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About this book

This book presents how to program Single Board Computers (SBCs) for Internet of Things (IoT) rapid prototyping with popular tools such as Raspberry Pi, Arduino, Beagle Bone, and NXP boards. The book provides novel programs to solve new technological real-time problems. The author addresses programming, PCB design and Mechanical Cad design all in single volume, easing learners into incorporating their ideas as prototype. The aim of the book is to provide programming, sensors interfacing, PCB design, and Mechanical Cad design to and create rapid prototyping. The author presents the methodologies of rapid prototyping with KiCAD design and Catia software, used to create ready to mount solutions. The book covers scripting- based and drag/drop- based programming for different problems and data gathering approach.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to Internet of Things and SBCs

Abstract
The potential of Internet of Things (IoT) is exponentially increasing in the present smart objects and spaces. The IoT is mainly using its potential to sophisticate people lifestyle by providing handy solutions to remote problems. The Single Board Computers (SBCs) play a major role in providing such sophistication and creating betterment in providing immediate solutions. This chapter mainly provides the introduction and necessity for SBCs in rapid IoT prototyping to solve ad hoc problems. The sensors and actuators capable to work with these boards with respect to operation limitations is discussed. The power constraints, memory, and programming capabilities are mainly discussed in this chapter. The SBCs such as Arduino family, Raspberry Pi family, NVIDIA Jetson nano, and Xavier were concentrated. A glimpse on industrial standard boards such as NXP mbed boards are also discussed in this chapter.
G. R. Kanagachidambaresan

Chapter 2. Programming SBCs Using Python

Abstract
Python is an important tool for programming and accessing the hardware of the SBCs. This chapter deals on python programming logic and hardware accessing such as GPIO operations as high/low, PWM operations, etc. The chapter provides details on circuits driving individual pins using Python and C.
G. R. Kanagachidambaresan

Chapter 3. Sensors and SBCs for Smart City Infrastructure

Abstract
The physical event to be measured/monitored is performed by devices called sensors. Sensors are the main front gates for monitoring any events in smart environment. Sensors are mainly classified in broad category as contact based and contactless. The distance monitoring of event is termed to be contactless, e.g., camera and other imaging-based sensors. Contact-based sensor is thermistor accelerometer based; this sensor needs to be positioned on the system which is to be monitored. This chapter mainly focuses on sensors commercially available in the market and its specification; it also provides the choice of sensors to be made for monitoring particular event. The sensor provides detailed review on the possible connections of sensors with the SBCs.
G. R. Kanagachidambaresan

Chapter 4. Actuators Used in Rapid Prototyping

Abstract
The devices capable to convert the electrical signal to other physical parameters like motion, light, etc., are termed as actuators. Single actuators and combination of actuators are normally used in the smart city infrastructure to automate the process. The most commonly used actuators in the industries are (1) relay units and (2) led displays. The relay units convert the electrical signal given to motion signals to close and open any high-voltage circuits. This chapter mainly deals about operating such actuators with the help of arduino and raspberry pi units. This chapter mainly concentrates on providing basic programming and operational limits of commonly used actuators like sg90 servos and micro stepper motors.
G. R. Kanagachidambaresan

Chapter 5. Introduction to Wired and Wireless IoT Protocols in SBC

Abstract
More wired and wireless communication together build different IoT applications. Normally sensors are connected with hardwired communication like i2c, SPI, and CAN-like protocols. The information delivered for longer distances are infrastructured with Bluetooth, Wifi, and Zigbee-based protocol. The selection of protocols for particular application is done with respect to the sensors used, coverage required, data rate, and security options considered. If the system has to be more secure, wired protocols are the best when compared with the wireless protocol. More eavesdropping is possible with wireless communication approach. This chapter mainly deals with the basic IoT wired and wireless protocols along with the connection diagrams, Python, and arduino-based codes to successfully implement the same in simple IoT Prototypes.
G. R. Kanagachidambaresan

Chapter 6. Node-Red Programming and Page GUI Builder for Industry 4.0 Dashboard Design

Abstract
Drag and drop programming is getting more easy for the new programmers and interested people who are trying to learn IoT. Node-red is one among the recent drag-and-drop-based programming which is very easy to get interfaced with SBCs such as raspberry pi and other similar linux-based operating systems. Raspberry pi node-red programming is deeply discussed in this chapter. The programming of sensors actuators and attractive dashboards for industrial applications where are also discussed in this platform. The node-red programming in this chapter concentrates on production monitoring, alarming the users on critical events and other actuator programming. This chapter also discusses a python GUI builder page software. These methodologies greatly help readers to work on Industry 4.0 dashboard design to satisfy industrial requirement.
G. R. Kanagachidambaresan

Chapter 7. Cloud Interaction with SBCs

Abstract
SBCs working in remote locations some time have to communicate with the cloud environment for data sharing and remote command sharing. This chapter mainly deals with the cloud-based interaction such as Google sheets, Firebase integration of rpi and other similar Linux operating boards with the cloud environment. The authentication and data porting from firebase to spreadsheet and vice versa is also discussed in detail.
G. R. Kanagachidambaresan

Chapter 8. Introduction to KiCad Design for Breakout and Circuit Designs

Abstract
KiCad is an open-source software to design pcb boards and to validate the circuits. The KiCad software can design schematic, PCB layout, and 3D viewer models. More sensors are available in market and integration is normally done with breadboard and jumper wire-based connection options. In order to have a smooth working product or prototype, pcb board fabrication is very much necessary. Many software such as ORCAD pcb and Altium PCB design software are available; however this chapter mainly deals on designing necessary breakout boards and other connection pcb boards for IoT projects mainly. This chapter mainly describes PCB layout and 3d view of designed pcb boards for IoT applications. The design is made more compact, so that it can be easily suited for 3d printing designs.
G. R. Kanagachidambaresan

Chapter 9. Introduction to 3d Printing and Prototyping

Abstract
The 3d printing technology and 3D designing are the important inevitable skills that are to be learnt to satisfy the industrial and household requirement. More software to create and animate designs are presently available that include CATIA, Freecad, Pro-E Solid works, etc. This chapter mainly focuses on the designing basic part design and part assembly for creating IoT prototypes and necessary casing to mount sensors and breakout boards. CATIA-based design examples are discussed along with the importance of 3D printing in this chapter.
G. R. Kanagachidambaresan

Chapter 10. IoT Projects in Smart City Infrastructure

Abstract
This chapter mainly provides SBCs prototyping for health care, industry, and supply chain-related problems. An image processing-based solution for posture correction is given with deep learning on SBCs. A Raspberry pi 4 is used to identify the error in the posture; the module is trained with respect to age, sex, and height that provide significant posture correction to elderly, postsurgical, and amputees. A RPi cam-based interface system is designed that monitors pose and identifies the error in pose with 93% accuracy. The need for prosthetic limb adjustment is also set as alert to user using IoT environment. The next section mainly provides prototyping SBC for monitoring PLC machines; the functioning or production is monitored through SBCs and data is integrated with the cloud environment. The last section in this chapter mainly discusses about fruit ripening based on GPS location for better supply chain management. The ripening gas is exerted using 3d printed IoT device for shipment activities; this device mainly reduces the complexities in storing and ripening of fruits for food industries purpose.
G. R. Kanagachidambaresan

Chapter 11. Industry 4.0 for Smart Factories

Abstract
Industrial water consumption monitoring is a crucial task. The quality of intake and effluent of the water from industry mainly influences the production and environmental pollution. The absence of equilibrium in the running water makes pH measurement more complicated and unstable in nature. The water qualities like pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and turbidity are measured. The apparatus is self-cleaned using the acetone and freshwater jet stream. The industrial standard processors are used to monitor the sensors and quantity of the water flow in the pipes. The self-cleaning mechanism prevents scaling formation and ensures continues monitoring system. The scaling effects in pipes are observed due to hard water flow. A self-cleaning mechanism is also equipped to clean and ensure equipment reliability. The methodology is implemented in lab setup and it is tested. The processors are programmed with sensor saturation time and the equipment requires auto-cleaning for every 8 h. The entire system is designed with industrial NXP processor. A self-healing IoT enabled water buoy is designed in the section which provides maintenance-free monitoring of water quality in aquaculture ponds.
G. R. Kanagachidambaresan

Backmatter

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