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Turbulent oceanic and atmospheric flows are characterized by persistent nearly zonal alternating currents, referred to as multiple zonal jets. These jets emerge from self-organization of the flow, and are maintained by persistent action of transient fluctuations (“eddies”). The action of these eddies takes a form of internally generated eddy forcing that can either resist the jets or support them against dissipation and other processes. This review chapter is concerned with the role of the eddy forcing in the dynamics of the multiple zonal jets in the ocean, but the results are also applicable to atmospheric flows and some isolated jets in the ocean.
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