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About this book

This book gathers the latest advances, innovations, and applications in the field of aerospace technology and aviation safety, as presented by researchers at the 9th World Congress “Aviation in the XXI Century”: Safety in Aviation and Space Technologies, held in Kyiv, Ukraine, on April 26-28 2021. It covers highly diverse topics, including carbon neutral aviation, precision engineering in aerospace, robots in the aerospace industry, nanotechnology for aerospace, aircraft design and strength, tribotechnology in aviation, engines and power installations, intelligent robotic and measuring systems, control systems, civil aviation cybersecurity, mathematical modeling and numerical methods, aeronavigation, unmanned aerial complexes, environmental safety and aviation chemmotology, aviation transport logistics, and construction of transport facilities. The contributions, which were selected by means of a rigorous international peer-review process, highlight numerous exciting ideas that will spur novel research directions and foster multidisciplinary collaborations.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Observations of LED Side Lights at the Stage of Visual Piloting

The side lights of the light signal system indicate the side boundaries of the runway and its color marking by distance. To encode sections of the runway, depending on where they are installed, the lights emit white or yellow light. The fire must be in the pilot's field of vision from the moment of recognition until the moment of flight near it, only in this case the aerodrome lights give a clear idea of the location of the aircraft. The development of LED technologies has allowed the Ukrainian Association of Lighting Enterprises of Vatra Corporation to develop a design of LED equipment for aerodrome light signal systems, namely a universal fire that performs the functions of bidirectional fire and roundabout fire. Features of fire design, angles of convergence of side lights, difficulties in observing LED airfield lights affect on the visual contact. If the light signal system fails, the crew will not be able to establish its location or visual contact may be erroneous. To solve the complex problem of visibility of light signals from LED light signal aerodrome side lights, a tool using the MatLab interface is proposed. The tool allows to model a fragment of a light signal picture in the conditions of deficit of time at a stage of visual piloting. The tool simulates the illumination created on the retina of the pilot’s eye from aerodrome side lights in the MatLab interface. Lighting simulation will manage risk in order to prevent aviation events.

Yuliia Kvach

Middleware Service for the Integration of Control Systems of the Aviation Engine and Aircraft

The integration of an aircraft engine and an aircraft is such a combination of their structural forms, aerodynamic and propulsive-economic characteristics and control systems (including thrust vector), which provides an improvement in certain flight performance characteristics of the aircraft. A program structural service of multi-mode aircraft aviation engine integration has been considered. It can be effectively applied for ensuring adaptation to changing flight modes by determining the shape of an aircraft and its aviation engine, from one side, for determining the purpose of aircraft, its parameters and aviation engine parameters, as well as flight modes by correct choice of control laws, from another side. The considered technique and service, based on mathematical modeling of the AIRCRAFT-AVIATION ENGINE-FUEL system, in combination with the use of multiparameter optimization methods, is an effective tool for choosing design parameters and forming the technical appearance of an aviation engine.

Serhii Tovkach

Application of Fiber-Optic Sensors for the Aircraft Structure Monitoring

There is a transition from periodic forms of aircraft maintenance to the “on condition” forms performing currently can be observed. Aircraft Health Monitoring system is a very important tool in the formation of “on condition” based maintenance schedule for modern commercial aircraft, which allows collecting and analyzing information about aircraft systems condition. One of the most important components of Aircraft Health Monitoring is the Aircraft Structure Condition Monitoring system, which allows detecting and conditions monitoring of various types of internal damages and mechanical stresses arising in the aircraft structure during its operation. The main advantage of the Aircraft Structure Condition Monitoring system is the absence of its influence on the mechanical and strength characteristics of the aircraft structural elements. Implementation of the system is very important due to constantly expanding possibilities of using composite materials in aircraft structure. This article proposes a method for implementing Aircraft Structure Condition Monitoring system by using fiber–optic sensors. A feature of the proposed system is the integration of sensors into the structure of the aircraft. A review and analysis of the applicability of photodetectors for the proposed system is also given.

Ruslan Zakirov, Feruza Giyasova

Iterative-Analytical Model of Nonlinear Deformation and Fracture of Multilayer Composite Panels

This work is devoted to the issues of numerical modeling of the processes of occurrence and propagation of cracks and delamination zones in spatial multilayer systems. To simulate the processes of delamination and destruction of composite structures, an iterative-analytical theory is used. A special eight-node isoparametric multilayer finite element has been developed and numerically implemented. Nonlinear problems are solved on the basis of the developed universal algorithm, which includes an iterative-analytical method of variable approximations. Comparison of the results of numerical solutions of test problems with analytical solutions of the data indicates their good agreement. Numerical modeling of the process of propagation of main cracks and delamination zones of a nine-layer metal-composite plate with a central hole has been performed. The developed methods make it possible to reliably estimate the change in the stress–strain state of multilayer structures depending on the accumulation of damage during their operation and can be used in the development of information support systems for the life cycle of multilayer aircraft panels.

Aleksandr Gondlyakh, Andrey Chemeris, Aleksandr Kolosov, Aleksandr Sokolskiy, Valeriy Scherbina, Sergiy Antonyuk

Vibration Measurement Technologies and Systems

One of the current problems of modern technology is the measurement of vibration parameters. Increased vibration in machines, for example due to bearing wear, can cause a serious damage. Most often and rather quickly the destruction of the object occurs under vibration with conditions of resonance. Stresses caused by vibration contribute to the accumulation of damage in materials, the appearance of cracks and destruction. Therefore, lowering the level is an urgent task and is a prerequisite for the design and manufacture of process equipment. Such problems can be detected early by using vibration measurement techniques. Thus, there is a great need for measuring, evaluating and monitoring vibration in industrial systems—not only for process machines, but increasingly also for industrial machines. A study of oscillatory processes is great interest to all sectors of the economy—metallurgy, power engineering, rocketry, etc. So, the paper reviews the existing methods and means of measuring vibration parameters and identifies ways to further develop this issue.

Volodymyr Kvasnikov, Anzhelika Stakhova

Methods of Statistical Modeling of Atmospheric Turbulence

The paper studies the methods of statistical modeling of Gaussian random processes used in the modeling of atmospheric turbulence. The need to model atmospheric turbulence arises in many applied problems. Atmospheric turbulence is the main factor that determines the aircraft design resource, affects the assessment of aviation resource. Atmospheric turbulence affects the flight trajectory of unmanned aerial vehicles, the assessment of the variance of the deflection of ballistic projectiles during firing. For practical calculations, we use the implementations of the random field obtained as a result of statistical modeling. The study is based on the methods of statistical modeling of stationary Gaussian random processes and fields. When modeling stationary Gaussian processes, the shaping filter method can be used. The paper proposes a modeling method that uses spectral representations of a stationary Gaussian process and field. Using the spectral representation allows you to build models with a given accuracy and reliability. The paper presents new estimates of accuracy and reliability in the space of integrated functions. The obtained estimates depend on the parameters of the spectral decompositions. This allows us to take into account the properties of atmospheric turbulence in the construction of statistical implementations. The use of spectral images of Gaussian random processes and fields allows to obtain simpler statistical modeling algorithms. This is very important when organizing and conducting computational experiments to solve applied problems.

Anatolii Pashko, Tetiana Oleshko

Designing Integrated Cargo Delivery Systems on Logistics Principles

In the paper an integrated cargo delivery systems on logistics principles was proposed. In order to optimize the cargo business of the air carrier as an additional source of income and to enable the cargo transportation development on the network of airlines effective cargo traffic management system should be implemented. The principal scheme of operating activities for a network air carrier in relation to the cargo component was designed. Implementation of cargo traffic management system of the network air carrier was considered on logistics principles. To synchronize and optimize cargo traffic flows during the planned period on the airline network to obtain profit from cargo transportation mathematical modelling of cargo traffic of a network air carrier, including a model of operational management of cargo flows in the real time mode and a nonlinear dynamic traffic flow planning model can be applied.

Viktor Voitsehovskiy, Mariya Grygorak, Sergiy Lytvynenko, Tetiana Gabrielova, Larysa Lytvynenko

Optimization of Parameters for the Printing Process of Adhesive Application in Honeycomb Core Manufacturing

Thickness of the adhesive strip, mass application of the adhesive, graphic accuracy of the adhesive strip location, and strength of the adhesive bond at delamination are among the main parameters of the adhesive joint affecting the honeycomb core characteristics. The most advanced technology which provides obtaining high-quality honeycomb core is considered to be the technology where the adhesive is applied by the intaglio method. One of the ways to improve the adhesive application procedure by this method is the validation and selection of the conditions of printing process. The regression mathematical model is developed in order to establish the optimal relationship between the surface application of the adhesive and parameters of the process of adhesive strip application. The proposed model of the process under study, as a result of evaluation according to a number of criteria, allowed obtaining the minimum applied amount of adhesive with guaranteed uneven tearing strength. Analysis of the resulting model shows that the depth of printing elements has the most significant effect on the mass application of the adhesive. For example, with the decrease in the depth of printing elements, mass application of the adhesive is reduced as well. Speed of printing affects the parameter of adhesive application only in the interaction with the adhesive viscosity. Results of the work allow significantly reducing the procedures of preparation of the considered stages of technological process for the manufacturing of honeycomb cores by means of reduction of the experimental research.

Andrii Kondratiev, Sergiy Melnikov, Tetyana Nabokina, Anton Tsaritsynskyi

Rationalization of the Topology of Steel Combined Truss

The rationalization of topology of steel combined trusses is offered in the work. The search for a rational topology of steel combined trusses based on structural synthesis with the energy criterion of rationality is presented. The rational constructive form of a steel combined truss is offered. According to research, it is established that the most rational is the topology of trusses, in which the gratings have descending slopes and regular placement of racks. A rational angle of inclination of truss racks is obtained, which provides the minimum value of mass of combined trusses. The evaluation of rational parameters of combined steel trusses by the method of mathematical planning of the experiment is carried out. The diagram of maximum normal stresses in the stiffening beam of the combined truss is obtained. The potential of the calculated regulation of the stress–strain state in the stiffening beam, characteristic for such combined trusses, is revealed.

Myron Hohol, Uliana Marushchak, Ivan Peleshko, Dmytro Sydorak

Construction of Analytical Coupling Model in Reinforced Concrete Structures in the Presence of Discrete Cracks

It is presented the analytical method for determination of refined compliance (and secant rigidity Csm) reinforcing communication, crossing crack λsm—significant parameters necessary for simulation of reinforced concrete constructions on the model of discrete cracks, including through the FEM. This method is based on a mathematical model, which is a nonlinear boundary value problem consisting of four equations, two of which are differential of the first order. Solution of the problem was carried out by numerical methods in mathematical calculation programs MathCAD and Wolphram Mathematica. Amongst the main assumptions of the model are bilinear and linear diagrams for description of behavior under the loading of concrete and reinforcement and the elastic–plastic law of adhesion between them applied. There were obtained the dependences of the secant stiffness Csm on the distribution of longitudinal forces Ns(x) and displacements Us(x) in the reinforcement for different varied parameters, such as the areas, classes of concrete and diameters of reinforcement. The results clearly demonstrate the non-linear nature of the work of reinforcing communication that crosses a crack, which corresponds to the actual operation of the communication, but for greater reliability require experimental confirmation.

Ihor Yakovenko, Yevhen Dmytrenko, Valentina Bakulina

Ergodesign Aspects of the Development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System

Based on the analysis of the current state and directions of UAVS development, the authors identify and substantiate the main types of ergodesign support for the development of unmanned aerial vehicle systems (UAVS), and consider ergodesign requirements for the main UAVS components. A detailed nomenclature of ergodesign indicators for UAVS assessment is presented; the determination of the optimal compliance level with such indicators underlies and forms the core of UAVS pre-design analysis and ergodesign development.

Andrii Bieliatynskyi, Oleh Kardash, Anatolii Rubtsov, Svirko Volodymyr

Structural-Kinematic Analysis and Synthesis of Measuring Systems Using a Scanning Probe Microscope

The modern stage in the development of nanotechnology is characterized by a fundamentally new approach to the design of high-precision information-measuring systems (MIS) of mechanical quantities. In this regard, the system approach to solving the problems of structural-kinematic analysis and the synthesis of measuring systems based on scanning probe microscopes (SPM) for various purposes and developing the classification of the basic mechanical part of SPM is topical. Based on the analysis of functional problems of scanning probe microscope, an object-oriented structure of the basic measuring system for working in the nanometer range. An algorithm is developed for combining the control contours of a mathematical model, the measured nano-object, and the parametrization of the trajectory of the measuring sensor along with the object. In the article, the problems of the choice of the velocity of the measuring tip moving along a given trajectory with allowance for a limited number of degrees of freedom are solved, as well as the stabilization of the mechanical part of the system with small errors in the positioning of the measuring tip.

Andrii Bieliatynskyi, Mariia Kataieva, Volodymyr Kvasnikov, Dmytro Ornatskyi

Designing High-Rise Residential Building, Given the Progressive Collapsing

The article presents the features of designing a high-rise residential building, taking into account the progressive collapsing. On the basis of numerical modeling of high-rise frame-monolithic residential building stress and strain state by means of the “LIRA CAD” PC, the feasibility of recommendations stipulated in construction standards and constructive measures proposed in literature sources are analyzed. And the effectiveness of high-rise residential buildings protection against progressive destruction is assessed.

Andrii Bieliatynskyi, Valerii Pershakov, Oleksandra Akmaldinova, Victoria Akmaldinova

Tribocorrosive Behavior of Aluminum Alloy AA2024 Under Electrochemical Polarization

The purpose of the work—to study the frictional interaction of tribotechnical pairs: alloy AA2024—co-rundum indenter, interacting in an acidic environment under conditions of cathodic and anodic polarization. The influence of external polarization on the tribocorrosive behavior of AA2024 alloy paired with a ceramic ball in acid rain was studied. The rate of destruction of the oxide film on the surface, material losses and friction coefficient depending on the applied external potential is established. The dual influence of cathodic polarization on the tribocorrosion of AA2024 alloy is established. The destruction of metal is inhibited at the potentials below the potentials of the freshly renewed surface. It is due to the reduction of the corrosion rate. Above this potential, corrosion-mechanical wear intensifies due to alkalization of the near-electrode layer of the electrolyte as a result of hydrogen depolarization. Changes in the coefficient of friction are insignificant. It is shown that the anodic polarization intensifies the formation of secondary structures. As a result, there is an increase in losses of materials and the decrease of friction coefficient. It indicates the lubrication properties of products that are intensively removed from the friction zone.

Myroslav Khoma, Vasyl Vynar, Aleksandr Dykha, Chrystyna Vasyliv

Influence of Misalignment of Poles on Arcing During Current Collection

One of the important systems in the traction power supply of railways is the contact lines, which is responsible for the reliable transmission of electricity to the electric rolling stock (ERS) through the pantograph, regardless of weather conditions and the intensity of train traffic. Increased reliability requirements are imposed on all overhead line devices. The process of transferring electrical energy from the overhead wire to the pantograph takes place in a dynamic mode. Large currents are transmitted and even the slightest separation of the sliding contact causes the formation of an arc. Separation can occur during high-speed movement of the rolling stock when the slope of the contact wire changes. The arc creates a strong electromagnetic disturbance that spreads in the surrounding space. This disturbance interferes with communication channels, facility management systems and telecommunications located in the zone of its influence. Determining the magnitude of the potential of the electric field at the point of contact will determine the degree of the harmful effect of arcing on adjacent objects and develop a technology to reduce the interfering effect. This article examines the influence of the pole tilt on a stable contact and, consequently, on the effective operation of the overhead contact lines, and proposes a method for controlling the misalignment of the poles to exclude its influence on arc formation.

Ildar Bayanov, Timur Badretdinov, Saidaziz Saydivaliev, Elyor Saliyev, Sardor Muminov

Determination of Thermal Conductivity Coefficient in the Turbulent Boundary Layers

The heat transfer process in a developed turbulent boundary layer is addressed. The fluid flow of study is assumed to be incompressible flowing over a flat plate with turbulent mean velocity profile which is based on the eddy viscosity concept. Theoretically, based on a waveguide model of turbulent boundary layer, the expression of thermal conductivity coefficient is formulated. This formula is dependent on the behavior of least damping modes eigenvalues, and eigenfunctions, that are deduced from solution Orr-Sommerfeld equation by spectral Chebyshev collocation Method. Numerical code, based on a Chebyshev spectral collocation method is used to solve the Orr-Sommerfeld eigenvalue problem, at fixed values of the wave number, and Reynolds number. Spectral characteristics of the dispersion relation are contributed to study the three wave resonance of the least damping mode Tollmien-Schlichting. As a result, a system of differential equations for multiple 3-wave resonance is considered to define the coherent structure. The weight factors values are deduced to capture the condition of system solutions. Theory of Birkhoff-Khinchinis applied to obtain the time average of the square modulus amplitudes of the main harmonic, and sub harmonics.

R. S. Selim

Pressure Amplification Coefficient of the “Nozzle-Flap” Transducer

The principle of operation of automatic control system of hydraulic actuator based on hydraulic measuring transducer of angular velocity of a “nozzle-flap” type is considered. The aim of the research was mathematical modelling of the influence of geometrical parameters of the measuring converter on its pressure intensification coefficient in the MathCAD program. The research methodology included a theoretical substantiation of the proposed expressions describing the transducer, as well as an analysis of numerical results obtained by numerical simulation in the MathCAD program. Numerical researches of the known pressure intensification coefficient in the interval of diameter changes of nozzle and constant choke of 0.5…1.5 mm at a pressure in the system of 0.5…2.0 MPa showed the presence of extreme character of pressure intensification coefficient changing depending on a flap stroke from the nozzle end. An adequate linear dependence for the pressure intensification coefficient was observed in the section of the flap stroke up to (0.5 h). The highest value of the coefficient of amplification corresponded to a flap stroke of (1 h). An active growth of the area under the pressure intensification coefficient graph occured up to (1.7 h). It should be kept in mind, that when the flap stroke increases more than 0.25 of nozzle orifice diameter, the annular gap no longer functions as an adjustable hydraulic resistance. Thus, for nozzle and constant choke orifice diameters (0.0011; 0.0010 m) the recommended initial clearance is 0.5 h or, based on the purpose of the measuring transducer, can be increased to a value of 1.7 h/2.

Vitaly Golubovsky, Vladimir Konovalov, Marina Dontsova

Dependence Between the Mechanical Characteristics of the Material and the FDM Sample Made From This Material

The possibilities of FDM printing make it attractive for the transport engineering industry. Due to its specificity, FDM printing technology is becoming in demand for almost all areas of this industry: automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding, and the railway industry. Along with modeling and prototyping, it is of interest to use FDM technology to create products with a given bearing capacity. The specificity of the technology allows to create products of almost any geometry and size with a high accuracy of compliance with the 3D model. However, the description of the physical and mechanical characteristics of these products is currently very difficult. The layering and discreteness of the medium filling the volume of the product do not allow using the tools of continuum mechanics. Hence, it is difficult to analyze the strength and stiffness of such structural elements. To eliminate these difficulties, it is necessary to establish the dependence between the mechanical characteristics of the product and the filament material with which the product is manufactured. For this, the samples were tested for central tension with unloading under a static method of force action. The samples were made using FDM printing. The purpose of the tests was a comparative analysis of the behavior of FDM sample deformation and the filament material from which this sample was made. This analysis made it possible to establish that their behavior at the initial stage of loading is qualitatively the same.

Vera Raspopina, Alexandra Perelygina, Lev Shemetov, Pavel Grigorov

Impact of Self-Vacuuming of Lithoid-Pumice Aggregate on Concrete Properties

Development of modern construction material science follows the way of cardinal increase of durability of erected constructions. The durability of concrete itself can be evaluated in different ways, but in practice it is convenient to use and test its water resistance, as this property is a qualitative indicator of capillary-porous microstructure of the material. Waterproofing is also closely related to other properties that predetermine the durability of concrete, such as frost resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. Increasing the water resistance of concrete is achieved by increasing the density of all components: cement stone and aggregates. Basically, waterproof concrete uses aggregate from dense rocks such as basalt, granite, diabase, etc. The idea of using porous rocks as aggregates for waterproof concrete at first glance may not be appropriate, but a deeper approach to the issue of application shows the obvious advantage of some of the lightweight aggregates compared with dense. The article provides information about the effect of self-vacuuming of litho-aluminous aggregate in hardening concrete. It is shown that the introduction of these aggregates leads to a decrease in the permeability of concrete, and in some cases to an increase in its strength. The test results are given in comparison with concrete on dense aggregates of basalt rubble and river sand.

Ashot Antonyan

Selection Criteria of Aggregates for Waterproofed Concrete Production

The selection and use of aggregates for concrete are based on the test results of any characteristics given in the standards. However, as the article shows, not all aggregates meeting the requirements of these standards are equally good for the concrete waterproofing qualities. For more detailed consideration of this issue, both the model aggregates produced in the laboratory by means of screening and repeated mixing in the required proportions and the aggregates taken from different concrete plants were used in the study.

Ashot Antonyan

Process Mining Subsystem in Automotive Enterprise Quality Management System

The paper considers the advantages of process mining methods in the study of automotive enterprise production processes. The general processes structure in the automotive enterprises quality management systems and the use of process mining methods in the automotive enterprises are considered. It is proposed to supplement the quality management system of automotive industry enterprises with a processes mining subsystem. This subsystem should include modules: process selection and data preparation, process model creation and analysis, visualization tools, and process mining algorithms library. The interaction of process mining subsystem with enterprise quality management system elements and enterprise information system is shown. The sequence of actions when creating process models in the process mining subsystem and the criteria for process mining algorithms selection are considered. The possibility of using both commercial and free software products for the subsystem implementation is noted. It is concluded that the intelligent analysis of processes within the quality management system leads to a more effective automotive enterprise quality management, helps to improve business processes, increase productivity and competitiveness.

Elena Malysheva, Sergey Bobrovskiy, Sergey Krapivka, Svetlana Pivneva

Flexible Maintenance Systems to Prevention Road Failures of Vehicles

Flexible systems of maintenance of modern vehicles, integrated at the same time into the on-board local network and information systems of service enterprises, adjust the maintenance schedule individually for each vehicle. Flexible maintenance systems replaced the fixed frequency of service books, automated accounting of operating time, operating intensity and displaying an adjustable maintenance schedule. But auto manufactures put in flexible maintenance systems adjusting only the minimum service intervals in accordance with the conditions and intensity of operation. This does not ensure the prevention of road failures or the timeliness of repairs. To counteract road failures and unjustified downtime in repairs, it is proposed to reduce maintenance intervals of larger labor intensity individually for each vehicle in accordance with a relative increase in downtime in repair and maintenance or a decrease in operating time as the vehicle is worn out and aging. As a result, the known correction will be supplemented by a new function of increasing the frequency of maintenance of greater labor intensity as the vehicle’s resource is depleted. At the same time, maintenance intervals for vehicle maintenance of larger labor intensity will need to be adjusted to a much greater extent than for maintenance of less labor intensity. The proposed development of flexible vehicle maintenance systems will be a further individualization of the vehicle service, ensuring timely repairs.

Sergey Moroz

Complex for Research of Power and Speed Losses in Tires of the Car, at Their Rolling on Rollers of the Diagnostic Stand

The article presents the calculation of the efficiency of an elastic tire of an automobile wheel. Its influence on the errors associated with the development of mathematical models of the car acceleration process in both road and bench conditions is revealed. A detailed description of the design and device of the stand for the study of power losses and speed losses in the tires of the car when they roll along the rollers of the diagnostic stand is given, as well as the principle of its operation. Conducting experimental studies on this stand allows us to obtain characteristics that describe the dependence of power and speed losses on the speed of rotation and the supplied torque to the wheels of passenger cars with elastic tires of various sizes and brands. The dependences obtained as a result of experimental studies on the equipment described in the article are planned to be used in the future in the development and debugging of mathematical models for describing the processes of functioning of cars on stands with running drums while controlling their traction and dynamic qualities.

Oleg Yankov, Anton Chernyshkov, Roman Sergushko

Influence of Microfiber on Fire Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Tunnel Tubings

The fire resistance of reinforced concrete tunnel linings of underground structures depends to a large extent on the explosive destruction of concrete under the influence of high fire temperatures on the surface of the tunnel lining. The use of reinforced-concrete tunnel liners made of fiber concrete with polypropylene fibers for the tunnel enclosing structures will allow to reduce considerably the cost of fire protection device and shorten the construction period. Reinforced concrete tunnel tubes made of heavy concrete with 6% moisture content and 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fiber added have been tested. Large-scale fire tests on a specially made stand were conducted at loading of samples with vertical 490.5 kN and horizontal 294.3 kN loads. As a result of experimental studies, it was found, that the fire resistance limit of the structure was REI 120.

Vladimir Golovanov, Andrey Pehotikov, Marina Gravit, Nikolay Novikov, Vladimir Pavlov

Compensating Microaccelerations from a Temperature Shock

The problem of large elastic elements temperature shock is a serious problem of providing favorable conditions for the implementation of gravity-sensitive processes on board a small technological spacecraft. When a small spacecraft dives into and exits the Earth’s shadow, its large elastic elements, primarily solar panels, experience a significant change in the temperature regime. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of implementing algorithms for controlling an electrothermal micro-engine, developed to eliminate the influence of temperature shock on the level of micro-acceleration of the internal environment of a small technological spacecraft. The research is carried out using methods of mathematical modeling, spacecraft parameters analysis, technical justification and analysis of advantages, operating conditions analysis, test results analysis, experimental dependencies construction. The study confirms that it is necessary to take into account the real law of changes in the electrothermal micro-engine thrust for a correct assessment of the decrease in the micro-accelerations magnitude from a temperature shock. Since the temperature shock is an extremely dynamic phenomenon, a detailed study of a turned on executive body thrust change law is necessary. The results of the work can be used in the design of a small technological spacecraft to meet the micro-accelerations requirements.

Andry Sedelnikov, Vadim Salmin, Yuri Lazarev, Denis Orlov, Anastasia Taneeva

Influence of Transport Process Participants on the Quality of Transport Services

This article examines one of the main issues, the organization, and management of integrated transport service in the field of freight traffic, as a key area for improving competitiveness in the transport services market and increasing the efficiency of production activities of all participants in the transportation process. An analysis of the responsibilities and areas of impact of participants of transport—supporting functions in the current model of the freight traffic market in railway transport is presented, the ability of influence and quality observance by the subjects of transport services, in the new Target model of integrated transport services are investigated. The basic criteria of consumers of a comprehensive transport service are formulated. The method is proposed for determining the degree of influence on the integrity of the quality of integrated transport service in different categories of transportation and various types of transport. The calculation of the coefficients of the quality of the transport service and the complex transport service was carried out, the use of which establishes the share of the contribution of each participant of the transport service in the implementation of the goods movement.

Valerii Zubkov, Nina Sirina

Labor Conditions and Surface Quality of the Rolled for the Automotive Metal Products

Automotive fasteners, manufactured by cold upsetting from calibrated rolled metal, are among the most critical parts in mechanical engineering. The rolled products for cold forming are subject to fairly high requirements in terms of strength and plastic properties, upsetting tests, as well as special functional characteristics. These properties depend on the structure and mechanical characteristics that are formed during phase, structural transformations and drawing through the die. For a number of metalware products, for example, bolts of the car engine assembly, there are increased requirements for the presence of surface defects—the depth of surface defects, the presence of a decarbonized layer and the finish of the surface layer. The paper analyzes the defects of metallurgical blanks for the production of hot-rolled products and compliance with the requirements of regulatory and technical documentation in order to improve the quality of metalware, reduce metal consumption and increase the profitability of production.

Dmitriy Kozinov, Аlexei Filippov, German Pachurin, Mariia Mukhina, Zhanna Smirnova

Mathematical Models for Assessment the Thermal Radiation of a Fireball During Bleve

Intensive heating of oil and its products storage facilities can cause the BLEVE effect, with fireball formation. So that it is a fundamental problem to study the thermal effect of a fireball as accurately as possible and assess its consequences. This paper deals with the theoretical generalization and comparative analysis of three mathematical models for assessing fireball thermal radiation at BLEVE. The first model (MM1), proposed by M. W. Roberts, takes into account the time-dependent nature of the fireball thermal radiation. The second model (MM2) was given in the Appendix D of the project GOST 12.3.047-2012 of the National Standard of the Russian Federation. The third model (MM3) was given by Dhurandher, Kumar and Dhiman of the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. We will compare these three models by obtaining the following results: assumes that the bulk of the heat is emitted near the accident source. At the same time, at a long distance, thermal radiation intensity remains at a level similar to the levels MM2 and MM3. MM2 and MM3 do not have a fundamental difference in modeling of fireball parameters and calculating the thermal radiation intensity.

Alexey Elizaryev, Elina Nasyrova, Carlo Cattani, Denis Tarakanov, Dmitrii Tarakanov, Ilmir Khasanov

Road Accident Risk Modeling Based on the Machine Learning

Road traffic accident is the serious socio-economic problem all over the world. The main solution is the road safety decision support system, which is based on road accident risk mathematical modeling. The study analyses the road accident risk due to the constant characteristics of the road, using the machine learning. The study was carried out on the road outside the human settlements A-322. It was analyzed 273 km outside large settlements. The research process included three stages. At the first stage, the correlation analysis was carried out. As the result, 12 main constant road characteristics for further research were identified. At the next stage, cluster analysis was realized using the k-means clustering algorithm. It allowed dividing road sections into 3 clusters and determining their accident rate. Analysis of variance confirmed the significance of the cluster difference. Discriminant analysis was implemented on the final stage. As the result, the classification functions were obtained. Therefore, it is possible to determine the accident risk rate depending on the values of constant road characteristics. The resulting model can be used in the development of road safety decision support system for the roads of the 2nd category or similar roads, as well as the roads design. In addition, the research results can be the basis in the development of traffic safety components for Intelligent Transportation Systems or software products.

Elena Pechatnova, Vasiliy Kuznetsov, Sergei Pavlov

Technical Diagnostics of Equipment Using Data Mining Technologies

The paper considers the problem of implementing a practical approach to predictive maintenance (maintenance based on the actual technical condition). With this type of service, the state of the system is analyzed continuously or periodically. Based on the data obtained, a forecast of the technical condition of the equipment for a certain period of time is carried out, programs and maintenance plans are formed and, if necessary, adjusted. The aim of the work is to develop a generalized approach to building a predictive service system based on data of some complex technical object, collected by the SCADA system, with their further processing using computer modeling and machine learning methods. Implementation of this approach minimizes the likelihood of an unplanned system shutdown.

Evgeniya Tsarkova, Alexander Belyaev, Yaroslav Lagutin, Elena Andreeva, Yuri Matveev

Methodology for Assessing the Effectiveness of Work in the Road Sector

Current and forecast economic conditions imply the use of new theoretical provisions in the field of organization of personnel policy and personnel management system. This trend can be traced not only in large manufacturing enterprises, but also in the road sector. In this regard, personnel management should be based on methods that are objectively inherent in effective production management. Evaluation of the effectiveness of work in the road sector is necessary to compare the tasks assigned to the personnel and the results of their practical implementation. The article proposes a method for constructing a system for assessing the effectiveness of the work carried out by road branches. The most important component of the system for assessing the effectiveness of the work performed is the assessment rules that are uniform for all performers. The set of procedures for determining and assessing compliance indicators of the estimated volume of work performed must objectively reflect the results obtained, which determine the effectiveness of the road branch. The proposed method for assessing the performance of road branches allows management personnel to build an objective system of reward for the fulfilled value of the established standard for the range of works.

Maria Mironova, Ulia Mironova, Tatiana Konovalova, Sofia Nadiryan, Artem Litvinov

Chamber Air Flow Control Before the Radiator

The passage of cooling air through the engine compartment is accompanied by a significant increase in aerodynamic drag of the car. On the other hand, forming of air flow due to the operation of the fan is associated with additional energy costs. To reduce fuel consumption and emission of harmful substances, it is necessary to reduce the power consumption for supplying cooling air. At the same time, the possibility of rational use of the oncoming air flow and fan power should be taken into account. The easiest way to solve the problem is a fan installation with the case, which area is less than the front area of the radiator. The main disadvantage of this design is the air circulation from the engine compartment of the engine. In this work there is a conducted research on reducing air circulation. The simplest method has been studied, a partition has been installed in the pre-radiator chamber separating the free zone of the radiator and the zone of the fan case. A good effect has been recorded, but only if the resistance of the engine compartment is less than the resistance of the radiator.

Alexander Petrov

Research of Influence of Air Intake Openings and Pre-radiator Chamber Design on Airflow Distribution

A large amount of cooling air is required to keep the cooling system of a passenger car engine running. The air intake openings and the pre-radiator chamber play a very important role in forming the flow of cooling air through the heat exchangers. In order to design these elements purposefully, it is necessary to know the mechanism of interaction of the air intake openings with the oncoming flow and the parameters affecting the organization of the required air flow through the air channel of the engine compartment of the cooling system. For this, design options are considered with a symmetrical and asymmetric position of the air intakes and pre-radiator chamber with different depths.

Alexander Petrov

Metal Removal and Surface Roughness Formation in Robotic Finishing

This article deals with the mechanisms of metal removal and surface roughness formation during robotic finishing. To analyze the process mechanism, a single abrasive body with a single abrasive grain protruding during its interaction with the machined surface was considered. The destruction of a solid body surface by a single abrasive grain depends on the impact nature of the latter on the machined surface, i.e., on the resulting pattern of destructive stresses. Embodiment zones of various mechanisms of metal removal are considered. In experimental research influence of such factors as the spindle speed (n), the feed rate (S), the cutting depth (t) and the abrasive grit size (z) on the axial components of the cutting force and the torque along the X axis was estimated in a full-factor experiment. As a result, when the spindle speed increases, elastic movements and oscillations arise in the technological system, which conditionally increase the different height arrangement of abrasive grains on the working surface of the tool and lead to an increase in the roughness of the machined surface.

Aleksei Aleksandrov, Michail Vartanov, Dmitry Mironov

Designing a Single-Way Metal Crossing for Railway Transport

One of the most characteristic aspects of our time is the continuous development of a network of permanent communication routes. Transport links provide for the needs of industry, agriculture and trade, contribute to the international division of labor and rapprochement between countries and peoples. In this regard, it is necessary to build a large number of the road, railway, as well as the city bridges. Along with reinforced concrete bridges, which have recently become especially widespread, metal bridges are being built, which make it possible to block large spans most quickly and effectively. The development of metallurgy, the continuous improvement of the quality of construction steels and the improvement of methods for the manufacture of metal structures provide all the conditions for the successful and economically justified use of metal in the construction of bridges. Metal bridges have great production advantages due to their industrial manufacture, as well as the wide possibilities of quick mechanized assembly and installation of the structure in place. The need to save metal and reduce labor intensity in the manufacture and installation of span structures are closely related to the creation of advanced structures that meet all the requirements of operation, as well as today’s technology for mass production at the bridge structure factories. The paper presents the design results of a single-track railway bridge, analyzes the location of the designed bridge. Three versions of the bridge crossing over the river were considered, the main structural elements of the bridge crossing were developed. The authors designed the main structural solutions of joints and abutments of elements.

Alexey Loktev, Vadim Korolev, Irina Shishkina, Jalil Shukurov, Vladimir Tkachenko, Alexander Mikhalʹchenkov

Parameters Ensuring Smooth Passage of the Rolling Stock Along Turnouts of Railway Transport

The paper considers the formation of approaches to standardizing parameters that ensure a given level of impact on passengers and cargo when passing rolling stock through turnout switches, considers the dynamics of interaction between rolling stock and switches in the horizontal plane. There is now a need to accelerate the design and implementation of turnouts on the operated railway network, which will significantly increase the permissible train speeds, especially on the side track. One of the most important tasks in designing such turnouts is to provide comfortable conditions for passengers when the train moves to the side track by limiting the values of the so-called centrifugal acceleration and increment (changing) of centrifugal acceleration per unit of time (second). If it is necessary to realize the speed of movement on the side track above 50 km/h, the main factor in determining the radius of the switch curve according to comfort conditions is to limit the magnitude of the increment (change) of centrifugal acceleration per unit time (second). Based on this, when designing switches for high speeds, it is advisable to use curves of variable radius of rolling stock action and switches in the horizontal plane as a switch curve.

Boris Glusberg, Alexey Loktev, Vadim Korolev, Irina Shishkina

Technology for Recovery of Defective Rail Bars

The continuous welded rail track is the main design of the track used by the railways and can be operated in accordance with the technical requirements established by the railways on the tracks of all classes. The paper presents the calculation of the possibility of laying a continuous welded rail track. Analysis of works on temporary and final restoration of welded rail strings is carried out. At the final restoring, rail strings can be welded by electric contact or aluminum thermite welding. Depending on the location of cropped rail or the place of temporary restoration relative to the ends of the restored rail string, the final restoration by electric contact welding can be carried out with tightening of the welded rail string or with its preliminary bending. Final restoration of rail strings by aluminum-thermite welding can be carried out immediately after identification of a dangerous defect requiring cutting or after temporary restoration of the string. Laying of continuous welded track with or without replacement of the assembled rails and sleepers should be carried out in accordance with the projects and technologies approved by the railways. When planning work, it is necessary to take into account daily and long-term forecasts of the rail temperature. During the work, continuous monitoring of the rail temperature, carried out with the help of portable rail thermometers, should be organized.

Alexander Savin, Alexey Loktev, Vadim Korolev, Irina Shishkina

Multi-rotor (24-Rotor) Tiltrotor Discplane, as Version of a Circular Wing (Flying Saucer)

The object of this study is a multi-engine multi-rotor tiltrotor discplane (multi-rotor (24-rotor) tiltrotor of disc-shaped form), as version of a circular wing (flying saucer) with a decentralized system of separate parallel control of its engines. The construction of this aircraft provides the possibility of a smoother vertical takeoff and landing directly from sidewalks, roads and conventional car parking lots, and does not require special helicopter pads. The multi-rotor scheme gives the possibility of absolutely stable hovering and jewelery precise maneuvering on small heights, provides a change in the inclination of the aircraft (circular wings) during its transition from the phase of vertical flight to the phase of horizontal flight and vice versa without the need for extremely dangerous turns of engines of the vertical traction, such a transition occurs only by changing the speed of part of engines of vertical traction. The technology of completely closed and hidden under the case and protective lattices of air screws allows to use this discplane safely in the conditions of densely populated city quarters. The disc-shaped form of the aircraft allows you to fly at higher speeds in the dense layers of the atmosphere (due to the thinning of air above (in front of) the aircraft) and reduces energy consumption during flight by using the Coanda-effect—creating increased pressure (airbag) behind and under the discplane, and a simultaneous reduction in air pressure and aerodynamic drag at the front and top of the discplane.

Alexander Nakhaba

Obtaining Body Parts with Variable Wall Thickness Along the Perimeter

The article considers the production of housing parts with variable wall thickness along the perimeter. The use of this type of products is possible for various areas of industrial development, as the most important branch of the national economy. Examples of the use of cylindrical body parts of variable thickness in the electrical industry are given. The technological process of manufacturing body parts with variable wall thickness along the perimeter of sheet blanks consists of the operation of drawing without thinning and the operation of drawing with thinning and end support, as well as direct extrusion. The simulation of the described operations is carried out, the process diagrams and the semi-finished product obtained as a result of forming a round sheet billet are shown. The power modes of the first and second operations of the technological process of manufacturing body parts with variable wall thickness along the perimeter from sheet blanks are studied. Recommendations are given for the manufacture of body parts with and without a flange. The technological process of manufacturing body parts with variable wall thickness along the perimeter from sheet blanks presented in the article ensures high quality of products while saving material and energy resources, and also leads to a reduction in labor costs.

Yuliya Bessmertnaya, Alexander Malyshev, Vladimir Vikhorev, Pavel Romanov

A Model of Electronic Document Management of Technical Documentation for Railway Automation

The article discusses the features of electronic document management of technical documentation of railway automation and telemechanics. The article deals with the problems of synthesizing the mathematical description of the electronic document management of technical documentation for railway automation and telemechanics. For this, an overview of the actual processes of making, checking and applying technical documentation was carried out on the example of maintaining custom specifications for automation and telemechanics systems, which made it possible to identify document flow scenarios, as well as protocols of technical documentation properties. A method for creating a model of electronic document management of technical documentation based on the apparatus of graph theory has been advanced. Methods for determining sets for the proposed model are described, an algebra of workflow of TD using graphs is proposed. To set the matrix type of document flow representation, it is proposed to use a set of flat rectangular matrices, each of which represents the state of the system in some discrete unit of time. The resulting matrices of incidents determine the graph model of the document flow of the process under consideration, and the set of these matrices sets all possible scenarios for the movement of documents in the process, describes all possible states of documents and determines possible participants. The use of the proposed method for constructing a mathematical model based on graph theory makes it possible to develop reliable applied software for solving problems of operational document flow of technical documentation.

Dilshod Baratov, Nazirjon Aripov, Obidjon Muhiddinov, Xasan Jumanov

Parametric Analysis of the Boundary Layer of the Air Flow of the Ventilation Duct of the Brake Disc

The air flow is used to cool the brake discs. Manufacturers of friction units equip a metal friction element of the unit with a ventilation device, assuming that it will intensively remove heat from heated surfaces. Macroparameters characterizing the efficiency of the brake disc ventilation apparatus are widely given in the studies of scientists from different countries. The speed and volume of air masses directly affect the amount of heat removed from heated surfaces. Surface parameters also affect the heat transfer process. Unfortunately, there are so few works devoted to the processes in the boundary layer of the air flow that directly affect the heat transfer from the surfaces of the ventilation apparatus. In a wide range of literary sources, the boundary layer has a heat-insulating effect, with an indistinctly expressed condition of movement and energy transfer.

Artem Litvinov, Ivan Yaitskov, Pavel Polyakov, Alexey Golikov, Evgeny Fedotov, Nina Zadayanchuk

Vector Analysis of Strategic Sustainability Airport Operators and Airlines

This article describes approaches to assessing strategic sustainability. The results of interaction between airport operators and airlines are important for understanding strategic sustainability of market players (operators) in the air transport sector. Strategic sustainability of airport operators and airlines is greatly influenced by the specific nature and focus of strategic interaction. Strategic sustainability can be presented as a vector of market players’ development using a number of parameters, which reflect sustainability, and reliability of a long-term functioning of the mentioned market players in the particular sphere of their interaction. The article describes the spheres of strategic interaction, focus objects in the spheres chosen, system of indicators reflecting the results of strategic interaction between airport operators and airlines. The article offers to use a method, which makes it possible to create a vector description of strategic sustainability and interaction potential. Using a case study, the article describes the factors and the process of analyzing strategic sustainability of market players in the air transport sector. It also presents a vector description of strategic sustainability and the interaction potential be-tween an airport operator and an airline.

Aigul Pankratova, Svetlana Borodulina, Alexandr Gubenko

Fault Detection Technique for Electromechanical Actuator of the Aircraft Using Neural Networks

The paper concerns the problem of development of the technique for rapid fault detection for electromechanical actuator (EMA) of the aircraft related to dissipative torque change. Increased dissipative torque is a common cause of EMA failure. To address this problem, a data processing scheme has been suggested for EMA’s operation using neural networks. The work describes the feature filtering methods used for reduction of neural network input vector dimension. Trained neural networks are designed to develop algorithms for determining the EMA’s technical state. The algorithms are proposed to be used for flight safety in the health usage monitoring systems (HUMS) of the aircraft. The paper shows the computing experiment results based on the data obtained by using computational model of unmanned aircraft’s EMA while processing the take-off cyclogram. The data includes test and training sets for neural network. The computing experiment results shows efficiency of fault detection related to dissipative torque change.

Georgy Veresnikov, Valentin Lebedev, Oleg Ogorodnikov, Artem Golev

Subminiature Eddy Current Transducer for Inspection of Welded Joints Obtained by Friction Stir Welding

This paper presents a measuring system focused on the study of welded joints obtained by friction stir welding (FSW). The system is based on an eddy current transducer. The study shows key technical information that describes the principles of operation of an eddy-current transducer, as well as a method for searching for violations of the internal structure of welded joints of aluminum plates. The proposed measuring system incorporates the functionality to automatically change the main operating frequency and cutoff frequency of the filtration system. Testing of the apparatus was carried out on aluminum-magnesium alloy plates assembled together by friction stir welding. The results obtained in the course of a series of experiments allow drawing conclusions regarding the qualitative characteristics of the obtained welded joints.

Alexey Ishkov, Vladimir Malikov

Application of Machine Learning Algorithms in Ensuring Information Security of the Internet of Things in Water Transport

IoT technologies are gaining increasing influence in all areas of human activity from wearable devices to industrial applications. With the rapid development of water transport infrastructure, as well as with the growth of commissioned port and berthing mechanisms, serious prerequisites have arisen for the use of control and monitoring tools. IoT systems allow you to flexibly and efficiently solve such problems. The IoT architecture includes various levels of communication and information transfer. There are many protocols and applications running at each layer, which can be vulnerable to attacks of intruders. Nowadays, research related to solving IoT security issues using various technologies and concepts, such as blockchain, statistical analysis, machine learning, etc., is actively underway. This paper provides an overview of machine learning methods used at various layers of the Internet of Things architecture. In addition to the layers of the IoT architecture, it also discusses the machine learning methods used to counter the increasingly widespread attacks of social engineering that lead to the loss of integrity, confidentiality and availability of information. At the end of the paper, the machine learning methods that best match the architectural and hardware capabilities of the IoT were selected.

Izolda Li, Artem Arbuzov, Vladimir Shilkin, Irina Shilkina, Nadezhda Baryshnikova

Enroute Alternate Planning Minima Determination Method Based on METAR Database Analysis

The random processes analysis of meteorological conditions changes is carried out: the ceiling and visibility range at the enroute alternates Nizhnevartovsk and Bratsk, selected when planning Russian airlines Far Eastern flights. The random processes analysis is based on the meteorological aerodrome half-hour observations database in 2017 and 2018 for the direct and return flights periods to the Russian Far East. Based on the analysis, the ceiling and visibility regression forecast on direct and return flights, necessary to determine the enroute alternate planning minima, is made. The existing methods shortcomings for the enroute alternate planning minima determining used in the Russian Federation, the United States, the European Union and other countries are indicated. A new enroute alternate planning minima determination method based on a meteorological condition changes regression forecast is proposed. The new method also can be used for North Atlantic, Pacific and other long-range routes and helps the airlines increase their flights regularity by increasing the amount of enroute alternate available days in year. The ceiling and visibility increments calculated using the new method must be used regardless of the enroute alternate area of operation radius.

Konstantin Kuts, Gennadii Kovalenko

Development of a Car Door Hinge with a Temperature-Sensitive Element

The article shows the study of the influence of the anthropometric characteristics of drivers and passengers on the time of evacuation from the passenger compartment of the vehicle, through the window opening of the vehicle door in an accident with fire in the event of a jammed door lock. It was determined that a large category of drivers and passengers could not be evacuated through the vehicle window opening and was determined as the most optimal way of evacuation directly from the doorway. Based on the data obtained, a new design of the car door hinge was proposed using materials with shape memory effect, which makes it possible to break the connection between the door and the body. The principles of operation of the proposed design of car door hinges are shown.

Maria Mironova, Ivan Senin, Etibar Balaev, Tatiana Konovalova, Artem Litvinov

Mathematical Model of Multi-item Spare Parts Reservation

A mathematical model for determining the optimal number of reserved spare parts in the warehouse of an enterprise operating transport and technological machines is proved and tested. The solution of this problem is important in improving the efficiency of technical operation of machines and equipment used in any enterprise. The market conditions of management require a higher level of spare parts demand planning, a new level of spare parts supply system management. The purpose and tasks of economically justified spare parts reserves are to maintain the rolling stock in working condition in the absence or minimal downtime of machines waiting for repair due to the lack of spare parts. To do this, it is necessary to have the optimal number of required spare parts in the warehouse of the company that operates or repairs the machines. The paper is devoted to the rationale for making optimal economically sound management decisions to provide spare parts for any equipment by creating and implementing the procedure and methodology for reserving spare parts in the form of a mathematical model that takes into account a sufficient number of factors and relationships between controlled and uncontrolled variables. An example of calculating the optimal number of spare parts to reserve, de-pending on the distance to the source of spare parts, is given. The results of the calculations confirm the adequacy of the proposed mathematical model to the real production conditions.

Veniamin Shilovsky, Igor Skobtsov, Evgeniy Pitukhin

Analysis of Methods and Design Elements of Docking and Un-docking in Orbit

At the current level of spacecraft development, orbital docking is increasingly used. The requirements for docking devices, as well as their complexity, are increasing. The purpose of the article is to analyze the methods and design elements of docking and undocking in orbit. Based on the results of the review, a conclusion was made about the structural elements necessary for the docking and undocking of the demonstrator modules of the universal space platform.

Daria Malyh, Ruslan Peshkov, Sergey Vaulin, Victor Fedorov, Mikhail Shalashov

On the Issue of Estimating Errors in the Operation of the Interactive System for Improving Road Safety Outside Settlements

The article presents the result of the analysis of statistical data of accidents in the Krasnoyarsk Territory on sections of roads outside settlements with their greatest concentration. The main types of vehicle collisions and their accompanying conditions were identified. A mathematical apparatus for determining the minimum safe distance between vehicles located closely in an emergency zone on a section of a road outside settlements is proposed, in which it is necessary to notify the drivers of these vehicles about the danger in conditions of insufficient and/or limited visibility in various road situations, taking into account errors in positioning and determining the speed of the vehicle, the response time of the system, the effective coefficient of adhesion of the tires to the road surface. The results of experimental studies of vehicle positioning and speed errors determined by the driver’s early warning system about hazards on the road and their impact on the operability of the designed system are presented.

Vladimir Zeer, Evgeniy Grazhdantsev, Ruslan Glukhikh, Pavel Rastovcev, Alexey Elagin
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