of road vehicle automation systems, retaining its standing as the essential global meeting for industry, government and research practitioners in the field.
Steven E. Shladover, Jane Lappin, Valerie Shuman

Part I: Public Sector and Policy Activities

Development of Driving Intelligence Validation Platform (DIVP®) for ADS Safety Assurance
SIP, or Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program is a 5 year R&D program led by the Japan government. SIP-adus, or automated driving system for universal service aims to realize automated driving systems (ADS) with Government-Industry-Academia cooperation. SIP-adus focuses on cooperative R&D themes such as Dynamic Map, Safety assurance, Cybersecurity, and so on. Safety assurance is quite important for spread of ADS. A collaborative consortium was established for the development of Driving Intelligence Validation Platform (DIVP®) [1] for Automated Driving Safety Assurance. This research project is developing an assessment platform using simulators to create a virtual model by adopting a series of models consisting of driving environments, spatial propagation, and sensors that are highly consistent with the actual phenomena required to assess the safety of automated driving. The goal and current status of DIVP® activity is explained in this report.
Seigo Kuzumaki, Hideo Inoue
The Great Promise of AV - But it Needs to be Done Properly
Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology has great promise. It has the potential to significantly reduce fatalities and injuries caused by roadway crashes, and it has the potential to eliminate roadway congestion. The devil is in the details, however, and to achieve these benefits, the development and implementation must be done properly. The author lays out thoughts that manufacturers and regulatory authorities may consider – thoughts that are intended to minimize unintended consequences and to ensure proper introduction of AV technology.
Robert L. Sumwalt
How Critical is Connectivity?
In preparing for widespread deployment of automated vehicles and shared mobility, it is important to understand the role of connectivity. This chapter discusses the importance of connectivity from the perspective of OEMs, other private sector representatives, and federal, state, and local government agencies. Key findings are that all stakeholders see great value in increased connectivity and that it is politically feasible, unlike other means of increasing transportation capacity, such as building more roads or congestion pricing. However, it is very easy to get caught up in “shiny object syndrome” with connectivity and forget about the purpose of implementing it: the human who is the end user. A number of research questions are outlined at the end of this chapter.
Katherine Kortum
Innovation Strategies and Funding Policies for Automated and Electric Road Mobility
While the automation and the electrification of cars at first appear as separate technology fields, their interdependencies provide synergetic and complementing effects at both the layers of technology and the applications. In addition to describing those effects, this chapter analyses how the integrated view of both paths is covered by industrial and academic research and innovation strategies, public funding programmes and collaborative projects in the European Union and its member states, taking Germany and Austria as examples. Furthermore, international benchmarks from outside Europe are presented, notably from the U.S, China, Japan and South Korea, and some future prospects are given. This chapter summarizes and concludes the activities of Task 29 „Electrified, Connected and Automated Vehicles“ of the Technology Collaboration Programme Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEV-TCP) of the International Energy Agency (IEA), and reports on some outcomes of EU-funded Coordination and Support Actions in the domain of smart and sustainable road mobility.
Gereon Meyer, Carolin Zachäus, Jakob Michelmann

Part II: Business Models and Operations

Automated Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Town Hall
AV and CAV technologies are already affecting on-road energy usage and in the future may drastically change vehicle energy usage and efficiency. The Efficiency Town Hall, at ARTS2021 showed the importance of the question of how to balance individual vehicle efficiency with systemic transportation efficiency as well traffic and demand management. The Town Hall also showed that these questions can no longer be considered a problem for the future, solutions must be found for the vehicles entering the market now. Connectivity will also be key in ensuring that AV technology delivers consistent energy reductions. Finally, regulations which can capture the effects of CAVs and incentivize energy efficiency must be promulgated to ensure that AVs are designed with efficiency and energy reduction in mind.
Dimitris Assanis, Avi Chaim Mersky, Jihun Han, Therese Langer, Jeffrey Lidicker, Rick Mihelic, Gabor Orosz, Marina Sofos
Sharing Automated Vehicles: Policies and Ideas to Improve the Sharing Experience to Reduce Congestion and Energy Use in a Post-COVID World
Research suggests widespread proliferation of automated vehicles (AV) can potentially greatly increase transportation energy use and congestion [1]. One of the ways to mitigate such increases is to increase sharing in order to provide more environmentally and financially sustainable and cost effective services that match consumer demands for reliability and convenience. This chapter explores how sharing can be encouraged through economic, technological, procedural/legal, and cultural levers in order for AV transportation systems to reduce energy use and congestion.
Joshua Auld, Denise Baker, Danielle Chou, Ann Foss, Elizabeth Machek, William Riggs, Scott Smith

Part III: Users and Human Factors

Human-Centric Intelligent Driving: Collaborating with the Driver to Improve Safety
Despite the benefits of autonomous vehicles, their many challenges have made their wide scale deployment and adoption slower than hoped for. In order to help spread the potential benefits of autonomy sooner, as well as to cater to people who will continue to prefer to drive themselves while improving safety, there is a need for intelligent interaction and collaboration between increasingly automated vehicles and humans. At Toyota Research Institute, we call this Human-Centric Intelligent Driving (HCID). HCID has many technical challenges, some of which are shared with fully autonomous driving. Due to the collaborative nature between humans and machines in HCID, some of these challenges are particularly important and potentially different from fully autonomous driving. This chapter focuses on Toyota Research Institute’s (TRI) approach to addressing some of these core challenges.
Avinash Balachandran, Tiffany L. Chen, Jonathan Y. M. Goh, Stephen McGill, Guy Rosman, Simon Stent, John J. Leonard
Automated Shuttles and Buses for All Users
This chapter presents information on demonstrations and pilots of automated shuttles and buses, with a focus on improving transportation options for all users, including individuals with disabilities. Automated shuttles and buses are being piloted, demonstrated, and deployed in downtown areas, university campuses, business parks, entertainment complexes, and other areas. The chapter is based on the presentations and discussions at a breakout session at the 2021 Transportation Research Board (TRB) Automated Road and Transportation Symposium (ARTS). Like many things in life, automated shuttle and bus projects were put on hold or pivoted to food delivery and alternative uses during the pandemic in 2020 and 2021. The ARTS breakout session, Automated Shuttles and Buses for All Users, highlighted addressing the needs of individuals using wheelchairs, those with limited or no eyesight, and those with other disabilities. The information presented in this chapter will assist in evaluation of this mobility option to help inform decision making, identify research needs, and support future developments.
Katherine F. Turnbull

Part IV: Vehicle and Road Systems Technology Development

What’s Next in AV Standards and Simulation Validation?
Standards have the potential to both enable and hinder the deployment of AVs. With an increasing number of standards acronyms and numbers, it can be challenging for practitioners to make sense of past, present, and future AV standards. The chapter is organized by four “hot topics”, including (1) safety assurance, (2) physical infrastructure, (3) connectivity and cooperative driving automation, and (4) simulation validity and representativeness. Perspectives from leaders in the standards space are provided, giving the latest on standards activities and insights into where the field is going. Public sector and industry participants, including from US DOT, NIST, NASA, Euro NCAP, Toyota, Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., Foretellix, Japan Automobile Research Institute, Aurora, Intel / Mobileye, dSPACE Inc, and BMW, described the relevance of standards to their organizations and job function. A globally representative sample of standards development organizations (SDOs), including from SAE, ISO, IEEE, ASAM, and CSA provided their perspectives on how to harmonize the myriad of activities on related and overlapping topics. Standards gaps and future priorities were identified through collaborative, interactive breakout sessions.
Shawn Kimmel, George Nicols, Edward Straub, Edward Chow
Six Years of Reading the Road Ahead: Supporting Roadway Automation with Traffic Control Devices
Improvements in the safety performance and efficiency of the roadway transportation system are sought and realized through the deployment of Automated Driver Assistance Systems and higher-level vehicle automation systems. The consistent function of these systems depends largely on the ability of the vehicle sensors to accurately detect the roadway environment. This environment includes pavement markings and roadside delineation, the primary local offline source of information on roadway alignment. The Reading the Road Ahead workshops at the Transportation Research Board’s Automated Vehicles Symposium (AVS, 2016 through 2020) and Automated Road Transportation Symposium (ARTS, 2021) were convened to provide a platform for understanding the interactions of machine vision systems with traffic control devices, featuring expert presentations in the fields of machine vision, human factors, traffic engineering, and transportation safety performance.
Scott O. Kuznicki
Remote Support for Automated Vehicle Operations
What is remote support, why is needed and who is the service owner? Remote support comes in different shapes and forms. Typically, a remote human operator provides instructions, permission or waypoints to the vehicle, or remotely drive it. However, the purpose and tasks of the operator are very diverse for different modes and environments: ports and yards, (on-demand) taxi services and low-speed passenger shuttles, long-haul commercial trucks, road-based last-mile/middle-mile delivery vehicles, sidewalk delivery robots, privately owned vehicles, autonomous vessels and air mobility, on confined areas, segregated and shared infrastructure. Moreover, there is an intuitive synergy with road traffic management and fleet management services, and eventually multi-domain integrated operations management centers. This chapter aims to increase awareness and understanding of remote support by sharing experiences and achievements alongside discussion of technological requirements, operational aspects and future research needs.
Jaap Vreeswijk, Azra Habibovic, Olav Madland, Floris Hooft

Part V: Transport System Planning

Ensuring Strong Public Support for Automation in the Planning Process: From Engagement to Co-creation
Hailed as the next transportation revolution, automated vehicles (AVs) are expected to have dramatic impacts on the environment, economies, and society. Potential benefits of, as well as any potential burdens from, AV deployment will depend in large part on whether and how individuals will use them. Gaining a better understanding of public attitudes towards AVs can thus provide important insights into the future of automated transportation. This conference session brought together participants from the academic, planning, and commercial business development sectors to learn about the status of public attitudes towards and preferences for AVs, discuss transferable results from prior engagement projects and promotion campaigns, exchange strategies for engaging citizens in the AV planning process, and coordinate strategies at an international level. During the session, the presenters highlighted key findings and lessons learned from prior research and engagement efforts, as well as outlined areas for future work and research.
Leah Kaplan, Siegfried Rupprecht, Monica Grosso, Nikolas Thomopoulos, Wolfgang Backhaus, Maria Alonso Raposo, Biagio Ciuffo, Daniel Franco
Road Vehicle Automation 9
Dr. Gereon Meyer
Dr. Sven Beiker
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